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Presidency College

Bharatpur, Chitwan

1. Meaning of Research

How does the researcher proceed? Few social scientists have been interested in that problem

although every elementary textbook is full of advice regarding what the researcher should do:

bring a theory out of his hat, formulate hypothesis in advance, test reliability and validity of his

instruments, draw a representative sample, find something useful for his society report his

findings so that other researchers can replicate investigation.

The literal meaning of research is investigation or to search again. The first look may not be

sufficient and prone to error. The word research refers to the systematic investigation towards

increasing the sum of knowledge. The word is derives from the French word researche which

means to search or to seek again. Therefore research is a process of verifying and testing the old

facts or theories (deductive approaches) and discovering new facts (Inductive approach). So,

there are various meaning as:

A careful investigation or enquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch

of knowledge

Systematized effort to gain new knowledge

A research is systematic, controlled, and empirical and critically investigation of

hypothetical propositions (statements of relationship between two or more variables)

about the presumed relations among natural phenomenon. Fred N Kerlinger

Research is a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that

needs a solution (Sekaran, 1992).

As a whole research is the application of scientific method to the study of a problem. The

scientific method involves;

a. Careful logical analysis of the problem, and formulating hypothesis.

b. Formulating research design

c. Observation or data collection

d. Generalizations or drawing conclusions

Therefore, the process of investigation involves a series of well known activities gathering

information, recording, analyzing and interpreting the results with the objective of answering the

solution to the problem, is called research. The explanation of research has two crucial aspects.

They are:

1. Firstly, it is sufficiently broad to include all types of investigations requiring solution to the

problem.

2. Secondly, it explicitly recognizes the systematic nature of the research process in which

data are gathered, recorded, analyzed and interpreted in an orderly manner.

We can define research as an organized, systematic, data- based, critical, scientific inquiry or

investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding answers or

solutions to it (Sekaran, 1992).

For instance, AIDS broke out in the United States; doctors did not know at all what disease it

was, what cause it or how to cure it. They have only known as it seemed to attack the immune

system of victim. For the purpose of research, medical researchers set out to investigate the

causes of the disease and to seek a cure. At recent, a lot is known about this disease because

researchers have spent considerable resources in gathering information through observing

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patients and conducting experiments. So, research means to investigate, repeatedly search or

quest in an Endeavour or resource to discover answers to problems through reliance on

empirical evidences. Research activities are designed to discover knowledge to aid in answering

specific questions or issues.

Define the problem and identify the variables causing it or related with it;

Get insight into the existing stock of knowledge on the issue or problem under reference and

contribute to the furtherance of knowledge (reviewing);

Construct models or formulate research questions educated conjectures or hypothesis for

testing;

Objectively collect and analyze the facts, evidences or information to identify the

interrelationship between or among variables or multiple effects of factors; and

Build theories to understand and generalize the phenomena to throw insight into the problem

under investigation to analyze, predict and control the situation

Researches conducted for - solving -existing problem and generate a new knowledge to a

particular area or theory building.

Fundamental or basic research is conducted for the purpose of increasing our knowledge

of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational setting; and how to solve

them.

Adding to our knowledge i.e. fundamental and generalizable.

Pure or fundamental research.

Not apply the findings to solve an immediate problem at hand but rather than to

understand more about certain phenomena and problems that occur in several

organizations, and how they can be solved.

Theory building or formation.

For instance, On-the-job training has great impact on the productivity of workers.

Practical application of knowledge, systematically acquired and validated and meet

solution

Answer practical and useful questions about policies, programmes, projects, procedures,

or organization.

Such research, being of practical value, may relate to current activity or immediate

practical solutions.

Findings for immediate problem facing a society or business executives.

Hired researchers and consultants to study a problem of concern to them in order to find

solutions that can be implemented to rectify the problem situation and immediate

applications

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E.g. Curative measures for AIDS.

For instance, How to improve the productivity of Cigarette Factory? Both improving the

existing brands or new brand development may be the study areas.

Factory does have the research, taking into accounts from its capabilities, know-how,

resources and so on.

Both fundamental and applied research may not be mutually exclusive; and can be

placed in a continuum.

Some research areas have both applied and fundamental research flavour and scientific

method provides key advances in both fundamental and applied research.

Fundamental Research Applied research

Purpose: Purpose:

Expand knowledge processes of Improve understanding of particular

business and management business or management problem

Results in universal principles relating to Results in solution to problem

the process and its relationship to New knowledge limited to problem

outcomes Findings of practical relevance and

Finding of significance and value to value to manager

society in general

Context: Context:

Undertaken by people based in Undertaken by people based in a

universities variety of settings including

Choice of topic and objectives organization

determined by the researcher Objectives negotiated with originator

Flexible time scales Tight time scales

What is science?

method or procedure in order to determine the nature of phenomena being studied or the causes

behind specific events.

process means reasoning and direct experience or observation. A scientific theory is dealing with

the logical aspect of science; and research is dealing with observation aspect of science.

The scientific process includes the methodology of understanding things. There are two

approaches of logico- empirical process.

a. Deductive Approach

b. Inductive Approach

1.3.1 Deductive Approach (General to particular)

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In deductive reasoning, one starts from some general theories or laws and applies it to particular

instances. In this method, conclusions are deduced from some fundamental assumptions or

axioms established through other methods by logical process of reasoning. One starts with

theory as a means for many concepts, specifies indicators of measurement, makes observations

and tests relationships. The goal is to define or prove support the theory already known. In other

words, this approach involves understanding of thing from general to particular.

Hypothesis Observation Hypothesis testing Conclusion

Deductive process

Sociologist describes the theory as a scientific study between the causes and effects. He

tries to answer the question of what, when and how.

Sociologist constructs theories that have deductive structure in which conclusion from

assumptions.

Checking the validity of conclusion against the real world data.

When facts are inconsistent with the theoretical conclusion, refines theories or abandon

them for new theories.

Continuous interplay (interaction) of new or refine theories and their empirical

verification.

For instance, parents with children spent more over without kids. How? And Why?

1.3.2 Inductive Approach (Particular to general)

In this approach, one starts with observation driven by one or more research questions. In other

words, generalization is made from particular or one intends to develop the theory from general

to particular. This method is based on prior examinations of facts i.e. one starts with observed

data and develops a generalization which explain the relationship between the objects observed.

Observation Findings a pattern tentative conclusion Theory

Theory

Observations

INDUCTIVE PROCESS

1. Sensing or realizing problems: It is the first step in scientific inquiry in observing the

situation and sensing the problem. New problem are emerging in the environment. We are

knowingly and unknowingly sensing these developments occurring in the environment. At this

stage, we may not know exactly what is happening but we can definitely sense that things are

not going on as smoothly as they should be.

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Setting or

Observation Realizing Library search

problem

Problem

Identification

Theoretical

Framework

Reasoning

Research Design

Data Collection

Analysis of Data

Implementation (Applied Research)

Characteristics of Scientific Research

1. Purposiveness

2. Testability

3. Replicability

4. Objectivity

5. Rigor

6. Generalizability

1.4 Management Research Methods:

Management of research is concerned with the systematic and objective collection and

evaluation of information about specific aspect of management problems in order to assist

managers make effective decisions.

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The objective is to reduce the risk and uncertainty when strategy is in planned and

operation.

The role of sound information is to guide business decisions, set strategies and monitor

implementation to feedback on whether it has been successful or unsuccessful.

Managers need to ask the following questions to help to provide what research to carry out

to collect the required information and solve business problem. They are:

What are we going to do with this information?

How should we collect this information?

What are we going to measure?

How should we analyze the results?

How much should we spend on collecting the information?

Know how to discriminate good from bad research.

Appreciate and constantly remember the multiple influences and multiple effects of factors

impinging on a situation.

Take calculated risks in decision- making, knowing full well the probabilities attached to

the possible outcomes.

Prevent possible vested interests from operating in a situation.

Relate to hired researchers and consultants more effectively.

1. Analysis

Performance against plans

Environmental, competitive and eternal

information to identify problems and

opportunities

2. Planning Evaluation of 1 and 2 in order to make a prediction or

estimate of alternative courses.

3. Execution Communicate details of plans and control standards.

4. Control Performance against plans

1.4.2 Managerial Research

1.4.3 Action Research

1.4.4 Evaluation Research

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The development of foundation of information to be used as the basis for making plans and

decisions that will impact policy with in the context of political, social, and economical realities

of time and setting.

This research studies how policy formulation occurs with a view to understanding and

improving the process.

The research is designed to analyze situations at the strategic level and to formulate overall

policy proposals.

This research systematically evaluates the priorities to be accorded to conflicting and

complementary alternatives (Formulating major policy proposals and establishing their

priorities).

Related to the specific problem of limited scope for which management has need of

additional information on which base decision.

For instance, market potential for new product, best approach of implementation of a new

MIS system.

MR is seeking of solution to a given problem and implements the solution.

From the present analysis, MR is taking effective action for future.

Involves continuous gather and analyzing of research data during the normal and on- going

operations of an organization.

Designed to identify effective way of dealing with problems in the real world.

Concern the execution of specific management programme, feeds simultaneous results to

organization; and helps in changing the mode of functioning.

AR is task- oriented form of study designed to provide continuous feedback regarding the

performance of management activity and to improve that performance from investigation.

The process of determining the value or worth of something is called evaluation.

It is oriented toward formal and objective measurement of extent which a given action,

activity and programme objective.

Evaluation Research related to policy research in which policies, objectives, strategies and

programmes are examined.

It evaluates the successful and analyzes the underlying causes of failure.

Objective/purpose Data requirement and analysis Research output

Policy Research

To formulate major policy Macro level data about: Policy options

proposals a) Environmental forces Identification of policy

To establish their b) Overall organizational situation priorities for the

priorities c) Competitive standing of the organization

To identify their organization

implication Longitudinal data

Time series data

a) Predictions (Econometric

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model)

b) Projections (Parameters)

Managerial Research

To study the on-going Specific and detailed data about Identification of the

operation or projects the operations or projects problem situation

To help in improving Data collection through MIS Identification of

managerial Collection of qualitative data decision option

effectiveness Exploring the situation for in- Precise recommendation

To help in decision depth understanding. for actions to be taken

making a) Survey research methods

b) Observational methods

c) Experimental methods for

testing of alternatives

Action Research

To feed information into Continuous of gathering and To recommend the

the organization to analysis of data actions to be taken

improve the functioning Problem specific data: with regard to:

To improve the a) Opinion survey a) Organizational

managerial actions b) Observation structure

To suggest future c) Satisfaction levels b) Rules

courses of action d) Morale survey c) Reward and

e) Frustration index punishment system

d) Performance

evaluation criteria

e) Work environment.

Evaluation Research

To measure Micro level data Identification of

achievements against a) Programme utilization level programme strengths

the objectives b) Comparative level and weaknesses

To identify gaps and Internal surveys Recommendation for

problem areas programme

To suggest improvement

improvements required.

Research process and work plan detailed

Research design thoroughly planned

High ethical standards applied

Limitations frankly revealed

Findings presented unambiguously

Conclusions justified

Researchers experience reflected.

The Project is defined as an organized, systematic, and data based investigation into a specific

situation undertaken with the objective of gathering information that enables the students to gain

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familiarity with the situation or reality and generate more knowledge about the phenomenon

under investigation.

1.5.2 Objectives of Project Work

Expose students to business or social reality by providing them the opportunity to get first-

hand information and actual knowledge about the working of an organization, a system or

a situation.

Promote student- centred learning by encouraging them to take the initiate to become self-

directed learners and thinkers.

Provide opportunities to students to work on those issues or problems which are of

particular interest to them.

Develop interpersonal and communication skills by encouraging students to interact with

the practitioners.

Develop data- processing and report writing skills to explore, analyze and describe a

business situation or a social phenomenon

Selecting of relevant topic

Locating the sources of information

Extracting the relevant information from these sources

Identifying the various dimensions of the problem or issue

Organizing and analyzing the data effectively

Drawing conclusions

Writing report

Defining the Topic and research questions

The research topic should be introduce clearly raised the research questions which were not

answered before. Some potential problems in this process may be:

Inexperience resulting in difficulty deciding on an appropriate and feasible topic.

Over- ambitious scale (e.g. under- estimation of time, resources).

Re-inventing the wheel resulting from ignorance of previous work done.

This involves selecting a methodology for obtaining the relevant and their analysis to draw

inferences.

Both raw and secondary data (reviewing)

Poor planning and coordination of interviews and field trips

Making contacts and appointments

Delays caused by waiting time

Determining scope, type and relevance of data to be collected

Unpredictability of data (lack of support)

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Misinterpretation (bias)

Being bogged down by details: inability to the woods for he trees

Insufficient care in documentation (quotations, bibliographic/ references)

Lack of discipline in structuring report framework before starting to write.

1.6.1 Exploratory or descriptive studies

1.6.2 Small- scale survey

1.6.3 Case studies, and

1.6.4 Feasibility studies

It is done when we do not know much about the situation

Comprehend the nature of problem and very few studies have been conducted to the

related phenomena

Approaches

Examining the existing literature

Questioning the knowledgeable individuals

Examining a few selected case

registered by the customers

The demographic data of employees in term of their age, sex, education, family income,

etc.

The profile of suppliers: quality of supplies, rejections, regularity, demand for advance

payments, and so on.

The consumer complaints: frequency, nature of comments, causes, etc.

Descriptive studies present the data to meaningful form help to:

Offer the ideas for further investigations and research, and

Help in identifying problems and make certain simple decisions.

For instances

a. The trend of employment during the last twelve months in an organization: Gender

composition, educational level, no. of absent days, ethnic groups, etc.

b. A profile of bank borrowers of outstanding of loans for six months and above: describe the

defaulter's age, earnings, employment, occupation and the like. You can recommend loan

payment issues for management decision to types of individuals for loan extending, etc.

c. Marketing Areas: pricing, sales, distribution method of company, etc.

Pricing methods, costing methods, pricing of related commodities, or products, price hikes

and sales

A profile of sales, sales by region, etc.

Types of distribution channels used.

Advertising and sales promotion expenses

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Gathered information, describe and identify the company and help recommend a strategy for its

future action.

A survey study is the systematic gathering of information from respondents for the purpose

of understanding and predicting some aspects of the behavior of the population of interest.

Survey studies are usually more extensive and involve the careful identification of the

population, selection of the sample for the study and collection of comparable data to

make qualified generalizations.

For instance, survey study of the business describes location of business, employees, products,

prices, and markets, other competitive business, customers, etc.

Methods of survey

2. Mail surveys- collection of information from respondents via mail or similar other

techniques.

3. Personal interviews- collection of information in a face-to-face situation.

Home interviews- personal interviews in the respondents or office.

Intercept interviews- personal interview in a central location like shopping certres, haat

bazaar, etc.

Surveys of employee attitudes

Surveys of the nature of jobs

Surveys of record system

Surveys of salary scales

Surveys of visitors to an organization

2. Field level surveys are as following types:

Surveys of consumer attitudes

Surveys of shop-keepers in a haat bazaar

Surveys of dealers and retailers

Surveys of patients visiting a medical clinic

Surveys of tourists visiting a place.

Appropriate method of project work

Both words and numbers description

Selected unit

Study different research methods

Collected related aspects

1. A case study may be done of a specific subject like records management system, sale

unit personnel department or organization.

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For instances,

1.Records management system of an organization

Inputs procurement unit

Processing unit

Output supplying

Manpower

Control of records

Records inventory

Computer used

Data collected and presented in terms of efficiencies, effectiveness and future improvement in

the organization.

Structure of unit

Work procedures

Accounting manuals

Revenue and expenditure policies

Work- load of staff

Format of the books of accounts

Audit report and so on.

Analysis of above facts, the case study highlights the strengths and weakness of

accounting system of the organization and recommend for improvements.

Organization goals

Policies

Structure

Manpower

Work system

These all areas are carefully studied to analyze the situation and identify the

managerial issues.

Both field cases based on real life and field data; and secondary data which is library based are

two types of cases. These two methods have their own features, relevance and methodology.

Undertaken to assess the potential of a new scheme, idea and provide base for

investment decision.

Feasibility study define and analyze the critical elements such as:

operational aspects

Technical aspects

Marketing

Commercial base

Cost- benefit analyze together with alternatives scheme or ideas

Feasibility studies covers:

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Complexity and formality- directly related to nature of project or scheme.

Feasibility is simple or complex, informal or formal, but careful planning is must.

In project work, student should decide scope of the study, time- frame, information

needs and methodology

For instance, Feasibility study within organization

1. Feasibility study of installing computer- based management information system in

organization

2. Feasibility study of opening a branch of a business in a location

2. Feasibility study starting a small- scale biscuit factory in a location

3. Feasibility study starting a gazal restaurant in certain location of a town

Following aspects should be studied and assess as a method of analysis:

1. Environmental factors

2. Market factors

3. Investment requirements

4. Technical aspects or issues

5. Cost- benefit estimates or analysis

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information

1.2 Problem of the study

1.3 Objective of the study

1.4 Importance of the study

1.5 Limitation of the study

1.6 Organization of the study

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

2.2 Review of related study

3. METHODOLOGY

3.2 Population and sample size

3.3 Sampling procedure

3.4 Data collection technique

3.5 Statistical procedure

3.6 Data analysis procedure

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Major findings of the study

5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

Appendix

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PROPOSAL

Or Proposal Writing and Submission

Title:

The title of the research and development project must be brief and clear enough. It must be

specific and as concise as possible. The theme of the proposed study (problem and solution)

must be approximately reflected in the title, which must be informative enough to alert to the

reader and give him idea that the researcher proposes to do research and not otherwise.

Project Leader:

Name of Institution: Name and Address

Collaborators: Name and Institutions

Duration of Project:

Starting Date:

Completion Date:

Total Budget of Project:

1. Introduction

1.1 Background Information

Information includes a description of the importance of the researchable constraint that the

project is seeking to address and a very brief summary of any significant research or

development already carried out. The proposal should awareness of the problems in the context

of research and development already conducted or implemented. Particularly, an explanation of

the origin of the proposal and how it fits in the donors programmes or focus areas.

1.2 Statement of problems (or rationale of the study)

To convince the funding agency that ones proposal is worthwhile for undertaking, it would have

some rationale. It should state why the study is being proposed. It has been noted that social

scientists are crisis- oriented. They justify their proposal by citing the gravity of social problem

that has focused their attention. It is supposed to convince the people of the worth on ones

proposal. It is also important for the researcher himself to convince himself of the soundness of

his proposal to make him in the use of his time.

