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INDECK BOILER CORPORATION

INSTRUCTION MANUAL

WATERTUBE BOILER

"A" TYPE

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INDEX

WATERTUBE BOILER STARTING-UP ................................................... 20


Foreword ...................................................................2 Filling with Water.................................................. 20
Handling ...................................................................3 Firing ..................................................................... 20
Lifting Arrangement ...............................................4 (Fig. 1) Start-up Curve ......................................... 22
Installation .................................................................5 Going on Line........................................................ 23

PRE-SERVICE ........................................................6 OPERATING GUIDE ......................................... 24


External......................................................................6 Water Levels.......................................................... 24
Combustion Chamber ...............................................7 Combustion Controls ............................................. 24
Burner ........................................................................8 Blowdown.............................................................. 24
Combustion Air .......................................................9 Flame Pattern ......................................................... 25
Fuel Piping...............................................................9 Temperature........................................................... 25
Feed Piping ..............................................................10 Sootblowers ........................................................... 25
Steam Piping............................................................10 Data ....................................................................... 25
Drain Piping.............................................................10 Operator's Maintenance ......................................... 26
Water Column..........................................................10 Table 3
Safety Valves...........................................................11 Feedwater Quality Limits .................................... 26
Safety Controls ........................................................11 Table 4
Sootblowers .............................................................12 Boiler Water Limit VS Steam Purity ................... 27
Heat Recovery .........................................................12
Drum Internals .........................................................12 Procedure for using a boiler blow-off valve
Summary..................................................................13 to supplement continuous blowdown.....................28
Table 1 Pre-Service
Inspection Check list..............................................14 SHUTTING DOWN ............................................ 29
Wet Storage ........................................................... 31
PREPARATION FOR SERVICE .......................15 Dry Storage............................................................ 32
Hydrostatic Testing..................................................15
Drying-Out...............................................................16 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE...................... 33
Boiling Out ..............................................................16 Refractory .............................................................. 33
Table 2 Tubes ..................................................................... 34
Valve Position Chart..............................................19 Combustion Equipment ......................................... 34
Water Column........................................................ 34

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FOREWORD

This instruction manual is a reference guide for the care and operation of an INDECK boiler. The instructions are
general and should be applied with due consideration for the requirements of a particular operating condition. This
manual should aid and not replace the experience and judgment of the operator upon whom final responsibility for
successful and safe operation rests.

The service of an INDECK Service Technician can be provided at a nominal per diem rate. In some cases, service time
will be furnished as part of the contract.

The purpose of providing an INDECK Service Technician is to advise and train the operator, not to replace or assume
any of the operator's duties. It should be understood that the presence of an INDECK Service Technician in no way
relieves the operator of any responsibility.

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HANDLING

The INDECK boiler is a thoroughly designed, structurally sound, shop assembled unit that has been continually checked
and inspected during assembly. The boiler has lifting attachments, jacking attachments (see Page 4) and an under frame
of structural members. The overall design facilitates handling the boiler when it is moved or transported. Even so,
INDECK recommends that a reputable professional and insured rigger or hauler be hired to handle the boiler and moved
into position. If needed, specific, recommended moving and installation procedures may be obtained from INDECK.

CAUTION: The base and/or the other integral parts may be damaged by improper transportation or
rough careless handling.

Unless specified, INDECK does not assume responsibility for the unit once it is accepted at the factory by a common
carrier or a private hauler. When the boiler is received at the plant, it should be inspected for signs of damage prior to
accepting the shipment or releasing the shipper. When the rigger or hauler begins his work, his experience and discretion
should prevail, and it should be clear that he is totally responsible for the proper care of the unit as it is moved into
position.

The unit should be inspected after each phase of installation so that if damage has occurred, claims for repairs may be
submitted to the proper, responsible party.

If there is any doubt as to the condition of the boiler, an INDECK Service Technician should be called in to advise about
the condition and possible repairs.

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Lifting Arrangement Diagram

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INSTALLATION

In most cases the boiler will simply be positioned on a concrete slab with no expansion guides or hold down or
foundation bolts required. The base of the unit along with the other integral parts will allow for adequate thermal
expansion. A foundation loading diagram is made available soon after award of contract to allow proper design and
construction of the foundation that will receive the boiler.

