Sunteți pe pagina 1din 116

DESIGN OF TWO VENT BOX BARREL FOR SYPHON AQUEDUCT

Name of the work:-Elamanchili minor drain under Medpadu field


channel @ 0/750 Km
OF TWO VENT BOX BARREL FOR SYPHON AQUEDUCT

the work:-Elamanchili minor drain under Medpadu field


channel @ 0/750 Km
Note on site conditions

As per the record the hydraulic particulars of Chilla minor drain&Field channel
at proposed site are as given below:-

Hydraulic Particulars Units Chilla Minor Field channel


drain

Chainage Km 0.500 ----

Discharge Cumecs 2.950 0.600

Bed level m 1.200 2.585

OFL m 2.210 2.910

MFL m 3.130 3.210

TBL m 4.130 3.510

RTL m 4.130 4.130

Bed width m 1.400 0.600

Top width m 7.260 0.600

Bed fall ---- 0.000250 0.000250

From the above hydraulic particulars,it can be observed that the MFL of Chilla minor drain is above
the bed level of field channel.It is proposed to construct Syphon Aqeduct with depressed floor
and 1V-RCC barrel of size 2.50mx1.50m for a length of 6m to accommodate the
existing village road after the field channel.

Further fluming of field channel is not proposed, hence existing width of the channel is not altered.
The floor of the aqeduct is proposed to be lowered to a level of +0.485 with vertical drop on upstream side
and raising of floor on down stream side in 1V to 5H to ensure clearing of sediments.

Wing walls are proposed both upstream&down stream sides of drain along with revetment for
slopes and bed protection.Cisterns are also proposed both U/S and D/S as per the requirement.Cut-off
walls are proposed both U/S and D/S sides of drain.

Similarly,wing walls along with bed and slope protections are proposed for field channel also
both U/S and D/S sides.

The hydraulic design of syphon aqueduct is carried out as per the guide lines stipulated in
IS 7784:Part1--1993.The structural design of the box barrel along with load combinations is carried out as
per the guide lines stipulated in IS 7784:Part2--5--1993.

In view of the above facts,the box barrel is designed as free flowing vented structure with all
possible combinations of loads.Further,the stability of the stucture is also ensured by providing
appropriate factors of safety against overturning and sliding.

As,it is not possible propose foundation of box culvert below Max.scour depth,protective
works are proposed for the bed of the minor drain as per the guidelines.
3.425
minor drain is above -2.1
1.325
2.065
-1.325

annel is not altered.


op on upstream side

h revetment for
quirement.Cut-off

channel also

ons is carried out as

ucture with all


Design of 1V Box Barrel

I)Design Parameters:-

Over all width of the barrel (WL) = 6.00m


Clear vent (b) = 2.50m
Clear depth (d) = 1.50m
Thickness of top slab (t1) = 0.30m
Thickness of side wall (t2) = 0.30m
Thickness of raft (t3) = 0.30m
Outer span (B) = 3.10m
Outer Depth (D) = 2.10m
Haunch width = 0.15
Haunch depth = 0.15
Thickness of wearing coat (t4) = 0.075m

Height of railing (h2) = 1.200m

Unit weight of RCC (yrc) = 25KN/cum

Unit weight of PCC (ypc) = 24KN/cum

Density of back fill soil behind side walls of Box (y) = 18KN/Cum

Unit weight of water (yw) = 10KN/Cum

Angle of shearing resistance of back fill material(Q) = 30

Angle of face of wall supporting earth with horizontal(In = 90


degrees)(in clock wise direction)(a)
Slope of back fill (b) = 0

Angle of wall friction (q) = 15

Height of surcharge considered (h3) = 1.20m

Barrel top level (BTL) = 2.585m

Drain bed level (DBL) = 1.200m

Drain High flood Level (HFL) = 3.130m


Depressed floor level of barrel = 0.785m

Barrel foundation level (BFL) = 0.485m


Channel bed level(CBL) = 2.585m
Channel top level(CTL) = 3.510m
Road top level (RTL) = 4.130m

Upstream side breast wall top level = 4.130m

Downstream side breast wall top level = 4.580m

Middle breast wall top level = 4.130m

Thickness of brest walls = 0.300m

Barrel length in Road portion = 4.500m

Barrel length in Channel portion = 0.600m


Safe Bearing Capacity of the soil (SBC) = 7.50t/sqm
Compressive strength of concrete for Box (fck) = 20.00N/sqmm

Yield strength of steel (fy) = 415.00N/sqmm


Cover to reinforcement = 50.00mm

Details of the preliminary structure assumed is as given below :-

SECTION
300
PLAN 300 300
450

1545

CANAL PORTION
300 ROAD PORTION 3100
2500

2100 1500
4500

300

6000
600

II)General loading pattern:-

As per IRC:6---2000,the following loadings are to be considered on the box


barrel in road portion:-

1.Dead load
2.Live load
3.Impact load
4.Wind load
5.Water current
6.Tractive,braking effort of vehicles&frictional resistance of bearings
7.Buoyancy
8.Earth pressure
9.Seismic force
10.Water pressure force
11.Static water pressure due to water in canal

As per clause 202.3,the increase in permissible stresses is not permissible for the
above loading combination.

Further as per IS 7784-Part 1---1993,the structure should be designed for the following forces :-

12.Uplift pressure due to flowing water


13.Uplift pressure due to subsurface flow
III)Loading on the box culvert :-

1.Dead Load:-

i)Self wieght of the top slab = 139.50KN

(3.1*6*0.3*25) =

ii)Self wieght of the bottom slab/Raft = 139.50KN

(3.1*6*0.3*25) =

iii)Self wieght of side walls = 135.00KN

(2*1.5*6*0.3*25) =

iv)Self weight of haunches = 6.75KN

(4*0.5*0.15*0.15*6*25) =
v)Self weight of wearing coat = 34.88KN
(3.1*6*0.075*25) =
vi)Self weight of U/S side brest wall = 35.92KN
(1*3.1*0.3*1.545*25) =
vii)Self weight of D/S side brest wall = 46.38KN
(1*3.1*0.3*1.995*25) =
viii)Self weight of middle brest wall = 35.92KN
(1*3.1*0.3*1.545*25) =
ix)Weight of earth on barrel in Road portion = 387.95KN
(18*3.1*4.5*1.545) =
961.80KN

There is no need to consider snow load as per the climatic conditions

Taking moments of all loads about upstream end,we get

S.No Item Weight Distance of Moment


centroid about
from U/S upstream
end end in KN-m

1 Top slab 139.50KN 3.00 418.50

2 Bottom slab 139.50KN 3.00 418.50

3 Side walls 135.00KN 3.00 405.00

4 Haunches 6.75KN 3.00 20.25

5 Wearing coat 34.88KN 3.00 104.64

6 U/S brest wall 35.92KN 0.15 5.39

7 D/S brest wall 46.38KN 5.85 271.32


8 Mid. brest wall 35.92KN 0.75 26.94

9 Earth fill 387.95KN 3.15 1222.04

961.80KN 2892.58

Distance of centroid of above dead load from U/S end = 3.007m

Eccentricity in x- direction = 0.007m

The position of resultant dead load is as shown below:-

X 6000

3100

2.Live Load:-

As per clause 201.1 of IRC:6--2000,the bridges and culverts of medium importance


are to be designed for IRC Class A loading.

GENERAL IRC Class-A loading Pattern

1.10 3.20 1.20 4.30 3.00 3.00 3.00


6.8t
6.8t
6.8t
11.4t

6.8t
2.7t
2.7t

11.4t

1.80
The IRC Class A loading as per the drawing is severe for bearing stresses on soil and the same is to be
considered as per clauses 207.1.3&207.4

Position of Live load for


Max.Soil pressure

X
3100

Portion to be loaded with


live load of 5KN/sqm 1750

4500

1200 1525
11.4t
11.4t

1800 2750

u
0.45
Y

375

The ground contact area of wheels for the above placement,each axle wise is
given below:-

Axle load Ground Contact Area


(Tonnes) B(mm) W(mm)

11.4 250 500


6.8 200 380
2.7 150 200

Assuming 0.3m allowance for guide posts and the clear distance of vehicle from

the edge of guide post being 0.15m as per clause 207.1,the value of 'f' shown in the figure will

be 0.45m

Hence,the width of area to be loaded with 5KN/m2 on left side is (f) = 0.45m

Similarly,the area to be loaded on right side (k) = 1.75m

2.20m
The total live load on the top slab composes the following components:-

1.Wheel loads----Point loads

(114+114)=

3.Live load in remaing portion(Left side)----UDL


(0.45*3.1*5)=
4.Live load in remaing portion(Right side)----UDL
(1.75*3.1*5)=

Resultant live load:-

Eccentricity of live load w.r.t y-direction(Along the direction of travel of vehicles)

Taking moments of all the forces w.r.t y-axis

S.No Wheel Distance from Y-axis


Load/UDL in
KN

1 57 (0.3+0.45 1.00m
+0.5/2)=
2 57 (0.3+0.45 1.00m
+0.5/2)