1.3 Scope and limitation of the study

The propose project should reflect the scope of findings by solving the prevailing problems of

the areas. It should be clear the coverage of the study areas; and what are the possible constraints

of studying limited areas either time or financial problems.

1.4 Objectives

The aim of the study or what is to expect of the study should be stated. The objectives such as

to solve the social problems of the country or sites or to attain self- sufficiency in rice or milk

or meat are presumptions. They should be narrowed down to attainable objectives under

reasonable conditions. The title of the proposal is often a broad statement of the objectives. They

should be made consistent.

1.5 Hypothesis

1.6 Almost every step in the development of scientific thought has been made by the

anticipation of nature, i.e. by the formulation of hypotheses which through verifiable,

often had very little foundation to start with. The first step in undertaking a piece of

scientific research should be the formulation of the problem as in definite or specific

terms as possible. Such a statement constitutes a trial or working hypotheses to be

tested and confirmed, modified or even abandoned as the investigation proceeds.

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The trial or working hypothesis marks the beginning of a piece of research, theories, laws; and

systems as explanations in the form of generalizations come as final or end products. Where do

hypotheses come from? They are not received from without through sense of perception, but

made by the mind. Logicians generally recognize four criteria as the adequate measure of good

hypotheses.

The hypothesis should take into consideration all of the relevant facts and should

contradict none.

It should be plausible and in general, should not contradict any of the laws of nature.

The hypothesis should of such a character that it is amendable to deductive application

and testing i.e. it should be capable of disproof or verification.

It should be simple as possible for, from the beginning, science has demanded not only

accuracy and precision but simplicity.

Which of the hypothetical proposition is to be tested? Several hypotheses rather than one as a

rule are formulated in the course of the investigation. The least probable are rejected and the

most one confirmed. But null hypothesis (Ho) or alternative hypothesis (Ha) can be use equally.

2. Review of Literature

To be fully prepared for the study of any problem, it is supposed that the proponent knows well

that others have said or written about the problem; that he has sufficiently mastered the auxiliary

aid to research such as statistical tools; that he has sufficient experience in that research are to

enable him to do the job. In case where problem arise because the institution does not have up to

date library acquisitions, consulting colleagues who are knowledgeable on the problems helps.

The task becomes easier if we remember that other people one way or another could have

known something about the problem and often even know more than the researcher at the outset.

The review of literature shows that the proponent has researched or is knowledgeable in the area

being proposed. It also indicates findings on which the proposal is building on. Hence, a solid

foundation of background knowledge is imperative so that the researcher does not have to invent

the wheel all over again.

3. Outputs

The research results or products should be appropriate to the project purpose and include

identified promotion pathways to target institutions, agencies or beneficiaries. Target institutions

are those formal or informal institutions, which will take up the products of research and engage

in the process of transferring knowledge/ technology/ methodology to the beneficiaries. e.g.

FNCCI, INGOs, NGOs, etc. The beneficiaries are individuals and customers living in the

particular areas.

4. Research Methodology

How the study will be conducted to attain the desire objectives to be able to test the hypotheses

should occupy most of the researchers time. Do not dismiss the procedure by a few senseless

statements like sampling will be done data will be collected from secondary sources, data

will be analyzed and interpreted. Procedure must be discussed clearly and in sufficient detail to

be understood by prospective reviewers. Reviewers, seeing a well written, comprehensive, and

specific procedure, that the investigator is fully equipped and thoroughly prepared for his

project.

4.1 A complete procedure should consist of the following parts;

Theoretical framework

Sampling techniques and sample size.

Method of data collection

Method of data analysis

4.2 The basic considerations in determining the sample size are:

The degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity in the population

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Resource at the disposal of the investigator, e.g. time, fund and manpower

4.3 Research activities

Research studies, surveys, experiments, etc. designed and implemented to achieve output of

project. There should be an activity of group of activities associated with the each output of the

project, the activities defining the action strategy for accomplishing each output. This section

also includes any facilities or expertise already available to the investigator or collaborator,

which will be utilized in the implementation of the project. In addition, the location of the

specific components of the research to be carried out and any special resources required to

implement of the project should be included.

5. Beneficiaries

It is necessary to indicate the main beneficiaries of the research. The beneficiaries are those who

gain social, economic, environmental advantage, etc. from the technology, methodology or

knowledge transfer activities of the target institutions. They may be identified for instance, the

households, the village community or the global community.

6. Budgetary Requirements

6.1 Equipments

The required all inputs must be mentioned and budgeted with respect to prevailing market

prices. The purchased of heavy equipment or using laboratory facilities of other institution and

the charges of lab facilities should included in the budget. Apart from this, these include

investment for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, irrigation facilities, and purchase of

land. Proposals of this nature require preparation of detailed development plans and are

generally not submitted as part of the research project.

6.2 Personnel requirement

The name of the existing personnel who will work on the project, their positions, salaries and

total man days required for the project must be indicated. Beside from salaries, the break down

of travel request, the following can be used as guidelines. They are place of visit, frequencies of

visit, number of people, tentative schedule, purpose of visit, mode of transport, travel allowance

per diem and daily allowances (TA/DA) and transportation cost.

6.3 Financial summary

Items Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

1. Staff salary

2. Operational cost (TA/DA)

3. Consumable/ Photocopies

4. Equipment and Supplies

5. Training and publication

6. Overheads (1-5)

7. Contingencies (1-5)

Total

7. Risks and Assumptions

It includes those factors, which might contribute to the project failing to achieve its objectives.

Important assumptions are external conditions or a factor over which the project chooses not to

exert control or do not have control, but on which the accomplishment of the objectives depend.

8. Curriculum Vitae

The purpose of including the curriculum vitae is to determine the research capability of the

research leader and his accompanies. This will enable to research to convince the reviewer that

he can do.

9. References

All the reference materials reviewed should be listed.

18

1. Does the PCNs title fully reflect the proposed research project?

2. Is the justification fro the project clearly stated and convincing?

a. Will the project contribute significantly to either identifying or resolving the

farmers problems?

b. Does it fit into the World Trade Organization, Agriculture Perspective Plan, or

Tenth Development Plan?

c. Does the information quoted (literature or statistics) justify the proposed project?

d. Does the proposal consider?

i. Socio-economic aspects?

ii. Environmental effects?

iii. Gender issues?

iv. Sufficiently address the disadvantage groups

3. Is the proposed project technically and logically consistent?

Purposes Outputs Activities

a. Is the proposed of research project clearly stated?

b. Are the outputs logically framed to achieve the project purpose?

- Results of trials

c. Are the research activities technically framed to produce the stated outputs?

- Technical approaches

4. Are the beneficiaries clearly identified?

a. Does the proposed project specify the immediate end- users?

b. Does the proposal specify the ultimate beneficiaries?

5. Is the proposed budget rationally presented?

a. Does the budget show any obvious irregularities?

19

Title:

Does the PCNs title fully reflect the proposed research project?

Brief and clear enough, specific and as concise as possible.

Theme of the proposed study must be approximately reflected in the title (problem and

solution)

Must be informative enough to alert to the reader and give him idea that the researcher

proposes to do research and not otherwise.

Collaborators: Name and Institutions Duration of Project:

Starting Date: Completion Date:

Total Budget of Project:

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information

Information includes a description of the importance of the researchable constraint that

the project is seeking to address and a very brief summary of any significant research or

development already carried out.

Proposal should awareness of the problems in the context of research and development

already conducted or implemented.

Particularly, an explanation of the origin of the proposal and how it fits in the donors

programmes or focus areas.

1.2 Statement of problems/Justification of the study

Is the justification fro the project clearly stated and convincing?

a. Will the project contribute significantly to either identifying or resolving the

farmers problems?

b. Does it fit into the APP or Tenth Development Plan?

c. Does the information quoted (literature or statistics) justify the proposed project?

d. Does the proposal consider?

i. Socio-economic aspects? ii. Environmental effects?

iii. Gender issues? iv. Disadvantage groups

To convince the funding agency that ones proposal is worthwhile for undertaking, it

would have some rationale.

Should state why the study is being proposed.

Justify their proposal by citing the gravity of social problem that has focused their

attention. To convince the people of the worth on ones proposal.

It is also important for the researcher himself to convince himself of the soundness of his

proposal to make him in the use of his time.

Propose project should reflect the scope of findings by solving the prevailing problems

of the areas.

Should be clear the coverage of the study areas; and what are the possible constraints of

studying limited areas either time or financial problems.

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1.4 Objectives

Aim of the study or what is to expect of the study should be stated.

Objective such as to solve the social problems of the country or sites or to attain self-

sufficiency in rice or milk or meat are presumptions.

Narrowed down to attainable objectives under reasonable conditions.

Title of the proposal is often a broad statement of the objectives- should be made

consistent.

1.5 Hypothesis

Hypothesis should take into consideration all relevant facts & avoid contradictions

Should be plausible & general, should not contradict any of the laws of nature.

Hypothesis should of such a character that it is amendable to deductive application and

testing i.e. capable of disproof or verification.

Should be simple as possible for, from the beginning, science has demanded not only

accuracy and precision but simplicity.

Which of the hypothetical proposition is to be tested?

Several hypotheses rather than one in the course of the investigation.

Least probable are rejected and the most one confirmed.

Null hypothesis (Ho) or alternative hypothesis (Ha) can be use equally.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

To be fully prepared for the study of any problems:

Proponent knows well that others have said or written about the problem;

Sufficient/auxiliary aid to research such as statistical tools; that he has sufficient

experience in that researchers are to enable him to do the job.

Institution does not have up to date library acquisitions, consulting colleagues who are

knowledgeable on the problems helps.

Other people one way or another could have known something about the problem and

often even know more than the researcher at the outset.(farmers)

Proponent has researched or is knowledgeable in the area being proposed.

Indicates findings on which the proposal is building on- a solid foundation of

background knowledge is imperative so that the researcher does not have to invent the

wheel all over again.

3. OUTPUTS/RESULTS/OUTCOMES/ FINDINGS

Is the proposed project technically and logically consistent?

Purposes Outputs Activities

a. Is the proposed of research project clearly stated?

b. Are the outputs logically framed to achieve the project purpose?

c. Are the research activities technically framed to produce the stated outputs?

Technical approaches

Research results or products should be appropriate to the project purpose

Include identified promotion pathways to target institutions, agencies or beneficiaries.

Target institutions are those formal or informal institutions, which will take up the

products of research and engage in the process of transferring knowledge/ technology/

methodology to the beneficiaries.

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Beneficiaries are individuals and farming households living in the particular areas.

4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

How the study will be conducted to attain the desire objectives to be able to test the

hypotheses should occupy most of the researchers time.

Do not dismiss the procedure by a few senseless statements like sampling will be done

data will be collected from secondary sources, data will be analyzed and interpreted.

Procedure must be discussed clearly and in sufficient detail to be understood by

prospective reviewers. Reviewers, seeing a well written, comprehensive, and specific

procedure, that the investigator is fully equipped and thoroughly prepared for his project.

4.1 A complete procedure should consist of the following parts;

Theoretical framework

Sampling techniques and sample size.

Method of data collection- trial or questionnaire

Method of data analysis- SPSS, R2

4.2 The basic considerations in determining the sample size are:

The degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity in the population

Degree of accuracy required

Resource at the disposal of the investigator, e.g. time, fund and manpower

4.3 Research activities

Research studies, surveys, experiments, etc. designed and implemented to achieve output

of project.

An activity of group of activities associated with the each output of the project, Activities

defining the action strategy for accomplishing each output.

Includes any facilities or expertise already available to the investigator or collaborator

roles

In addition, the location of the specific components of the research to be carried out and

any special resources required to implement of the project should be included.

5. BENEFICIARIES

Are the beneficiaries clearly identified?

a. Does the proposed project specify the immediate end- users?

b. Does the proposal specify the ultimate beneficiaries?

Indicate main beneficiaries- beneficiaries are those who gain social, economic,

environmental advantage, etc. from the technology, methodology or knowledge transfer

activities of the target institutions.

They may be identified for instance, the households, the village community or the global

community.

6. BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS

Is the proposed budget rationally presented?

a. Does the budget show any obvious irregularities?

6.1 Equipments

Required all inputs must be mentioned and budget with market prices.(rate)

The purchased of heavy equipment or using laboratory facilities of other institution and

the charges of lab facilities should included in the budget.

Apart from this, these include investment for construction of buildings, roads, bridges,

irrigation facilities, and purchase of land.

Proposals of this nature require preparation of detailed development plans and are

generally not submitted as part of the research project.

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Name of the existing personnel who will work on the project, their positions, salaries and

total man days.

Beside salaries, break down travel request and following guidelines.

Place of visit, frequencies of visit, number of people, tentative schedule, purpose of visit,

mode of transport, travel allowance per diem and daily allowances (TA/DA) and

transportation cost.

Items Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

Staff salary (with inflation)

Operational cost (TA/DA)

Consumable/ Photocopies

Equipment and Supplies

Training and publication

Overheads (1-5)

Contingencies(1-5)

Total

7. Risks and Assumptions

Includes those factors which might contribute to the project failing to achieve its

objectives.

Important assumptions are external conditions or a factor over which the project chooses

not to exert control or do not have control (Killer assumptions)

On which the accomplishment of the objectives depend.

8. Curriculum Vitae

Curriculum vitae are to determine the research capability of the research leader and his

accompanies.

Will enable to research to convince the reviewer that he can do.

9. References

All the reference materials reviewed should be listed.

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What is the researcher want to know?

What has to be dealt with in order to obtain the required information?

3.2 Elements of a Research Design

The basic elements of a research design are:

i. the problem

ii. the methodology

iii. data gathering

iv. data analysis

v. report writing

The research design has two purposes. The first purpose is to answer the research question or

test research hypothesis. The research hypothesis is introduced as tentative theory is to be

proved or disproved in the research study.

The second purpose of research design is to control variance. For instance, at the Faculty of

Management students, it was decided that there could be a high degree of merit in using the case

method for teaching management. It becomes necessary to test this hypothesis, i.e. that there is

significant difference in the achievement scores between students who were taught by the case

method and students who were taught by the lecture method.

The experiment was set as:

Before After

Test Results Test Results

(first day) (Last day)

Students with L1 L2 Control Group

lecture method

Students with C1 C2 Experiment Group

case method

How variance is controlled by the research design.

1. Maximization of experimental variance: This means in the above example that it is

necessary to create as much difference between L 2 and C2 as possible. One must try to

maximize the difference of the dependent variables for the two classes creating as much

difference as possible. This is also done by making sure that the class using the case

method is really taught in a very different style.

2. Control of extraneous variables: It must be shown that the results of the experiment are

due entirely to the independent variable and not due to other factors or variables. The

higher results are obtained by the effect of teaching methods and not other factors like

intelligence, motivation, age etc. If one believes that the age is the important variable in

the results, the researcher should try to randomly distribute the age in both of the classes.

If it is found the higher result by higher age student, it is due to extraneous variable.

3. Minimize the error variance: It is difficult to control three variances. But, in the

students research he or she will have little control over some errors. If questionnaire or

some observational methods are used for controlling data, then errors can be minimized

by understanding and pre- testing the data collecting instruments. Probably the best one

24

can do in controlling the errors is to be familiar with his or her data collecting methods

before using them.

These three aspects of controlling variances have been put into one principle called the

Maxicon Principle and are stated as: Maximize the systematic variance understudy; control

extraneous systematic variance; and minimize error variance.

3.4 Types of Research Design

1. Historical

2. Descriptive

3. Developmental

4. Case Study

5. Correlated

6. Causal- Comparative, and

7. Action Research Design

1. Historical

Past phenomenon

Process of collecting, evaluating, verifying, synthesising past evidences systematically

and objectively to reach a conclusion.

Past events to present.

Characteristics

1. Historical Research (HR) depends upon data observed by other rather than investigator.

Good data result from painstaking work, which analyses the authenticity, accuracy, and

significance of source material.

2. Contrary to popular notions, historical research must be rigorous, systematic and

exhaustive; much claiming to be historical is an undisciplined collection of

inappropriate, unreliable, or bias information.

3. HR depends up on two kinds of data such as primary sources where the author was direct

observer of the recorded event and secondary sources where the author is reporting the

observations. Of the two, primary sources carry the authority of firsthand evidence and

priority in data collection.

4. Two basic criticisms weigh the value of data: The external criticism, which asks, Is the

document or relic (historic event) authentic? and internal criticism asks, If authentic,

are the data accurate and relevant? The critical evaluation of the data is what makes true

HR so rigorous in many ways, more demanding than experimental methods.

5. HR is similar to review of literature, which precedes other forms of research; the HR is

more exhaustive, and seeking out the information from larger array of sources. It track

down the more information, which were old and unpublished, and material not cited in

the references.

Steps:

1. Define the problem and asks this question yourself: Is the HR approach best

suited for these problems? Are pertinent data available? Will the findings be

educationally significant?

2. State the objectives and if possible, the hypotheses that will give direction and focus

to the research.

3. Collect the data: Both the primary and secondary should be collected separately. An

important HR is note taking. Note cards or small file cards (size- 3x5 or 4x6) are

used for taking information with one card for one topic for convenient and

rearranging.

4. Evaluate the data, applying both internal and external criticism.

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important assumptions, basic hypotheses, methods, findings, interpretation,

conclusions and references.

2. Descriptive Research (DR)

Descriptive Research is process of accumulating facts does not explaining relationship, test

hypotheses, make predictions or make meaning and implication of a study. It is an extension of

an exploratory research.

Characteristics of DR

1. Literal meaning of describing situation or events.

The accumulation of a database that is solely descriptive and it does not seek or explain

relationship, test hypotheses, predictions and implication.

Research aimed it as more powerful purposes may incorporate DR.

It includes all forms of research except historical and experimental for broader context. It

also used survey method for widen descriptive method.

2. Purpose of Descriptive Studies:

To collect detail factual information that describe existing phenomenon

To identify the problems or justify current conditions and practices

To make comparisons and evaluations

To determine what others are doing in same conditions and benefits from their

experience in making future plan and decisions.

Steps:

1. Define objectives in clear and specific term. What facts and characteristics are to be

uncovered?

2. Design the approach:

How the data will be collected?

How will be the subject is selected to ensure they represent the population to be

described?

What instruments or techniques available or to be developed?

Will the data collection methods need to be field- tested and will data gathers need to be

trained?

