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Modern organizational setting is characterized by constant

changes relating to environmental factors and human resources. As
regards environmental factors, we find changes in the operating
organizational structure, the networking procedures, customs or norms
and the economic, political and social patterns in which organizations
exist. Moreover, there is constant change in human resources. New
individuals are being employed with their new ideas and expectations
while the existing workforce is constantly changing vis--vis ideas,
attitudes and values.

Human resources may be defined as the total knowledge, skills,

creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization's workforce,
as well as the values, attitudes, approaches and beliefs of the
individuals involved in the affairs of the organization. It is the sum total
or aggregate of inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills
represented by the talents and aptitudes of the persons employed in
the organization.

The human resources are multidimensional in nature. From the national

point of view, human resources may be defined as the knowledge,
skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the
population; whereas from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise,
they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge
and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees.


Human Resource Management has come to be recognized as an

inherent part of management, which is concerned with the human
resources of an organization. Its objective is the maintenance of better
human relations in the organization by the development, application
and evaluation of policies, procedures and programs relating to human
resources to optimize their contribution towards the realization of
organizational objectives.

In other words, HRM is concerned with getting better results with the
collaboration of people. It is an integral but distinctive part of
management, concerned with people at work and their relationships
within the enterprise. HRM helps in attaining maximum individual
development, desirable working relationship between employees and
employers, employees and employees, and effective modeling of
human resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is the
recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and
motivation of human resources by the organization.

1.1.2. Human Resource Management: Evolution

The early part of the century saw a concern for improved efficiency
through careful design of work. During the middle part of the century
emphasis shifted to the employee's productivity. Recent decades have
focused on increased concern for the quality of working life, total
quality management and worker's participation in management. These
three phases may be termed as welfare, development and

Human Resource Management: Nature

Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and

organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various
features of HRM include:
It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises.
Its focus is on results rather than on rules.
It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.
It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.
It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups.
It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good
It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for
competent and well-motivated employees.
It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people
working at various levels in the organization.
It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn
from psychology, economics, etc.

Human Resource Management: Scope

The scope of HRM is very wide:

1. Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning,
recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and
development, layoff and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives,
productivity etc.
2. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such
as canteens, crches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport,
medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities,
3. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations,
joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary
procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.

Human Resource Management: Beliefs

The Human Resource Management philosophy is based on the

following beliefs:
Human resource is the most important asset in the organization and
can be developed and increased to an unlimited extent.
A healthy climate with values of openness, enthusiasm, trust,
mutuality and collaboration is essential for developing human
HRM can be planned and monitored in ways that are beneficial both
to the individuals and the organization.
Employees feel committed to their work and the organization, if the
organization perpetuates a feeling of belongingness.
Employees feel highly motivated if the organization provides for
satisfaction of their basic and higher level needs.
Employee commitment is increased with the opportunity to discover
and use one's capabilities and potential in one's work.
It is every manager's responsibility to ensure the development and
utilization of the capabilities of subordinates.

Human Resource Management: Objectives

To help the organization reach its goals.

To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human
To ensure respect for human beings. To identify and satisfy the needs
of individuals.
To ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the
To achieve and maintain high morale among employees.
To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated
To increase to the fullest the employee's job satisfaction and self-
To develop and maintain a quality of work life.
To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society.
To develop overall personality of each employee in its
multidimensional aspect.
To enhance employee's capabilities to perform the present job.
To equip the employees with precision and clarity in transaction of
To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team


There are seven main functions of HR

Function 1: Manpower planning-

The penalties for not being correctly staffed are costly.

Understaffing loses the business economies of scale and

specialization, orders, customers and profits.
Overstaffing is wasteful and expensive, if sustained, and it is
costly to eliminate because of modern legislation in respect of
redundancy payments, consultation, minimum periods of notice,
etc. Very importantly, overstaffing reduces the competitive
efficiency of the business.

Future staffing needs will derive from:

Sales and production forecasts

The effects of technological change on task needs
Variations in the efficiency, productivity, flexibility of labor as a
result of training, work study, organizational change, new
motivations, etc.
Changes in employment practices (e.g. use of subcontractors or
agency staffs, hiving-off tasks, buying in, substitution, etc.)
Variations, which respond to new legislation, e.g. payroll taxes or
their abolition, new health and safety requirements
Changes in Government policies (investment incentives, regional
or trade grants, etc .

Function 2: Recruitment and selection of employees-

Recruitment of staff should be preceded by:

An analysis of the job to be done (i.e. an analytical study of the tasks

to be performed to determine their essential factors) written into a job
description so that the selectors know what physical and mental
characteristics applicants must possess, what qualities and attitudes
are desirable and what characteristics are a decided disadvantage;

In the case of replacement staff a critical questioning of the need

to recruit at all (replacement should rarely be an automatic
Effectively, selection is 'buying' an employee (the price being the
wage or salary multiplied by probable years of service) hence bad
buys can be very expensive. For that reason some firms (and
some firms for particular jobs) use external expert consultants for
recruitment and selection.
Equally some small organizations exist to 'head hunt', i.e. to
attract staff with high reputations from existing employers to the
recruiting employer. However, the 'cost' of poor selection is such
that, even for the mundane day-to-day jobs, those who recruit
and select should be well trained to judge the suitability of

Function 3: Employee motivation-

To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while
at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even
physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous

Basic financial rewards and conditions of service (e.g. working hours

per week) are determined externally (by national bargaining or
government minimum wage legislation) in many occupations but as
much as 50 per cent of the gross pay of manual workers is often the
result of local negotiations and details (e.g. which particular hours shall
be worked) of conditions of service are often more important than the
basics. Hence there is scope for financial and other motivations to be
used at local levels.

As staffing needs will vary with the productivity of the workforce (and
the industrial peace achieved) so good personnel policies are
desirable. The latter can depend upon other factors (like environment,
welfare, employee benefits, etc.) but unless the wage packet is
accepted as 'fair and just' there will be no motivation.

Function 4:Employee evaluation-

An organization needs constantly to take stock of its workforce and to

assess its performance in existing jobs for three reasons:

To improve organizational performance via improving the

performance of individual contributors (should be an automatic
process in the case of good managers, but (about annually) two
key questions should be posed:
what has been done to improve the performance of a person last
year? and what can be done to improve his or her performance in
the year to come?).
To identify potential, i.e. to recognize existing talent and to use
that to fill vacancies higher in the organization or to transfer
individuals into jobs where better use can be made of their
abilities or developing skills.
To provide an equitable method of linking payment to
performance where there are no numerical criteria (often this
salary performance review takes place about three months later
and is kept quite separate from 1. and 2. but is based on the
same assessment).

Function 5: Industrial relations-

Good industrial relations, while a recognizable and legitimate objective

for an organization, are difficult to define since a good system of
industrial relations involves complex relationships between:

(a) Workers (and their informal and formal groups, i. e. trade union,
organizations and their representatives);

(b) Employers (and their managers and formal organizations like trade
and professional associations);

(c) The government and legislation and government agencies l and

'independent' agencies like the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration

Function 6: Provision of employee services-

Attention to the mental and physical well-being of employees is normal

in many organizations as a means of keeping good staff and attracting

The forms this welfare can take are many and varied, from loans to the
needy to counseling in respect of personal problems.