3 57 (0.3+0.45 2.80m
+0.5/2+1.8)
4 57 (0.3+0.45 2.80m
+0.5/2+1.8)
5 6.975 (0.3+0.45/2)= 0.525m

6 27.125 (0.3+0.45/2 2.28m


+1.75) =

262.100

Distance of centroid of forces from y-axis


(498.57/262.1) =

= 1.902m

Eccentricity = 1.098m
(1.902-6/2)=

Eccentricity of live load w.r.t x-direction(At right angle to the travel of vehicles)

Taking moments of all the forces w.r.t x-axis

S.No Load in KN Distance from X-axis


1 57 (3.1-0.38) 2.72m

2 57 (3.1-0.38) 2.72m

3 57 [3.1- 1.52m
(0.38+1.2)]
=
4 57 [3.1- 1.52m
(0.38+1.2)]
=
7 6.98KN (3.1/2)= 1.55m

8 27.13KN (3.1/2)= 1.55m

262.1

Distance of centroid of forces from x-axis


(536.22/262.1) =

= 2.046m

Eccentricity = 0.496m
(2.046-3.1/2)=

Location of the resultant of live load is as shown in the figure given below:-

X 6000

3100
496
1098

The eccentricty of the line of action of live load wrt centroid in y-direction = 0.496m

The eccentricty of the line of action of live load wrt centroid in x-direction = 1.098m

3.Impact of vehicles:-

As per Clause 211 of IRC:6--2000,impact allowance shall be made by an increment

of live load by a factor 4.5/(6+L)

Hence,the factor is 0.495


[4.5/(6+3.1)]=
Further as per clause 211.7 of IRC:6--2000,the above impact factor shall be only

50% for calculation of pressure on piers and abutments just below the level of bed block.There

is no need to increase the live load below 3m depth.

As such,the impact allowance for the top 3m of box culvert will be


(0.495/2)=

For the remaining portion,impact need not be considered.

4.Wind load:-

The deck system is located at height of (RTL-LBL) 3.38m


[4.58-(1.20)]=

The Wind pressure acting on deck system located at that height is considered for design.

As per clause 212.3 and from Table .4 of IRC:6---2000,the wind pressure at that
height is (52+1.38*(63-52)/2)=

59.59 Kg/m2.

Height of the deck system = 3.380

Breadth of the deck system =(3.1) = 3.10

The effective area exposed to wind force =HeightxBreadth = 10.478

Hence,the wind force acting at centroid of the deck system =


(Taking 50% perforations) (0.5*59.59*10.478*10/1000)=

Further as per clause 212.4 of IRC:6---2000 ,300 Kg/m wind force is considered to be

acting at a hieght of 1.5m from road surface on live load vehicle.

Hence,the wind force acting at 1.5m above the road surface =


(300*6.0*10/1000)=

The location of the wind force from the top of Raft slab of box culvert =
(1.5+0.3+1.5+0.075) =

5.Water current force:-

Water pressure considered on square ended abutments as per clause 213.2 of


IRC:6---2000 is

P = 52KV2 = 37.14 Kg/m2.


(52*1.5*0.692)=
(where the value of 'K' is 1.5 for square endedside walls)
For the purpose of calculation of exposed area to water current force,only 1.0m

width of box is considered for full hieght upto HFL

Hence,the water current force = 0.51KN


[37.14*1.0*(2.585-(1.20)*10/1000] =

Point of action of water current force from the top of RCC raft slab = [3.13-(1.20)]/3 =

6.Tractive,braking effort of vehicles&frictional resistance of bearings:-

The breaking effect of vehicles shall be 20% of live load acting in longitudinal

direction at 1.2m above road surface as per the clause 214.2 of IRC:6--2000.

As no bearings are assumed in the present case,50% of the above longitudinal

force can be assumed to be transmitted to the supports of simply supported spans resting on

stiff foundation with no bearings as per clause 214.5.1.3 of IRC:6---2000

Hence,the longitudinal force due to braking,tractive or frictional resistance of

bearings transferred to abutments is

(262.1*0.1)= 26.21KN

The location of the tractive force from the top of RCC raft slab =
(1.2+0.075+0.3+1.50) =

7.Buoyancy :-

As per clause 216.4 of IRC:6---2000,for abutments or piers of shallow depth,the


dead weight of the box culvert shall be reduced by wieght of equal volume of water upto HFL.

The above reduction in self wieght will be considered assuming that the back fill
behind the box is scoured.

For the preliminary section assumed,the volume of box section is

i)Volume of Raft slab section = 5.580Cum

(186.0/25) =

ii)Volume of side walls upto MFL = 5.400Cum

(180/25) =

iii)Volume of haunches = 0.140Cum

(9/25) =

11.120Cum

Reduction in self wieght = 111.20KN


(11.12*10)=

8.Earth pressure :-

As per clause 217.1 of IRC:6---2000,the abutments are to be designed for a

surcharge equivalent to a back fill of hieght 1.20m behind the abutment.

The coefficient of active earth pressure exerted by the cohesion less back fill on

the box as per the Coulomb's theory is given by

'2
Ka = Sin(a+Q)
sina sin(a-q) sin(Q+q)sin(Q-b)
sin(a+b)

Sin(a+Q) = SIN[3.14*(90+30)/180] = 0.867


Sin(a-q) = SIN[3.14*(90-15)/180] = 0.966
Sina = SIN[3.14*(90)/180] = 1
Sin(Q+q) = SIN[3.14*(30+15)/180] = 0.707
Sin(Q-b) = SIN[3.14*(30-0)/180] = 0.5
Sin(a+b) = SIN[3.14*(90+0)/180] = 1

From the above expression,

Ka = 0.3

The hieght of box above GL,as per the preliminary section assumed =

Hence,maximum pressure at the base of the wall Pa =


(0.3*1800*1.80)*10/1000 =

The pressure distribution along the height of the wall is as given below:-

Surcharge load = 6.48 KN/sqm


(0.3*1800*1.2)*10/1000=

6.48

1.800

9.72 6.48

Area of the rectangular portion = 6.48*1.80 = 11.66


Area of the triangular portion = 0.5*9.72*1.8 = 8.75
20.41
Taking moments of the areas about the toe of the wall

S.No Description Area Lever arm Moment

1 Rectangular 11.66 0.9 10.494


2 Triangular 8.75 0.6 5.25

20.41 15.744

Height from the bottom of the wall = 0.77m


(15.744/20.41)

The active Earth pressure acts on the box culvert is as shown below:-

Earth Pressure on Box culvert

3100
Pv

P
15 1500
Ph
770

Inclination of earth pressure 15.00 Deg.


force with horizontal

Total earth pressure acting on the wall P = 122.47KN


(6.48*1.8+0.5*9.72*1.8)*8 =

Horizontal component of the earth pressure P h =


(PCos150 )

Vertical component of the earth pressure P v =


(PSin150 )

Eccentricity of vertical component of earth pressure = (3.1/2-0.0) =


9.Siesmic force :-

As per clause 222.1 of IRC:6---2000,the bridges in siesmic zones I and II need not be

designed for siesmic forces.The location of the slab culvert is in Zone-I.Hence,there is no need to

design the bridge for siesmic forces.

10.Water pressure force:-

The water pressure distribution on the sidewall is as given below:-

HFL 3.130m

1.93

LBL 1.200m

19.30kn/sqm

Total horizontal water pressure force = 0.5*19.3*1.93*8 = 111.75KN

The above pressure acts at height of H/3 =1.93/3 = 0.64m

Static water pressure force (Vertical) = (1.93+0.16)*10 = 20.90kn/sqm

11.Static water pressure due to water in canal

Height of water in channel above bed level = 0.725m

The static water pressure on top slab of box barrel = 7.25kn/sqm

Total load due to static water pressure = 13.49KN

Eccentricity of the above load in x-direction = 2.40m

12.Uplift pressure due to flowing water:-

Level of bottom of the top slab of box barrel = +2.29m


MFL of the drain = +3.130m

Afflux = 0.160m

Datum head =Height of water above the bottom of


top slab of box barrel = 1.005m

Kinetic head = v2/2g = 0.040m

Total head causing uplift on the top slab of box barrel = 1.045m

Hence uplift pressure on the top slab = 10.45kn/sqm

Total uplift force = 156.75KN

13.Uplift pressure due to subsurface flow

Afflux = 0.160m

The difference between subsoil hydraulic gradient line h' = 2.090


and the bottom of floor just at entry section
when the water is held up.