Collect the data

Report the results

3. Developmental Research

The Developmental Research focus on variables, their rate of change, directions, sequences and

other inter- related factors over a period of time. Particularly, developmental research is done for

the purpose of future trends.

Methods of Developmental Research

a. Longitudinal growth study

b. Cross- sectional growth study

c. Trend study

d. A Cohort Study

e. A panel Study

a. Longitudinal growth study

This study measures the nature and rate of change in a sample at different stages of

development. Data were collect two or more different point of time from same groups of

individuals. This method is not a cross- sectional or one short studies because data are

collected two different points of time. So, it is the study carried longitudinal across the

period of time.

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This measures the rate of change by drawing sample from a cross- section of the society for

comparing and describing the groups. Data are gathered at once over a period of time in

order answer the research question. It is also called as one- shot studies.

c. Trend study

This study is designed to establish patterns of change in the past in order to predict future

patterns or conditions. Data are collected at intervals spread over a period of time and

called trend study. These studies are used to obtain and analyse social, economic, and

political data to identify trends and to predict what takes place in the future. Regression

analysis is frequently used for trend studies.

d. A Cohort Study

It is the study of specific group such as those born in the same period. A sample of sub-

group is studied at different points of time. To form cohort studies, data are compiled for

the same population over time. Such studies are rare due to difficulty of maintaining

contact with the members of the cohort from year to year.

e. A panel Study

It is the best method of research for change. A panel is group of individuals who are

agreed to provide information to researcher over a period of time. For this purpose of

study, we take same people and study their attitudes towards a particular phenomenon

over time. For instance single parenthood, we should take a group of people and interview

them at periodic intervals on the same subject over a number of years.

Panel study

Longitudinal study

1. Developmental Research focuses on the study of variables and their development over a

period of times or years and asks, What are the patterns of growth, their rates, their

direction, their sequences and the interrelated factors affecting these characteristics?

2. The sampling problem in the longitudinal method is complicated by the limited number of

subjects it can follow over the years; any selected factor affecting the attrition (slow

destruction) biases the longitudinal study. It can be avoided by sampling stable population

but it introduces unknown biases to such population.

3. Cross- sectional studies usually use more subjects, but describe fewer growth factors than

longitudinal studies. The longitudinal studies is the only direct method of studying human

development, the cross- sectional is less expensive and faster since the actual passage of time

is eliminated by sampling different subjects across age ranges such as children.

4. Trend studies are vulnerable unpredictable factors that modify or invalidate trends based on

the past. In general, long- range prediction is an educated o experience guess while short

range prediction is more reliable and valid.

Steps:

1. Define the problems or state objectives

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2. Review of literature for baseline information and comparing the research methodologies

for data collection

3. Design the approach

4. Collect the data

5. Evaluate the data and report the results

4. Case Study

In case study, an investigator makes and intensive of a social unit i.e. a person, a family, a social

group, an institution, a community, etc. The investigator collects present status, past experiences

and environmental forces that contributes to the individuality and behaviour of the unit. After

analyzing the sequence and inter- relationship of these facts, the researcher conducts a

comprehensive study of the social unit as it functions in society. These studies make useful

contribution to research as:

A case study is more expensive because of it exploratory in nature.

A generalization drawn from a single case cannot apply to all cases in a give population.

There are some elements of subjectivity. The researcher tries to control the personal

biases and standards to influence his or her interpretation.

Characteristics of case study

Case studies are in- depth studies of a given social unit resulting in a complete and well

organized picture of that unit. It cover the entire life cycle of a given segment and it

concentrates to a specific factors or events to a given elements.

As compared to survey study which tends to examine a small number of variables across

a large sample of unit, a case study tends to examine a small number of units across a

large number of variables and conditions.

Strengths:

It develops background information for planning major investigation in the social

sciences. Case studies are intensive; bring important variables, processes and interactions

that deserve extensive attention for study. It pioneers the new ground and often the

sources of fruitful hypotheses for further study.

Case studies prove useful examples to illustrate generalised statistical findings.

Weakness:

Case studies are limited in representativeness and do generalized findings until the

appropriate follow- up research is accomplished, focusing on specific hypotheses and

using proper sampling methods.

Case studies are vulnerable to subjective biases. The selective judgement rule in or out or

high or low value of significance, subjective interpretation is influencing the outcomes.

Steps:

State the objectives. What is the unit of study, characteristics, relationships, and

processes will direct the investigation?

Design the approach. Unit selection, sources of data and data collection should decide.

Collect the data.

Organize the information to form the coherent, well- integrated reconstruction of the unit

of study.

Report the results and discuss their significance

5. Correlational Research

The correlational research is used to ascertain the extent to which two variables are related, in

correlational relationship, change in one variable accompany changes in another or exist the

relashionship between them, such variables are said to be covary.

Use to obtain description of phenomenon

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Changes in one variable accompany changes to another but actual influences is difficult

to identify

These variable are called covary or co- variables.

Three types of correlation

Positive correlation, eg. Benefits of workers and productivity

Negative correlation, inverse relation, eg. Absence rate of employees result in decrease in

production

No correlation

Correlation range

+ Perfect positive

- Perfect negative

0.0 No correlation

Characteristics

1. Appropriate where variables are complex and/or do not lend to experimental and

controlled manipulation.

2. Permits the measurement of several variables and their relationship simultaneously and

in realistic setting.

3. Get at the degree of relationship rather than the all- or- nothing question posed by

experimental design: Is an effect present or absent?

4. Among its limitations are the following:

It only identifies what goes with what- it does not necessarily identify cause- and effect

relationships.

It is less rigorous than the experimental approach because it exercises less control over

the independent variables.

It is prone to identify spurious relational patterns or elements, which have little or no

reliability or validity.

The relational patterns are often arbitrary and ambiguous.

It encourages a shot-gun approach to research, indiscriminately throwing in data from

miscellaneous sources and defying any meaningful useful interpretation.

Steps:

1. Define the problem

2. Review the literature.

3. Design the approach:

Identify the relevant variables.

Select the appropriate subjects.

Select or develop appropriate measuring instruments.

Select the correlational approach that fits the problem.

4. Collect the data.

5. Analyze and interpret the results.

6. Causal- comparative research

Studies that establish causal relationship between variables and also called explanatory

studies.

Research investigates the possible causes affecting the results.

Explaining the relationship between two variables.

Known as ex post facto research.

Kerlinger states:

Ex post facto research is that research in which the independent variable or variables

have already occurred and in which the researcher starts with the observation of a dependent

variable or variables. He then studies the independent variables in retrospect for their possible

relations to, and effect on, the dependent variable or variables.

29

Symmetrical Relationship: Two variables fluctuate together.

Reciprocal Relationship: Such relationship exists when two variables mutually influence

or reinforce each other. This could occur if the reading of an advertisement leads to the

use of a brand of product.

Asymmetrical Relationship: This relation postulates that changes in one variable

(Independent Variable) are responsible for change in another variable (dependent

variable).

Characteristics:

Causal- comparative research is ex post facto in nature, which means the data are collected

after the research has been already occurred. The researcher takes one or more effects and

examines the data going back time, seeking out causes, relationships, and their meanings.

Strengths:

1. The causal- comparative method is appropriate where the more powerful experimental

method is not possible:

When it is not always possible to select, control and manipulate the factors necessary to

study cause- and effect relations directly.

When the control of all variations except a single independent variable may be highly

unrealistic and artificial, preventing the normal interaction with other influential

variables.

When laboratory controls for many research purposes would be impractical, costly or

ethically questionable.

2. It yields useful information concerning the nature of phenomena: what goes with what,

under what conditions, in what sequences and patterns, and the like.

3. Improvements in techniques, statistical methods and design with partial control features.

Weaknesses:

1. The main weakness of any ex post facto design is the lack of control over independent

variables. To reach sound conclusion, the researcher considers the possible reasons or

rival hypotheses for the results.

2. The relevant causative factor is actually included among the many factors under study.

3. No single factor is causing the outcome but the combination and interaction of factors go

together under certain conditions to yield a given outcome.

4. No multiple causes: One cause in one instance and another cause in another instance.

5. Ambiguous cause and effect (May reverse).

6. The additional factor may not discover.

Steps:

1. Define the problem.

2. Survey the literature.

3. State the hypotheses

4. List the assumptions upon which the hypotheses and procedures will be based.

5. Design the approach:

Select the appropriate subjects and sources materials.

Select the techniques for collecting data.

Classify the data categorically which are unambiguous, appropriate to show significant

relationship.

6. Validate the data gathering techniques.

7. Describe, analyze, and interpret the findings in clear and precise terms.

7. Action Research

Working definition of action research:

If yours is a situation of action research

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People reflect and improve (or develop) their work and their own situations

By tightly interlinking their reflection and action

And also making their experience public not only to other participants but also to other

persons interested in and concerned about the work and the situation

And yours is situation in which there is increasingly

Data gathering by participant themselves in relation to their own questions

Participants (in problem posing and in answering questions) in decision- making

Power- sharing and the relative suspension of hierarchical ways of working towards

industrial democracy

Collaboration among members of the group as a critical community

Self- reflection, self- evaluation and self- management by autonomous and responsible

persons and groups

Learning progressively (and publicly) by doing and making mistakes in a self-

reflective spiral of planning, acting, observing, reflecting, replanning, etc.

Reflection which supports the ideas of the (self-) reflective practitioners

Then

Yours is a situation in which ACTION RESEARCH is occurring

The working definition is jointly authored by the participants at the International Symposium on

Action Research, Brisbone, 1989. We would suggest that this working definition was acceptable

to the full range of participants because it is:

Not too threatening to existing understandings and practices

Not too vague so that everything was included, but

Rather rich in examples which might support the development of shared meanings

Open enough so that further elaboration and development seemed possible

Allowing for an ex post facto incorporation of projects into the discussion, and

Above all, shared with respect to the process of it formulation for a specific content.

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32

4.2 Scales of Measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio Scale

4.3 The construction of attitudes and social scales (Likert- Type, Thurstone and Guttaman

Scaling)

4.4 Reliability and validity of measurements.

Variable

Variable are characteristics of persons, things, groups, objects, etc.

Symbol to which numerals or values assigned. E.g age, sex, jobs, attitudes, etc.

A variable is defined as anything that can take on differing or varying vales.

Examples, age, sex, productivity

4.1 Types of variables

Dependent variable

Independent variable

Intervening variable

Moderating variable

1. Dependent variable

Values depend upon other variables

Investigators purpose is to study, analyze and predict the variability in the dependent

variable.

What result in dependent, if certain changes appear in other related variables?

Measuring the variability is the interest of investigator

Variable used to describe or measure the problem under study is called dependent

variables.

Examples,

Production manager- employees productivity which vary low, medium and high

Marketing manager- consumer complaints or dissatisfaction of products, variance in

consumer complaints is dependent variables.

Personnel officer- training will increase the production of workers, production-

dependent variable and training- Independent variable

2. Independent variable

If it is not influenced by other variable under study but influence to dependent variable.

Any change independent variable (+ve or ve), change in dependent variable (increase or

decrease).

Basis for prediction- dependent variable is being predicted

Independent variables are used to describe or measure the influence the problem.

How change in independent variable affects to the value of dependent variable.

Examples,

Marketing manager is interested to increase the sales by advertising: Advertising

(independent variable) leads to volume of sales (dependent variable)

Annual saving of employees is the function annual earnings

3. Intervening variable

There should relationship between dependent variable and independent variable.

A third variable influences the nature and degree of relationship between independent

variable and dependent variable such variable is called intervening variable.

Give the true picture of cause and effect.

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Example

Figure: Showing the relationship between dependent and independent variable with the presence of

intervening variable

4. Moderating variable

Strong contingent effect on the dependent- independent variable relationship.

Believed as second independent variable to significant effect to originally expected

relationship.

Third or moderating variable modify the above relationship.

Example,

Training Productivity

years

Moderating variable

Wage Job

satisfaction

Dependent variable

Independent variable

Extra income

Moderating variable

4.2 Scales of Measurement

1. Nominal

2. Ordinal

3. Interval

4. Ratio Scale

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1. Nominal Scale

To assign certain subjects, group or categories

Is the simplest and lowest form recording the data, and

Provide the very basic information of personnel data.

Examples:

Gender: Male, female

Religion: Hindu, Buddhist, etc

Occupation: Teacher, student, agriculture, business

Nationality: Nepali, Indian, etc

Department: Sales, account, production

2. Ordinal Scale

A scale is ordinal when object can be assigned in order on some characteristics but they

cannot be assigned values that represent the degree of difference on that characteristic.

Ranking in order likes drinks- coca- cola, pepsi, fanta, etc.

Social status of jobs:

Jobs Rank

Doctor

Engineer .

Professor

Lawyer ..

3. Interval Scale

Scale assumes that the data have equal intervals

Example: Behavioural research- measurement of attitudes and certain psychological

characteristics such as intelligence and learning

Strongly agree 1

Agree 2

I dont agree 3

Disagree 4

Strongly disagree 5

4. Ratio Scale

To indicate ratio

Ratio indicates not only the magnitude of the differences but also the proportion of the

differences.

Responses could be in range from 0 to any figure

Example: 10 years old boy is the twice of the 5 years old boy, other ratio scales are age, income,

working hours, etc.

What is your annual income?

How many children do you have?

How many workers are the members of the union?

Changing the scale format

What is your income? What is your income? What is your income?

Very low Less than Rs. 1000

Low 1000 to 2000

Average 2001 to 3000 My annual income is Rs.

High 3001 to 4000

Very High More than 4000

35

Feelings, perceptions and behaviours towards other things, people, places, etc.

Feelings and perceptions are called attitudes and measured by attitude scales.

There are procedures of developing measures.

Specify the

construct

Generate sample

of items

Collect

Data

Purify

measure

Figure: Procedure fro developing measure Assess

validity

1. Arbitrary scales

2. Likert- Type Scales (Summated Rating Scale)

3. Thurstone Scales (Equal- Appearing Interval Scales)

4. Guttman Scales (Cumulative Scales)

1. Arbitrary scales

Ad hoc basis or arbitrary

Researchers subjective selection of items

Examples: How do you assess the reputation of this college? (Excellent facilities,

learning (Bad,---------, Good)

2. Likert- Type Scales (Summated Rating Scale)

Self- report technique for attitude measurement in which the subjects are asked their

degree of agreement and disagreement with each of statements.

The summing score is the total attitude score, is the Likert scale. Example,

Most people can be trusted.

Strongly agree5_ Agree4_ Undecided3_ Disagree2_ Strongly disagree1

Any body select 1 to 5

Take other similar items- to find out general attitude of indication

Add the total score- the top 25% - the most favourable attitude and bottom 25%- the least

favourable attitude toward the topic being studied;

Nature:

This is summated scale consisting of a series of to which the subject responds.

Respondent indicate agreement or disagreement- in intensity

Likert technique produces an ordinal scale, which requires non- parametric statistics for

analysis.

Utility

This scale is reliable when it roughly ordering of peoples particular attitude or attitude

complex.

The score includes a measure of intensity as expressed on each statement.

Construction:

The investigator collect a large number of items considered relevant to the attitude

being investigated and either clearly favourable or unfavourable.

36

These items are administered to a group of representative whom are you asking the

question.

The responses to the various items are scored in such a way that a response indicative of

the most favourable attitude is giventhe highest score.

Each individuals total score is computed by adding his or her item score.

The responses are analyzed which items differentiate most clearly between the highest

and the lowest qualities of total score.

The items which differentiate best (at least 6) are used to form a scale.

3. Thurstone Scale (Equal- Appearing interval Scale)

Scaling technique requires item to be selected by a panel judges.

The items are evaluated on:

Relevance to the topic area

Potential for ambiguity

Level of attitude they represent

Developed by LL Thurstone and called equal appearing interval scale

Indicating agreement or disagreement

All the items on the objective test are equal value.

Actually some items are given higher value than other items.

Example,

My job is like a hobby to me. (10.1)

I am satisfied with my job for the time being. (7.2)

I am often bored with my job. (3.2)

Most of the time I have to force myself to got to work. (1.1)

A guide for the construction and use of Thurstone of Equal appearing Interval Scale

1. Nature:

Items of scale are determined by ranking operation done by judges.

Responses which best describe how he or she feels

2. Utility

Scale measurement is interval

The distance between any two numbers of scale is of known- size.

Parametric and non- parametric statistics may be applied.

3. Construction

Several hundred statements conceived to be related to the attitude being

investigated.

A large number of judges (50- 300) independently classify statement to eleven

groups ranging from most favorable to neutral to least favorable

The scale value of a statement is computed as the median position to which it is

assigned by the group of judges.

Statements which have too broad a spread are discarded as ambiguous or

irrelevant.

The scale is formed by selecting items which are evenly spread along the scale

from one extreme to the other.

4. Guttman Scales (Cumulative Scales)

The cumulative scales like the other scales consist of set of items which are answered.

The Guttman scale tend to be cumulative, that is if a person can answer the first item he

or she probably will be able to answer the second or visa versa.

Example: Four children were given three arithmetic items:

a. 28/7 = ?

b. 8 x 4 = ?

c. 12 + 9 = ?

37

a b c Total score

First child 1 1 1 3

Second child 0 1 1 2

Third child 0 0 1 1

Fourth child 0 0 0 0

1. Nature:

It attempts to unidimensionality of scale.

Items of scale are determined by ranking operation done by judges.

Responses which best describe how he or she feels

2. Utility

Scale measurement is interval

The distance between any two numbers of scales is of known- size.

Parametric and non- parametric statistics may be applied.

3. Construction

Several hundred statements conceived to be related to the attitude being

investigated.

A large number of judges (50- 300) independently classify statement to eleven

groups ranging from most favourable to neutral to least favourable

4.4 Reliability and validity of measurements.

Validity:

Data are considered to be valid when they measure what they are supposed to measure.

How? Validity generally results from careful planning of questionnaire.

Cautious wording

Preliminary testing of items to detect misunderstanding

Reliability:

Data are considered to be reliable when they give assurance that they are reasonably

close to the truth.

Reliability results from taking larger sample of respondents. Suppose, if 10 respondents,

results might vary, if 90 respondents added, results reached to stable and not change.

Reliability would then be assured.

Again survey more people, would give same result. Whereas, validity on the other hand

results from careful planning of questionnaire

4.4.1 VALIDITY

Validity is concern with systematic error. A valid measurement reflects only the

characteristics of interest and random error.

Types of validity:

1. Content validity

2. Construct Validity

3. Criterion- related validity

1. Content validity

It involves assessing the representativeness or sampling adequacy fro measuring the

measurement errors.