Among the activities regarded as normal are:

Schemes for occupational sick pay, extended sick leave and

access to the firm's medical adviser;
Schemes for bereavement or other special leave;
The rehabilitation of injured/unfit/ disabled employees and
temporary or permanent move to lighter work;
The maintenance of disablement statistics and registers (there
are complicated legal requirements in respect of quotas of
disabled workers and a need for 'certificates' where quota are not
fulfilled and recruitment must take place);
Provision of financial and other support for sports, social, hobbies,
activities of many kinds which are work related;
Provision of canteens and other catering facilities;
Possibly assistance with financial and other aid to employees in
difficulty (supervision, maybe, of an employee managed
benevolent fund or scheme);
Provision of information handbooks,
Running of pre-retirement courses and similar fringe activities;
Care for the welfare aspects of health and safety legislation and
provision of first-aid training.

The location of the health and safety function within the organization
varies. Commonly a split of responsibilities exists under which
'production' or 'engineering' management cares for the provision of
safe systems of work and safe places and machines etc., but HRM is
responsible for administration, training and education in awareness
and understanding of the law, and for the alerting of all levels to new

Function 7: Employee education, training and development-

In general, education is 'mind preparation' and is carried out remote

from the actual work area, training is the systematic development of
the attitude, knowledge, skill pattern required by a person to perform a
given task or job adequately and development is 'the growth of the
individual in terms of ability, understanding and awareness'.

Within an organization all three are necessary in order to:

Develop workers to undertake higher-grade tasks;

Provide the conventional training of new and young workers (e.g.
as apprentices, clerks, etc.);
Raise efficiency and standards of performance;
Meet legislative requirements (e.g. health and safety);
Inform people (induction training, pre-retirement courses, etc.);
From time to time meet special needs arising from technical,
legislative, and knowledge need changes. Meeting these needs is
achieved via the 'training loop'

Human Resource Management: Futuristic Vision

On the basis of the various issues and challenges the following

suggestions will be of much help to the philosophy of HRM with regard
to its futuristic vision:
1. There should be a properly defined recruitment policy in the
organization that should give its focus on professional aspect and merit
based selection.
2. In every decision-making process there should be given proper
weight age to the aspect that employees are involved wherever
possible. It will ultimately lead to sense of team spirit, team-work and
inter-team collaboration.
3. Opportunity and comprehensive framework should be provided for
full expression of employees' talents and manifest potentialities.
4. Networking skills of the organizations should be developed internally
and externally as well as horizontally and vertically.
5. For performance appraisal of the employees emphasis should be
given to 360 degree feedback which is based on the review by
superiors, peers, subordinates as well as self-review.
6. 360 degree feedback will further lead to increased focus on
customer services, creating of highly involved workforce, decreased
hierarchies, avoiding discrimination and biases and identifying
performance threshold.
7. More emphasis should be given to Total Quality Management. TQM
will cover all employees at all levels; it will conform to customer's
needs and expectations; it will ensure effective utilization of resources
and will lead towards continuous improvement in all spheres and
activities of the organization.
8. There should be focus on job rotation so that vision and knowledge
of the employees are broadened as well as potentialities of the
employees are increased for future job prospects.
9. For proper utilization of manpower in the organization the concept of
six sigma of improving productivity should be intermingled in the HRM
10. The capacities of the employees should be assessed through
potential appraisal for performing new roles and responsibilities. It
should not be confined to organizational aspects only but the
environmental changes of political, economic and social considerations
should also be taken into account.


Job satisfaction refers to an individuals general attitude towards his
or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds a positive
attitude towards his job. While a person is who is dissatisfied with his
assignments hold a negative attitude.

Job satisfaction is linked to productivity, motivation, absenteeism,

waste accidents, mental health, physical health and general life

Locke defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive

emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job
experience. Job satisfaction is a result of employees perception of how
well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. It is
generally recognized in the organizational behavior field that job
satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude. There
are three important dimensions to job satisfaction.

1 Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. As such,

it cannot be seen, it can only be inferred.

2 Job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or

exceed expectations.
3 Job satisfaction often represents related attitudes. As motivation is
related to the satisfaction of the employees several motivational
theories can be related to the job satisfaction. They are Maslow,
Herzbergs two-factor theory, Alderjers ERG theory, Vrooms
expectancy theory, Porter and Lawler model all contributed to the
work motivation.


Bullock (1952) defined job satisfaction as an attitude, which results

from balancing and summation of many specific likes dislikes experienced
in connection with the job.

Smith (1955) defines job satisfaction as an employees judgment of

how well his job on whole is satisfying his various needs.

Locke (1969) defines job satisfaction as the pleasurable or positive

emotional state revolving from the appraisal of ones job or job

The above definitions seem to indicate that job satisfaction is

essentially an effective attitude resulting from the intrinsic aspect of the

Gradually, it was realized that like any other attitude, job

satisfaction represents a complex assemblage of cognitions, emotions
and behavioral tendencies.
Some investigations have gone further attempting to state
mathematically the manner in which work the various and individual
variables combine in determining.


Motivation of employees is the most important aspect of managing

an enterprise. The success or failure of an enterprise depends mostly on
how best the employees working are the involved and motivated. Among
the four essential factors of production namely men, machine, material
and money. The most important is men. The three other factors cannot
be effectively utilized without the cooperation of the people. This
motivation of the employee can be sub divided into the people. This
motivation of the employee can be sub divided into two groups viz.,
extrinsic and intrinsic factors.


Extrinsic factors are monetary related factors an employee will have

positive feeling, i.e. it will more or less act as a reduction of
dissatisfaction of the employee rather than keep him satisfied. With the
presence of extrinsic factors employee will not be dissatisfied.

Job Expectation:

When an employee joins an organization he expects some thing

from the job and has satisfaction from it. Job satisfaction of an employee
can be based on the fact that to what effect his job meets or exceeds his
expectation. His expectation can be any thing such as pay, working
conditions, rewards, work, supervision, colleagues and benefits etc.


Wages and salaries are recognized to be a significant but cognitively

complex and multi dimensional factor in job satisfaction. Money not only
helps people attain their basic needs but is instrumental in providing
upper level need satisfaction.

Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views

their contributions to the organizations.

Comparison of outputs:

Persons tend to compare his out comes with the other persons out
comes. The out comes consists of primarily of rewards such as pay,
status, promotion and intrinsic interest in the job. Comparison is mainly
with ratio of the inputs or he puts in and ratio is equal he will be satisfied
otherwise the person in an effort to restore equity may after the inputs or
outcomes, cognitively distort the inputs or out comes, leave the field, act
on the other, or change the other.

Job security:

Security is a lower order need which an employee have job security

has its effect on the employee morale. An insecure persons morale will
be low and will have its effect on the employee satisfaction. Secure
persons will work effectively and have job satisfaction.

Performance appraisal:
As the performance appraisal is linked to promotions, rewards,
feedback it has its effect on the employee satisfaction. If the appraisal is
not proper employee will be dissatisfied.


Intrinsic factors keep the employees motivated and make them

satisfied from work. The intrinsic factors are:

Recognition and praise:

Human beings are self centered and long for praise. They want to
be recognized and praised for their work. They expect their superiors to
recognizer their efforts and be praised rewarded. This will increase their
job satisfaction and make them more active.

Autonomy or Freedom:

Employees desire certain amount of freedom to work. The

autonomy to tale decisions and influences others. If this freedom is
absent and it will have its effect on the job satisfaction. The person who
has maximum of autonomy, will have high job satisfaction, otherwise it
will be low.

Participative management:

Participative management has a positive impact on the employee.