With larger units, foundation bolts will be required at the front end of the base to allow expansion movement towards the
rear only. Additional foundation bolts may be required along the longitudinal beams near the rear end of the base to hold
guide clip. When foundation bolts are required, they will be called for on the foundation loading diagram. In this case,
the need for pads on the foundation base are required to reduce friction and these pads should be provided as necessary.
If there are questions about the installation or foundation loading design, refer them to the local INDECK representative
or to Head Office.

CAUTION: Do not weld clips to the boiler base to allow for movement due to thermal expansion.

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PRE-SERVICE INSPECTION

When the installation of the boiler has been completed, and before putting it into operation, the entire system should be
inspected. This inspection serves two functions. First, a thorough inspection will show whether or not the equipment has
been properly installed and the contractor can be released from the job site. Secondly, if any of the components are
damaged defective or improperly installed, a thorough inspection will reveal the discrepancy immediately, rather than
delay the starting-up operation later.

The following discussion and the component check list in this section are intended as an inspection guide. After every
component in this check list is inspected and proved operational, the boiler will be ready to operate. The inspection
should also cover any related equipment furnished by others to insure that the total system is ready to function.

EXTERNAL

Any signs of damage which occurred enroute, should be thoroughly examined. For example, damage to the side casing
could also have damaged the insulation, the inner seal casing or the boiler tubes.

The area around the boiler should be checked to insure that no attachment is preventing the unit from expanding. Low
friction skid plates or roller assemblies may be required under the rear bearing point to allow free movement. (See
section on Handling and Installation and refer to the Foundation Drawing.)

Any obvious signs of component misassembly should be listed, and the list should be signed by the equipment installer or
engineer in charge of the installation. This inspection list should constitute a request for correction of the improperly
installed of defective components.

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COMBUSTION CHAMBER

The main access to the furnace area or fire box is through the inspection door (located on the rear wall) by unscrewing
the nuts around the door plate and removing the door by pulling it free.

The furnace interior should be inspected for any signs of damage to the front and rear refractory walls. Castable
refractory does have hairline cracks, which will not cause trouble, but cracks over 1/8 inch wide can cause problems by
allowing leakage of hot gasses to the steel casing. The rear tile wall should be tight and without cracked joints. The roof
and floor seals of castable refractory must be solid. Any damage to the refractory or insulation should be repaired before
the main flame is lit.

The tube banks which make up the furnace walls should be tight and in good alignment. If there are any gaps between
the tangent tubes or finned tubes, the gas flow can short circuit from the furnace into the convection zone and modify the
performance of the boiler as well as cause possible damage.

If the floor or part of the floor is covered by refractory tiles. The tiles should be placed from the edge of the walls and
laid flat on the floor. The floor tile joints are not mortared.

If the unit is equipped with a superheater, all S.H. elements should be firmly supported. The elements should be
inspected for damage due to in transit vibrations. Check the seal where the S.H., tubes or headers penetrate the side or
rear wall.

Finally, the furnace should be free of debris, equipment or shipping braces.

Before closing the access door, using the fire bricks, especially supplied for this purpose, the access door opening must
be blocked by pilling these bricks in front of the opening. Do not mortar or cement them. The above bricks are shipped
loose laying on the combustion chamber floor. See refractory and insulation drawing for more details.

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BURNER

The burner is comprised of: windbox, air register assembly, ignitor, fuel manifold and/or atomizing oil gun, observation
port and flame safety scanner. Check these components to determine if they are in the proper position, and undamaged.
Proceed as follows:

1. Check the air register by operating the control lever on the burner front plate. All of the register blades

should move together since they are tied to a common linkage. (Some burner register do not have that
particular device.)

2. Check the ignitor to insure that the porcelain end is not cracked or damaged. Also, check the porcelain

insulator sleeve. The wire connector nut should be clean and tight. The spark gap must be clean and set at
3/16 of an inch. Unless otherwise specified by burner manufacturer in the burner section.

3. If the burner fires natural or manufactured gas, the lower capacity burners will have an internal gas manifold.

Check to make sure the holes are clear. Some burners have an external manifold and pipe spud extending
into the burner throat. Check the holes in the tips of these spuds, to make sure they are clear. Check
isolation valves on spuds for freedom of operation.