It is with multi- item measures of measuring instrument for assessing above

representativeness and adequacy.

The two most commonly used methods of content validation involve the use of logical

and personal judgments of groups of expert.

It is commonly used in applied research

38

2. Construct validity

It involves understanding the meaning of the obtained measurements.

It is concerned with knowing more than just that a measuring instrument works or

explains the variance of measurement errors. This validity is assessed through:

Convergent validity- two score from two different instruments are highly

correlated.

Discriminate validity- variables predicted to be uncorrelated

3. Criterion- related validity

It involves inferring an individuals score or standing on the measurement.

Concurrent validity- individuals present standing with respect to some other

variables.

Predictive validity- current measurement to future prediction of an individual.

4.4.2 RELIABILITY

Reliability means the consistency between measurements in the series.

It indicates the precision of measurement scores or how accurately such scores produced

with repeated measurements. But, same result is affected by some variable or random

error.

1. Test- retest reliability- repetition of same measure

2. Alternative form reliability- giving another form of measure

3. Split- half reliability- dividing in to two equivalent parts.

1. Test- retests reliability

Repeating measurement using the same instrument under as nearly equivalent conditions

as possible.

Compare the results- greater the difference, the lower the reliability.

2. Alternative form reliability

Applying two equivalent forms of measuring instruments to the same objects.

As in above test-retest reliability the results of two instruments are compared item- by-

item and the degree of similarity is determined

Basis is same as test- retest approach

3. Split- half reliability-

It is modification of alternative form approach.

It is obtained by calculating the correlations between two halves of an instrument.

The usual approach to split- half reliability involves dividing the total no. of items into

two groups (Odd and even numbers.

Computing correlation coefficient of two halves.

It is consistency is the reliability, which is ranging from o to 1.

If, less than 0.6 is unsatisfactory result

Relationship between reliability and validity

1. For a set to predict a particular criterion, predictive validity is more important than

reliability. When predictive validity is satisfactory, low reliability is not a serious

problem.

2. Given two tests measuring the same thing, the test with the higher reliability will also

have the higher validity coefficient.

3. Rule for the limit reliability places on validity. The correlation between the test and

independent criterion can never be higher than the squire root of the product of reliability

test.

Sources of measurement problems

1. Respondent- associated Errors

Respondent may not understand question.

Respondent may not remember the necessary information and rely on recall basis.

39

Problem of environment or conditions:

Problem of expression

Question ask to wrong person- electric shaver

Instrument- associated errors

1. Excessive and lengthy question.

2. Ambiguous instructions

3. Poor choice of words

4. Limited space, confusion or biasing.

5. Lack of sequencing

40

Sampling consists of obtaining information from only a part of a large group or population; and

it indicates about the whole population. The objective of sampling is thus to secure a sample

which will represent the population and reproduce the important characteristics of the population

under the study as closely as possible. The value calculated from a defined population, such

mean (), standard deviation (), standard error of mean (s.e.) is called a parameter. It is a

constant value because it covers all the members of the population. A value calculated from a

sample is called statistic such as mean ( X ). Standard deviation (s) and proportion (P).

The data is the basic units in statistical analysis and inference; is either collected by

experimentation or by sampling methods. Method of collection of statistical data by complete

enumeration of the population is census. If the data collected by a certain group or part of

population is called sampling enquiry. The principal advantages of sampling as compared to

complete enumeration of the population are:

Reduced cost

Save time and speed up

Greater scope and improved accuracy

Some terminology used in sampling

a. Universe/Population:

It is the set of object under study. In a census survey, all the universe or population is

studied while in a sample survey an appropriate number of units called samples is

selected and studied; the generalization is made for the universe or population from

which the samples are drawn.

b. Finite population:

The number of items or the units under the study is known.

c. Infinite population:

The number of units of the items is unknown.

d. Element:

Each and every unit of population or universe is called element. An element constitutes

one case for analysis.

e. Sampling unit:

The smallest unit of population to be sampled is called sampling unit and on which

observations can be made.

f. Sample and sample size:

An element or sampling unit from which information is collected is called a sample. A

sample should be optimum, effective, representative, reliable and flexible. The term

sample size refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a

sample. This is the number of respondents or units in the population included in a sample

for studying the population.

g. Sampling Frame or source list

A list of all the units of population from which a sample is selected is called sampling

frame.

h. Parameter

A coefficient or value for the population that corresponds to particular statistic from a

sample is called parameter. A parameter is characteristic of population. For instance,

mean, standard deviation, etc.

i. Statistic

It is characteristics of a sample and is hence computed from the actual data.

41

j. Respondent

A sampling unit from which information is collected is called respondent.

k. Non- respondent

Those respondents who were included in the sample but failed to respond because they

refused, could not reach, or some other responses.

l. Reliability:

It refers to the freedom from random error. It is also termed as repeatability, the ability to

get the same data values from several measurements from a similar manner.

m. Validity:

A survey is valid to the degree that is measures what and only what it is supposed to

measure. To be valid it must be affected by numerous factors that systematically push

or pull the results in the one particular direction.

n. Sampling Error:

The degree to which the results from the sample deviates from those that would be

obtained from the entire population because of random error in the selection of

respondent and the corresponding reduction in the reliability.

Step 2

42

Sampling

random random l

Purposive Self-

Systematic Cluster selection

Multistage

Extreme Homogenous Typical

case case

Heterogeneous Critical case

5.2.1 Probability sampling

Probability sampling is the most commonly associated with survey- based research where you

need to take inferences from your sample about a population to answer your questions to meet

your objectives. The process of probability sampling can be divided into four stages:

1. Identify a suitable sampling frame based on your research questions or objectives;

2. Decide on a suitable sample size;

3. Select the most appropriate sampling technique and select the sample;

4. Check that the sample is representative of the population.

If the population is less than 50 take all the entire population for the study

The sampling frame for any probability sample is a complete list of all the cases in the

population from which your sample will be drawn. The completeness of your sampling frame is

very important. An incomplete or inaccurate list means that some cases will have been excluded

and so it will be impossible for every case in the population to have a chance of selection.

Consequently sample may not be representative of the total population.

Checklist for selecting a sample frame

Are cases listed in the sampling frame relevant to your research topic, for example are

they current?

Does the sampling frame exclude all the cases, in other words is it complete?

Does the sampling frame exclude irrelevant cases, in other words is it precise?

(For purchased lists) can you established precisely how the sample will be selected?

2. Deciding on a suitable sample size

Generalizations about the populations from the data collected using any probability samples are

based on probability. The larger your samples size the lower the likely error in generalizing to

the population. Probability sampling is therefore a compromise between the accuracy of your

43

findings and the amount of time and money you invest in collecting, checking and analyzing the

data. The size of sample based on:

The confidence you need to have in your data, that is the level of certainty that the

characteristics of the data collected will represent the characteristics of the total

population;

The margin of error that you can tolerate, that is the accuracy you require for any

estimates from your sample;

Statistical techniques have minimum threshold of the cases for each cell for instance chi

square and to a lesser extent;

The size of the total population from which your sample is being done.

Calculating the minimum sample size

Based on

How confident you need to be that the estimate is accurate (the level of confidence in the

estimate);

How accurate the estimate need to be (the margin of error that can be tolerated);

The proportion of responses you expect to have some particular attribute.

2

z

n p % xq% x

e%

p% proportion belonging the specified category

q% is the proportion not belonging to the specified category

z is the z value corresponding to the level of confidence required(Table below)

e% is the margin of error required

Where your population is less than 10000 a smaller sample size can be used without affecting

the accuracy. This is called the adjusted minimum sample size. It is calculate from the following

formula:

n

n'

n

1

N

where, n is the adjusted minimum sample size

n is the minimum sample size (as calculate above)

N is the total population

Worked example:

Given,

Total population = 4000

95 % certain and z value = 1.96

The margin of error that can be tolerated = 5%

You still need to estimate the proportion of responses who receive a visit from their home care

assistant at least once a week. From your pilot survey you discover that 12 out of 30 clients

receive a visit at least once a week, in other words that 40 percent belong to specified category

and 60 percent do not.

2

1.96

n 40 x 60 x

5

44

2400x ( 0.392) 2

2400x 0.154

369.6

As the total population of home care clients is 4000 the adjusted minimum sample size can now

be calculated:

n

n'

n

1

N

369.6

369.6

1

4000

369.6

1 0.092

369.6

1.092

338.46

Because of the small total population you only need a minimum sample size of 339. However

this assumes a response rate of 100 percent.

There are problems of responses. They are:

Refusal of respond;

Ineligibility to respond;

Non- contact

Total number of responses

Response rate =

Total number in sample - (Ineligible + unreachable)

Given,

Adjusted minimum sample size is 439

Response rate would be 30 percent

Then,

439 x100 43900

na 1463

30 30

There are five main techniques can be used to select the probability sample. They are:

3.1 Simple random

3.2 Systematic

3.3 Stratified

3.4 Cluster

3.5 Multi-stage

In random sampling all the items of population have equal chance of being selected in the

sample whereas in the non- random sampling personal knowledge and opinion are used to

45

identify those items from population that are to be included in the sample. Random sampling

ensures the law of statistical regularity, which states that if on an average a sample chosen is a

random on then the sample will have the same composition and characteristics as the universe.

This is the reason why random sampling is considered the best technique of selecting a

representative sample. Since all groups of the population are proportionately represented in the

sample, random sampling is also called representative or proportionate sampling.

Simple random sampling is the technique of drawing a sample in such a way that each unit of

the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. The

selection is not affected by the bias of the investigator and it depends completely on the element

of chance.

Simple random sampling with replacement and simple random sampling without replacement

are the two types simple random sampling. If a unit selected in a draw is replaced in the

population before making the next draw, then it is known as simple random sampling with

replacement. But in the other hand if the unit selected is not replaced in the population, then it is

known as simple random sampling without replacement. For SRSWR the probability of

selection of any unit in the universe with N objects always remains 1/N whereas for SRSWOR,

the number of items in the universe goes on decline.

Lottery method

Random numbers method

Lottery Method

This is the simplest method of selecting a random sample from a finite sample. To select r units

as a random sample from a finite population of N units we write 1, 2, 3, , up to n in the

faces of n cards. Then these N cards are thoroughly shuffled and r cards are drawn on by one.

The r unit corresponding to numbers on the cards drawn constitutes a random sample.

The other method of obtaining a random sample is by the use of random number Tables.

Statisticians like Tippet, Yates and Fisher have prepared Tables of random numbers. Particularly,

Tippets random table is used for this purpose. This random table is used in the case when, if the

population is not widely spread geographically and the population is more or less homogenous.

Steps:

Identify the N units in the population with the numbers from 1to N.

Select at random any page of number table and pick up the required numbers N in any

row, column or diagonal at random.

3.2 Systematic

Systematic sampling involves you selecting the sample at regular intervals from the sampling

frame. To do this you:

1. Number each of the cases in your sampling frame with a unique number. The first case is

numbered 0, the second 1 and so on;

2. Select the first case using a random number;

3. Calculate the sampling fraction;

4. Select the subsequent cases systematically using the sampling fraction to determine the

frequently of selection.

46

Sampling fraction =

Total population

Example:

Given,

Total patients population = 1500

Acceptable and accuracy sample size = 300

How to decide to select them by using systematic sampling?

1. Calculate the sampling fraction,

300 1

it means you can select the every fifth patient from the sampling frame.

1500 5

2. You decide to select one- digit random number between 0 and 4.

3. If the selected number is 2, then you would select the following patients numbers:

2 7 12 17 22 27 32 37

and so on until 300 patients had been selected.

3.3 Stratified random sampling

Stratified random sampling is modification of random sampling in which you divide the

population into two or more relevant and significant strata based on one or a numbers of

attributes. In effect your sampling frame is divided into a number of subsets. A random sample

(simple or systematic) is then drawn from each of the strata. Consequently stratified sampling

shares many of the advantages and disadvantages of simple random and systematic sampling.

Steps:

1. choose the stratification variable (s);

2. divide the sampling frame into the discrete starta;

3. number each of the cases within each stratum with a unique number as discussed earlier;

4. select your sample using either simple random or systematic sampling as discussed

earlier.

Example:

Female stratum Male stratum

Number Customer Selected Number Customer Selected

000 Mrs. B Baker 000 Mr. L Baker

001 Mrs. P Davis 001 Mr. S Davis

002 Mrs. P Lewis 002 Mr. P Lewis

003 Mrs. M Saunders 003 Mr. M Saunders

004 Mrs. K Smith 004 Mr. K Smith

005 Mrs. A Thornhill 005 Mr. A Thornhill

006 Mrs.D Wollons 006 Mr.D Wollons

007 Mrs. P Wordden 007 Mr. P Wordden

3.4 Cluster

This method is used when the total area under study is big and study population is spread well

over the area thus making difficult to prepare sampling frame. In this method, the area is first

divided into smaller unit called clusters (based on the purpose of the study), and these cluster are

selected for the purpose of study by using either random sampling techniques or systematic

sampling technique. Some researchers say that it is an extension of multi- stage sampling. All

the units in that cluster are used as sample. Another purpose of it is to reduce the cost of

traveling. As compared with the SRS and Systematic Sampling, this technique is relatively less

representative. If the technique is used for geographical areas, the technique is called Area

Sampling.

Stages:

1. Chose the cluster grouping for sampling frame.

47

2. Number each of the clusters with a unique number. Like 000, 001, 002,

3. Select sample using- simple random sampling (either).

3.5 Multi-stage sampling

In this technique the items are selected at different stages at random and are used when the

universe is very large:

Stage 1: District

Stage 2: VDCs

Stage 3: Wards

Stage 4: Households (HHs)

Stage 5: Individuals (Family members)

This technique helps to reduce the traveling cost and cost of interviews. Moreover, this

technique does not require a complete sampling frame of final stage units at the beginning

sometimes also called as the combination of SRS and Stratified Sampling.

5.2.1.1 Quota sampling

Quota sampling is entirely non- random sampling and is normally used for interview surveys.

Quota sampling is therefore a type of stratified sample in which selection cases within strata is

entirely non- random. This technique has relatively less bias than of other non- probability

sampling. Certain quota is fixed in each group under study and then samples are selected. If

random procedure is applied in this technique becomes the stratified sampling. To select a quota

sample you:

1. divide the population into specific groups;

2. calculate a quota for each group based on relevant and available data;

3. give each interviewer an assignment, which states the number of cases in each quota

from which they must be collect data;

4. combine the data collected by interviewers to provide the full sample.

Example:

A market research survey requires you to interview a sample of people representing those age 20

64 who are in employment. No sampling frame is available. You wish to disaggregate your

findings into groups dependent on respondents age and type of employment. Previous research

suggests that gender

Convenience sampling refers to samples selected not by judgment or probability techniques but

because the elements in the fraction of the population can be reached conveniently. There is no

attempt made to have a representative sample. Selection of sampling units is totally based on the

convenience of the researcher. When both time and money are limited, this sampling is widely

used.

For instance: If you have to conduct man-on-the-street interviews, you probability use

convenience sampling. You need to stand up in a corner of a street and interview the desired

number of passers by.

Commonly used convenience samples are friends, family members, associations and passers- by.

Although convenient sample is not very scientific it is perfectly valid in exploratory research or

in the pre- test phase of a study where there is a need to get only an approximation of the actual

value. This method is quick, convenient and less expensive.

5.2.1.3 Judgment or purposive sampling

Judgment samples are selected from the population through researchers intuition or on some

other subjective basis. The selection of sample is deliberate and purposive and it is not random.

48

Sampling is done with sound judgment or expertise and appropriate strategy; one can carefully

choose the elements to be included in the sample. The selected elements are representative in

such a way that the errors of judgment in the selection will cancel each other out. Thus, sample

representativeness is highly dependent upon the good judgement of the researcher. Probably the

most valid usage of judgmental sampling is to obtain expert opinion.

For instance, if you want to study the issue of corruption I nNepalese society, you select a

sample of 20 of the senior professors of Tribhuwan University to give their opinion on the

subject. Certainly the judgment of these professors is much superior to a convenience sample

that might arbitrarily be limited to the opinion of twenty people in your neighbourhood.

In judgment sampling, subjects are selected on the basis of their experience in the subject

investigated. As in the case of convenience samples, judgment samples can be very misleading if

they are interpreted as accurate reflections of universe characteristics.

5.3 Sampling Error and Non- sampling Error

A sampling error is the error, which is made in selecting samples that are not representative of

the population. This error is the difference between the sample value and true value of the

population to be exactly representative of the population; some degree of sampling error will be

present whenever we select a sample.

Increasing the sample size can reduce sampling error. The error can be completely eliminated by

increasing the sample to include every item in the population. Because the sampling error is the

result of chance, it is subject to the laws of probability; and because of this, a sampling error will

be normally distributed and we can define its range at a given confidence level.

Non-sampling error, is every thing else (beside the sampling error) that can inject inaccuracies

and bias into the results of a study. Nonsampling error can enter the data in an insidious way,

these error includes to:

Inaccurate reporting by the respondent (biased guess, inaccurate memory, poor recall,

etc.

Actual lying by the respondents.

Poor sampling design, for instance the inability to locate proper respondents due to poor

instruction, poor maps, nonexistent address and so on.

Misinterpretation of question due to ambiguous wording.

Respondents terminating their participation in the data gathering because it is felt to be

too long, too tedious, or too personal.

Failure of the interviewers to follow instructions, which leads to their leading

respondents, giving nonverbal clues, and recording errors.

Coding and/or editing errors.

Some broad guidelines for minimizing nonsampling errors in surveys:

Keep the sample surveys as easy to execute as possible.

Use the smallest sample consistent with study objectives.

Restrict the questionnaire to data essential to the main issue.

Pre- testing the questionnaire. Regularly undergo the interview yourself to determine

your ability to answer and find how much fatigue is involved in answering the

questionnaire.

Make an effort to minimize participants fatigue.

Rotate key questions to discover when respondent fatigue begins.

Establish procedures for keeping both respondent and interviewer involved in the study.

49

Dont ask the interviewer to do the impossible. Such request encourage sloppy work and

cheating.

5.4 Determination of Sample Size in Estimating Population Mean and Proportion

Parameter Statistics Error

If denotes the population mean and

x denotes the sample mean (estimator) then the

x error or x error

By properly estimating the error, it is possible to provide an interval estimate instate of point

estimate of the population mean. The error is usually specified by standard deviation of the

statistic, which is known as standard error. While estimating the population mean , an interval

estimate is the form:

x 1.96

n

Where is the mean, is the standard deviation of the population and n is the sample size. The

factor 1.96 follows from the theory of normal distribution.