Openness of the higher ups towards the employee ideas will keep the
employee morale high and keep him satisfied from the job.

It is the complete identification of the employee with the company.
He should regard goals of the company as his own goals. If he has high
belongingness it shows that an employee is satisfied with his job.

Career advancement:

Employees desire to be in higher position. If they perceive that they

have opportunity to grow in their career they will be motivated and show
this in their performance. If the employees feel that they have reached
to a level of saturation in their career they will be de motivated and will
be dissatisfied.


Employees have a need to achieve something worthy and have

influence. If this need is not fulfilled, they will be dissatisfied.

Job significance:

It refers to the impact created on the others by ones contribution.

A feeling of importance is perceived by the employee is the ultimate goal
of doing his work in an excellent manner.


Job variety:

It allows the employees to perform different operations requiring

different skills. This will arrest monotony in performing repetitive activity.

Job monotony:
It refers to the identity that an employee has as his contribution
after performing a complete piece of work.


Employee perceive challenge in their work and it to be interesting, it

is dull they will be inactive and will be dissatisfied.


Employees need to socialize can be fulfilled by the liaison role he

performs. It is the coordination between the departments of the

Contribution to groups:

Employees derive satisfaction by knowing how his work affects the

group and how far he can influence his group.


Feedback refers to information that tells employees how well they

are performing. It satisfies the inner urge of people wanting to know how
they are performing on the assigned work.

Contribution to society:

Employees derive satisfaction by knowing how worthful and

meaningful is his work and how his work able to contribute to society.


Subtractive models:
Ross and Zander (1957) and Morse (1953) have proposed
subtractive model this model assumes that need satisfaction is a function
the difference between the extent to which a need is met in work
situation and the strength of the need. Accordingly, in determining the
amount of need satisfaction they subtract an individual report concerning
conditions in his work role from his report concerning the strength of a
parallel motivation.

Morse (1953) reported a positive association between an individuals

report on changes of being promoted and satisfaction with promotional

Multiplicative models:

Victor H.Vroon (1967) developed the multiplicative model of

motivational and work role variables. The effect of changes in frequency
of attainment of an out come in a work role on the valance of that work
is predicted to depend on the valance of the out come. If the person
desires the out come, an increase in the extent to which it is provided by
the work role, should result in an increase in the valance of the work role.
If he is in different toward the work role, while if he has an aversion for
the outcome this increase should decrease the valance of the work role.


Need satisfaction model job attitude:
G.R.Slancik and Pfeiffer (1977) analyzed the nature of need
satisfaction model and their usefulness for understanding the individuals
reaction to their job.

The model posits that person have basic, stable relatively

unchanging and identifiable attitudes, including needs. The model also
assumes that jobs have s stable, identifiable set of characteristics that
are relevant to hose needs of individuals. Job attitudes are presumed to
result from the correspondence between the needs of the individual and
the characteristics of the job are compatible with the persons needs,
assumption is made that the persons is satisfied and, on occasion, further
argument is made that the persons will be made more motivated to
perform the job. If the person satisfied with his job, it is presumably
because the job has characteristics compatible with his needs. If the
presumably not satisfying his needs.

Its first component is an assumption of the causality. The presumed

sequence of causality begins with the job and its characteristics.

Second component is that people to their environment conceive of

attitudes as reaction. Third component is that needs are conceptualized
as relatively stable characteristics of persons. Before feature is the
conceptualization of job characteristics, which are considered as relatives
of environment, to which the individuals respond. The fifth component is
the functional relation among needs, job characteristics and attitudes.

The model assumed that that same psychological processes operate

to determine satisfaction with the job factors ranging from pay to
supervision and satisfaction with work itself. It is the discrepancy model in
the sense that it shows satisfaction as the difference between perceived
that he actually receives.
This also indicates that when persons perception of what his out
come level is and his perception of what his out come level should be are
in agreement, the person will be satisfied when a person perceives his
out come level as falling below what he feels it should be he will be
satisfied. Actually out come level plays a key role in a persons perception
of what rewards he receives. However, his perception is also influenced
by his perception of what his referent others receive the higher the out
come levels of his referent others, the lower his out come level will
appear. On the basis of this model, the following statements can be

1 People with high received inputs will be more dissatisfied with

a given facet than people with low perceived inputs.

2 People who receive a low outcome level will be more

dissatisfied than those who receive a high outcome level.

3 The more outcomes a person receive perceive his comparison

other receives, the more dissatisfied he will be with his own
out comes.

Level of Job satisfaction:

The level of job satisfaction across group is not constant, but is

related to a number of variables. The key variables revolve around age,
occupational level and organizational size; the important aspects of job
satisfaction for many people are the amount of personnel closeness,
friendship and small group teamwork.

Dissatisfied employees may engage in psychology withdrawal or

even acts of customer service beyond the call of duties have sparking
work records, and actively in pressure excellence in all areas of their jobs.
Satisfied workers will tend satisfaction

The sample part of satisfaction leads to performance. Accurate

statement is that high performance contributes in turn contributes to high
job satisfaction. Better performance in turn leads to higher economics,
sociological and psychological rewards. It these rewards are seen as fair
and equitable, then improved satisfaction develops because employees
feel that they are receiving rewards in proportion to their performance.

Stability of Job Satisfaction:

Attitude is generally acquired over a long period time. Similarly, job

satisfaction or dissatisfaction emerges as an employee gains more and
more information about the work place. Nevertheless, job satisfaction is
dynamic, for it can decline even more quickly than it develops. Managers
cannot establish the conditions leading to high satisfaction now and latter
neglect it. For employees needs may fluctuate suddenly. Managers need
to pay attention to employees attitudes week after week, month after
month, and year after year.


Occupational level:

The higher the level of the job the greater the satisfaction of the
individual, this is because higher-level jobs carry greater prestige and self
control. This relationship between occupational level and job satisfaction
stems from social; reference group theory in that our society values some
jobs more than others. People in higher-level job find most of their needs
satisfied than when they are in lower level ones.
Job content:

Greater the variation in job content and the less repetitiveness with
which the tasks must be performed, the greater the satisfaction of the
individuals involved.

Considerate Leadership:

People like to be treated with consideration. Hence considerate

leadership results in higher job satisfaction than in considerate

Pay and promotion opportunities:

These two variables are positively related to job satisfaction


Interaction is more satisfying when

1 It results in the cognition that other persons attitudes are

similar to ones own, since this permits the ready calculability
of that others behavior and constitute validation of one.

2 It results in being accepted by others.

3 I facilitate the achievement of goals.

Personal Variables:

Holding factors like occupational level constant indicates that this is
generally a positive relationship between the age & job satisfaction up to
the pre-retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in
satisfaction an individual aspires better and more prestigious jobs in later
years of his life. Finding his channels for advancement blocked his
satisfaction declines.


With occupational level held constant there is a negative

relationship between the educational level & job satisfaction. The higher
the education the higher reference group which the individual looks to for
guidance to evaluate his job rewards.


There is as yet no consistent evidence as to whether woman are

more satisfied with their jobs than men, holding such factors as job and
occupational level constant, one might predict this to be case,
considering the generally lower occupational aspiration of women.

According to Lawler and Porter good performance leads to rewards

which in turn lead to satisfaction as shown above:

Good performance may result into 2 kinds of rewards viz., intrinsic

rewards and extrinsic rewards.

Intrinsic rewards are given to the individual by himself for good

performance. Extrinsic rewards are organizationally controlled reward
such as pay, promotion, status, security etc., extrinsic rewards are not
strongly related to performance.