Hence,the theoritical max.uplift pressure = yw x h' = 20.90kn/sqm

Uplift force due to sub surface water = 194.37KN

IV)Check for stability of Box Barrel:-

a)Load Envelope-I:-(The drain is dry,back fill intact with live load on span)

The following co-ordinates are assumed:-

a)x-Direction-----At right angle to the movement of vehicles

b)y-Direction-----In the direction of movement of vehicles

Vertical load acting on the Box barrel (P) composes of the following components

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricty about x-


KN axis(m)

1 Self wieght of Box culvert 961.80KN 0.000

2 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN -0.496


[262.1*(1+0.495)] =
3 Vertical component of Active Earth pressure 31.68KN 1.550

1385.32KN

Horizontal load acting/transferred on the box (H) composes of the following components
S.No Type of load Intensity in Direction x or y
KN

1 Wind load 18.00KN x-Direction

2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN y-Direction

3 Horizontal Active Earth pressure force 118.30KN y-Direction

162.51KN

Check for stability against over turning(Assuming that the earth fill on toe side is scoured):-

Taking moments of all the overturning forces about toe of the box wrt x-axis,

Moment due to tractive,braking&frictional resistance of bearings =


(26.21*3.38)=

Moment due to active earth pressure force =


(118.3*0.77)=

Total overturning moment =

Taking moments of all the restoring forces about toe of the box wrt x-axis,,

Moment due to self weight of box =


[961.8*(3.1/2+0.0)]=

Moment due to live load reaction on box =


[391.84*(3.1/2-0.496)]=

Moment due to vertical component of active earth pressure =


[31.68*(3.1/2+1.55)]=

Total Restoring moment =

Factor of safety = 11.6407156 > 2.0 Hence safe


(2002/171.98)= (As per clause 706.3.4 of IRC:78-2000)

Check for stability against sliding:-

Total vertical load acting on the base of the box culvert V b =

Total sliding force,ie,horizontal load on the box H b =

Coefficient of friction between concrete surfaces =

Factor of safety against sliding Fs = 6.81957361 > 1.5 Hence safe


(0.8*1385.32/162.51)= (As per clause 706.3.4 of IRC:78-2000)

b)Load Envelope-II:-(The Canal is running upto HFL with no live load on span)
The following co-ordinates are assumed:-

a)x-Direction-----At right angle to the movement of vehicles

b)y-Direction-----In the direction of movement of vehicles

Vertical load acting on the box (P) composes of the following components

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricty about x-


KN axis(m)

1 Self wieght of box 961.80KN

Reduction in self weight due to buoyancy -111.20KN

2 Net self wieght 850.60KN 0.000

3 Uplift force due to flowing water -156.75KN 0.000

4 Uplift force due to subsurface water -194.37KN 0.000

5 Static water force due to water in drain 388.74KN 0.000

6 Static water force due to water in channel 13.49KN 0.000

7 Vertical component of Active Earth pressure 31.68 1.550

Horizontal load acting/transferred on the box (H) composes of the following components

S.No Type of load Intensity in Direction x or y


KN

1 Wind load 18.00KN x-Direction

2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 0.00KN y-Direction

3 Active Earth pressure force 118.30KN y-Direction

4 Force due to water pressure 111.75KN y-Direction

Check for stability against over turning:-

Taking moments of all the overturning forces about toe of the box wrt x-axis,

Moment due to tractive,braking&frictional resistance of bearings =

Moment due to active earth pressure force =


(118.3*0.77)=

Total overturning moment =

Taking moments of all the restoring forces about toe of the box wrt x-axis,
Moment due to self weight of box =
[850.6*(3.1/2+0.0)]=

Force due to static water pressure need not be considered,as it acts on both side walls in opposite directions

Moment due to vertical component of active earth pressure =


[31.68*(3.1/2+1.55)]=

Total Restoring moment =

Factor of safety = 15.5238491 > 2.0 Hence safe


(As per clause 706.3.4 of IRC:78-2000)

Check for stability against sliding:-

Total vertical load acting on the base of the boxV b =


(850.6+31.68) =

Total sliding force,ie,horizontal load on the box H b =

Coefficient of friction between concrete surfaces =

Factor of safety against sliding Fs = 5.96634219 > 1.5 Hence safe


(0.8*882.28/118.3)= (As per clause 706.3.4 of IRC:78-2000)

V)Check for bearing pressure:-

a)Load Envelope-I:-(The Canal is dry, back fill intact with live load on span)

i)At the bottom of RCC raft slab

The following co-ordinates are assumed:-

a)x-Direction-----At right angle to the movement of vehicles

b)y-Direction-----In the direction of movement of vehicles

Vertical load acting on the Box (P) composes of the following components

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricty about x-


KN axis(m)

1 Self weight of box 961.80KN 0.000

2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00


=(3.7*6*0.30*24)
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN -0.496
[262.1*(1+0.495)] =
4 Vertical component of earth pressure 31.68KN 1.550

Horizontal load acting/transferred on the abutment (H) composes of the following components

S.No Type of load Intensity in Direction x or y


KN

1 Wind load 18.00KN x-Direction

2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN y-Direction

3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN y-Direction

Safe bearing capacity SBC of the soil = 7.50t/sqm

Check for stresses:-

About x-axis:-

Breadth of footing b = 6.00m

Depth of footing d = 3.10m

Area of the footing = A = 18.6 m2

Section modulus of bottom footing (1/6)bd2 = 9.61 m3


about x-axis --Zx =

For RCC Strip footing permissible bearing pressure is 1.5xSBC = 113KN/sqm

No tension is allowed on soil as per clause 706.3.3.1 of IRC 78:2000

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricity/Lever


KN (P) arm

Vertical loads:-(Stress = P/A(1+6e/b)


1 Self wieght of Box 961.80KN 0.00
2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN -0.496
[262.1*(1+0.495)] =
4 Vertical component of Earth pressure 31.68KN 1.55
Horizontal loads:- (Stress = M/Z)
1 Wind load 18.00KN 0.00
2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN 3.08
3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN 1.07

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricity


KN (P)

Vertical loads:-(Stress = P/A(1+6e/b)


1 Self wieght of Box 961.80KN 0.00
2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN 0.496
[262.1*(1+0.495)] =
4 Vertical component of Earth pressure 31.68KN -1.55
Horizontal loads:- (Stress = M/Z)
1 Wind load 18.00KN 0.00
2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN 3.08
3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN 1.07

Stress at heel = P/A(1+6e/b)+M/Z = 53.67 KN/Sqm>0

Hence safe.

Stress at toe = P/A(1+6e/b)+M/Z = 112.47 KN/Sqm>113KN/sqm

Hence safe.

About y-axis:-

Breadth of footing b = 3.10m


Depth of footing d = 6.00m
Area of the footing = A = 18.6 m2

Section modulus of bottom footing (1/6)bd2 = 18.60 m3


about y-axis --Zy =

For RCC Strip footing permissible bearing pressure is 1.5xSBC = 113KN/sqm

No tension is allowed on soil as per clause 706.3.3.1 of IRC 78:2000

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricity/Lever


KN (P) arm

Vertical loads:-(Stress = P/A(1+6e/b)


1 Self wieght of Box 961.80KN 0.007
2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN -1.098
[262.1*(1+0.495)] =
4 Vertical component of Earth pressure 31.68KN 0.00
Horizontal loads:- (Stress = M/Z)
1 Wind load 18.00KN 3.38
2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN 0.00
3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN 0.00

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricity


KN (P)
Vertical loads:-(Stress = P/A(1+6e/b)
1 Self wieght of Box 961.80KN -0.007
2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN 1.098
[262.1*(1+0.495)] =
4 Vertical component of Earth pressure 31.68KN 0.00
Horizontal loads:- (Stress = M/Z)
1 Wind load 18.00KN 3.38
2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN 0.00
3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN 0.00

Stress at up stream side


edge of abutment = P/A(1+6e/b)+M/Z = 35.73 KN/Sqm>0

Hence safe.
Stress at down stream side
edge of abutment = P/A(1+6e/b)+M/Z = 108.77 KN/Sqm<113KN/sqm

Hence safe.

Net bearing pressure for design = 52.87 KN/Sqm


(72.97-(8+8.08))=

b)Load Envelope-III:-(The Canal is running upto HFL with live load on span)

i)At the bottom of RCC raft slab

The following co-ordinates are assumed:-

a)x-Direction-----At right angle to the movement of vehicles


b)y-Direction-----In the direction of movement of vehicles

Vertical load acting on the Box (P) composes of the following components

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricty about x-


KN axis(m)

1 Self weight of box 850.60KN 0.000

2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00


=(5.5*12*0.30*24)
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN -0.496
[301.5*(1+0.413)] =

4 Uplift force due to flowing water -156.75KN 0.000

5 Uplift force due to subsurface water -194.37KN 0.000


6 Static water force due to water in drain 388.74KN 0.000

7 Static water force due to water in channel 13.49KN 0.000

8 Vertical component of earth pressure 31.68KN 1.550

Horizontal load acting/transferred on the abutment (H) composes of the following components

S.No Type of load Intensity in Direction x or y


KN

1 Wind load 18.00KN x-Direction

2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN y-Direction

3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN y-Direction

4 Force due to water pressure 111.75KN y-Direction

Safe bearing capacity SBC of the soil = 7.50t/sqm

Check for stresses:-

About x-axis:-

Breadth of footing b = 6.00m


Depth of footing d = 3.10m
Area of the footing = A = 18.6 m2

Section modulus of bottom footing (1/6)bd2 = 9.61 m3


about x-axis --Zx =

For RCC Strip footing permissible bearing pressure is 1.5xSBC = 113KN/sqm

No tension is allowed on soil as per clause 706.3.3.1 of IRC 78:2000

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricity/Lever


KN (P) arm

Vertical loads:-(Stress = P/A(1+6e/b)