4. If the burner fires oil, then there is an atomizer gun in the center of the burner throat. Check the gun against

the assembly drawing of the burner to insure that the gun is assembled or supplied properly. The holes in the
tip must be clean.

5. There must be a safety glass in the view port, and through the scanner you must be able to sight the oil gun

spray pattern or the ring of gas flame. The wire connections on the scanner must be clean and tight, and the
lens also must be clean.

NOTE: More specifics inspections requirements are described in the burner Maintenance and
Operation Section.

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COMBUSTION AIR

Unless the system requires more than one fan, the boiler has only one fan to supply combustion air. The rate of air flow
is controlled by either fan inlet vanes or fan inlet or outlet dampers.

The air flow vanes or dampers must operate in conjunction with a driving unit. Check for freedom of movement, range
of movement and closure tightness by manually operating the drive unit or control linkage.

CAUTION: Before starting the F.D. Fan motor, make sure fan outlet damper and/or combustion
gas outlet damper are opened to low fire position to prevent over pressure and fan
vibrations.

The fan rotor and shaft must be free turning by hand, without binding or scraping. The motor rotation must coincide with
the fan wheel rotation, which is found marked on the housing. The fan movement, motor rotation and motor starter can
be tested by momentarily energizing the electrical circuit to the motor. If fan rotation is in the right direction and
movement is free, then continue to run the fan for a period of time and check the bearings and mountings for excessive
vibrations and smooth operation overall.

FUEL PIPING

The fuel piping schematic drawings furnished with the burner operation manual must be studied and totally understood.
Inspect the piping system to see that it is assembled according to the drawings, and such things as the check valves are
properly oriented. The piping must be tight, and no loose joints or open ports can be tolerated. All gauges should have
shut off cocks. The electrical valves and controls switches should be wired in accordance with the electrical wiring
diagram.

Check the fuel delivery equipment for proper connections. If gas is used as the fuel, check for proper pressure and
purity. If fuel oil is used, check supply, preheater, return lines and pressure relief. The oil pump should be checked for
proper rotation, pressure output and pressure relief. If the oil is heated, check wiring and piping of the oil heater.

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FEED PIPING

The feedwater piping and chemical feed piping should be examined to see if all of the joints are tight and the valving is in
the proper orientation. The direction of flow through the check valves should be towards the boiler. Check the feedwater
control valve assembly and drum level transmitter assembly against the supplier's product bulletins to determine that
control signal are connected or wired properly. Check the valves and drainage of the control valve by-pass system.

STEAM PIPING

All steam piping should be inspected for such things as: securely bolted flanges, properly oriented check valves, no open
ports, correct installation of gauges and proper operation of vent and drain valves. Check all orifices, flow nozzle,
Venturi or flow metering devices and transmitters for proper installation, per manufacturer's bulletins. On atomizing
steam lines, insure that steam condensate traps and drains are installed properly.

DRAIN PIPING

All drain lines should be inspected from the connection on the boiler to the blow down tank or pit. There should be no
shut offs other than normal drain valves or obstructions between the boiler and the collection tank. This collection tank
should be installed to comply with all local Codes or insurance recommendations. Items which normally have drain
provisions are: boiler drums, water column, water gauge glass, auxiliary low water cut off, remote level indicator,
atomizing steam condensate and any headers (sootblowers, superheaters, economizers and water walls).

WATER COLUMN

Since the water column is so important to the operation of a boiler, it must be carefully inspected. The connecting piping
must be complete and free of leaks. The wiring to the safety system must be in accordance with the external wiring
diagram.

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WATER COLUMN (cont'd)

With a water column there are several control devices which could have been furnished, such as: low water alarm (this
signals when water level is dropping to the danger point), low water cut off (this shuts the burner off before the water
level is low enough to do any overheating damage), an auxiliary low water cut off (this is a safety low level). High water
alarm (this signals when level gets high enough to cause loss of steam purity and water carryover), and high water cut off
(this is more of a process protection circuit to prevent the water from flooding the steam separator). Any of these
functions which are furnished should be checked for proper actuation. The normal water level is usually maintained
below drum center line. Refer to water column arrangement drawing for specific location. In any case, it must always be
maintained above the lowest permissible water level indication.

SAFETY VALVES

Safety valves should be checked to make sure that there are no blockages or shut offs on the outlets. The vent pipes
should be supported independent from the valves, because the weight of the pipes could cause the valve body to distort or
expand. The valves should be preset and sealed in accordance with the manufacturer's valve identification tag stamping.