Intrinsic rewards & extrinsic rewards are directly related to job

satisfaction since the relationship is moderated by excepted equitable
rewards an individuals satisfaction is a function both the number and
amount of rewards he receives as well as what he consider to be fair level
of reward.


1. Because in most organizations the performance of an

individual is not followed by expected equitable rewards one
should not hope to find these organizations high positive
relationship between jobs & performance.

2. It is that because most organizations enjoy greater freedom in

rewarding their manager differently than in rewarding their un
iodized rank and file workers this relationship is stronger for
managers than non managers.

Satisfaction and Absenteeism:

There is a negative relationship between satisfaction and

absenteeism. Dissatisfied employees are more likely to miss work. The
coordination between satisfaction and absenteeism is moderate.
Organizations that provide sick leave benefits are encouraging all their
employees including those who are highly satisfied take days off
satisfaction leads to attendance where there is a maximum impact from
other factors.

Individual focus: Job satisfaction typically refers to the attitude of a

single employee. The general term used to describe over all group
satisfaction is more. Group morale is essentially important to monitor
since individuals often take their social cues from their work associates
and adopt their own attitudes to confirm to those of the group. Job
satisfaction can be viewed as an over all attitude or it can apply to the
various parts of individual job. If it is viewed only an on overall attitude,
however managers may miss seeing some key hidden exception as they
asses as employees over all satisfaction.


According to Porter & Lawler model,


Effort refers to the amount of energy exerted by an employee on a

given task. Perceived reward probability refers to the individual
perception of the probability that differential rewards depend upon
differential amount of efforts. These 2 factors are value of reward &
perceptions of effort reward probability determine the amount of effort
that the employee will put in.


Effort leads to performance but both of these not are equal.

Performance means the ability & role perception of the individual. Thus,
if an individual has little ability & inaccurate in spite of his putting great

Aim of Job Satisfaction: -

There are 3 basic aims for the job attitude researches i.e,

1 Economic aim,
2 Humanistic aim and
3 Theoretical aim.
Economical aim: -

The economic aim of job attitude research is that a satisfied

employee will be more productive than an dissatisfied employee.

Humanistic aim: -

The humanistic aim of the job attitude research is to make the work
house as pleasurable & as meaningful as possible.

Theoretical aim: -

Theoretical aim of job attitude research is to increase our

understanding of man. Knowledge of the determinants of satisfaction &
dissatisfaction at work can contribute appreciably to motivate personality
theory in particular & to psychological theory in general.

Rewards: -

Rewards are of 2 types. They are

1. Intrinsic rewards2. Extrinsic rewards

Performance is seen as leading to

Intrinsic rewards such as sense of accomplishment &


Extrinsic rewards such as working conditions & status.

Perceived equitable rewards: -

The individual tends to perceive fairness by considering his inputs

& rewards on the job in comparison with these of other people. If this
comparison shows that he is getting equal to others he feels treated
fairly & he is satisfied. But if he finds himself getting less than others,
he feels dissatisfied. On rare occasions only does he feel over

The Aditya Birla Group

To be a premium global conglomerate with a clear focus on each



To deliver superior value to their customers, shareholders, employees

and society at large.


Integrity- Honesty in every action.

Commitment-Deliver on the promise.
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Seamlessness-Boundary less in letter and spirit.
Speed-One step ahead always.

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inherently believes in the trusteeship concept of management. Part of
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Aditya Birla Group adopted 3700 villages, reaching out to 7

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The Grasim Story:

The Grasim group acquired 10. 6 percent stake in L&T from

Ambanis of Reliance group in late 2001. Birlas had paid a premium of
47 % over the market price of L&T share at that time. At that point of
time, it was mentioned in the media that the Grasims target was the
cement business of L&T, though A.V.Birla Group denied it. The MD&A
report of Grasim in 2001-02 just mentioned that there is synergy
between both companies for mutual benefits.

In FY 2002, Grasim increased its holding in L&T to 14.53 % along

with its wholly owned subsidiary Samruddhi. Then in line with
regulatory requirements, in October 2002, the Company made an Open
Offer for acquisition of a further 20% stake in L&T. The wholly-owned
subsidiary of the company, Samruddhi, then acquired an additional
0.83% stake in L&T through open market purchases, thus raising the
aggregate holding of the Company and its subsidiary in L&T to 15.36%
of the subscribed and paid up capital in L&T.

Though SEBI stalled the open offer proceeding following

complaints that Grasim had acquired the management control of the
L&T but later cleared it. All the way the analysts and business media
quoted that the main aim of Grasim is to acquire the management
control of L&Ts cement business. But the companys annual report in
2002-03 didnt mention anything about this. The MD&A report simply
explained the facts as they happened just like a News item, though it
was under the heading Strategic Moves.

But later it become apparent that Grasims aim was L&Ts cement
business when it struck a deal with L&Ts management for getting
control of the cement division.

This move has altered the profile of the Grasims cement

business drastically. In a single shot this L&T agreement gave the
control of Indias largest cement manufacturer to Birlas and made
Grasim as the largest cement producer in the country. Along with L&Ts
cement units, Grasims total cement capacity stands at 31 million
tones which accounts for 22 % of the installed capacity in the country

The other major advantages that Grasim got through the deal are

The synergy between both the companies will be high as both are
under single management and is expected to save a minimum of Rs
100 crore every year
Due to this move, the three groups L&T-Grasim, Gujarat Ambuja-
ACC and India Cements control nearly half of the Indian cement
market. Some 50 companies occupy the rest of the market. This
closes the door for any multinational to gain foothold in the Indian
This consolidation will give the top players, mainly Grasim and
Gujarat Ambuja-ACC, a control over the cement prices in the market.

Hence this acquisition drastically changed the opportunities of Grasim.

The share prices of Grasim shoot up by 12 % on the next day of the
deal and the scrip witnessed record 3.1 million transactions on that

But the MD&A report of the 2002-03 did not talk anything about these
business motives. It can be argued that revealing these moves may
spoil the party. But this was very much open secret. By not mentioning
about this intention, Grasim denied the rights of its shareholders to be

UltraTech Cement Limited:


Ultratech cement limited was formed effectively in July 2004, with

demerge of cement from LARSEN & TOURBONS limited and taken over
by Aditya Birla Groups and got merged into Aditya Vikram Birla Group
of industries.

The cement business of Ultratech was started in 1979 at AWARPUR and

then later expanded to various locations. The main business of this
division is manufacturing and marketing of different types of cement
for various customer segments like government, institutions,
builder/contractors, stockiest, cement based industries.

Ultratech Cement limited is a technology driven company with leading

edge capabilities in fields related to infrastructure and basic industries.

In terms of main stream criteria like sales, profits assets and market
capitalization. Ultratech ranks among top ten in Indias private sector.
The company also ranked high by less tangible yardsticks such as
intellectual capital and brand worth.

Ultratech cement division consists of five integrated cement

manufacturing plants and five grounding units with a installed capacity
of 17 million tones per annum located in different parts of the country
and 3 terminals including one at Srilanka.

Almost all factories have secured ISO-9001, 14001, 18001(OHSAS) and

other reach underline its strong customer orientation. The network
extends to virtually every district in the country.