1 Self wieght of Box 850.60KN 0.00

2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00


=(5.5*12*0.30*24)
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN -0.496
[301.5*(1+0.413)] =
4 Uplift force due to flowing water -156.75KN 0.000

5 Uplift force due to subsurface water -194.37KN 0.000

6 Static water force due to water in drain 388.74KN 0.000


7 Static water force due to water in channel 13.49KN 0.000

8 Vertical component of Earth pressure 31.68KN 1.55


Horizontal loads:- (Stress = M/Z)
1 Wind load 18.00KN 0.00

2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN 3.08

3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN 1.07

4 Force due to water pressure 111.75KN 0.00

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricity


KN (P)

Vertical loads:-(Stress = P/A(1+6e/b)


1 Self wieght of Box 850.60KN 0.00

2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00


=(5.5*12*0.30*24)
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN 0.496
[301.5*(1+0.413)] =

4 Uplift force due to flowing water -156.75KN 0.000

5 Uplift force due to subsurface water -194.37KN 0.000

6 Static water force due to water in drain 388.74KN 0.000

7 Static water force due to water in channel 13.49KN 0.000

8 Vertical component of Earth pressure 31.68KN -1.55

Horizontal loads:- (Stress = M/Z)


1 Wind load 18.00KN 0.00

2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN 3.08

3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN 1.07

4 Force due to water pressure 111.75KN 0.00

Stress at heel = P/A(1+6e/b)+M/Z = 50.44 KN/Sqm>0

Hence safe.

Stress at toe = P/A(1+6e/b)+M/Z = 109.24 KN/Sqm>113KN/sqm

Hence safe.

About y-axis:-

Breadth of footing b = 3.10m


Depth of footing d = 6.00m
Area of the footing = A = 18.6 m2

Section modulus of bottom footing (1/6)bd2 = 18.60 m3


about y-axis --Zy =

For RCC Strip footing permissible bearing pressure is 1.5xSBC = 113KN/sqm

No tension is allowed on soil as per clause 706.3.3.1 of IRC 78:2000

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricity/Lever


KN (P) arm

Vertical loads:-(Stress = P/A(1+6e/b)


1 Self wieght of Box 850.60KN 0.01

2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00


=(5.5*12*0.30*24)
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN -1.098
[301.5*(1+0.413)] =
4 Uplift force due to flowing water -156.75KN 0.00

5 Uplift force due to subsurface water -194.37KN 0.00

6 Static water force due to water in drain 388.74KN 0.00

7 Static water force due to water in channel 13.49KN 2.40

8 Vertical component of Earth pressure 31.68KN 0.00

Horizontal loads:- (Stress = M/Z)


1 Wind load 18.00KN 3.38

2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN 0.00

3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN 0.00

4 Force due to water pressure 111.75KN 0.64

S.No Type of load Intensity in Eccentricity


KN (P)

Vertical loads:-(Stress = P/A(1+6e/b)

1 Self wieght of Box 850.60KN -0.01

2 Self weight of levelling concrete 159.84KN 0.00


=(5.5*12*0.30*24)
3 Live load with impact factor---(Wheel loads+UDL) 391.84KN 1.098
[301.5*(1+0.413)] =
4 Uplift force due to flowing water -156.75KN 0.000

5 Uplift force due to subsurface water -194.37KN 0.000

6 Static water force due to water in drain 388.74KN 0.000


7 Static water force due to water in channel 13.49KN -2.400

8 Vertical component of Earth pressure 31.68KN 0.00

Horizontal loads:- (Stress = M/Z)

1 Wind load 18.00KN 3.38

2 Tractive,Braking&Frictional resistance of bearings 26.21KN 0.00

3 Horizontal load due to earth pressure 118.30KN 0.00

4 Force due to water pressure 111.75KN -0.64

Stress at up stream side


edge of abutment = P/A(1+6e/b)+M/Z = 46.17 KN/Sqm>0

Hence safe.
Stress at down stream side
edge of abutment = P/A(1+6e/b)+M/Z = 98.4 KN/Sqm<113KN/sqm

Hence safe.

Net bearing pressure for design = 103.88 KN/Sqm


(112.47-(8.59))=

Design Bearing Pressure = 103.88 KN/Sqm

VI)Analysis of Box culvert:-

a)Calculation of equivalent Uniformly Distributed Load(UDL) for IRC live load for Road portion:-

The position of IRC class A live load for maximum bending moment in top slab in road portion is as given
below:-
Position of Live load for
Max.Bending moment in
each span
X

2800

Portion to be loaded
1750
with live load
of 5KN/sqm

4500

800 1200 800


.4t
.4t
Portion to be loaded
1750
with live load
of 5KN/sqm

4500

800 1200 800

11.4t
11.4t
1800 2750

500 u
Y 0.45
b

Each axle load is 114 KN and hence wheel load = 57.00KN

Assuming 1:1 dispersion parallel to Y-axis,the effective width of concentrated load in


that direction = [0.25+2(0.075+0.30)]=

There is no over lapping of areas of load dispersion in this direction.

As per the clause 24.3.2.1 of IS 456:2000,


The effective width be = kx[1-x/l]+bw

where be = The effective width of slab on which the load acts


L = Effective span
x = Distance of centre of gravity of load from nearer support
bw = Breadth of concentration area of load
k = A constant depending on the ratio (B/L),where B is the width of the slab
(From Table 14 of IS 456:2000)

In the present case,

L = 2.80m
x = 0.80m
bw = 0.50m
B/L = 1.89
k = 2.6

Hence be = 1.99m

Dispersion of Loads

500 1300 500

500 745 500 745

450
500 745 500 745

450

From the above figure net effective width of dispersion of loads = 3.495m

For each axle of load,the area of dispersion = 3.495sqm


(1.0*3.495)=

Total load of each axle with impact = 170.43KN


[11.4(1+0.495)]

Average intensity of load = 48.76 KN/sqm


Add the UDL due to overlapping at certain area = 5.00 KN/sqm

53.76 KN/sqm
1.545

0.45
300 300
CANAL PORTION

3100

600

owing forces :-
3100

00 3.00
6.8t
6.8t
il and the same is to be

50

50

4500
-2750

-375
-1200

5300
-4250
228.00KN

6.98KN

27.13KN

262.10KN

Moment

57.00KNm

57.00KNm

159.60KNm

159.60KNm

3.66KNm

61.71KNm

498.57KNm

Moment
155.04KNm

155.04KNm

86.64KNm

86.64KNm

10.81KNm

42.04KNm

536.22KN

3100

Y
0.2475

3.12KN

18.00KN

3.38m
0.64m

3.08m
1.800m

9.72KN/sqm
lvert

1500

770

118.30KN

31.68KN

1.55m
Eccentricty about y-
axis(m)

0.007

1.098

0.00
Location(Ht.from the
section considered).
(m)

3.38

3.08

0.77

ide is scoured):-

80.73Kn-m

91.26Kn-m

171.98Kn-m

1490.79Kn-m

413.00Kn-m

98.21Kn-m

2002.00Kn-m

of IRC:78-2000)

1385.32KN

162.51KN

0.80

of IRC:78-2000)
Eccentricty about y-
axis(m)

0.007

0.000

0.000

0.000

2.400

0.00

Location(Ht.from the
section considered).
(m)

3.38

0.00

0.77

0.64

0.00Kn-m

91.26Kn-m

91.26Kn-m
1318.43Kn-m

walls in opposite directions

98.21Kn-m

1416.64Kn-m

of IRC:78-2000)

882.28KN

118.30KN

0.80

of IRC:78-2000)

Eccentricty about y-
axis(m)

0.007

0.00

1.098
0.000

g components

Location(Ht.from the
section considered).
(m)

3.38

3.08

1.07

Stress at heel
P/A(1+6e/b)

51.71
8.59
10.62

4.34

0
-8.40
-13.19
53.67

Stress at toe
P/A(1+6e/b)
51.71
8.59
31.52

-0.94

0
8.4
13.19
112.47

m>113KN/sqm

Stress at U/S edge


P/A(1+6e/b)

52.41
8.59
-23.7

1.7

-3.27
0.0
0.0
35.73

Stress at D/S edge


P/A(1+6e/b)
51.01
8.59
44.2

1.7

3.27
0
0
108.77

m<113KN/sqm

Eccentricty about y-
axis(m)

0.007

0.00

1.098

0.000

0.000
0.000

2.400

0.000

g components

Location(Ht.from the
section considered).
(m)

3.38

3.08

1.07

0.64

Stress at heel
P/A(1+6e/b)

45.73

8.59

10.62

-8.43

-10.45

20.9
0.73

4.34

-8.40

-13.19

50.44

Stress at toe
P/A(1+6e/b)

45.73

8.59

31.52

-8.43

-10.45

20.9

0.73

-0.94

8.4

13.19

109.24

m>113KN/sqm
Stress at U/S edge
P/A(1+6e/b)

46.35

8.59

-23.7

-8.43

-10.45

20.9

4.09

1.7

3.27

0.0

0.0

3.9

46.17

Stress at D/S edge


P/A(1+6e/b)