There is a 95% chance that the true population mean lies in the interval

x 1.96 , x 1.96 called the 95% confidence interval of .

n n

In many practical situations it is difficult to determine the population standard deviation () and

the population mean (). Under these circumstances, a sample standard deviation (s), the point

estimator of the population standard deviation is used to construct an interval estimate with the

following formula:

s

x 1.96

n

s s

So that the 95% confidence interval of will be x 1.96 , 1.96

x

n n

Example ( known)

The department of agricultures future wheat gain production, based on estimate from a sample.

A sample of 100 plots produced a mean of 35 bushels/acre. The department agriculture assumes

a population standard deviation of 4.5 bushels. Calculate a 95% confidence interval and interpret

the findings.

The 95% confidence interval of the population mean () are,

4.5 4. 5

x 1.96 = 35 1.96 = 35 1.96 = 35 0.882 (95% confidence interval)

n 100 10

= 34.118 and 35.882 bushels/acre

The probability is 0.95 that the mean bushel per acre of wheat is in the interval of 34.118 and

35.882. In this case, about 5 out of 100 confidence interval would not contain the population

mean () per acre.

Example ( unknown)

Environmental scientist estimates the mean biomass from a sample of forest is 5.6kg/sq. m. from

50 plots, with a standard deviation of 1.2 kg/sq.m. Construct the 95% confidence interval. What

are the 95% confidence limits? Interpret the findings.

50

Then,

95% confidence interval are

s

x

n

1.2 1.2

= 5.6 1.96 = 5.6 1.96 = 5.6 0.33 (95% confidence interval)

50 7.07

= 5.27 and 5.93 kg/sq. m, which is confidence limits. The probability is 0.95 tha biomass

mean is in the interval of 5.27 and 5.93 kg/sq.m.

Approach 1:

The approach based on precision rate and confidence level i.e researcher will have to specify the

precision that he wants in respect of his estimates concerning the population parameters.

Example

Mean of universe within 3 of the true mean with 95% confidence. It means that the precision

specified by the researcher is 3 i.e. if the sample mean is Rs. 100 the true value of mean will

be no less than Rs. 97 and no more than Rs. 103. Simply it is enough to say that, acceptable

error, e is equal to 3.

Approach 2

Through the approach of Bayesian statistics t weigh the cost of additional information against

the expected value of additional information.

x z

n

Where, x is the sample mean, z is the standard variate at a given confidence level. This is 1.96

for 95% confidence level, n is the size of sample and is the standard deviation of the

population which is estimated from the past experience or on the basis of a trail sample.

Suppose, we have = 4.8. If the difference between and x i.e. the allowable error is 3 of

the sample mean with 95% confidence, then we can express the acceptable error e as

4.8

ez 3 1.96 n 10

n n

In general way, if we want to estimate in the population with standard deviation with an

error no greater than e by calculating a confidence interval with confidence corresponding to z,

the necessary sample size, n is computed as

z 2 2

n 2

e

Where z is standard normal variate at a given confidence level, is the standard deviation of

population and e is acceptable error. This formula is applicable when the population is infinite.

The sample size so determined is only a approximate value. If the sample fration n/N is

negligible (say 0.5) it can be taken as satisfactory sample size. Otherwise, the required sample

size will be

51

n

n*

n where N is the size of population

1

N

Example

Suppose a sample of farmers is to be selected by simple random sampling to estimate the cost of

cultivation of paddy per hectare. The precision is 50 rupees with 95% confidence. From a past

survey, it is known that s = 250. How large must the sample be if the population size ia 1000?

Find the sample size, if the population size is 10000?

Then,

Error e= 50, s = 250 and the reliability coefficient i.e. 95% confidence value, z = 1.96

(approximately 2)

z 2 2 2 2 250 2

n 2 100

e 50 2

The population size is, N = 1000

Therefore,

n 100

0.10

N 1000

Since the sampling fraction is considerable we have to recalculate n using thee formula,

n 100 100

n* 91

n 100 1 0 . 10

1 1

N 1000

If, N = 10000

n 100

0.01

N 10000

Thumb rules of determining the sample size are:

Sample sizes larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research.

When samples are to broken into sub- samples (male/female, juniors/seniors), a

minimum sample size of 30 fro each category is necessary.

In multivariate research (multiple regression analysis), the sample should be several

times (preferably 10 times or more) as large as the number of variables in the study.

For simple experimental research with tight experimental controls (matched pairs, etc),

successful research is possible with samples as small as 10 to 20 in size.

Some principles that influence the sample size:

The greater the dispersion or variance within the population, the larger the sample must

be to provide estimation precision.

The greater the desired precision of the estimates, the larger the sample must be.

The narrower the internal range, the larger the sample must be.

The higher the confidence level in the estimate, the larger the sample must be.

The greater the number of sub- groups of interest within a sample, the greater the sample

size must be, as each sub- group must meet minimum sample size requirements.

If calculate sample size exceeds 5 percent of the population, sample size may be reduced

without sacrificing precision.

52

5.5.1 Secondary data

Secondary sources refer to those for already gathered by others. The sources of secondary data

can be divided into two groups: internal and external. The internal secondary data are found

within the company such as sales information, accounting data and internally gathered research

reports. External secondary data are collected from sources outside the company likes books,

periodicals, published reports, data services and computer data banks.

Written Document

Organization records

notice and publications

Websites and internets

Committee Records

Books, Journals, Newspaper, research reports

Non- Written Records

CD- ROMs, Films,

Tapped interviews,

TV and radio recording

Picture and drawings

Secondarydata

Secondary Data

Surveys:

Census

Population, Industrial, Employment,

Landholding, agricultural

Regular and occasional surveys

Price Index, Family income and spending

Labor markets, imports and exports,

Organizational surveys

International indexes,

Attitudes surveys, Occasional surveys

Primary data are original data gathered by the researcher from the research project at hand. Thus

these data collected from meeting the specific objectives of the study. Primary data can be

collected through interviews, questionnaires, observations or experiments.

Sources and methods of Primary data

1. Interviewing: Collection of data by asking the interest area of research and recording.

2. Questionnaire

A questionnaire is the formal list of questions designed to gather responses from the respondents

on a given topic. It involves several steps, including writing question items, organizing the

question items on a questionnaire, administering the questionnaire, and so on.

Developing Questionnaire

1. Introduction

Questionnaire is the list questions for collection of data from respondents.

Questions are the foundations questionnaire- framing is important.

53

Questionnaire should translate the research questions or objectives. Data are for testing

the hypothesis between interest variables.

2. General issues

Formulate the precise questions.

Order of questions and sections

List the categories of questions.

Insert the data processing requirements and instruments.

3. Level of measurements

Considered the best level of measurements such as nominal, ordinal, interval, n ratio, etc.

4. Mode of administration of instruments

Face to face.

Telephone

Mail questionnaire

E-mail.

The choice of the mode depends up on the nature topic of the study and sensitivity,

characteristics of target groups (age, education level, health), expected response rate and

resources availability (costs, fund).

5. Problems in asking questions

Length.

Complexity.

Sensitiveness

Hypothetical.

Threatening.

Leading

6. Designing questionnaire

Determine the concepts to be measured

List the concepts- the specific hypothesis and explanatory techniques such as focus

group discussion for concepts of interest

Identify and list the dimensions of concept

Operationalisation- Specification of empirical observations that can be indicators of the

attributes contained with the given concept. For example, Reading news paper: Visit to

bookshop, Visit to library, Frequency of visit, buying himself

B. Selecting the questions

Content of questions

Behaviour /events- that respondents have done or experienced.

- What newspaper?

- When: How long.? When did you.?

- How often: How many times; how frequently; etc

Attitude/opinion of the respondents

- Affection- like or dislike,

- Cognitive- What do you know about ..? What do know about it.?

- Action- Willingness, Are you willing to.?

- Importance- How important?

Very, important, important andnot important.

- Satisfaction- How much satisfied?

Very satisfied, generally satisfied, dissatisfied,

- Agreement- strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, .

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Respondents demographics

- Age, gender, marital status, employment status, religion, ethnicity,..

Format- closed and open ended

Sequencing of questions.

Start with simple and non-threatening questions.

Put difficult questions at the end.

Put related content together.

Provide proper introduction and transitions.

Distinguish questions from instructions.

Put screeners and skip pattern as per necessary.

Use transitional phrases when switching from one topic to another to switch

respondents set of mind.

Draw the attentions like, Next, I would like to learn more about.

Now, I would like to ask you about..

Sequencing within the topic area and gradually move from general to specific

questions.

8. Procedure for drafting and testing questions

Decide the concepts to be measures, supporting the variables, indicators and the

responses categories.

Draft or copy of new question and response categories

Pre-test new questions

Rewrite the questions

Check the validity of questions

Put the questions in order

Pilot test the questionnaire

9. Goals of writing questions

- Interviewers can questions consistently.

- Question wording- Easy cognitive study and respondents can understand the questions

easily.

- Respondents will interpret the question in the same way as the researchers do.

10. Question wording

- Question should be in word.

- Clear about the objective.

- Be simple and clear.

- Define the terms before presenting.

- Face to face interview- follow choice question stem.

- Provide the response options at the end of questions.

- Avoid unnecessary calculations such as total of last year, time spend for shopping, etc.

- Avoid two answers question

- Avoid leading question.

- Provide possible clues, etc.

- Use chart when necessary like calendar, checklist.

- Use flash cards when ranking, etc.

11. Types of questions

Open - ended questions (free answer/responses):

Advantages

- Good enough when little is known about the topic?

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- Better for sensitive topic.

- Less influence on respondents.

- Better for respondents insights and opinion.

Disadvantages

- Demanding for respondents.

- Answer not sufficiently focused.

- Rarely exact enough.

- Costly coding.

- Open to interviewer bias.

Closed- ended questions (Fixed answers):

- Questions provide a predetermined set of response categories from which respondents must

choose one or more.

How do you rate the internal security implemented by the previous government of Nepal?

Would you rate it poor, below average, average, above average and excellent?

1. Poor

2. Below average

3. Average

4. Above average

5. Excellent

Advantages:

- Easy to answer to respondent.

- Responses can be standardized.

- Easy for coding.

- Same time and money for data processing.

- No bias to interviewer.

Disadvantages:

- Some relevant categories might be missing.

Farmers categories

Cat A = Food sufficient for 12 months

Cat B = Food sufficient for 9 to < 12 months

Cat C = Food sufficient for 6 to < 9 months

Cat D = Food sufficient for 3 to < 6 months

Cat E = Less than 3 months and landless

- Bias due to order of responses.

- Imposing to respondents.

- Affect the responses.

- Suitable for only well defined cases only.

Contingency questions:

- At the last, it is better to ask about the respondents view or expectations, overall

problems of the issues, which might be different from your objectives. It might be

courage to respondent.

Introductory paragraph (Opening scripts):

- Introduction each other.

- Where you from- institution.

- Objectives of the study.

- Use of the information in future.

- Level of confidentiality.

- Possible time taken; and opportunities of asking the questions.

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Another major topic inferential statistics is testing hypotheses made about population

parameters. Test of hypotheses is also called the test of significance, on the basis of sample

results, enables us to decide if the deviation between the observed sample statistics is significant

or might be attributed to the chance or the fluctuation of sampling.

A statistical rule of testing validity of hypothesis, which tells us whether the hypothesis is

correct and is sustained or whether it is false and is to rejected, under some specified

conditions. In other words, it aims to develop an understanding of the concept like to decide

whether:

1. a newly invented vaccine is more effective than the one in usual practice for curing a

disease

2. the mean body temperature of healthy adults is 98.600 F

Null and alternative hypothesis

To test a hypothesis we must first state the null hypothesis. The concept of null hypothesis is

very important and significant in hypothesis testing. It refers to beginning hypothesis that the

researcher wishes to disprove, because disproving it provides a stronger conclusion for the

researcher. Null hypothesis is commonly denoted by as H0. The alternative hypothesis denoted

as H1, on the other hand, it refers to the complement of the null hypothesis that is used to verify

the null hypothesis.

For the null hypothesis, H0 : = 0 about the population mean (), three basic forms of

alternative hypothesis are:

H1 : 0

H1 : < 0

H1 : > 0

It means that whenever the null hypothesis is not true, one of the alternatives must be true.

Although the researcher may hope that the evidence favors H 1 hypothesis tests are setup to test

the null hypothesis, H0 . The alternative hypothesis will be accepted only if strong evidence is

found against H0 .

The main objective of sampling theory is to draw a valid inference about the population

parameters on the basis of the sample results. In practice when testing a null hypothesis, we

arrive at a conclusion of rejecting it or failing to reject it. In carrying out such decision process,

for any test we come to encounter with the four possible mutually disjoint and exhaustive

decisions given in the following Table.

True state Decisions and error types

We decide to accept H0. We decide to reject H0.

H0 is true Correct decision Type- 1 error

(Rejecting a true null hypothesis)

H0 is not true/ false Type- 2 error

(Failing to reject a false null Correct decision

hypothesis)

Type I (Alpha) Error: When we mistakenly reject the null hypothesis when indeed the

null hypothesis is true, then the type of wrong decision is known as a Type I or Alpha

error. Since such an error is particularly embarrassing to the researcher (saying

57

something exists when it does not), he or she tends to avoid risking this error and

chooses a conservative level of significance, which minimizes it.

Type II (Beta) Error: When we mistakenly accept our null hypothesis when in fact it is

false, then we commit another error known as the Type II or Beta error. In other words,

to conclude falsely that a difference does not exist in the data when in fact it does.

The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true is called the level of significance

and is denoted by the symbol (alpha). It is maximum size of type- 1 error, which we are

prepared to risk and its value is typically predetermined. Though we can choose any level that

the specific research problem warrants, very common choices of are: = 0.05 and = 0.01.

These are understood as 5% and 1% level of significance, respectively. If we adopt 5% level of

significance, it implies that in 5 samples out of 100 we are likely to reject a correct H 0. In other

words, we are 95% confident that our decision to reject H0 is correct, =0.01 is used for high

precision and = 0.05 is used for moderate precision.

Steps in hypothesis testing

1. Formulate the null hypothesis in statistical terms.

2. Formulate the alternative hypothesis in statistical terms. Since the form of the alternative

hypothesis determines the rejection, the alternative hypothesis must be carefully stated to

represent the research problem.

3. State the level of significance and sample size n. Since the null hypothesis is usually set

up in such a way that we want strong evidence against it before we reject it, the level of is

usually rather small.

4. Select the appropriate statistic and the rejection region. In all hypothesis testing problems,

common sense will dictate the proper form of the rejection region. Choosing the exact

region requires knowing the distribution of the statistic.

5. Collect the data and calculate the statistic. The appropriate formula is used for the

appropriate statistical test and the value of the test statistic is found.

6. Test the hypothesis. If the calculated statistic falls in the region, reject null hypothesis in

favour of alternative hypothesis, if the calculated statistic falls outside rejection.

Accepting and Rejecting Null Hypothesis

Testing the null hypothesis results in one of the following two outcomes:

Accepting the null hypothesis as true, in which case it is concluded that and difference in

the results are not statistically significant, therefore, are probably due to sampling error

or chance.

Rejecting the null hypothesis as false, in which case it is concluded that the differences in

the result are statistically significant, therefore are probably due to to some determining

factor or conditions, other than chance.

Accepting the null hypothesis also means that the corresponding research hypothesis is not

supported. Rejecting the null hypothesis also means the corresponding research hypothesis is

supported.

6.2 Level Significance

The mistake of failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false is type- 2 error. For the same

test of testing the mean body temperature of healthy adults, a type- 2 error would be the mistake

of failing to reject the null hypothesis ( = 98.6), when it is actually false (that is, the mean is

not 98.6). The symbol (Beta) is used to represent the probability of type- 2. It is also called the

beta risk.

The mathematical theory of testing of hypothesis is based on the principle that at fixed , the test

procedure should have the least - risk. So is given the level of significance. A lower such as

0.01 or 0.001, etc. is preferable if we consider type- 1 error more undesirable than type- 2 error.

58

But, if the type-2 error is costly, we may prefer to run higher risk of type- 1 error by increasing

to 0.10 or 0.20, etc.

Test Distribution

Types of Tests

A statistical test in which the alternative hypothesis specifies population parameter lies entirely

above or below the value specified in the null hypothesis is called a one tail test.

H0 : Rice yield = 2 t/ha

Ha : Rice yield = > 2 t/ha

Or, Ha : Rice yield = < 2 t/ha

If a hypothesis does not specify that the parameter lies on one particular side of the specified in

the null hypothesis, is called Two Tail Test.

Ha = Rice yield 2 t/ha

Region of Region of

Acceptance rejection rejection

H0 H0

represent or found to exist in the real world or determination of the validity of an assumption is

called hypothesis. The steps at hypothesis testing are given below. They are:

1. Setting hypothesis:

A hypothesis is based on research objective and is developed and supports the general

assumption about the particular statement. The foremost job in hypothesis testing is to define a

hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. For instance,

H0: U1 = U2 = 20

U1 = 20

U1 - U2 = 0

It means the sample statistic and the assumption of the specified values are equal or there is no

difference between the specified value and population parameter, or two means are equal.

Ha: U1 U2 OR, U1 > U2 OR, U1 < U2

U1 20 U1 > 20 U1 < 20

U1 - U2 0 U1 - U2 > 0 U1 - U2 <0

59

It means that the sample statistic and the assumption of the specified values are not equal or

more than or less than the population parameter or two means are not equal, etc. Or, there is

difference between the specified and population parameter, or two means are not equal, etc.

After setting null hypothesis and its alternative, the next step I to fix the level of significance. It

is probability at which the given hypothesis is accepted or rejected. For instance, if the level of

significance is fixed at 5%, it means the researcher is willing to take as much as a 5% risk of

rejecting the null hypothesis when it (H0) happens to be true. It is the maximum value of the

probability of rejecting H0 when it is true and is usually determined in advance.

There different test statistics used for hypothesis testing. These tests are t- test, Z test and 2

test, etc. Based upon the type of variables and relationships, appropriate test statistics is selected.