UltraTech Cement Limited plants are located at:

1. Awarpur cement works. Awarpur, Maharashtra

2. Hirmi cement works. Hirmi, Madhya Pradesh
3. Gujarat cement works. Kovya, Gujarat
4. Andhra Pradesh cements works. Tadpatri, Andhra
5. Narmada cements works. Gujarat

UltraTech Cement Limited grinding units are located at:

1. Jharsuguda Orissa
2. Arakonam Tamilnadu
3. Magdalla & Ratnagiri Maharashtra
Durgapur Westbengal
APCW is located 360 kms. South of Hyderabad in the state of Andhra
Pradesh in South India. Along with the grinding unit at Arakonam it has
a capacity of 3.6 million tones of cement per annum. The plant is
ideally suited to cater to markets in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,
Tamilnadu and Kerala.

Selected TADIPATRI for setting up its Andhra Pradesh Cement Works

(APCW) because there is a huge limestone deposit and the quality of
limestone is considered to be extremely good. Also, other
corrective/additive materials such as iron ore, laetrile and gypsum
required in cement production are available nearby. In addition,
Tadpatri is well connected by railway line and roads. The Chennai-
Mumbai railway lines runs close to APCW's plant.

A peculiarity of APCW is that its mines fall in Kurnool district while the
plant is in Anantapur District.

The cement plant's installed capacity is 2 million tones per annum (Mt).
APCW started APCW project with a prospecting license in March 1992
followed by a mining lease in June 1993. When various formalities were
completed, action shifted from the drawing board to the project site
with the first association commencing in November 1995. Due to
excellent co-operation from the Government of AP, APCW did not face
many problems while setting up APCW.

Even the acute shortage of power in the state did not hamper the
construction activities. The construction was completed totally with the
help of diesel generating sets. In view of the expected power shortage,
APCW is provided with two diesel generator sets of 24.6 MW (i.e.,
2x12.3 MW), which is around 60% of total power requirement of the
APCW caters to the cement users in the southern part of India. It is
ideally located as far as the market is concerned.

This Plant has been set up by APCW itself with the coordinated efforts
of all its business groups, which minimized the problems during the
execution stage.

Land area of APCW is

Plant 520 acres

173 acres

Plant Capacity 8000 TPD

Total employees 590

Area acquired in 2009-2010 2780 acres

Unique features of APCW:

Only cement plant in APCW with a split location of entire main plant on
top of a hillock and the packing plant down the hill.

1. One of the plants using minimum energy for cement manufacturing.

2. Only plant where the entire cement loading rake of 40 wagons can
be placed on one stretch constructed on engine on load concept.
3. The RCC chimney at the plant is the tallest in the Indian cement
4. It has two raw mills having a roller diameter of 5m ATOX 50 mills;
these are the two biggest mills in the country.
5. First unit to implement computerized billing for cement loading.

Cement Machinery:
Complete range from crushing to packing plants are supplied by
APCW machinery division in Collaboration with F.L.Smitdth & co.,
Denmark, extends over three decades Over 50 plants supplied a
major market share in India

Presently the largest capacity 7500 TPD in a single line cements

production in India.
Vertical roller mills for raw materials and cement grinding
Fuel-efficient pry-processing systems
High-pressure roller presses for cement mill.
Modern Deflect burner for efficient flame control.
Hydraulic drive colas cooler with new generation CIS cooler inlet.
Efficient Pollution control equipments like ESP, Reverse air Bag
CEM scanner for kiln refractory management
QCX for meal blending and quality control
Fuzzy logic system for plant optimization
Cool scanner for monitoring colas cooler
DNV of Netherlands certifies the plant with following standards as:
ISO 9002
ISO 14001
OHSAS 18001
APCW manufactures Ordinary Portland cement, Portland pozzolana
Cement and Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement, which are distributed
through a wide network of Authorized Stockiest through the brand
named L & T Cement.

Man power:

Based on requirement of each individual department hand of that

department is asked to give information to man power department
regarding the number of persons required the departmental heads
assess his requirements based on the available departmental job
description to ensure role clarity and to avoid role ambiguity.

The total employees in APCW are368 cover all departments. There are
nearly 600 contract labors working every day.


What is cement?

Cement is a generic term used for all powdered material which, when
mixed with water, has a plastic form, but becomes a solid structure
within a few hours. The structure gains strength and bonding
properties with age. Cement in one form or the other has been there
for ages and has been used as a building material since ancient times -
examples, which stand out, are the classic structures in Rome and
pyramids in Egypt. Evidence also exists of its usage in the Indus
civilization of Mohenjo-Daro. Credit for the invention of cement goes to
an Englishman, Joseph Aspadin, who first manufactured cement in
1824 by burning limestone and clay. It was termed as 'Portland
Cement' because the color of hardened cement paste had a strong
resemblance to Portland stone found in Portland, England. In 1875, an
American named David Saylor improved the mix design of limestone
and clay resulting in a much more superior quality of cement.

What is Clinker?
When limestone, along with various additives of defined chemical
composition, is burnt under controlled conditions, at a temperature
ranging between 1400 to 1600 degrees centigrade, the calcium oxide
present in the limestone reacts with alumina oxide, iron and silica. The
hot semi solid mass is subjected to sudden cooling, forming nodules of
10 to 20 mm. The black nodules thus formed are called clinker.

Quarrying and crushing

The primary raw material for cement manufacture is calcium carbonate
or limestone. This is obtained from the quarry where, after the removal
of overburden, the rock is blasted, loaded into dumpers and
transported to the crusher. A multistage crushing process reduces the
rock to stone less than 25 mm in diameters.
Blending and storage

The crushed rock is stored in stockpiles where, by a carefully controlled

process of stacking and reclaiming across the stockpile, blending
takes place and a uniform quality of raw material is achieved.
Systematic sampling and laboratory testing monitor this
process. The other raw materials, ALUMINIUM LATERITE and
IRON ORE, are also stored in stockpiles.

Raw milling and homogenization

Carefully measured quantities of the various raw materials are fed, via
raw mill feed silos, to mills where steel balls grind the material
to a fine powder called raw meal. Homogenizing silos are used
to store the meal where it is mixed thoroughly to ensure that the
kiln feed is uniform, a prerequisite for the efficient functioning of
the kiln and for good quality clinker.


The most critical step in the manufacturing process, takes place in the
huge rotary kilns. Raw meal is fed into one end of the kiln via a
preheated system, and pulverized coal is burnt at the other end.
The raw meal slowly cascades down the inclined kiln towards
the heat and reaches a temperature of about 1 450 C in the
burning zone where a process called clinkering occurs. The
nodules of clinker drop into coolers and are taken away by
conveyors to the clinker storage silos. The gas leaving the kiln is
passed through the Reverse Air Bag House prior to discharge
into the atmosphere.

Cement milling

The Cement mills use steel balls of various sizes to grind the
clinker, along with other raw materials to a fine powder to get
designated grade of cement.
Along with clinker, gypsum is added to get Ordinary Portland
Along with gypsum and clinker, fly ash is added to get Pozzolona
Portland Cement.

Slag is added along with gypsum and clinker to get Pozzolona

Slag Cement.


Ultra Tech Cement Limited is Indias largest cement producer, with a

manufacturing capacity of over 17 million tones per year. Ultra Tech
Cement limited manufactures and markets.

Ordinary Portland Cement 33, 43, 53 grades (OPC).