SAFETY CONTROLS

Before inspecting the safety control circuit, study the electrical diagrams furnished with equipment. Examine all
components and make preliminary adjustments as per the manufacturer's bulletins and instruction manuals.

Normal safety controls include such items as: high steam pressure limit switch, excess steam pressure limit switch, flame
proving safeguards, high and low oil pressure and temperature switches, high and low gas pressure switches, water level
alarms and cut offs, plus any other special controls furnished to fulfil the boiler system requirements.

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SOOTBLOWERS

If the boiler fires or can be adjusted to fire heavy oil, it will be equipped with soot cleaning devices. Consult the
manufacturer's bulletins for specifications on capacity and pressure requirements of steam and for cleaning and purging
air. Check the angle of rotation and nozzle location on the lance to insure cleaning within the proper tube lanes.
Lubricate to the manufacturer's recommendations.

HEAT RECOVERY

If the boiler is supplemented with an economizer or an air heater, check the interconnecting ducts, by-passes and piping
for possible leaks of possible expansion interference. Check this apparatus to determine the provisions for condensate
drainage, venting, instrument connecting and sootblowing devices if the boiler fires oil. This equipment may be provided
with by-pass ducts or other means of isolation. The expansion joints and the ductwork should be properly installed and
any shipping restraints removed.

DRUM INTERNALS

The boiler drum will be fitted with internal distribution pipes and baffling. When the greatest steam purity is required,
the steam or upper drum may be fitted with Vortex steam separators and Chevron steam scrubbers. A manway at one end
of each drum should be opened for inspection prior to on-line operation. Bolts and brackets on the internal distribution
pipes and baffles should be checked for tightness. A quick check of the Vortex separators is to see if they are all in
general alignment in a row. Chevron scrubber sections should be checked to see that there are no wide openings. Seal
drains at the bottom of the Chevron compartment should be checked for tightness. Any large amounts of dirt, scale or
debris should be removed.

If the mud drums are equipped with a warm-up steam coil it must be check for proper installation and external piping
recommended installation.

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SUMMARY

A thorough inspection will reveal any obvious damage or improper installation of component equipment. When
all of the items contained in the check list have been reviewed, and the entire system has been inspected, you may
proceed with the preparation for service.

CAUTION: Do not attempt to fire the boiler until all systems have been checked and are
operational.

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TABLE 1
PRE-SERVICE INSPECTION CHECK LIST

Air - purge Linkage


Air ducts Lubrication
Air heater Manifold - gas
Blowdown Manways - drums
Blowoff Observation ports
Bolts - base hold down Oil guns
Bolts - flange Oil heater
By-pass - duct Oil piping
By-pass - feedwater Oil pumping
Casing - outer Outlet - smoke
Casing - seal Piping
Chemical feed Pressure gauges
Combustion equipment Refractory
Controls Safety valves
Dampers Sootblowers
Drains Stack
Drives Steam lines
Drum internals Steam purifier
Economizer Superheater
Expansion provisions Temperature gauges
Expansion joints Thermocouples
Fan Thermometers
Feedwater system Tile
Fuel piping Traps
Furnace Tubes
Gas piping Valves
Gauges Vanes
Headers Water column and auxiliary
Ignitor Water gauge
Instruments air piping Windbox
Insulation Wiring
Limit switch

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PREPARATION FOR SERVICE


When the pre-service inspection is complete, and when all problems have been corrected, then the system can be
subjected to its final series of tests before putting it into service.

HYDROSTATIC TESTING

All boilers are hydrostatically tested to 1 times design pressure in the factory. However, the unit along with any steam
headers or interconnecting piping should be hydro tested before starting up.

The boiler, superheater, economizer, and the steam and water lines must be completely vented in order to fill it with
water. Proceed as follows:

1. Open the vent valve on the steam drum and gag the safety valves.

2. Isolate any pressure switch or control which is not intended to be subjected to the hydro test pressure. If the unit is
equipped with a superheater, open the vents on the steam cross-over line and on the superheater headers.

NOTE: If any economizer is to be tested at the same time, open the economizer header vents.

3. Fill the system with treated water. The water should be at room temperature (70F recommended). If the water is
over 100F, fill the system slowly to avoid any thermal shocking.