45.11

8.59

44.2

-8.43

-10.45

20.9
-2.64

1.7

3.27

-3.85

98.4

m<113KN/sqm

d for Road portion:-

road portion is as given


1.00m

450
500
1300
500
745
1990
-500
1490 745
b)Loading on the Box culvert:-

Effective span of the culvert = 2.80m


Effective height of the culvert = 1.80m

Case-I---Drain is running full,with live load on span and approaches are intact

Load on Top slab :-


Self weight of top slab = 7.50 KN/m
Self weight of wearing coat = 1.88 KN/m
Weight of earth filling in Road portion = 27.81 KN/m
Average intensity of load due to IRC Class-A live load = 53.76 KN/m
90.95 KN/m

Load on bottom slab :-


Upward bearing pressure on raft = 103.88 KN/m
Upward bearing pressure due to weight of water = 19.30 KN/m
Downward static pressure due static water pressure = -19.30 KN/m
Add uplift pressure due to water in Channel = 20.90
124.78 KN/m

Load on side walls from out side :-


At top:-
Earth pressure on side wall = 6.48 KN/m
At bottom:-
Earth pressure on side wall = 16.20 KN/m

Load on side walls from in side :-


At top:-
Hydro static pressure from inside wall = 0.00 KN/m
At bottom:-
Hydro static pressure from inside wall = 19.30 KN/m

The loading on slab culvert is shown below for the above case of loading

Loading on Box culvert


2800
90.95 KN/sqm
6.48 KN/sqm 6.48 KN/sqm

A B

1800

19.3 KN/sqm
1800

19.3 KN/sqm

C D
16.20 KN/sqm 16.20 KN/sqm

19.30KN/sqm 144.08 KN/sqm

c)Calculation of internal forces:-

i) Calculation of fixed end moments:-

Span AB:-

MFAB = wl2/12 = 59.42 KN-m


MFBA = -wl2/12 = -59.42 KN-m

Span BD:-

For Earth pressure from outside:-


For UDL part
MFBD = wl2/12 = 1.75 KN-m
MFDB = -wl2/12 = -1.75 KN-m

For Triangular part


MFBD = wl2/20 = 1.57 KN-m
MFDB = -wl2/30 = -1.05 KN-m

For Water pressure from inside:-

MFBD = -wl2/20 = -3.13 KN-m


MFDB = wl /30 =
2
2.08 KN-m

Total :-
MFBD = 0.19 KN-m
MFDB = -0.72 KN-m

Span CD:-

Net Upward pressure = 124.78 KN-m

MFCD = -wl2/12 = -81.52 KN-m


MFDC = wl2/12 = 81.52 KN-m

Span AC:-

For Earth pressure from outside:-


For UDL part
MFAC = wl2/12 = -1.75 KN-m
MFCA = -wl2/12 = 1.75 KN-m

For Triangular part


MFAC = wl2/20 = -1.57 KN-m
MFCA = -wl /30 =
2
1.05 KN-m

For Water pressure from inside:-

MFAC = 3.13 KN-m


MFCA = -2.08 KN-m

Total :-
MFAC = -0.19 KN-m
MFCA = 0.72 KN-m

ii) Moment distribution:-

A B C D

AC AB BA BD CA CD DC DB

0.391 0.609 0.609 0.391 0.609 0.391 0.391 0.609

-0.190 59.420 -59.420 0.190 0.720 -81.520 81.520 -0.720

-23.159 -36.071 36.071 23.159 49.207 31.593 -31.593 -49.207

24.604 18.036 -18.036 -24.604 -11.579 -15.796 15.796 11.579

-16.672 -25.967 25.967 16.672 16.672 10.704 -10.704 -16.672

8.336 12.984 -12.984 -8.336 -8.336 -5.352 5.352 8.336

-8.336 -12.984 12.984 8.336 8.336 5.352 -5.352 -8.336

4.168 6.492 -6.492 -4.168 -4.168 -2.676 2.676 4.168

-4.168 -6.492 6.492 4.168 4.168 2.676 -2.676 -4.168


2.084 3.246 -3.246 -2.084 -2.084 -1.338 1.338 2.084

-2.084 -3.246 3.246 2.084 2.084 1.338 -1.338 -2.084

1.042 1.623 -1.623 -1.042 -1.042 -0.669 0.669 1.042

-1.042 -1.623 1.623 1.042 1.042 0.669 -0.669 -1.042

-15.417 15.417 -15.417 15.417 55.020 -55.020 55.020 -55.020

iii) Calculation of span moments for simply supported condition:-

Span AB:-

Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/8 = 89.13 KN-m

Span BD:-

Due to earth pressure from out side


For UDL:-
Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/8 = 2.62 KN-m

For Triangular load:-


Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/(9*30.5) = 2.02 KN-m

Due to water pressure from in side


Max.moment for simply supported condition = -2.08 KN-m
(Assuming that the max.moments occur at mid span(On safe side)

Max.moment at mid span 2.56 KN-m

Span CD:-

Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/8 = 122.28 KN-m

Span AC:-

Due to earth pressure from out side


For UDL:-
Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/8 = 2.62 KN-m

For Triangular load:-


Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/(9*30.5) = 2.02 KN-m

Due to water pressure from in side


Max.moment for simply supported condition = -2.08 KN-m
(Assuming that the max.moments occur at mid span(On safe side)

Max.moment at mid span 2.56 KN-m

iv) Calculation of Max.span moments for the box culvert:-

Span AB:-

The max.span moment = 89.13-(15.42+15.42)/2 = 73.71 KN-m

Span BD:-

The max.span moment = 2.56-(15.42+55.02)/2 = -32.66 KN-m

There is no sagging moment

Span AC:-

The max.span moment = 2.56-(15.42+55.02)/2 = -32.66 KN-m

There is no sagging moment

Span CD:-

The max.span moment = 122.28-(55.02+55.02)/2 = 87.06 KN-m

The bending moment diagram for the box culvert is as shown below:-

15.42
15.42 15.42

A B
15.42
73.71

32.66 32.66

87.06

C D
55.02 55.02

55.02 55.02
87.06

C D
55.02 55.02

55.02 55.02

v) Calculation of shear force for the box culvert:-

Span AB:-

Shear force at A = (90.95*2.8/2)+((15.42-15.42)/2.8) = 127.33

Shear force at B = (90.95*2.8/2)+((15.42-15.42)/2.8) = 127.33

Span BD:-

Shear force at B = (6.48*1.8/2)+(9.72*1.8)/6+(55.02-15.42)/1.8) = 30.75

Shear force at D =(6.48*1.8/2)+(9.72*1.8)/3+((55.02-15.42)/1.8) = 33.67

Span CD:-

Shear force at C = (124.78*2.8/2)+((55.02-55.02)/2.8) = 174.69

Shear force at D = (124.78*2.8/2)+((55.02-55.02)/2.8) = 174.69

Span AC:-

Shear force at A = (6.48*1.8/2)+(9.72*1.8)/6+(55.02-15.42)/1.8) = 30.75

Shear force at C =(6.48*1.8/2)+(9.72*1.8)/3+((55.02-15.42)/1.8) = 33.67

The Shear force diagram for the box culvert is as shown below:-

127.33
30.75 30.75

127.33
127.33

174.69

33.67 33.67
174.69

vi) Computation of axial forces for the box culvert:-

Top slab:-

Axial force in top slab = Shear force at A or B for the spans BD&AC = 30.75

Bottom slab:-

Axial force in bottom slab = Shear force at C or D for the spans BD&AC = 33.67

Side walls:-

Axial force in side walls = Shear force at A or C for the spans AB&CD = 174.69
b)Loading on the Box culvert:-

Effective span of the culvert = 2.80m


Effective height of the culvert = 1.80m

Case-I---Drain is running full,with live load on span and approaches are intact

Load on Top slab :-


Self weight of top slab = 7.50 KN/m
Self weight of wearing coat = 1.88 KN/m
Weight of earth filling in Road portion = 27.81 KN/m
Average intensity of load due to IRC Class-A live load = 53.76 KN/m
90.95 KN/m

Load on bottom slab :-


Upward bearing pressure on raft = 103.88 KN/m
Upward bearing pressure due to weight of water = 0.00 KN/m
Downward static pressure due static water pressure = 0.00 KN/m
Add uplift pressure due to water in Channel = 20.90
124.78 KN/m

Load on side walls from out side :-


At top:-
Earth pressure on side wall = 6.48 KN/m
At bottom:-
Earth pressure on side wall = 16.20 KN/m

Load on side walls from in side :-


At top:-
Hydro static pressure from inside wall = 0.00 KN/m
At bottom:-
Hydro static pressure from inside wall = 0.00 KN/m
The loading on slab culvert is shown below for the above case of loading