Portland blast furnace slag cement(PPC)
Rapid hardening Portland cement
Sulphate resistant Cement(SRC)

Aditya Birla Group CSR:

The footprint of our social work today straddles over 3,700 villages,
reaching out to more than 2 million people annually. Our community
work is a way of telling the people among whom we operate that We

Strategy-projects are carried out under the aegis of the "Aditya Birla
Centre for Community Initiatives and Rural Development", led by Mrs.
Rajashree Birla. The Centre provides the strategic direction, and the
thrust areas for our work ensuring performance management as well.

Our focus is on the all-round development of the communities around

our plants located mostly in distant rural areas and tribal belts. All our
Group companies - Grasim, Hindalco, Indian Rayon, Indo Gulf and
UltraTech have Rural Development Cells which are the implementation
Projects are planned after a participatory need assessment of the
communities around the plants. Each project has a one-year and a
three-year rolling plan, with milestones and measurable targets. The
objective is to phase out our presence over a period of time and hand
over the reins of further development to the people. This also enables
us to widen our reach. Along with internal performance assessment
mechanisms, our projects are audited by reputed external agencies,
who measure it on qualitative and quantitative parameters, helping us
gauge the effectiveness and providing excellent inputs.

Our partners in development are government bodies, district

authorities, village panchayats and the end beneficiaries -- the
villagers. The Government has, in their 5-year plans, special funds
earmarked for human development and we recourse to many of these.
At the same time, we network and collaborate with like-minded
bilateral and unilateral agencies to share ideas, draw from each other's
experiences, and ensure that efforts are not duplicated. At another
level, this provides a platform for advocacy. Some of the agencies we
have collaborated with are UNFPA, SIFSA, CARE India, and Habitat for
Humanity International, UNICEF and the World Bank.

Focus areas-Our rural development activities span five key areas and
our single-minded goal here is to help build model villages that can
stand on their own feet.

Health care:

Mobile clinics - doctors visit once a week

Medical camps - general and issue-based
Health training and awareness
Sanitation - toilets, training, smokeless chullahs, biogas
Safe drinking water
Mother and child health
Reproductive health

Awareness building

Balwadis (pre-school)
Adult education

Non-formal education

Continuing education

Scholarships for girls, merit and technical education

Rural Development

Self-help groups
SGSY - dairy, readymade garments, jute project, basket making,
aggarbati making, bee keeping, durries making.

Check dam


Land development

Soil and water conservation

Pasture development

Gujarat Ambuja cement Ltd (GACL) .

India cement Ltd.(ICL)
Associated cement companies Ltd (ACCL).
Jaiprakash associates Ltd (JAL).
Cement as a building material has been known in one form or
other since the time of ancient Sindh civilization. The information about the
preparation and use of cement before 18 th century was scanty. Egyptians
are known as the first users of cement. The Greek civilization used some
forms of mortar but Romans had developed it.

Although various types of mineral-based hydraulic cement are of

ancient origin, hydraulic cements have been used only since the middle of
the 18th century. The term Portland cement was first used and introduced
in 1824 by Joseph Aspdin, a British cement maker, because of the
resemblance between concrete made from his cement and Portland stone,
which was much used in building in England. The first modern Portland
cement, made from lime and clay or shale materials heated until they
formed cinders (or clinkers) and then ground, was produced in England in
1845. At that time cements were usually made in upright kilns where the
raw materials were spread between layers of coke, which was then burned.
The first rotary kilns were introduced about 1880. Portland cement is now
almost universally used for structural concrete.

The Indian cement industry is the second largest in the world after
China, in terms of quality, productivity and efficiency it compares with the
best anywhere.

Cement like steel is one basic material for the technical development
of the country. Cement industry is one of the major and oldest established
manufacturing industry in the modern sector of Indian economy.

Cement Industry in India:

In Indian it came to be established during the beginning of the 20 th
century. In fact the cement era in India commenced with the
establishment of a small cement factory at Washermanpet in Madras now
called Chennai in 1904 by south India industry limited a company that
dates back to 1879. The potential capacity of this plant was only 10, 000
Metric tons per annum.

First and indigenous industry in which the company is well endowed

with all the necessary raw materials, skilled man power, equipment and
machine technology.

This factory commenced its production in 1914 at the rate of 199

Metric tons per day. The company adopted Dry Process. This plant had
easy access of lime stone quarries at Porbandhar. This initial attempt could
cause the attempt of two more factories.

One at Kathy (Madhya Pradesh) another at Lechery (Rajasthan) by

Kathy Cement limited and Bundy Portland Cement Limited respectively in
January 1915 and December 1916. As selling prices remained low and
output could not be raised to the desired rate, there was unmet demand
for the materials. On February 28 th 1982, when Government of India
announced partial decontrol of cement, it marked the beginning of new
era of the cement industry.

A new impetus to the cement industry was provided during the post
independence period through setting up of targets for cement production.

Largest Cement Production in India:

ACC Cement is the largest cement producer in India during a year. It

produced 7.3 Million tons per annum.

The cement has certain special features:

1 It is location specific. Plant has to be necessarily located closest to

the main raw materials like limestone deposits. Being location
specific, there has been a concentration of cement plants in certain
states like Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh
and Andhra Pradesh. With no lime stone deposits the eastern states
have practically no plants.
2 Cement is stored at plants on silos with capacities of 8 to 10 days
production. When the silos are full, production has to be curtailed
and limited to the quantity that could be dispatched.
3 Transportation costs has an important bearing on the final price of
cement, road transportation is turning more and more uneconomic
with increasing loads.
4 Cement industry caters to local markets needs. Only a small portion
of production is exported. Demand for cement varies with the tempo
of construction of housing, real estate and infrastructure projects in
the country.


Cement is produced in four basic stages that is quarrying and

crushing; grinding and blending raw materials; clinker production and finish
grinding. In the dry process, the ground and blended raw materials are fed
to the combustion zone of the kiln. The retention time and the heating
temperature are one hour and 1300 1400 degree centigrade respectively.
Coal is crushed and pulverized for efficient use. The product from the kiln
consists of dark hard nodules called clinker. The nodules cooled in the
clinker cooler prior to storage, there after ground in the cement mill with a
small amount of additives, which retard the cement setting time. Finally
the cement is packed in the bags for transportation.


The basic raw material for manufacturing cement is limestone. This

is available in plenty in the form of limestone deposits in nature.
Limestone is excavated from mines by mechanical equipment with the help
of stocker and reclaimed. The correct blending of limestone is ensured.
The same is passed through crushers to bring it to the required size.

The raw materials consist of limestone, iron ore and Bauxite or

Latarite, in the correct proportions are fed into a grinding mill where they
are reduced to a very fine of compressed air. The power from the storage
ribsis fed into rotary kiln, the material is subjected to a temperature of
about 1500c. Chemical reaction takes place between various materials
resulting in the formation of cement compounds like calcium silicate (about
24%), dicalcium silicate (about 20%), tri calcium aluminates (about 7 to
10%), and tetra calcium aluminum ferrite (about 10 to 12%).


Apart from meeting the entire domestic demand, the industry is also
exporting cement and clinker. The export of cement during 2001 02 and
2003-04 was 5.14 million tones and 6.92 million tones. Major exporters
were Gujarat Ambuja cements Ltd and Ultra Tech Ltd.


Cement industry has made tremendous strides in technological up

gradation and assimilation of latest technology. At present 93% of the total
production capacity in the industry is based on the modern technology.
India is also producing different varieties of cement like ordinary Portland
Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Portland Blast Furnace
Slag Cement (PBFS), oil well cement, Rapid Hardening Portland Cement,
Sulphate resisting Portland Cement, white cement etc., Production of these
varieties of cement conform to the BIS specifications. It is worth
mentioning that some cement plants have set up dedicated jetties for
promoting bulk transportation and export.