4. Once the system is filled, close vent valves slowly so the pressure may be increased to a maximum of 1 times the
design limit of the system, or the requirements of the local boiler inspecting agency. Certified calibrated pressure
gauges must be used.

ATTENTION: Do not over pressurize the system.

5. Examine the system for any leaks. If no leaks are visible, hold the system in a pressurized static condition for a
period long enough to satisfy both yourself and the inspector, that the system is tight. If the boiler or any other
equipment are not tight, consult the manufacturer for instructions.

ATTENTION: After the test make sure to drain completely the superheater and to remove the gags
on safety valves.

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DRYING OUT

The drying out of the refractory in the boiler is very important to insure proper performance from the refractory once the
system is in service. Proceed as follows:

1. Fill the unit with water to the normal water line, and adjust valves accordingly to the valves position Chart Table 2.

2. The main burner should be fired for periods of two minutes ON, at low fire, fifteen minutes OFF. This intermittent
operation should continue for about two hours, or until moisture vapour stops coming out the stack. The low fire
position then should be maintained with the unit at about twenty-five (25 psig) pounds pressure for another two
hours.

S.H. NOTE: When steam start coming out, close the crossover piping vent, to leave steam flowing
through superheater. Monitor superheater steam temperature. Do not allow it to
exceed maximum temperature.

3. By now the refractory should be cured and the system can be boiled out. Boiling out can be done concurrent with
drying out.

BOILING OUT

The reason for boiling out the boiler is to clean the water side surfaces. If any oil film or dirt is present on the steel
surfaces, the heat transfer rate will be impaired. If the heat cannot pass through the steel due to water side contamination,
then the steel becomes overheated, causing blistering or ruptures.

To boil out the boiler, open the steam drum vent and fill the unit with water up to the low visibility point of the gauge
glass. The chemicals used in the boil out process can be introduced into the steam drum in two ways. If a chemical
pump is available and there is an extra connection in the steam drum, the chemicals can be pumped into the unit. The
alternate method is to lower the water level below the upper manway opening and insert the chemicals by either a pump
or by hand. Whichever method is used, the chemicals should be mixed thoroughly outside of the unit and inserted in a
slurry solution.

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BOILING OUT (cont'd)

CAUTION: Extreme care should be taken while handling the boil out chemicals. The operator or
the person handling the chemicals should be dressed for working with a caustic
solution. Rubber suits and face masks are recommended.

Normally, the feedwater treatment consultant will recommend the chemicals to be used in boiling out. The chemicals
used to boil out a boiler are caustic soda, soda ash and a detergent.

The concentration of chemicals to be used is one pound of caustic soda and one pound of soda ash to three hundred (300)
pounds of generator water at normal water level. TRI or DI sodium phosphate may be used instead of soda ash.

The water content at normal water level can be found in the data section of this manual. Do not add the chemical slurry
to the boiler until the unit is ready to perform the boil out. If the chemicals are added to the steam drum in a stagnant
concentration or if the chemicals lay dormant for any length of time, they adhere to the steel surfaces and may cause
corrosion problems.

S.H. CAUTION: At no time boiler water containing boil-out chemicals should enter into
superheater no carryover should be tolerated.

Once the chemicals are introduced into the boiler and the manway covers closed, the boil out can proceed. The main
burner should be fired at a low fire rate with ON-OFF cycling not to exceed heating rate as shown on Figure 1 until
steam vapour flows from the vent valve. The upper drum vent valve or crossover piping vent valve should then be
closed. If the unit is equipped with a superheater, the superheater outlet vent valve should then be partially closed, and
the pressure should be increased to one hundred (100 psig) see Figure 1 of the Superheater section of this manual.
Maintain this pressure and firing rate for about twelve (12) hours. After the initial 12-hours period, shut down the burner
and blow the water level down to the low visibility point of the gauge glass to dilute the caustic concentration by using
the bottom drum blow-off valve and the upper drum continuous blow down. Then fill the unit back up with fresh treated
water and fire the burner again, leaving the continuous blow down running. Repeat this blow down-fill-up procedure
once every hour until a water sample shows the water to be clear of impurities. If the unit is equipped with a superheater,
make sure the S.H. header vent valve is open.