2800
90.95 KN/sqm
6.48 KN/sqm 6.48 KN/sqm

A B

1800

C D
16.20 KN/sqm 16.20 KN/sqm

124.78 KN/sqm

c)Calculation of internal forces:-

i) Calculation of fixed end moments:-

Span AB:-

MFAB = wl2/12 = 59.42 KN-m


MFBA = -wl2/12 = -59.42 KN-m

Span BD:-

For Earth pressure from outside:-


For UDL part
MFBD = wl2/12 = 1.75 KN-m
MFDB = -wl2/12 = -1.75 KN-m

For Triangular part


MFBD = wl2/20 = 1.57 KN-m
MFDB = -wl2/30 = -1.05 KN-m

For Water pressure from inside:-

MFBD = -wl2/20 = 0.00 KN-m


MFDB = wl2/30 = 0.00 KN-m

Total :-
MFBD = 3.32 KN-m
MFDB = -2.80 KN-m

Span CD:-

Net Upward pressure = 124.78 KN-m

MFCD = -wl2/12 = -81.52 KN-m


MFDC = wl2/12 = 81.52 KN-m

Span AC:-

For Earth pressure from outside:-


For UDL part
MFAC = wl2/12 = -1.75 KN-m
MFCA = -wl /12 =
2
1.75 KN-m

For Triangular part


MFAC = wl2/20 = -1.57 KN-m
MFCA = -wl2/30 = 1.05 KN-m

For Water pressure from inside:-

MFAC = 0.00 KN-m


MFCA = 0.00 KN-m

Total :-
MFAC = -3.32 KN-m
MFCA = 2.80 KN-m

ii) Moment distribution:-

A B C D

AC AB BA BD CA CD DC DB

0.391 0.609 0.609 0.391 0.609 0.391 0.391 0.609


-3.320 59.420 -59.420 3.320 2.800 -81.520 81.520 -2.800

-21.935 -34.165 34.165 21.935 47.940 30.780 -30.780 -47.940

23.970 17.082 -17.082 -23.970 -10.968 -15.390 15.390 10.968

-16.052 -25.001 25.001 16.052 16.052 10.306 -10.306 -16.052

8.026 12.501 -12.501 -8.026 -8.026 -5.153 5.153 8.026

-8.026 -12.501 12.501 8.026 8.026 5.153 -5.153 -8.026

4.013 6.250 -6.250 -4.013 -4.013 -2.576 2.576 4.013

-4.013 -6.250 6.250 4.013 4.013 2.576 -2.576 -4.013

2.006 3.125 -3.125 -2.006 -2.006 -1.288 1.288 2.006

-2.006 -3.125 3.125 2.006 2.006 1.288 -1.288 -2.006

1.003 1.563 -1.563 -1.003 -1.003 -0.644 0.644 1.003

-1.003 -1.563 1.563 1.003 1.003 0.644 -0.644 -1.003

-17.336 17.336 -17.336 17.336 55.825 -55.825 55.825 -55.825

iii) Calculation of span moments for simply supported condition:-

Span AB:-

Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/8 = 89.13 KN-m

Span BD:-

Due to earth pressure from out side


For UDL:-
Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/8 = 2.62 KN-m

For Triangular load:-


Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/(9*30.5) = 2.02 KN-m

Due to water pressure from in side


Max.moment for simply supported condition = 0.00 KN-m
(Assuming that the max.moments occur at mid span(On safe side)

Max.moment at mid span 4.64 KN-m

Span CD:-

Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/8 = 122.28 KN-m


Span AC:-

Due to earth pressure from out side


For UDL:-
Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/8 = 2.62 KN-m

For Triangular load:-


Max.moment for simply supported condition = wl2/(9*30.5) = 2.02 KN-m

Due to water pressure from in side


Max.moment for simply supported condition = 0 KN-m
(Assuming that the max.moments occur at mid span(On safe side)

Max.moment at mid span 4.64 KN-m

iv) Calculation of Max.span moments for the box culvert:-

Span AB:-

The max.span moment = 89.13-(17.34+17.34)/2 = 71.79 KN-m

Span BD:-

The max.span moment = 4.64-(17.34+55.83)/2 = -31.94 KN-m

There is no sagging moment

Span AC:-

The max.span moment = 4.64-(17.34+55.83)/2 = -31.94 KN-m

There is no sagging moment

Span CD:-

The max.span moment = 122.28-(55.83+55.83)/2 = 85.7 KN-m

The bending moment diagram for the box culvert is as shown below:-

17.34
17.34 17.34

A B
17.34
71.79

31.94 31.94
A B
17.34
71.79

31.94 31.94

85.70

C D
55.02 55.83

55.83 55.83

v) Calculation of shear force for the box culvert:-

Span AB:-

Shear force at A = (90.95*2.8/2)+((17.34-17.34)/2.8) = 127.33

Shear force at B = (90.95*2.8/2)+((17.34-17.34)/2.8) = 127.33

Span BD:-

Shear force at B = (6.48*1.8/2)+(9.72*1.8)/6+(55.83-17.34)/1.8) = 30.13

Shear force at D =(6.48*1.8/2)+(9.72*1.8)/3+(55.83-17.34)/1.8) = 33.05

Span CD:-

Shear force at C = (124.78*2.8/2)+((55.83-55.83)/2.8) = 174.69

Shear force at D = (124.78*2.8/2)+((55.83-55.83)/2.8) = 174.69

Span AC:-

Shear force at A = (6.48*1.8/2)+(9.72*1.8)/6+(55.83-17.34)/1.8) = 30.13

Shear force at C =(6.48*1.8/2)+(9.72*1.8)/3+(55.83-17.34)/1.8) = 33.05

The Shear force diagram for the box culvert is as shown below:-
127.33
30.13 30.13

127.33

174.69

33.05 33.05
174.69

vi) Computation of axial forces for the box culvert:-

Top slab:-

Axial force in top slab = Shear force at A or B for the spans BD&AC = 30.13

Bottom slab:-

Axial force in bottom slab = Shear force at C or D for the spans BD&AC = 33.05

Side walls:-

Axial force in side walls = Shear force at A or C for the spans AB&CD = 174.69

f)Design of Members:-
Compressive strength of concrete for Box (fck) =
Yield strength of steel (fy) =
Cover to reinforcement =
Limiting stress in steel for axial tension =

i) Design of top slab:-

Factored critical bending moment(Sagging) = 110.57KN-m


(1.5*73.71)
Factored critical bending moment(Hogging) 23.13KN-m
(1.5*15.42)
Factored axial force = 46.13KN
(1.5*30.75)
Factored shear force = 191.00KN
(1.5*127.33)

Effective depth required d = Mu/0.138fckb = 200.15mm


[110.57x10 /(0.138*20*1000)]
6 0.5

The over all depth required(Assuming 16mm dia bars) = 258.15mm


[200.15+50+8] =

However provide overall depth of = 300.00mm

Hence,effective depth = 242.00mm


[300-50-8]=

Bottom steel:-

Mu/bd2 = 1.888

From table 2 of SP 16,percentage of steel required = 0.641

Area of steel required for bending tension = 1551.2sqmm


[0.641*242*1000/100]=

Area of steel required for axial force = 153.8sqmm


(46.13*1000/2*150) =

Total area of steel required = 1705.0sqmm

Hence provide 16mm dia bars at 110mm c/c at bottom,the area of reinforcement comes to

=(1000/110)*(3.14/4)*162 = 1826.9sqmm

Top steel:-

Mu/bd2 = 0.395

From table 2 of SP 16,percentage of steel required = 0.114


(Minimum steel as per IS 456-2000 = 0.15
Area of steel required for bending tension = 363.0sqmm
[0.15*242*1000/100]=

Area of steel required for axial force = 153.8sqmm


(46.13*1000/2*150) =

Total area of steel required = 516.8sqmm

Hence provide 10mm dia bars at 125mm c/c at top,the area of reinforcement comes to

=(1000/125)*(3.14/4)*102 = 628.0sqmm

Distribution steel:-

Provide distribution reinforcement of 0.15% of cross sectional area of footing

Hence,the distribution reinforcement required = (0.15*300*1000/100) = 450.00sqmm

Adopting 10mm dia bars,the spacing required = 174.00mm


1000/[450/(3.14/4)*102]=

However provide 10mm dia bars at 150mm c/c spacing,as distribution reinforcement

Check for one way shear:-

The critical section for beam shear is at distance of 'd' from the face of the support

Hence,the factored design shear force V Fd = 137.52KN


at a distance D from the face of the support
[191-(191/1400)*(150+242)] =

Nominal shear stress Tv = 0.6N/sqmm <2.8 N/sqmm


[137.52x1000/(1000*242)] = (As per Table 20 of 1S 456)

Hence,the section is safe from shear point of view

Assumed percentage area of the steel reinforcement = 0.75%


[100*1826.9/(1000*242)] =

The design shear strength of concrete for the above steel percentage from
Table 19 of IS 456 is
0.56 Hence Vuc = 135.52KN

Considering the enhanced shear strength at supports as 1.5 times the shear strength,

0.84>0.6

Hence,no shear reinforcement is required


ii) Design of bottom slab:-

Factored critical bending moment(Sagging) = 130.59KN-m


(1.5*87.06)
Factored critical bending moment(Hogging) 83.75KN-m
(1.5*55.83)
Factored axial force = 50.51KN
(1.5*33.67)
Factored shear force = 262.04KN
(1.5*174.69)