To indicate the specific factors of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

To suggest the measures for improved job satisfaction of


To identify that how far motivational factors impact on the job


To measure the dispensary between what one wants in job and

what one has in a job.

The importance of job satisfaction is

obvious because the employees are satisfied then only the
organization can run smoothly, increase its production &face
competition. Therefore, the organization needs information on job
satisfaction of their employees in order to make sound decisions and to
enhance their performance to high level. Hence the present study has
to be undertaken in this direction.

Job satisfaction is really big factor for a

professional because it brings enjoyment while working which in turns
brings happiness in life.

The economic aim of the job attitude

research is that a satisfied employee will be more productive than an
dissatisfied employee.

The humanistic aim of the job attitude

research is to make the workhouse as pleasurable and as meaningful
as possible.

Theoretical aim of job attitude research is to

increase our understanding of man. Knowledge of the determinants of
satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work can contribute appreciably to
motivate personality theory in particular and to psychological theory in


Research Methodology is a way to solve the research
problem systematically. Research may be in common parlance referred
to as search for knowledge. In Research Methodology we are not know
talk of the research methods. But also consider the logic behind the
methods we use in the content of our research study and explain why
we are using a particular method of technique. Hence is this we study
various steps that are generally adopted in studying research problem
along with the logic behind them. It is a broad outline of the method
and procedure adopted for the purpose of the study.


Research refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define
research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information
on a specific topic.

Research is an art of scientific investigation.

Systemized effort to gain new knowledge [Redman and Mary]
It is a voyage of discovery

Methodology can be defined as-

The analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates

employed by a discipline.
The systematic study of methods that are, can be or have been
applied within a discipline.
A particular procedure or set of procedures.

Methodology includes a collection of theories, concepts or ideas as

they relate to a particular discipline or field of inquiry:

Methodology refers to more than a simple set of methods; ] rather it

refers to the rationale and the philosophical assumptions that underlie
a particular study relative to the scientific method. This is why
scholarly literature often includes a section on the methodology of the
researchers. This section does more than outline the researchers
methods might explain what the researchers ontological or
epistemological views are.

Another key (though arguably imprecise) usage for methodology does

not refer to research or to the specific analysis techniques. This often
refers to anything and everything that can be encapsulated for a
discipline or a series of processes, activities and tasks. Examples of
this are found in software development, project management and
business process fields. This use of the term is typified by the outline
who, what, where, when, and why. In the documentation of the
processes that make up the discipline, that is being supported by "this"
methodology, that is where we would find the "methods" or processes.
The processes themselves are only part of the methodology along with
the identification and usage of the standards, policies, rules, etc.

Researchers acknowledge the need for rigor, logic, and coherence in

their methodologies, which are subject to peer review.

Research process:

A presentation of brief overview of research process is

appropriate before embarking on the details of research methodology.
Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to
effectively to carry out the research.

Research Design:

A research design used in the study is descriptive design

the descriptive research included surveys and fax finding enquiries of
different kinds the major purpose descriptive research is description of
the state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristics of
this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables
.He/she can only report what is happening .In this descriptive design,
we get information from most accessible population.


In order to take a reasonable sample size and not to

disturb the functioning of the organization, a sample size of reasonable

strength of the Company has been taken in order to arrive at the

present practices of training in the Company.

Accordingly, 100 employees have been selected at random

from all the departments of the organization and feedback forms

(questionnaire) have been obtained. The data has been analyzed in

order to arrive at present training practices in the organization.


The technique of Random Sampling has been used in the

analysis of the data/Random sampling from a finite population refers to

that method of sample selection, which gives each possible sample

combination an equal probability of being picked up and each item in

the entire population to have an equal chance of being included in the

sample. This sampling is without replacement, i.e. once an item is

selected for the sample, it cannot appear in the sample again.


To determine the appropriate data for research mainly two kinds of

data was collected namely primary & secondary data as explained



Primary data are those, which were collected afresh &

for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. However,
there are many methods of collecting the primary data; all have not

been used for the purpose of this project. The ones that have been

used are:

Structured Questionnaire

Formal and Informal Interviews



Secondary data is collected from previous researches and

literature to fill in the respective project. The secondary data was

collected through:

Text Books published by different agencies

Manuals of the Organization

Information on Websites




A well designed and a structured questionnaire was being

administered to the respondents to carry out the research.

The main statistical tools used for the collection and analyses of data

in this project are:

Pie Charts & Bar Diagrams



Sample size is decided under three decisions:

1- Sample Size unit The employees in various depts at APCW
constitute sample unit.

2- Sample Size No. - 100 Staff members.

3- Sample size method simple random sampling Method


The following are the limitations of the study:

As the sample size was only 100 of the entire manpower, this
analysis will not reflect entire Ultra Tech Cement Ltd.,

The time period of 30 days is not enough to study the concept of

job satisfaction in Ultra Tech Cement Ltd.,

Time constraint w. r .t the interviews/discussions with the


Analysis of data is process of inspecting, cleaning,

transforming and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful
information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making.
Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing
diverse techniques under a variety of names in different business,
science and social domains.
Characteristics of data analysis:
The characteristics of the data analysis can be assessed by taking at:

Basic statistics of important variables

Scatter plots


Cross- tabulations

Several analyses can be used during the initial data analysis

Univariate statistics

Bivariate associations( correlations)

Graphical techniques(scatter plots)

1. Please indicate your opinion on your job satisfaction?

a) Fair b) good c) very good d) excellent

Fair Good Very good Excellent

Observation 20 80 0 0
Percentage 20% 80% 0% 0%
Table.4.1- opinion on job satisfaction

Graph.4.1- opinion on job satisfaction


From the above graph it is clear that 20% of the

employees says that their job satisfaction is fair and 80% of the
employee says that their satisfaction towards job is good.

2. How do you feel about your job timings?

a) Convenient b) Inconvenient

Convenient Inconvenient
Observation 96 4
Percentage 96% 4%
Table.4.2- opinion on job timings

Graph.4.2- opinion on job timings


From the above pie diagram, it is clear that

96% of the employees in the organization are convenient with
their job timings and only 4% of the employees are
inconvenient with their job timings.

3. How do you feel about your workload?

a) Relaxed b) balanced c) no opinion d) burdened

Relaxed Balanced No opinion Burdened

Observatio 44 56 0 0
Percentage 44% 56% 0% 0%
Table.4.3- employee opinion towards work load

Graph.4.3- employee opinion towards work load


From the above graph , it is clear that 44% of the

employees in the organization feel the allotted workload as relaxed and
56% o the employees are feel that he allotted work as normal.