When the firing is stopped and the boil out is completed, allow the unit to cool, then open the vent valve and drain the
boiler, all connecting piping and accessories.

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BOILING OUT (cont'd)

CAUTION: Whenever the burner is shut down, allow the fan to continue running to purge the
furnace and convection zones of any unburned combustibles.

The drum internals should be inspected for cleanliness and washed down with high pressure water. All drum connections
should be clear of sludge or boil out chemical concentrations. If the internal surfaces are not cleaned satisfactorily, repeat
the boil out procedure until all internal surfaces are cleaned. The manway gaskets and temporary water gauge glass
should be replaced by the ones specified for normal boiler operation (see list of material).

CAUTION: Never boil out a boiler which has mica backing in the water gauge, since caustic soda
will attack the mica. For boil-out use a temporary water gauge.

Once the boiler is cleaned, drained and sealed, the fresh treated water can be put in. Adjust the valves according to the
Valve Position Chart, Table 2 and then bring the water up to about two inches below the normal operating level. The
water will expand when the unit is fired. The boiler should be inspected on last time prior to starting up, and any leaks or
malfunctioning equipment should be corrected.

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TABLE 2
VALVE POSITION CHART

VALVE HYDRO DRY-OUT BOIL-OUT OPERATION

Main steam shut off Close Close Close Open


Feedwater C.V. Close Close Close Modulating

F.W.C.V. isolation Close Close Close Open

F.W.C.V. by-pass (2) Open Open Open Close

Drum vent (1) Open/Close Open Par. Open Close

Safety valves Gag Free Free Free

Blowoff valves Close Close Par. Open Close

Cont. Blow-down Close Close Open Open

Superheater vent (1) Open/Close Open Open Close

Superheater drain Close Open Open Close

Economizer vent (1) Open/Close Open/Close Open/Close Close

Economizer drain Close Close Close Close

Economizer by-pass (3) Close Close Close Close

Chemical feed Close Close Close Open

Water column drain Close Close Close Close

Water gauge drain Close Close Close Close

Steam gauge shut off (4) Close Close Close Open

Sootblower shut-off (5) Close Close Close Close

Level transmitter (5) Close Close Close Open

(1) These valves should be opened to fill the boiler with water.
(2) This valve should be opened as needed to control the water level manually.
(3) This valve should be opened only on emergency needs.
(4) Use a test gauge until after boil out.
(5) Close the valves at the steam drum connexion.

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STARTING UP

It must be recognized that all boilers and auxiliary systems require some operator attention during start-up. Special care
must be exercised in the manipulation of feed and fuel systems to protect against damaging the boiler and to insure
personnel safety.

FILLING WITH WATER

The feedwater should be slowly introduced into the boiler. The filling rate depends on the temperature of the feedwater.
70F, is the minimum recommended temperature. If the water temperature is over 100F the boiler should be filled
slowly to prevent overstressing the steel components. The level should be set at about two inches below the normal
water level so that there is room for expansion when the water is heated. Blowdown the gauge glass and observe the
return of liquid to insure that the glass is clear and functioning properly.

The vent valve should be fully opened when filling the boiler with water. It should remain open until the boiler starts to
steam. Prevent steam contact with the transmitter parts, the steam drum level transmitter, the steam pressure transmitter
and the steam flow transmitter sensing lines must be filled with clean water before firing.

The same procedure also applies to the operating and/or high limit pressure switches and pressure indicator.

When the unit is filled and the level is stabilized, start the purge cycle of the combustion controls. Allow adequate time
to completely vent the furnace and convection zone.

FIRING

If no safety interlock cuts the system out, proceed with fuel light off according to the operating sequence covered in the
burner management manual. Be sure to follow all precautions for whatever fuel you are using.

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FIRING (cont'd)

1. The boiler should be started and fired in the low fire position until steam is flowing from the drum vent
valve. (See Figure 1). The burner ON-OFF cycling is required during a certain period of time not to exceed
maximum temperature increase rate.

2. Increase the steam pressure to that the saturated steam temperature increases at the rate of one hundred
degrees (100F) per hour or less (see Figure 1).

CAUTION: Rapid heating or cooling can cause tube leaks at the joints in the drums and refractory
damage. Rapid heating can cause superheater tube to overheat.

3. The drum vent valve should then be closed and the minimum firing rate maintained until the boiler reaches
the system operating pressure.