Table 1: Statistical measures of association

Independent Variables

Categorical Continuous

Depe Categorical Chi-squire F- Ratio

nden e.g. Perception : sex Farm size : Income

t Continuous ANOVA (F- Ratio) Regression (F- Ratio

Vari Paired t- test Correlation analysis

ables Yield : Farm size Yield : Inputs

Income : Occupation Income: Land holding

Income : Age

There are two regions in a normal distribution curve for testing hypothesis. One is acceptance

region for null hypothesis and another is rejection region. The decision rules depend upon test

statistics value where it falls. If the test statistics value falls in the acceptance region, null

hypothesis is accepted and vice versa at the given level of significance. Conclusion is drawn

based on the acceptance or rejection hypothesis.

Region of Region of

rejection rejection

Acceptance region

If a hypothesis is accepted or rejected, a researcher incurs two types of hypothesis. One is Type I

(Alpha) and another is Type II (Beta) error. If a hypothesis is rejected which is in fact true is a

Type I () error. Whereas, if a hypothesis is accepted which is in fact false is Type II (Beta-)

error.

Table 2: Error in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Decision

Null Hypothesis Accept (H0) Rejected(H0)

True Correct decision Type I Error (- Error)

False Type II Error () Correct decision

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Type I Error is also called the level of significance. It is usually determined in advance and is

understand as the level of significance of testing the hypothesis. If Type I Error is fixed at 5%. It

means that there are chances in 100 that we will reject null hypothesis when null hypothesis is

true. Type I error can be control by fixing it at a lower level. For instance, if we fix it 1% we will

say that the maximum probability of coming Type I error would be one in 100. However, when

we try to reduce Type I error, the probability of coming Type II error increases thus making trade

off.

6.3 Difference Between Parametric and Non- Parametric Tests

Most statistical tests fall into one of two types such as parametric which are based around

normally distributed data and non- parametric, which is also called distribution free- tests.

Although, parametric tests are commonly used, there are certain circumstances where non-

parametric tests should be used in preference.

Characters of Parametric tests

1. Require interval/ ratio data used on actual observation or measurement

2. Require data to be normally distributed

3. With small sample sizes it is difficult to check that the data are normal

4. Use all the information in the data

5. Slightly more likely to detect a statistical difference or relationship if present (data

are normally distributed)

Characters of Nonparametric tests

1. May be used on nominal or ordinal data as well as interval/ ratio data (can be used on

observations, measurements or rank values)

2. Do not require normally distributed data (transformation of data is not necessary)

3. May be used on relatively small sample sizes since normality is not needed

4. Do not used all information in the data (ranks are used as opposed to the actual data

values)

5. Slightly less likely to detect a statistical difference or relationship if present (if data

are normally distributed)

6.4 Use of z- Distribution in Hypothesis Testing of Population Mean and Population

Proportion in one Sample Case.

When observations from counts belonging to particular categories such as diseased or healthy,

dead or live etc, the data are normally summarized in terms of proportions. We may then be

interested in comparing the proportions of incidence of an attribute in two populations. The null

hypothesis set in such cases is H 0 : P1 P2 and the alternative hypothesis is H 0 : P1 P2 (or

P1>P2 or P1 < P2) where P1 and P2 are proportions representing the two populations. In order to

test our hypothesis, we take two independent samples of large size, say n 1 and n2 from the two

populations and obtain two sample proportions where P1 and P2, respectively. The test statistic is

p1 p2

z

p1q1 p2 q2

n1 n2

Where q1 = 1- p1 and q2 = 1- p2. This statistics follows a standard normal distribution for large n1

and n2.

Example:

Consider an experiment on rooting of stem cutting of Casuriana equisetifolia wherein the effect

of dipping the cutting in solutions of IBA at two different concentrations was observed. Two

batches of 30 cuttings each, were subjected to dipping treatment at concentrations of 50 and 100

ppm of IBA solutions, respectively. Based on the observations on number of cuttings rooted in

each batch of 30 cuttings, the following proportions of rooted cuttings under each concentration

were obtained. At 50 ppm, the proportion of rooted cutting was 0.5 and at 100 ppm, the

61

proportion was 0.37. The question of interest is whether ther observed proportions are indicative

of significant differences in the effect of IBA at the two concentrations.

Given,

p1 = 0.5 and p2 = 0.37

q1 = 0.5 and q2 = 0.63

Then,

0.5 0.37

z 1.024

(0.5)( 0.5) (0.37)(0.63)

30 30

Since the calculated value of z (1.024) is less than the Table value (1.96) at 5% level of

significance, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the proportion

rooted cuttings under the two concentration level.

In testing the hypothesis, sometimes our objectives may be to test whether a sample has come

from a population with a specified probability distribution. The expected distribution may be one

based on theoretical distribution like normal, binomial or a pattern expected under technical

grounds. For instance, one may be interested in testing whether variable like the height of trees

follows normal distribution. A tree breeder may be interested to know whether the observed

segregation ratios for a character deviate significantly from the Mendalian ratios. In such

situation we want to test the agreement between the observed and theoretical frequencies. Such a

test is called test of goodness of fit.

For applying the goodness of fit test, we used only the actual observed frequencies and not the

percentages or ratios. Further, the observations within the sample should be non- overlapping

and thereby independent. The expected frequency in each category should preferably be more

than 5. The total number of observations should be large, say more than 50.

The null hypothesis in goodness of fit tests is that there is no disagreement between the observed

and theoretical distribution. The test statistic used is,

k

(O Ei

2 i

i i Ei

Where Oi = Observed frequency in the ith class

Ei = Expected frequency in the ith class

k= Number of categories or classes

2

The statistic given above follows as chi- square distribution with k-1 degrees of freedom. In

case of expected frequencies are derived from parameters estimated from the sample, the degree

of freedom is (k p 1) where p is the number of parameters estimated. For instance testing the

normality of a distribution, and 2 would be estimated from the sample by x and s2 and

degree of freedom would be therefore reduce to (k 2 1).

The expected frequencies may be computed based on the probability function of the appropriate

theoretical distribution as relevant to the situation or it may be derived based on the scientific

theory being tested like Mendels law of inheritance. In the absence of a well- defined theory, we

may assume that all the classes are equally frequent in the population. For example, the number

of insects caught in a trap in different times of a day, frequency of sighting an animal in different

habitats, etc. may be expected to be equal initially and subjected to the statistical testing. In such

cases, the expected frequencies are computed as:

62

n

E

k

Where, E = expected frequencies, n = total number of observed frequencies, k = number of

groups.

Example:

The Table below represents the number of insect species collected from an undistributed area at

a wildlife sanctuary in different months. Test whether there are any significant differences

between the numbers of insect species found in different months.

Solution:

The null hypothesis is, The diversity in terms of number of insect species is the same in all

months in the sanctuary. Expected frequencies derived with; total number of observed

frequencies, n = 804 and the number of groups are the twelve month, k = 12.

Computation of 2 using the data on number of species of insects collected in different months

Months O n (O E ) 2

E

k E

January 67 67 0.00

February 115 67 34.39

March 118 67 38.82

April 72 67 0.37

May 67 67 0.00

June 77 67 1.49

July 75 67 0.96

August 63 67 0.24

September 42 67 9.33

October 24 67 27.60

November 32 67 18.28

December 52 67 3.36

Total N = 804 804 134.84

Calculated 2 value is 134.84. From chi- square Table for (12 1) = 11 degree of freedom and

= 0.05, we get the critical value of 2 as 19.7. Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis and

conclude that the occurrence of the number of insect species in different months is not the same.

63

A report is simply a description of things that have already occurred. It is concise, clear

communication of the important findings of the research work. A thesis report conveys the

information to the examiner about the entire activities and findings of the student had

undertaken during the research process. The research report enables a student to demonstrate his

or her understanding and ability too, use techniques in methods of analysis and provides his or

her with the opportunity to significantly develop his or her management and research skills.

A research report serves the following purposes:

It is a means whereby the data, analysis and conclusions are placed in a organized form.

These information can be used both for academic and application purposes.

The thesis work of a student will be judged mainly by the quality of the report. The

examining committee may not see the effort in the field. Therefore, the student should

show his or her performance, skills and thoughts in his or her report, as there are vital to

its assessment and grading.

The effectiveness of report may be judged by its use. The organizations, professors,

researchers and students are using good reports for different purposes.

7.2 Contents and Styles of Report

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information

1.2 Problem of the study

1.3 Objective of the study

1.4 Importance of the study

1.5 Limitation of the study

1.6 Organization of the study

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

2.2 Review of related study

3. METHODOLOGY

3.2 Population and sample size

3.3 Sampling procedure

3.4 Data collection technique

3.5 Statistical procedure

3.6 Data analysis procedure

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Major findings of the study

5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

Appendix

64

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

Acknowledgements i

List of Tables ii

List of Figures ii

1. INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background Information 1

1.2 Problem of the study 1

1.3 Objective of the study

1.4 Importance of the study

1.5 Limitation of the study

1.6 Organization of the study

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5

2.1 Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

2.2 Review of related study

3. METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research design

3.2 Population and sample size

3.3 Sampling procedure

3.4 Data collection technique

3.5 Statistical procedure

3.6 Data analysis procedure

4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Major findings of the study

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

Aappendix

7.3.1 Descriptive Report

Descriptive reports are mere description of facts or opinions gathered by the students during

his/her field study. The presentation of facts in an organized way may be of real value in

properly understanding the situation. These reports indicate the nature of problems facing the

organization under study and also indicate the reforms required to overcome the problems.

7.3.2 Analytical report

Analytical reports go one step further than descriptive reports. These reports in addition to

representing the facts and statistics, interpret these information in relation to the problem under

consideration. Focused on a single or limited area of the problem, these reports follow the

process of scientific investigation and reporting. These reports also recommend the actions to be

taken for improvements in the situation.

65

The student may choose one of these types of reports. However, the choice of the types would

depend on the nature of investigation. Some thesis report may include the features of both these

types of reports.

7.4 Presenting Data: Table and Figures in Report

A Table is a presentation of data in column form. The term Figure usually includes graphs, maps,

drawings and charts.

Tables

The presentation of Tables is concerned with the labeling techniques to make the content clear.

The following practices should be used in the Table constructions.

The Table should be numbered consecutively throughout the report. While referring to

the Tables, the student should write Table 12.1 instead of writing the following Table

or Table on the following page.

Each Table should be given a title that is complete of information and date of published.

The title of Table can be written in all capital letters for the emphasis.

Column of the Table should label clearly enough to identify the items. Column heading

should be short.

Rows in the Table can be arranged without any difficulty. In case of need, two lines can

be used for giving row headings.

If the source of information in the Table is to be identified, it should be placed below the

Table in the same format as the footnote. To number the Table footnotes, an asterisk

could also be used.

Sources of data should be cited in order that the source may be referred to if necessary.

The report writer can use abbreviations if necessary. These abbreviations should however

be explained in footnotes below the Table.

Table 12.1 Sectoral distribution of labor forces

Country Agriculture Industry Services

1965 1990 1965 1990 1965 1990

Indonesia 71 23 9 37 22 40

Malaysia 59 20 13 39 21 41

Thailand 82 17 5 32 13 51

Bangladesh 84 37 5 17 11 46

India 73 31 12 31 15 38

Nepal 94 60 2 - 4 -

Pakistan 60 26 18 25 22 49

Source: World Development Report, 1992

Figures

In reports graphic forms like bar charts, pie charts, maps and pictograms are often presented.

These presentation help clarify and understand data at glance. The report writers should ask the

following questions. They are:

To what extent does the graphic presentation contribute to the overall understanding of

the data? If graphic presentations do not assist the reader in understanding the subject,

these should not be used in the report.

Can the data convey the meaning to the reader in a better way using the graphic

presentation? Graphics often facilitate communication which is difficult to explain in

words alone.

Is the graphic easily understood?

66

Is the graphic honest? The hand is often quicker than the eyes; and data can be distorted

rather easily.

In a small report, the Figure should be numbered consecutively throughout the report and

referring is similar to Table.

7.5 Use of Quotations, Abbreviations

7.5.1 Use of Quotations

Some guidelines of quoting other writers ideas are:

Direct quotations would be used the words of the author add force to validate the

argument in the report.

Direct quotations may be used for presenting the major argument where a reference

would not be sufficed.

Direct quotations may be used when the writer wishes to comment upon, refute or

analyze ideas expressed by the author.

Direct quotations may be used when changes might cause misunderstanding of the

original idea or expression.

Direct quotations should be used when citing mathematical and other formulas.

Short Quotation (upto three lines)

Incorporate the quotation into sentence or paragraph, without disrupting the flow of the

text.

Use double quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation.

Use the same spacing as the rest of the text.

Example,

Most of the South Asian countries have initiated the far- reaching reforms like opening up their

economies, strengthening the market forces and providing a greater role for the private sector. In

Nepal also steps are being taken to foster the private sector by opening up new areas for

investment removing licensing and other controls on business and simplifying rules and

regulations (Gupta, 1994, p.14).

Long quotations (for four or more lines)

Use no quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation.

Use single line spacing.

Indent the quotation five spaces from the left margin.

Example,

Most of the south Asian countries have initiated far- reaching reforms like opening up

their economics, strengthening the market forces and providing a greater role for the

private sector. In Nepal also steps are being taken to foster the private sector by opening

up new areas for investment removing licensing and other controls on business and

simplifying rules and regulations (Gupta, 1994, p.14).

7.5.2 Abbreviations

A number of abbreviations also appear in the research report. These abbreviated words should be

arranged in ascending order under Abbreviations or Acronyms. Examples of some of the

frequently used abbreviation are given below:

ADB Asian Development Bank

bk., bks. book (s)

e.g. for example

ed. edition

eds editors

i.e. that is

IMF International Monitory Fund

N.B. nota bene

67

viz. namely

Font: Times New Roman

Font size: 12

Paper size 8.6 x 11 inches and only side of paper

Margins Margins indicate the boundaries of the text. Margins of 1.6 inches on the left and

one inch on the right- hand side of the page are commonly used. The last line of

writing should be one inch above the bottom edge of the page.

Spacing The text of the report should be double- spaced. Indented quotation and footnotes

should be single- spaced. Same style and size of font should be used through out

the report. If you use indent in starting paragraph, there is no spacing between the

two paragraphs. If you are not using indent, second paragraph is starting by

leaving one space or single line.

Page number Page number should come at the top right hand corner of the page, one inch from

the top edge and 1.25 inches from the right edge. The first line of the text should

be two spaces below the page number.

Pagination Pages should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals from the first page

of the text to end of manuscript. The pages in the introductory sections (preface,

table of contents etc) should be numbered with small Roman numerals i, ii, iii,..

one inch from the bottom page.

Proof-reading: The manuscript should be read critically, searching for inaccurate statements,

wrong entries, omissions and inconsistencies. After verifying and locating errors

in quotations, footnotes, Tables, Figures, paragraphing sentence structure,

headings, spellings, style, bibliography, mark the copy to provide the typist with

necessary directions for providing a satisfactory transcript and must know the

symbols of proof- reading.

Citation

Referencing is a standard method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that we

have used in research. Direct quotations, facts as well as ideas and theories from published and

unpublished works must be referenced. There are different methods of documenting (citing and

referencing) sources. The researchers commonly employ the following methods:

The Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) offers

detailed information regarding citations, quotations, references, and so on.

The Harvard System, was developed in the 1930s and has been updated periodically. It

usually, uses author- date system. This system is also widely used for citation and

references.

The Manual Style of the University of Chicago is also widely used for citations,

quotations and references.

The ACS Style Giude is published by the American Chemical Society. This style guide

explains how organized numbered references.

The documenting method has two parts: the citations and bibliography, whci may also be called

references.

The APA method is widely used style of citing and referencing in the social science area. We

also recommend that this method should be followed.

Guidelines:

68

When quotation and paraphrase are cited, the authors name and year of publication

appear in the body of the report as follows:

For instance Paudyal (2000) stressed that business firm must think globally to remain

competitive.

When a work is authored by two individuals, the surnames of both the authors are cited.

For instance Peppard and Rawland (2001) define organizational culture as shared values and

beliefs, which take the form of rules of behaviour.

When a work has more than two authors, cite all authors the first time the reference

occurs, and subsequently include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

For instance Shukla, Gupta, Mathema and Singh (2003) found that

Shukla et al. (2003) found that

The authors name and year of publication appear at the end when direct quotation is

made.

For instance Strategic processes are those processes by which the organization plans for and

develops in future (Chitrkar, 1997).

If the same author is cited in the same paragraph, the year of publication is not necessary

to be mentioned.

For instance, Panta (2001) wrote a book entitled assignment and Report Writing.

Pant found that

If no author is given for the work, treat the title as the author.

For instance, The specification writers job is likely to change (Style Manual, 1992).

When a works author is unknown, cite the text the word the Anonymous followed by the

comma and date: (Anonymous, 1982).

When more than one author has to be cited in the text, these should be in the alphabetical

order of the first authors surname and the citation should be separated by semi colons:

For instance, The concept of the job design (Maskey, 1987; Subedi, 1972; Uprety and Dhakal,

1976).

The page numbers, if required to be mentioned, should be cited as follows:

For instance, Pant (2001) argues that a research report can be worthless if interpretation is

faulty, even if valid and reliable data have been collected (p, 63).

Hypothesis testing is called deductive research (Wolf and Pant, 1999, p. 14).

When citing block quotations, do not place quotation marks before and after a block

quotation. Indent the left margin five spaces. Do not indent the right margin.

For instance, According to Berger (1991):

A PET bottle weighs approximately 91 grams. Of this 91 grams, only 63 grams or 69

percentage of the bottle is pure PET. The bottle has three other major components. The

bottle cap, usually made of aluminum, weighs roughly 1 gram or 1 percent weight. The

bottle label, usually made of paper, weighs 5 grams or 6 percent of the bottle weights (pp.

37- 38).

Personal communication through letters, memos, telephone conversation, and the like

should be cited in the text only and not included in the reference list since these are not

retrievable data. In the text, provide the initials as well as the surname of the

communicator together with the date.

For instance, A. Pradhan (Personal Communication, November 15, 1998) feels that

M. Neupane (Personal Interview, April 7, 1998) feels that

T. P. Mishra (Personal letter, Professor, Tribhuvan University, February 5, 1997)

argues that

69

APA References

The references list contains bibliographic information in each source you use. The list is

arranged alphabetically by the surname of the author.

Guidelines:

Present information for all entries in this order: Authors name. Date. Title. Publication

information.

Example,

Harrison, A. (1992). Just- in- time manufacturing in perspective. New York: Prentice Hall.

Peppard, J., and P. Ronald (1992). Business process re- engineering. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of

India.

Use only the initials of the authors first and middle names.

Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns and adjectives in the title.