4. Are you satisfied with your recognition you get from the
management for your work?
a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied c) Dissatisfied d) Highly
Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly
satisfied dissatisfied
Observatio 40 60 0 0
Percentage 40% 60% 0% 0%
Table.4.4-employee satisfaction with the management

Graph.4.4- employee satisfaction with the management



From the above graph it is clear that 60% of the

employees get satisfied with the recognition that they get from the
management for their work while on other hand only 40% of the
employees get highly satisfied with the recognition from the

5. Are you satisfied with your salary is comparable with the market?
a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) no opinion d) highly

Highly Satisfied No opinion Highly

satisfied dissatisfied
Observatio 48 52 0 0
Percentage 48% 52% 0% 0%
Table.4.5-employee satisfaction on salary

Graph.4.5-employee satisfaction on salary


From the above graph it is clear that employees of

ULTRATECH LTD. Says that 52% of the employees satisfied with their
salary comparable with the market and 48% of the employees highly
6. Do you feel the job which you are doing is related with your
education qualification?
a) Yes b) no

Yes No
Observation 100 0
Percentage 100% 0%
Table.4.6-whether the job is related to the educational qualification or

Graph.4.6- whether the job is related to the educational qualification or



From the above graph it is clear that employees in

the organization are doing jobs which is related to their educational
qualification only.
7. How do you prefer in doing the current job?
a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) dissatisfied d) highly

Highly Satisfi Dissatisfi Highly

satisfied ed ed dissatisfied
Observatio 4 96 0 0
Percentag 4% 96% 0% 0%
Table.4.7- how well employee likes the job

Graph.4.7-how well employee likes the job


From the above graph it is clear that 96% of the

employees are satisfying their job and only 4% of the employees
dissatisfies their job in the organization.
8. Do you get autonomy in your current job?
a) Fair b) good c) very good d) excellent

Fair Good Very good Excellent

Observation 16 84 0 0
Percentage 16% 84% 0% 0%
Table.4.8-autonomy towards job

Graph.4.8- autonomy towards job

From the above graph it is clear that 84% of the
employees agreed that autonomy in their job is good and 16% of the
employees agreed that autonomy in their job is fair.

9. What is the level of communication between employer and

a) Fair b) good c) very good d) excellent

Fair Good Very good Excellent

Observation 12 88 0 0
Percentage 12% 88% 0% 0%
Table.4.9-level of communication between employer and employee

Graph.4.9- level of communication between employer and


From the above graph it is clear that 88% of the
communication between the employer and employee in the
organization is good, and 12% of the communication is fair to the
employees in the organization.

10. Are you satisfied with the working conditions in the


a) Strongly agree b) agree c) neutral d) disagree e)

strongly disagree

Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly

agree disagree
Observati 72 24 4 0 0
Percentag 72% 24% 4% 0% 0%
Table.4.10-employee pleasure to work in working conditions of the
Graph.4.10- employee pleasure to work in working conditions of the


From the above graph we can say that 72% of the

respondents strongly agreed that pleasure to work in the working
conditions, 24% are agreed and 4% respondents are neutral.

11. How far you are satisfied with the organizational norms

a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) no opinion d) highly


Highly Satisfie No opinion Highly

satisfied d dissatisfied
Observati 72 24 4 0
Percenta 72% 24% 4% 0%
Table.4.11-satisfaction towards the organizational norms
Graph.4.11- satisfaction towards the organizational rules and


From the above graph I come to know that 72%

respondents are highly satisfied with organizational norms, 24% are
satisfied and 4% are no opinion.

12. Job rotation in your organization facilitates employee


a) Strongly agree b) agree c) undecided d) disagree

e) strongly disagree

Strongly Agree Un Disagree Strongly

agree decided disagree
Observati 80 20 0 0 0
Percentag 80% 20% 0% 0% 0%
Table.4.12-job rotation facilitates the employee development
Graph.4.12- job rotation facilitates the employee development


From the above graph it is clear that 80% of the

respondents strongly agreed with the job rotation in the
organization while on the other hand 20% are agreed.

13. I feel proud to work for the organization

a) Strongly agree b) agree c) undecided d) disagree

e) strongly disagree

Strongly Agree Undecide Disagree Strongly

agree d disagree
Observati 88 8 4 0 0
Percentag 88% 8% 4% 0% 0%
Table.4.13-how far the employee feels proud to work in the
Graph.4.13- how far the employee feels proud to work in the


The above graph says that 88% of the

employees are strongly agreed that they feel proud to work in
the organization and 8% are agreed and 4% says that

14. I always feel that I am identified by work I perform

a) Strongly agree b) agree c) undecided d) disagree

e) strongly disagree

Strongly Agree Undecide Disagree Strongly

agree d disagree
Observati 88 8 4 0 0
Percentag 88% 8% 4% 0% 0%
Table.4.14-whether the empolyee identified by the work perform
Graph.4.14- whether the empolyee identified by the work


From the above graph it is clear that 88% of the

respondents are strongly agreed that they are identified by their work
and 8% are also agreed with that and 4% are undecided.


1. Job satisfaction of the employees in the organization is good.

2. ULTRATECH CEMENT INDUSTRIES Ltd. provides the convenient

duty timings to their employees.
3. ULTRATECH provides better work place that is free of all types
of discrimination, abusive and harassing behavior to the

4. At ULTRATECH, everyone feels that communication between

employer and employee is open and honest.

5. Job rotation in the organization facilitates employee


6. Existing employees in the organization feels proud to work in


7. Employee in the organization is identified by work they



The participation of workers in management activities should

be encouraged through suggestion boxes, feedback
sessions. This will give motivational effect on them and a
sense of belonging and they feel it as intrinsic reward and
contribute towards achievement of organizational objectives.
Compensation package may include performance linked pay
based on periodical review of performance of the
Awards/ Rewards in the form of letter of appreciation,
Trophies may be implemented based on performance in
various departments and these may be given due
importance in promotions.

From the above study I concluded that the employees
who are working in the organization are satisfying not only
with their job but also other factors such as self esteem,
level of communication and norms of the organization. In
other words it is clear that the management is favorable to
the employees with out any bias.

Name of the author Title of the

P. Subba Rao Personal & Human

Resource Management
Stephen Robins Personal & Human
Resource Management
Stephen Robins Organizational Behaviour
Fread Luthans Organizational Behaviour
C.R.Kothari Research Methodology


The questionnaire is designed to help

you answer quick. Please give your honest opinion. Answering
should not be based on single incident or particular period. While
answering take whole experience of your job at ULTRATECH into

1. Please indicate your opinion on your job satisfaction

(a) Fair (b) Good (c) Very good (d) Excellent

2. Do you feel about your duty timings

(a) Convenient (b) Inconvenient

3. How do you feel about your workload

(a) Relaxed (b) Normal (c) No opinion (d) Burdened

4. Are you satisfied with your recognition you get from the
management for your work
(a) Highly Satisfied (b) satisfied (c) No Opinion (d) Highly

5. Are you satisfied with your salary in the organization

(a) Highly Satisfied (b) Satisfied (c) No Opinion (d) Highly

6. Do you feel the job which you are doing is related with your
education qualification
(a) Yes (b) No

7. How do you prefer in doing the current job

(a) highly satisfied (b) satisfied (c) dissatisfied (d) highly
8. Do you get autonomy in your current job
(a) Fair (b) Good (c) Very good (d) Excellent

9. What is the level of communication between employer and

(a) Fair (b) Good (c) Very good (d) Excellent

10. Are you satisfied with the working conditions in the

(a) Strong Agree (b) Agree (c) Neutral (d) Disagree (e)
Strongly disagree

11. How far you are satisfied with the organizational norms
(a) Highly Satisfied (b) Satisfied (c) No Opinion (d) Highly

12. Job rotation in your organization facilitates employee

(a) Strongly Agree (b) Agree (c) Undecided (d) Disagree (e)
Strongly Disagree

13.I feel proud to work for the organization

(a) Strongly Agree (b) Agree (c0 Undecided (d) Disagree (e)
Strongly Disagree

14. I always feel that I am identified by work I perform

a) Strongly Agree (b) Agree (c) Undecided (d) Disagree (e)
Strongly Disagree