Effective depth required d = Mu/0.138fckb = 217.52mm


[130.59x10 /(0.138*20*1000)]
6 0.5

The over all depth required(Assuming 16mm dia bars) = 275.52mm


[217.52+50+8] =

However provide overall depth of = 300.00mm

Hence,effective depth = 242.00mm


[300-50-8]=

Top steel:-

Mu/bd2 = 2.23

From table 2 of SP 16,percentage of steel required = 0.707

Area of steel required for bending tension = 1710.9sqmm


[0.707*242*1000/100]=

Area of steel required for axial force = 168.4sqmm


(50.51*1000/2*150) =

Total area of steel required = 1879.3sqmm

Hence provide 16mm dia bars at 100mm c/c at TOP,the area of reinforcement comes to

=(1000/100)*(3.14/4)*162 = 2009.6sqmm

Bottom steel:-

Mu/bd2 = 1.43

From table 2 of SP 16,percentage of steel required = 0.457

Area of steel required for bending tension = 1105.9sqmm


[0.457*242*1000/100]=

Area of steel required for axial force = 168.4sqmm


(50.51*1000/2*150) =

Total area of steel required = 1274.3sqmm

Hence provide 16mm dia bars at 150mm c/c at BOTTOM ,the area of reinforcement comes to

=(1000/150)*(3.14/4)*162 = 1339.7sqmm

Distribution steel:-

Provide distribution reinforcement of 0.15% of cross sectional area of footing

Hence,the distribution reinforcement required = (0.15*300*1000/100) = 450.00sqmm

Adopting 10mm dia bars,the spacing required = 174.00mm


1000/[450/(3.14/4)*102]=

However provide 10mm dia bars at 150mm c/c spacing,as distribution reinforcement

Check for one way shear:-

The critical section for beam shear is at distance of 'd' from the face of the support

Hence,the factored design shear force V Fd = 188.67KN


at a distance D from the face of the support
262.04-(262.04/1400)*(150+242)] =

Nominal shear stress Tv = 0.8N/sqmm <2.8 N/sqmm


[188.67x1000/(1000*242)] = (As per Table 20 of 1S 456)

Hence,the section is safe from shear point of view

Assumed percentage area of the steel reinforcement = 0.83%


[100*2009.6/(1000*242)] =

The design shear strength of concrete for the above steel percentage from
Table 19 of IS 456 is
[0.56+{0.08*(0.62-0.56}/0.25] = 0.579 Hence Vuc = 140.12KN

Considering the enhanced shear strength at supports as 1.5 times the shear strength,

0.87>0.80

Hence,no shear reinforcement is required


iii) Design of side walls:-

Factored critical bending moment(Sagging) = 0.00KN-m

Factored critical bending moment(Hogging) 83.75KN-m


(1.5*55.83)
Factored axial force = 262.04KN
(1.5*174.69)
Factored shear force = 50.51KN
(1.5*33.67)

Effective depth required d = Mu/0.138fckb = 174.19mm


[83.75x10 /(0.138*20*1000)]
6 0.5

The over all depth required(Assuming 12mm dia bars) = 230.19mm


[174.19+50+8] =

However provide overall depth of = 300.00mm

Hence,effective depth = 242.00mm


[300-50-8]=

Steel on outer face :-

Mu/bd2 = 1.43

From table 2 of SP 16,percentage of steel required = 0.457

Area of steel required for bending tension = 1105.9sqmm


[0.457*242*1000/100]=

Area of steel required for axial force = 873.5sqmm


(262.04*1000/2*150) =

Total area of steel required = 1979.4sqmm

Hence provide 16mm dia bars at 100mm c/c on outer face,the area of reinforcement comes to

=(1000/100)*(3.14/4)*162 = 2009.6sqmm

Steel on inner face :-

Area of steel required for bending tension = 0.0sqmm

Area of steel required for axial force = 873.5sqmm


(262.04*1000/2*150) =
Total area of steel required = 873.5sqmm

Hence provide 12mm dia bars at 125mm c/c on inner face,the area of reinforcement comes to

=(1000/125)*(3.14/4)*122 = 904.3sqmm

Distribution steel:-

Provide distribution reinforcement of 0.15% of cross sectional area of footing

Hence,the distribution reinforcement required = (0.15*300*1000/100) = 450.00sqmm

Adopting 10mm dia bars,the spacing required = 174.00mm


1000/[450/(3.14/4)*102]=

However provide 10mm dia bars at 150mm c/c spacing,as distribution reinforcement

Check for one way shear:-

The critical section for beam shear is at distance of 'd' from the face of the support

Hence,the factored design shear force V Fd = 36.36KN


at a distance 'd' from the face of the support
50.51-(50.51/1400)*(150+242)] =

Nominal shear stress Tv = 0.2N/sqmm <2.8 N/sqmm


[36.36x1000/(1000*242)] = (As per Table 20 of 1S 456)

Hence,the section is safe from shear point of view

Assumed percentage area of the steel reinforcement = 0.83%


[100*2009.6/(1000*242)] =

The design shear strength of concrete for the above steel percentage from
Table 19 of IS 456 is
[0.56+{0.08*(0.62-0.56}/0.25] = 0.579 Hence Vuc = 140.12KN

0.579>0.2

Hence,no shear reinforcement is required


6.48 KN/sqm

1800
1800

16.20 KN/sqm
0.3571 0.555556 0.912698 0.391304
-1

Joint

Member

Distribution Factor

Fixed end moment

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution
Carry over

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution

Final moments
15.42

55.02

2
55.02

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN
KN

KN

KN
6.48 KN/sqm

1800

16.20 KN/sqm
Joint

Member

Distribution Factor
Fixed end moment

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution

Carry over

Distribution

Final moments
7.34

4
4

5.83

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN
KN

KN

KN

20N/sqmm
415N/sqmm
50.00mm
150N/sqmm
nt comes to
ent comes to
ent comes to
DESIGN OF CANTILEVER BREST WALL

Data:-

Height of Retaining wall(h) =


Height of wall above G.L=
Height of wall below G.L=
Density of back fill soil&material in toe portion(y) =
Grade of concrete =
Grade of steel =
Ground water Table level =
Angle of shearing resistance of back fill material&material at toe portion(Q) =
Angle of face of wall supporting earth with horizontal(a)(In degrees)
(in clock wise direction)
Slope of back fill(b) =
Angle of wall friction (q) =
Undrained Cohesion ( c) =
Safe bearing capacity(SBC) =
Surcharge over the back fill(s) =
(Assumed)
Characteristic compressive strength =
Tensile strength of steel =
Unit weight of RCC =
Unit weight of PCC =

Coefficient of active earth pressure by Coulomb's theory

Ka = Sin(a+Q)
sina sin(a-q) sin(Q+q)sin(Q-b)
sin(a+b)

Sin(a+Q) = SIN[3.14*(87.17+30)/180] = 0.89


Sin(a-q) = SIN[3.14*(87.17-15)/180] = 0.952
Sina = SIN[3.14*(87.17)/180] = 0.999
Sin(Q+q) = SIN[3.14*(30+15)/180] = 0.707
Sin(Q-b) = SIN[3.14*(30-0)/180] = 0.5
Sin(a+b) = SIN[3.14*(87.17+0)/180] = 0.999

From the above expression,

Ka = 0.32

Dimensions of the brest wall(Assumed for preliminary design):-

Thickness of stem at bottom =


Thickness of stem at top =
1995

300

Earth pressure at top including surcharge = K ays =


(0.32*1800*0.6) =

Earth pressure at bottom including surcharge = K ay(s+h) =


[0.32*1800*(1.995+0.6)] =

Pressure distribution is as shown below:-

345.6

1.995m

1149.1 345.6

Area of the rectangular portion = 345.6*1.995 = 689.47


Area of the triangular portion = 0.5*1149.1*1.995= 1146.25
1835.72

Taking moments of the areas about the toe of the wall

S.No Description Area Lever arm Moment

1 Rectangular 689.47 0.9975 687.746


2 Triangular 1146.25 0.665 762.256
1835.72 1450

Height from the bottom of the wall = 0.79m


(1450/1835.72)

The active Earth pressure acts on the abutment as shown below:-

0.20

17.83
1.995m

0.79m

87.17
0.30m
0.04
Total earth pressure acting on the wall per 1m length P = 2180.46Kg
(345.6*1.995+0.5*1149.1*1.995)*1 =

Horizontal component of the earth pressure P h =


(PCos20.150 )

Vertical component of the earth pressure P v =


(PSin20.150 )

Eccentricity of vertical component of earth pressure = (0.3/2-0.04) =

Total earth pressure =

It acts at a hieght of
from the base

Moment due to horizontal component of earth pressure =

Design of wall or stem:-

Factored bending moment Mu = 2459.51Kgm


(1.5*1639.67) =

Effective depth required d = Mu/0.138fckb = 94.40mm

Over all depth provided = 300.00mm

Effective depth provided(Assuming 50mm cover) d = 242.00mm

Mu/bd2 = 0.42
From table 2 of SP 16,percentage of steel required = 0.129
(Minimum percentage of steel as per IS 456:2000) = 0.15

Area of steel required = 363.00sqmm

Hence provide 10mm dia HYSD bars@ 150mm c/c spacing

Hence Ast provided = 523.33sqmm

Check for shear:-

The critical section for beam shear is at distance of 'd' from the face of the support

Hence,the factored design shear force V Fd = 11.11KN


at a distance 'd' from the face of the support

Nominal shear stress Tv = 0.05N/sqmm <2.8 N/sqmm


[11.11x1000/(1000*242)] = (As per Table 20 of 1S 456)

Hence,the section is safe from shear point of view

Assumed percentage area of the steel reinforcement = 0.22%


[100*523.33/(1000*242)] =

The design shear strength of concrete for the above steel percentage from
Table 19 of IS 456 is
[0.28+0.07*(0.36-0.28)/0.10] = 0.336

0.336>0.02

Hence,no shear reinforcement is required.