Use double- space between the entries. The second line of an entry should be single-

spaced.

The secondline of an entry starts three spaces in from the left- hand margin.

Place the date in parenthesis immediately after the name.

Place the entry in alphabetical order.

If there are two or more works by one author, arrange them chronologically, most recent

last.

o Aryal, N. (2001)

o Aryal, N. (2006)

Some common entries for references

1. For book with one author

Kotler, P. (1998). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control. New

Delhi, Prentice Hall of India.

Arnorld, J., I. T. Robertson, & C. L. Cooper, (1996). Work psychology:Understanding human

behaviour in the workplace. Delhi, Macmillon India.

2. For an edited book

Pant, P. R., & N. Mamandhar (Eds), (1998). Industrial relations in Nepal: A book of readings.

Kathmandu, FNJ and IRF.

Ross, A. M. (Ed), (1996). Industrial relation and economic development. London, Macmillon.

3. For an eassay in a book

Jyoti, P. (1998). Labor management: A critique. In: P. R. Pant and N. Manandhar (Eds),

Industrial relation in Nepal: A book of readings (pp. 297- 302). Kathmandu, FNJ and

IRF.

4. For an encyclopedia

Sonar. (1984). Encyclopedia Britannica.

5. For a journal article

Pant, P.R. (1993). Human resource development: A cross- country overview of the Asian region.

The Nepalese Management Review, IX (I): 1- 13.

6. For an article in monthly or weekly magazine

Shukla, M. (1985, February). Managing creative talents. Indian Management (pp. 3- 7).

7. For an unpublished materials

Joshi, M. (1992). Fine tea plantation: A case study. (n.p.).

Khetan, M. (1992). Motivation behind acquisition of time saving electrical appliances by

Nepalese households. Unpublished Masters thesis, central department of Management,

Tribhuvan University.

70

8. For a newspaper

The Rising Nepal. (1996, July 15). P.2.

9. For paper presented at seminar

Sharma, B. (1998, June). WTO: Its impact on the education actor. Paper presented st thr seminar

of Association of Business Students, Kirtipur, Nepal.

10. For personal e- mail

Gurung, R. K.(2004, February). Meditation program: A feedback. Available e-mail:

deanmagmt@healthnet.org.nep. [2004, February 7].

11. For journal articles on the Internet

Subba, A. (2003). The language management profession. The Nepal Review [online].

Available: <http:/www.nepre.org.np /6/2/>[2003, September].

12. For home page

Bhandari, C. (1999, March 26). Nepals culture and learning [Home Page of ABC Institute].

[online]. Available: <http:/www. ABC.co.np> [1999, March 28].

Differences between APA and Harvard System

Harvard system APA system Differences

Referencing in the text

(Lewis 2001) (Lewis, 2001) Note punctuation

(Saunders and Williams 2001) (Saunders & Williams, 2001) & not and; Note punctuation

(Williams et al. 1999) (Williams, Saunders & Staughter,For 1st occurance

1999)

(Williams et al. 1999) Williams et al., 1999) For subsequent occurrences; Note

punctuation

Referencing in the references or bibliography

Thornhill A, Lewis P, Thornhill, A., Lewis, P., Note commas and full stops

Millmore M and Saunders Millmore, M. & Saunders, Note of and, &

MNK (2000) Managing Change: A M.N.K. (2000), Managing change: Note use of order, use of colon,

Human Resource Strategy A human resource strategy comma and full stop

Approach, FT Prentice Hall, approach. Harlow: FT

Harlow Prentice Hall

Abstract

A Sociology Study of Four Tharus Villages in Chitwan, Nepal

Abstract

The objectives of the study were: 1) to investigate the effect of different situations in rural Nepal

on ethnicity, and 2) the relationship between ethnicity and various structural variables relevant to

process of rural development. It focuses on the Tharus people, an ethnic group indigenous to the

Terai region of south central Nepal.

Two matching pairs of Tharu communities were surveyed; on pair in a more centrally- located

area (consisting of predominantly Tharu village and ethnicity diverse village where Tharus are

in numerically minority) and a similar matching pair in a more remote area. Data were obtained

through a general census of 260 households in the four villages, and direct interviews of sample

of 100 Tharu household heads (25 from each villages) plus non- Tharus from the nearby diverse

village.

71

Supplementary information was obtained from informants, documents and through observation

(i.e. living in the villages while interviewing).

Ethnicity viewed as both structural variable (composition of the village) and a behavioural

variable (manifestations of ethnic identity and loyalty). The latter is measured by a seven points

Guttam- Scale.

The locational factor (relative centrally or remoteness of village) emerged as a more important

explanation of ethnic behavior than the ethnic composition of village per-se. No relationship is

found between ethnicity and adoption of improved farm practices; it appears that ethnicity and

adoption with regards to these Tharus communities are independent phenomenon.

It is concluded that ethnicity contrary to what is often argued, does not stand in the way rural

development not does it hinder social interaction. Indeed, through the maintenance of group

solidarity, the motivations of underprivileged minority groups as the Tharus of Nepal are

strengthened and they are better able to participate in the process of nation- building.

Questions: Identify the following areas from the above abstract of PhD Thesis:

1. Problem of research

2. Objectives

3. Methodology used

4. Dependent and independent variables

5. Findings of research

Above five things must be included in abstract. If you are able to solve above five questions, you

will not have problem of writing abstract.

Summary

The current section is most important in that it relates the data findings a logical, rational fashion

to the problem area and research question within the framework of the theory structure

established in the Introduction. The relevance of the hypothesis to the theory and its contribution

to the solution of the problem investigated are presented.

It is vital that the researcher reviews his or her in introduction section before attempting to write

this section of the study to insure that he or she has a solid grasp of what it was, he or she set out

to investigate, and the theory underlying the study.

This may have a number of subheadings if several questions and/or hypothesis were

investigated.

Conclusions

As a follow- up to the interpretation of the data, conclusion is made as to how well they assist in

attempting to solve the problem, and how well the purpose of the study was accomplished. It is

at this point in the study that the researcher should feel free to express his or her own

conclusions and generalizations.

Recommendations

If decisions of any sort, either theoretical or operational, were contingent upon the outcome of

the study, it is at this point that recommendations by the researcher are made. Justification for

those recommendations presented in the previous section the report.

It is fairly traditional that the researcher indicates that his or her study has accomplished its

purpose has made a contribution, and that further investigation in the area is needed.

72

73

Decision making about the characteristics of the population on the basis of study of the sample

taken from the population involves the risk of taking wrong decision. For instance, we may want

to decide which of the two brands of the fertilizers is more effective. The probability theory

plays a vital for decision making for this situation. The method of statistics which helps in

arriving the decision is called Test of Hypotheses or Hypotheses Testing or Test of Significance.

The test of hypotheses is a process of testing of significance the parameter of population on the

basis of sample drawn from the population.

logically drawn regarding any parameter of the population,

The average height of students in the class is 160 cm.

A given drug cures 90% of the patient taking it.

The common way of stating a hypothesis is that there is no difference between the

population mean and sample mean. The statistical hypothesis may be divided into two types:

Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis.

Null hypothesis:

The purpose of possible acceptance is called a null hypothesis and denoted by H0. In above

case,

H0 : = 160 cm.

H0 : = X

Alternate Hypothesis

Any hypothesis which is complementary to the null hypothesis is called an alternative

hypothesis and denoted by H1 . For example, it we want to test the null hypothesis that average

height of the student is 160 cm i.e. H : = 160 cm = 0

then the alternative hypothesis could be

(i) H1: 0 (i.e. 0 or < 0 )

It is called two- tailed alternative hypothesis.

(ii) H1: > 0

It is called right- tailed alternative hypothesis.

(iii) H1: < 0

It is called left- tailed alternative hypothesis.

We formulate a null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (H1) which we accept when H0

must be rejected.

2. Computing the test statistic: After formulating the hypothesis the next step is to calucuate an

appropriate test statistic which is based on an appropriate probability distribution. For testing

whether the null hypothesis should be accepted or rejected, we use Z- distribution under

normal curve for large sample (n 30) and t- distribution for sample (n < 30).

3. Defining Type- I Error () and Type- II Error (): A decision to accept ot reject H is made

on the basis of the sample data and there is always a chance of making an error.

Type- I Error: Reject a null hypothesis when it is true.

Type-II Error: Accept a null hypothesis when it false.

74

The four situations which may arise in testing hypothesis are given in the following Table.

Actual Decision

Accept H0 Reject H0

H0 is true No Error Type II Error

Correct Decision Wrong Decision

Probability = 1 - Probability =

H0 is false Type II Error No Error

Wrong Decision Correct decision

Probability = Probability = 1-

4. Fixing the level of significance: The level of significance denoted by , is maximum

probability of making type- I error. The commonly use level of significance are 5% (0.05)

and 1% (0.01). If we use 5%, it implies that in 5 cases out of 100 cases, we likely to reject

H0. In other words, this implies that we are 95% confident that our decision is to reject H0 is

correct. The level of significance should be fixed in advance before applying the test.

5. Finding critical region: This region is the region of acceptance and rejection. When the

computed test statistic lies in this region or out of this region for accept or reject the Null

Hypothesis. This region is generally taking from the Z- distribution for large sample.

6. Deciding the Two- Tailed or One- Tailed Test: The critical region may be represented by a

portion of area under the normal curve in two ways:

(a) Two tails or two side under the curve.

(b) One tail or one side under the curve which is either left tail or right tail.

Lower Critical Value

Upper Critical Value

Rejection Rejection

region (/2) Acceptance Region

(1 ) region (/2)

- Z Z= 0 + Z

(Level of significance ) (Level of significance )

Rejection Rejection

region () region ()

(1 ) (1 )

Z= 0 + Z - Z Z= 0

Figure 1. Critical region

The test of hypothesis which is used on critical region represented by both the tails under the

normal is called two- tailed test or one- tailed test (Figure 1). When the sample mean is

significantly different from the population mean a two- tailed test is used. When the population

mean is considered to be at least as large as some specified value used right- tailed test; whereas

75

when the population mean is considered to be at least as small as some specified value the left-

tail test is used.

7. Making decision: If the calculated value of test statistic (T) is less than critical value which

lies in acceptance region and H0 is accepted. On the other hand, calculated value is greater

than critical value, the value lies in region of rejection and H 0 is rejected. In testing the

hypothesis we generally used 5% level of significance.

If T T , accept H0.

If T > T , reject H0.

Summarizing the hypothesis- testing step as follows:

Step 1. State the null (H0 ) and alternate ( H1 ) hypothesis

2. Select and compute the test statistic T.

3. Obtain the significance level and identify the acceptance and rejection region.

4. Identify the type of test one tailed or two tailed tests to be applied.

5. Make the decision by comparing T and critical values.

Test of Hypothesis for Large samples

The steps in testing the significance of sample mean of large sample (n 30) are as follows:

Step 1. Formulate the null hypothesis (H0) in any way of the following forms.

(i) H0 : = 0 (i.e. population mean has specified mean 0)

(ii) H0 : there is no significant difference between sample mean ( X ) and population

mean ()

(iii) H0 : The sample has been drawn from the given large population with mean 0 and

standard deviation .

X

Z

Step 2. Compute the test statistic,

n

Z- N (0,1) i.e. Z follows the normal distribution with the mean 0 and the standard

deviation 1.

If is not known the its estimate is given by sample standard deviation by

1

S

n 1

( X X )2

where S = is an unbiased estimate of the population Standard Deviation (SD).

Step 3. Select the level of significance,

We usually fix at 5% (0.05) unless otherwise stated.

Decide whether two- tailed test or one- tailed test has to be applied

Step 4. Write down the critical or tabulated value of Z at predetermined level of significance, .

Critical values Level of significance

Z 1% 5%

Two- tail test 2.58 1.96

One- Tailed test: Right + 2.326 + 1.645

Left - 2.326 - 1.645

Note that the critical value of Z for one-tail test at the level of significance is the same

as the critical value of Z for two-tailed test at the level of significance of 2.

76

Step 5. Make the decision by comparing the computed and the critical (or tabulated) values of Z.

If the computed value of /Z/ (only positive values) is less than critical value Z, it lies in

the acceptance region. Hence H0 is accepted at the level of significance and we

conclude that there is significance difference between sample mean and population mean

or the sample has been drawn from the given population.

If the computed value of /Z/ is greater than Z, H0 lies in the rejection region and we

reject H0. It may be concluded that there is a significant difference between the sample

mean and the population mean or sample has not been drawn from parent population.

Example 1:

A sample of 50 pieces of certain types of string was tested. The mean breaking strength turned

out to be 14.5 kg. Test whether the sample is from a batch of strings having a mean breaking

strength of 15.6 kg and standard deviation of 2.2 kg.

Solution:

Given,

Sample size, n = 50

Sample mean X =14.5 Kg

Population mean = 15.6. Kg

Standard deviation = 2.2 Kg

Null Hypothesis, H0 : = 15.6 Kg

Alternative Hypothesis, H1 : 15.6 kg (two tailed test)

Computation of test statistic,

X

Z

n

14.5 15.6 1 .1 1 .1

3.55

= 2. 2 2 . 2 0.31

50 7.142

/Z/ =/ - 3.55/ = 3.55

Tabulated value of Z for two tail test at 0.05 level of significance is 1.96.

Decision: Since the computed value of /Z/ is greater than it tabulated value, H 0 is rejected i.e.

the sample has not been drawn from the normal population with the mean 15.6 kg and standard

deviation 2.2 kg.

Example2. The mean lifetime of a sample of 100 fluorescent light tubes produced by a company

is computed to be 1570 hrs with a standard deviation of 120 hrs. The company claims that the

average life of the tubes produced by it is 1600 hrs. Is the claim acceptable by using a level of

significance of 0.05.

Solution:

Here,

n = 100

X = 1570

S = 120 hrs

= 1600 hrs

H0: = 1600 hrs, i.e. the average life of tubes produced is 1600 hrs.

H1: 1600 hrs i.e. the average life of the tubes is not 1600 hrs (Two- tailed Test)

77

X 1570 1600 30

Z 120 2.5

Computation of test statistic: S

12

n 100

/Z/ = /-2.5/ = 2.5

Tabulate value of Z for two tail test at 0.05 level of significance is 1.96.

Decision: Since the computed value of /Z/ is greater than its tabulated value, H 0 is

rejected i.e. the average life of tubes produced by the company is not 1600 hrs and hence

the companys claim is not acceptable.

Example 3. A sample of 400 students is found to have a mean height of 171.38 cm. can it be

reasonably regarded as a sample from a large population with mean height 171.17 cm and SD

3.30.

Level of significance: 1% 2% 5% 10%

Tabulated value 2.58 2.33 1.96 1.65

Solution:

Given,

n = 400

X = 171.38

= 3.30

= 171.17

Computation of test statistic:

X 171.38 171.17 0.21

Z 3.30 1.27

0.165

n 400

Since the computed value of Z (1.27) is less than its tabulated values at 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%

level of significance, H0 lies in the acceptance region and here H0 is accepted at these levels.

Example 4. In the past a blending process has produced an average of 5 kg of waste material for

every batch, with SD of 5 kg. From a sample of 100 batches an average of 16 kg of waste per

batch is obtained. At 5% level of significance is it reasonable to believe that the average has

increased?

Solution:

Given,

n = 100

X = 16 kg

= 5 kg

= 5 kg

H0 : = 5 kg i.e. the average of waste material has not been increased.

H1 : > 5 kg i.e. the average has been increased. (Right- tailed test)

X 16 5 11 22

Z 5

Computation of test statistic: 0 .5

n 100

Tabulated value of Z for right tailed test at 5% level of significance is 1.645.

Decision: Since the computed value of Z is greater its tabulated value, H 0 is rejected and the

average of waste material has been increased.

Example 5. An insurance agent has claimed that the average age of policyholder who ensure

through him is less than the average for all agents, which is 30.5 years. The mean age obtained

78

from a random sample of 100 policyholders who has insured through him is 28.8 years with

standard deviation of 6.35 years. Test his claim at the 5% level of significance.

Solution:

Given,

n = 100

X = 28.8 yrs

S = 6.35 yrs

= 30.5 yrs

H0 : = X = 30.5 i.e. the sample mean X and population mean () do not differ.

H1 : < 30.5 years (left tail test)

X 28.8 30.5 1.7 2.677

Z 6.35

Computation of test statistic: S 0.635

n 100

/Z/ = /-2.677/ = 2.677

Tabulated value of Z for left tailed test at 0.05 level of significance is 1.645.

Decision: Since the computed value of /z/ is greater than its tabulated value. H0 is rejected i.e.

the insurance agents claim that the average age of policyholders who insure through him is less

than the average for all agents accepted with 95% confidence.

The step in testing significance of difference between two means fro large sample (n30) are as

follows:

Step 1. Formulate null (H0) hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis (H1).

H0 : 1 = 2

i.e. two samples have been drawn from the same parent population or two samples have

been drawn from two different parent populations have the same mean and standards.

H1 : 1 2 (Two- tailed test)

Step 2. Under H0, compute the test statistic

(X1 X 2 )

Z . (1)

2 2

1 2

n1 n2

where n1 30 and n2 30, Z- N(0, 1). If 1 and 2 are not known then their

2 2

2 2

estimates are provided by the corresponding sample variances S1 and S 2 ,

respectively. Equation (1) reduce to:

(X1 X 2 )

Z . (2)

2 2

S1 S 2

n1 n2

Note that S and S are unbiased estimate of population SDs. If two samples are drawn

from the same population then 1 = 2 and 1 = 2 = says, then

2 2 2

79

(X1 X 2 )

Z

2 2

1 2

n1 n2

( X1 X 2 )

Z (3)

1 1

( )

2

n1 n 2

Step 3. Select the level of significance, . The level of significance which indicates whether the

probability of difference of means is small or large, is generally fixed at 5% (0.05).

Step 4. Write down the critical value of Z at predetermine level of significance .

Z0.05 = 1.96 For two-tailed test

Z0.05 = 1.65 For right-tailed test

Z0.05 = - 1.645 For left-tailed test

Step 5. Make the decision by comparing computed and tabulated value of Z. If the computed

value of Z is less than its tabulated value Z, the null hypothesis H0 is accepted otherwise

H0 is rejected.

samples:

The steps for the test of significance of difference between two standard deviation are as follows

Step 1. Formulate the null (H0) and alterative (H1) hypothesis.

H0 : 1 = 2 i.e. sample SDs do not differ significantly. Two samples are drawn from the

same population.