Provide temperature re inforcement @ 0.15%

Area required = 375.00sqmm

Provide 1/3rd of above reinforcement on earthen side = 125.00sqmm

Provide 8mm dia @ 300mm c/c on earthen side

Provide 2/3rd of above reinforcement on other side = 250.00sqmm

Provide 8mm dia @ 200mm c/c on other side


T WALL

1.995m
1.995m
0.00m
1800Kg/Cum
M20
Fe415

30
87.17

0
15
0Kg/sqm
7500Kg/sqm
0.60m

20N/sqmm
415N/sqmm
2500Kg/Cum
2400Kg/Cum

0.30m
0.20m
345.6Kg/sqm

1494.7Kg/sqm
2075.84Kg

667.32Kg

0.11m

2180.5Kg/m

0.79m

1639.67Kg/m
Hydraulic design

a)Hydraulic Particulars of drain:-

1.Maximum Flood Level 3.130

2.Ordinary Flood level 2.210

3.Lowest Bed level 1.200

4.Average bed slope 0.000250


(Calculated from the profile of drain)

5.Rugosity Coefficient(n) 0.033


(As per table 5 of IRC:SP 13)

6.Top of bund level 4.130

b)Hydraulic Particulars of field channel:-

7.Maximum Flood Level 3.210

8.Ordinary Flood level 2.910

9.Lowest Bed level 2.585

10.Average bed slope 0.000250


(Calculated from the profile of drain)

11.Rugosity Coefficient(n) 0.033


(As per table 5 of IRC:SP 13)

12.Top of bund level 3.510

c)Hydraulic Particulars of the proposed box barrel:-

13.Bed level 0.785

14.Bottom level of the top slab 2.285

15.Top level of the top slab 2.585


(Bed level of the field channel)

16.No.of vents provided 1.0

17.Breadth of the vent 2.50m

18.Depth of the vent 1.50m

19.Width of box barrel 6.000

Discharge Calculations:-

Cross section of minor drain

b+2h
MFL
Cross section of minor drain

b+2h
MFL

LBL
b

1)Area Velocity method:-

Depth of flow w.r.t HFL = 1.930m


(MFL-LBL)

Bed width(b) = 1.40m

Assuming side slopes 1 :1 in clayey soils,top width at HFL (b+2h) = 5.260m

Wetted Area(A) = 6.43sqm


1.93*(1.4+5.26)/2

Wetted perimetre(P) = 6.86m


1.4+2*[(1.4)2+(1.4)2]0.5

Hydraulic Radius R= Wetted area/Wetted perimeter = 0.94

Velocity V = 1/nX(R2/3XS1/2) = 0.46m/sec

Discharge Q = AXV = 2.96Cumecs

Discharge as per the record = 2.950Cumecs

Higher of the above two values is adopted for design of CD Work

Design Discharge = 2.960Cumecs

Design Velocity = 0.46m/sec

Ventway Calculations(H.F.L Condition):-

Assuming the minor drain to be truly alluvial,the regime width is equal to linear waterway required for the drain.

Hence,as per Lacey's silt theory,the regime width W = 4.8Q 1/2 = 4.8*2.960.5 = 8.26m

But the actual top width is much less than the above regime width.Hence,the stream is no truly alluvial in nature.
It is quasi-alluvial.As per IRC:SP--13,the ventway calculations for quasi-alluvial streams are as given below:-
The linear water way required = Actual width of the drain at HFL (W) = 5.260m

As per the clause 8.1.2.2 of IS 7784-Part1--1993,for the works with rigid floors,the waterway can be further flumed
within the permissible limits of velocity for the particular type of floor.

The limiting velocity for the floor with concrete below M30 is = 4.00m/s

The area of cross section required = Q/A = 0.74sqm

Assuming 1V--box barrel, vent being 2.50mX1.50m,the area


of cross-section provided = 3.75sqm

Hence,the flow velocity in the box barrel will be within the limits.

Calculation of Afflux at HFL condition:-

The area of un obstructed cross section A = 6.43sqm

The area of cross section provided a = 3.75sqm

Depth of flow on down stream side Dd = 0.650m

Linear water way of the Box barrel (L) = 2.500m

Adopting,orifice formula for discharge Q = C0 (2g)1/2 LDd[h+(1+e)v2/2g]1/2 = 2.960Cumecs

For the ratio a/A = 0.58

where, C0 = Coefficient of discharge = 0.87


h = afflux in m
e = factor accounting for recovery of some velocity head as = 1
potential head
v = average velocity in approach section

h+0.102v2 = 0.2233730292

Further, as per discharge formula ,Q =W x (Dd+h) x v,hence v x (0.65+h) = 0.56

substituting h = (0.56/v)-0.65 and re-arranging the terms

we get 0.56-0.87v+0.102v3 = 0

solving for v,we get v = 0.69m/s

Hence,afflux h = 0.160m

Scour Depth Calculations:-

As per the clause 101.1.2 of IRC:5--1985,the design discharge should be increased by 30% to ensure adequate
margin of safety for foundations and protection works
Hence,the discharge for design of foundations = 1.30XDesign Discharge = Qdf =
(1.3*2.96)

Lacey's Silt factor for standard silt ' f ' = 1.76Xm1/2= = (Value taken from table 4 of SP13) =

Discharge per metre width of foundations = q =


(3.94/2.5)

Normal scour depth D = 1.34(q2/f)1/3 =


[1.34*(1.5762/1.0)0.33]

For quasi-alluvial streams,linear water way required is natural width of the channel at HFL . =

Linear water way provided =

As per clause 12.1 of IRC SP:13,Increased scour depth due to contraction of linear water way D' = D(W/L) 0.61 =
1.81(5.26/2.5)0.61 =

Maximum scour depth Dm = 1.5XD =


(For design of foundations,as per clause 110.1.4.2 of IRC:5--1985)
(1.5*2.85)

Depth of foundation = Dm + Max.of 1.2m or 1/3 Dm =


(4.28+1.2)

Bottom level of foundation = (3.13-5.48) =

Depth of foundation below low bed level = [1.2-(-2.35)] =

The Minimum Safe Bearing capacity of the soil is considered as 7.5 KN/m2

Box barrel of size 1v-2.00mx2.35m is proposed at a level of


Hence,cut-off walls and aprons are required to protect the foundation&floor bed

Design of cut-off walls:-

a)From scour depth criteria:-

It is sufficient to take the D/S side cut-off upto 1.27 times the normal scour depth as per
caluse 703.2.3.2 of IRC 78-1983 considering that the reach is straight.

1.27XNormal scour depth from HFL = 3.62m


(1.27*2.85) =

Depth of bottom of Cut-off wall from HFL = 3.62m

Bottom level of cut-off wall = -0.49


(3.13-3.62)=

Depth of bottom of D/S side Cut-off wall from LBL 1.69m


[1.2-(-0.49)]=
According to Khosla's theory for two dimensional flow,the exit gradient GE = (H/d) x 1

The value of B/d = 3.550

For the above value,1 = 0.07

The exit gradient for clayey soil = 0.25

Static head including afflux = 2.09

Hence,the depth of cut-off required = 0.59m

However, provide 2.40 depth cut-off wall

Design of LAUNCHING APRONS:-

Size of stones as per clause 5.3.7.2 of IRC 89-1985

Diametre (d) = (Vmax/4.893)2 = 0.020m


(0.92/4.893) =
2

Say 0.23m

Weight of each stone considering the specific gravity of stone as 2.65

Weight of stone = 4/3x x(d/2)3 x 2.65 x 1000 = 15.81Kg

Say 20Kg

Weight of each stone shall not be less than 20 Kg.

Dimensions of apron as per clause 5.3.5.2 of IRC 89-1985

( T ) = 0.06 x (Qdf)1/3 = 0.095


0.06*(3.48) 1/3
=

Thickness of apron at inner edge(near raft) = 1.5 x T = 0.143m

Say 0.30m

Thickness of apron at outer edge = 2.25 x T = 0.214m

Say 0.60m

Hence provide a thickness of 0.30m at near end and 0.6m at the outer end
MFL
MFL

LBL

ly alluvial in nature.
er flumed

0.003385

-0.006792

o ensure adequate
3.94Cumecs

1.00

1.576

1.81m

5.26m

2.50m

2.85m

4.28m

5.48m

-2.35m

3.55m

0.485m