H1 : 1 2 i.e. the sample SDs differ significantly. Two samples are not drawn from the

same population (Two- tailed test).

Step 2. Compute the test statistic given by

( S1 S 2 ) ( S1 S 2 )

Z

1 2

2 2 2 2

S1 S2

2n1 2n2 2n1 2n2

S1 and S2 are unbiased estimate of 1 and 2, respectively. Z- N(0, 1).

Step 3. Select the level of significance, (0.05).

Step 4. Write the critical value Z, according to the type of tests- two- tail and one-tail.

Step 5. Make the decision. If Z<Z, accept H0. If Z> Z , reject H0 and accept H1.

Example 6: In a survey of incomes of two classes of workers, two random samples gave the

following details. Examine whether the different between the (i) means (ii) the SDs, are

significant.

I 100 Rs. 582 24

II 100 Rs. 546 28

Solution,

n1 = 100 n2 = 100

X 1 = Rs. 582 X 2 = Rs. 5546

S1 = Rs. 24 S2 = Rs. 28

80

H1 : : 1 2 i.e. there is a significance difference between sample means. (Two-tailed

test)

(X1 X 2 ) (582 546) (582 546)

Z = (582 546) = 36

2

S1 S 2

2 242

28 = 576 784 =

2

3.69

=9.76

5.76 7.84

100 100 100 100

n1 n2

Tabulated value of Z at 0.05 level of significance is 1.96.

Decision: Since the computed value of Z is greater than tabulated value the null hypothesis is

rejected i.e. there is significance difference between the two sample means.

deviations.

H1: 1 2 i.e. there is a significance difference between the sample standard

deviations (two- tailed test)

Computation of test statistic:

( S1 S 2 ) (24 28)

4 4

24 2 28 2

2 2

Z S1 S2 1.35

2.88 3.92 2.61

2n1 2n2 200 200

Tabulate value at 0.05 level of significance is 1.96.

Decision: Since the computed value of Z less than its tabulated value, the null hypothesis is

accepted i.e. there is no significant difference between the two sample standard deviation.

Example 7. A potential buyer of light bulbs bought 50 bulbs each of two brands. Upon testing

these bulbs, he found that brand A had a mean life of 1282 hours, with SD of 80 hours whereas

brand B had a mean life of 1208 hours with SD of 94 hours. Can the buyer be quite certain that

the two brands do differ in quality?

Solution:

Given,

Brand A Brand B

n1 = 50 n2 = 50

X 1 = 1282 hrs X 2 = 1208 hrs

S1 = 80 S2 = 94

2 2

S1 80 x80 S2 94 x94

128 176.72

n1 50 n2 50

H0 : 1 = 2 i.e. there is no significant difference between the two brands in quality.

H1 : 1 2 i.e. the two brand differ in quality (two tailed test)

81

(X1 X 2 ) 1282 1208

Z

74

74

4.24

2 2

S1 S 2 128 176.72 304.72 17.456

n1 n2

Tabulated value of Z at 0.05 level of significance is 1.96.

Decision: Since the computed value of Z is greater that its tabulated value, the null hypothesis

H0 is rejected i.e. there is significance difference between the two brands of bulbs in quality.

The steps in testing the significance of sample proportion or percentage are as follows:

Ho : P=Po

i.e. , the sample has been drawn from a population with proportion P.

H1 : P Po (two tail test)

Step 2. Compute the test statistics is

pP

Difference

Z= = PQ

S .E

n

Where P = population proportion, Q = 1 P

p = sample proportion

P (1 P ) PQ

S.E (p)

n n

Note that if we have sampling from a finite population of size N, then

N n P (1 p ) N n PQ

S .E.( p ) =

N 1 n N 1 n

Step 3. Obtain the level of significance be = 0.05 unless otherwise stated.

Step 4. Write down the critical value Z for two tail test.

Step 5. Make the decision. If Z < Z accept H0. If Z > Z reject H0 and accept H1 at level of

significance.

Example 8: A furniture store with a loose credit policy expects that 8% of its credit accounts

will default on payments. Looking at the 500 accounts sold to last year, however we see that 49

have default on payments. Looking at the 500 accounts sold to last year, however we see that 49

have defaulted. Using a 5% level of significance do you think the store has reason to believe that

estimate of 8% is too low ?

Tabulated value for 5% and 10% level of significances are 1.96 and 1.645, respectively.

Solution:

H0 : P = 0.08 i.e. the proportion of the defaulted credit accounts on payments is 8%.

H1: P 0.08 (two tail)

pP

Computation of test statistic : Z = PQ / n

49

p = sample proportion of defective credit accounts = = 0.098

500

82

0.098 0.08 0.018

Z= = = 1.488

0.08 x 0.92 / 500 0.0121

Tabulated value of Z at 5% and 10% levels of significance are 1.96 and 1.645, respectively.

Decision : Since the computed value of Z is less than tabulated values at 5% and 10% levels of

significance, the null hypotheses H0 is accepted i.e. the store has not reason to believe that

estimate of 8% is too low.

Example 9: A manufacture claimed that at least 90% of the machine parts that it supplied to a

factory conformed to specifications. An examination of 200 such parts revealed that 160 parts

were not faulty. Determine if the manufactures claim is legitimate at 1% level of significance.

Solution:

H0 : P = 0.90 i.e. the proportion of the machine parts confirming to specifications in the

lot is 90%.

H1 : P < 0.90 (left tail)

pP

Computation of test statistic: Z PQ / n

p = sample proportion of machine parts conforming to specifications

160

= = 0.80

200

P = 0.90, Q = 1 P = 1 0.90 = 0.10

0.80 0.90 0.10

Z= 0.90 x 0.10 / 200

=

0.0212

= - 4.72

Decision: since the computed value of /Z/ is greater than the tabulated value, the null hypothesis

is rejected at 1% level of significance i.e. the proportion of the machine parts conforming to

specifications in the lot is no 90%, it is less than 90%.

Example 10: A sample of 600 persons selected randomly from a large city gives the result that

males are 53%. Is there reason to doubt the hypothesis that males and females are in equal

number in a city?

Solution:

H0 : P = 0.5 i.e. both males and females are equal in numbers in the city.

H1 : P 0.5 i.e., both males and females are not equal in numbers in the city (Two tail

test)

pP

Computation of test statistic: Z = PQ / n

p = Sample proportion of males = 53% = 0.53

0.53 0.50 0.03 0.03 0.03

Z= 0.5 x 0.5 / 600

=

0.25 / 600

= =

0.000417 0.02

= 1.5

Tabulated value of Z for two tail test at 5% level of significance is 1.96.

Decision: Since the computed value of Z is less than tabulated value the null hypothesis is

accepted i.e. males and females are in equal numbers in city.

The steps in testing the significance of difference between two sample proportions are:

Step 1. formulate the null (H0) and alterative (H1) hypotheses

83

H0 : P1 = P2

i.e., there is no significance difference between the two population proportions or

percentages or, the two samples have been drawn from the same population.

H1 : P1 P2 (two tailed test)

Step : 2. compute the test statistic. Under H0, the test statistic is given by

P1 P2

Z= P1Q2 P2 Q2

n1 n2

P1Q1 P2 Q2

Where S.E. (p1 p2) =

n1 n2

Q1 = 1 P1, Q2 =1 - P2

^ n1 p1 n2 p2

P

n1 n2

And the test statistic is given by

p1 p2 p1 p2

Z

^ ^ ^ ^

PQ PQ PQ 1 1

= ^^

n1 n2 n n 1 2

Also not that the sample proportions can be substituted for their corresponding

population proportions,

p1 q1 p 2 q 2

Hence S.E. (p1 p2) =

n1 n

where, q1 = 1- p1 and q2 = 1 p2

Step 3. Fix the level of significance (usually = 0.05)

Step 4. Write down the tabulated value of Z at the level of significance .

Step 5. Make decision. If the computed value of Z is less than its tabulated value Z, H0 is

accepted otherwise it is rejected.

Example11. Random samples of 200 bolts manufactured by machine A and 100 bolts

manufactured by machine B showed 19 and 5 defective bolts respectively. Is there a significant

difference between the performances of the two machines?

Solution:

H0 : P1 = P2 i.e. there is no significant difference between the performance of the two

machines.

H1 : P1 P2 (two tailed)

84

p1 p2

Z ^^ 1 1

PQ n1 n2

P1 = Proportion of defective in the machine A = 19/200 = 0.095

P2 = Proportion of defective in the machine B = 5/100 =0.05

^

^ ^

Q 1 P = 1- 0.08 = 0.92

0.095 0.05

0.045 0.045

Z= 0.08 0.92

1

1

0.01104

0.0332

1.355

200 100

Tabulated value of Z at 5% level of significance for two tailed test is 1.96.

Decision: since the computed value of Z is less than tabulated value at 5% level of significance

the null hypothesis is accepted i.e. there is no significant difference between the performances of

the two machines.

Example13. At a certain date in a large city 400 out of a random sample of 500 men were found

to be smokers. After the tax on tobacco had been heavily increased another random sample of

600 men in the same city included 400 smokers. Was the observed decrease in the proportion of

the smokers significant? Test at 5% level of significant.

Solution:

H0: P1 = P2, i.e. there is no significant difference between the proportion of the smokers

before and after the increase in the tax.

H1 : P1 >P2 (Right tailed)

Computation of test statistic:

p1 p2

Z ^^ 1 1

PQ n1 n2

400

P1 = Sample proportion of smokers before increase in tax.= 0.8

500

85

400

P2 = Sample proportion of smokers after increase in tax. = 0.667

600

^

P n1 n2 500 600 11

^

8 3

Q 11 11

1

0.8 0.667

Z= 8 3 1

1

11 11 500 600

0.133 0.133 0.133

4.926

= 24 11 264 / 363000 0.027

121 3000

Decision: Since the computed value of Z is greater than the tabulated value the null hypothesis

is rejected i.e. there is a significant decrease in the proportion of the smokers after the increase in

the tax.

Example12. A sample poll of 300 voters from district A and 200 from district B, showed that

56% and 48% respectively were in favor of a given candidate At a level of significance of 0.05,

test the hypothesis that

(a) There is a difference between the districts

(b) the candidate is preferred in district A

Solution:

H0 : P1= P2 i.e. there is no significance difference between the district.

H1: P1 P2 i.e. there is a significant difference between the districts.

Computation of test statistic:

p1 p2

Z ^^ 1 1

PQ n1 n2

P1= Proportion of voters of district A who are in favor of candidate = 0.56

P2 = Proportion of voters of district B who are in favor of candidate = 0.48

^

86

^ ^

0.56 0.48 0.08

1.75

Z= 0.528 0.472

1

1

500

300 200

(a) Tabulated value of Z at 5% level of significance for two tail test is 1.96.

Decision: Since the computed value of Z is less than tabulated value, we accept the null

hypothesis i.e. there is no significant difference between the districts.

(b) Tabulated value of Z at 5% level of significance is 1.645 for one tail test. If we want to

determine whether the candidate is preferred in district A, alternative hypothesis must be

(H1: P1>P2) used which involves a one tailed test.

Decision: On the basis of a one tail test at 5% level of significance, we reject the null hypothesis

because computed value of Z is greeted than tabulated value of Z and it may be concluded that

the candidate is preferred in district A.

87

1. Explain the general procedure followed in testing a hypothesis. Point out the difference

between one-tail and two-tail tests.

2. Distinguish between

(a) Null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis

(b) Critical region and acceptance region.

(c) Type I and type II errors.

(d) Level of significance and confidence limits.

3. (a) How do you test the significance of the difference between the means of the two

large samples.

(b) Explain the procedure for Z-test.

4. An auto company decided to introduce a new six cylinder car whose mean petrol

consumption is claimed to be lower than that of the existing auto engine. It was found

that the mean petrol consumption for the 50 cars was 10 km per liter with a standard

deviation of 3.5 km per liter, test for the company at 5% level of significance, whether

the claim the new car petrol consumption is 9.5 km. per liter on the average is

acceptable.

5. A random sample of size 100 from a large population give the distribution

Value: 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60

Frequency: 13 20 45 13 9

Test the hypothesis that this sample comes from a population with mean 40, given that

the population SD is 10.

6. A sample of size 400 was drawn and the sample mean was found to be 99. test whether

this sample could have come from a normal population with mean 100 and variance 64 at

5% level of significance.

7. A random sample of 200 tins of coconut oil gave an average weight of 4.95 kgs. With a

standard deviation 0.21. Do we accept the hypothesis of net weight of 5 kgs. Per tin, at

1% level?

8. A pharmaceutical firm maintains the mean time for a drug to take effect is 24 minutes. In

a sample of 400 trails the mean time is 26 minutes with a standard deviation of 4 minutes

against the alternative hypothesis that it is not equal to 24 minutes. Use 0.05 level of

significance.

9. an ambulance service claims that it takes, on the average, 9.89 minutes to reach its

destination in emergency calls. To check on this claim, the agency which licenses

ambulance services has them timed on 50 emergency calls, getting mean of 9.3 minutes

with a standard deviation of 1.8 minutes. At the level of significance 0.05, does this

constitute evidence that the figure claimed is too low ?

10. a sample of 100 iron bars is said to be drawn from a large number of bars whose lengths

are normally distributed with mean 4 ft. and standard deviation 0.6 ft. if the sample mean

is 4.2 ft., can the sample be regarded as a truly random sample ?

11. intelligence test on two groups of boys and girls gave the following results:

Mean SD N

Girls 75 15 150

Boys 70 20 250

Is there a significant difference in the mean scores obtained by boys and girls?

12. The average height of 50 students who showed athletic interest was 68.2 inches with a

standard deviation of 2.5 inches, while another set of 50 students who showed no athletic

88

interest had the average height of 67.5 inches with a standard deviation of 2.8 inches.

Test the hypothesis that athletic interest makes a students taller.

Tabulated value 2.58 2.33 1.96 1.65

13. In a survey of buying habits, 400 women shoppers are chosen at random in super market

A located in a certain section of a city. Their average monthly food expenditure is Rs.

250 with a SD of Rs. 40. for 400 women shoppers chosen at random in super market B in

another section of the city, the average monthly food expenditure is Rs. 220 with a SD of

Rs. 55 Test at 1% level of significance whether the average food expenditure of the two

population of shoppers from which the samples were obtained are equal.

14. The mean produce of wheat of a sample of 100 fields is 200 lbs. per acre with a SD of 10

lbs. another sample of 150 fields gives the mean at 220 kbs. With SD of 12 lbs. assuming

the SD of the mean field at 11 lbs for the universe, find at 1% level if the two results are

consistent.

15. A random sample of 100 mill workers at Birgunj showed their mean wage to be Rs. 350

per month with a SD of Rs. 28. A sample of 150 mill workers in Nepalgunj showed the

mean wage to be Rs. 390 per month with a SD of Rs. 40. On the basis of the data, would

you say the mean wages of moll workers in Nepalgunj are higher than those at Birgunj.

16. The mean population of a random sample of 400 villages in district A was found to be

400 with a SD of 12. The mean population of a random sample of 400 villages in district

B was found to be 395 with a SD of 15 Is the difference between the two means

statistically significant?

17. A campus conducted both day and evening classes intended to be identical. A sample of

100 day students yields examination results as under:

X 1 = 72.4, 1 = 14.8

A sample of 200 evening students yields examination results as under:

X 2 = 73.9 2 =17.9

Are the two means statistically equal?

18. Two randomly selected groups of 50 employees each of a very large firm are taught an

assembly operation by two different methods and then tested for performance if the fist

group averaged 140 points with a SD of 10 points while the second group averaged 135

points with a SD. of 8 points, test at 0.05 level whether the difference between their

mean scores is significant?

19. You are working as a purchase manager for a company. The following information has

been supplied to you by two manufacturers of electric bulbs:

Company A Company B

Mean life in hours: 1300 1248

Standard deviation in hours: 82 93

Sample size: 100 100

Which brands of bulbs are going to purchase if you desire to take a risk of 5%.

20. A coin was tossed 400 times and head turned up 216 times. Test the hypothesis that the

coin is unbiased.

21. In 600 throws of six faced die, odd points appeared 360 times. Would you say that the die

is fair at 5% level of significance?

22. In a random sample of 1000 persons from a village in district, 560 are found to be rice

eaters and the rest wheat eaters. On the basis of this data, can it be concluded that both

the food articles are equally popular?

23. A manufacturer claimed that at least 95% of the equipment which he supplied to a

factory conformed to specifications. An examination of a sample of 200 pieces of

89

equipment revealed that 18 wee faulty. Test his claim at a significance level of (a) 0.01

(b) 0.05.

24. An auditor claims that 15% vouchers of a firm contain some mistakes or the other. A

random sample of 500 vouchers is taken. If 100 vouchers are found to contain a mistake,

do you believe the claim of the auditor to be correct. Show you calculations in arriving at

this conclusion.

25. An airline must allocate available seating space between first class passengers and

economy class passengers. The null hypothesis is that 20% of the passengers fly first

class, but the management recognizes the possibility that the percentage could be more

or less. A random sample of 400 passengers includes 70 passengers holding first class

tickets. Can the null hypothesis be rejected at 10% level of significance?

26. The owner of a wholesale distributing firm would like to know the proportion of

accounts receivable that are more than 60 days past due. The owner estimates that in the

past the proportion has remained stable at 15%. A random sample of 200 current

accounts receivable revealed that are more than 60 days past due has changed.

27. In a simple random sample of 600 men taken from a big city 400 are found to be

smokers. In another simple random sample of 900 men taken from another city 450 are

smokers. Do the data indicate that there is a significant difference in the habit of smoking

in the two cities?

28. A machine produced 20 defective articles in a batch of 500. After overhauling it

produced 3 defective articles in a batch of 100. Has the machine improved?

29. In a sample of 300 units of a manufactured product, 65 units were found to be defective

and in another sample of 200 units, there were 35 defective. Is there significant

difference in the proportion of defectives in the samples at 5% level of significance?

30. In a village A out of a random sample of 1000 persons 100 were found to be

vegetarians while in another village B out of 1500 persons 180 were found to be

vegetarians. Do you find a significance difference if the food habits of the people of the

two villages?

31. A certain manufacturing process is expected to produce only 1% defective items. In one

sample of 134 of these items, 3 were found to be defective, and in another sample of size

66, 2 were found defectives significant?

32. Random sample of 100 bolts manufactured by machine A and 50 bolts by machine B

showed 10 and 6 defective bolts respectively. Is there a significant difference in the

performance of the machines at 5% level o significance?

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