4. If the boiler is equipped with a superheater (refer to Figure 1 of the Superheater section of this manual, the
S.H. header vent and drain valves should be opened to permit steam flow through the elements. Without
adequate steam flow the elements will be overheated and damaged. Leave the vent and drain valve open
until a constant superheat steam temperature has developed. When the valve down stream from the
temperature sensing element is closed, the steam temperature rise should be monitored to insure against
excessive high temperature, It is recommended to control and monitor the superheated steam temperature to
prevent the superheater tubes from overheating.

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Start-up Curve Graph

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GOING ON LINE

If the boiler is not connected into a common line with other generators, and there is not any pressure downstream of the
outlet stop and check valve, slowly open the outlet valve and fill the steam lines until pressure is equalized. The system
temperature must be raised slowly to avoid thermal shock. Once the system has reached operating pressure, the outlet
valve can be fully opened. If the boiler is equipped with a superheater refer to the Superheater section of this manual.

Once the system has stabilized and the boiler is operating at the minimum firing rate, the unit can then be increased above
the low fire rate and the control can be calibrated to prepare for future automatic firing. The entire system should be kept
under close surveillance until full load operating conditions are achieved. There is always the possibility of a defect in the
safety cutouts.

If the boiler is tied into a line with other boilers, and there is pressure downstream of the non-return valve, then the
system must be brought up to operating pressure or a pressure equal to or above existing pressure in the main steam line.
The outlet shut off valve can then be opened to permit flow through the non-return valve.

The operation of the burner and the flame pattern should be closely monitored during the start-up procedure.
Adjustments should be made to the air-fuel ration to keep the unburned combustibles to a minimum. If the burner is
firing oil, the gun should be positioned, so that the flame is as far back into the furnace as possible without the flame
actually touching the walls or the tubes.

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OPERATING GUIDE
WATER LEVELS

Safe and reliable operation of a boiler depends on routine monitoring of the control and safety systems. The feedwater
rate and the combustion controls must be continually checked whether the system is operated automatically or an
operator is in attendance. Proper water level in the steam drum must be maintained. If the water level rises too high, the
steam purity is endangered and water carry-over is inevitable. If the water level drops too low some tubes could lack
water and the unit is in danger of overheating. The level is automatically controlled by the feedwater level transmitter.
The control valve should be adjusted per the manufacturer's recommendations so that the level remains stable at the
recommended normal water level. This level is indicated on the water column arrangement drawing annexed to this
instruction manual..

COMBUSTION CONTROLS

The combustion controls, mainly the air-fuel ratio, should be adjusted and monitored for optimum performance and
efficiency. Not only does poor combustion mean fuel loss, but the convection zone of the unit will become fouled and
the heat transfer will drop, causing excess exit gas temperature. However, an air rich adjustment on the air-fuel ratio
should be avoided because this can lead to flame instability at low fire and an increase in nitrogen oxide emission (NOx).
A too high air percentage can also cause a shortage of steam production when running at full capacity.

BLOWDOWN

The blowdown rate must be adjusted according to the amount of T.D.S. (Total Dissolved Solids) in the boiler water.
INDECK advises that the services of a qualified water treatment laboratory should be employed in treating the boiler
water and in setting the amount or frequency of blowdown. Refer to Table 3 for recommended feedwater quality limits.

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FLAME PATTERN

The flame pattern within the furnace is important to achieve anticipated performance. Improper flame pattern can result
in carbon build up on the tube surfaces which will restrict thermal transfer and result in high exit gas temperature and loss
in efficiency. If the fuel is oil, then improper flame position can also cause carbon and slag build up on the burner throat.
In addition, flame instability will result, and the danger of a flame loss arises.

TEMPERATURES

While a unit is in operation, a constant check should be run on all temperature indicators and recorders. A drop in steam
temperature will indicate a deviation from the performance data. This may appear as a rise in exit gas temperature, a
drop in fuel feed temperature or pressure, or a drop in feedwater temperature or pressure. As stated several times in this
manual, a rise in exit gas temperature means carbon fouling of the tube surfaces, improper flame position or misadjusted
air-fuel ratio. If the unit is equipped with a superheater and the steam temperature suddenly rises, it may be that the
steam flow has dropped and the superheater elements are approaching temperatures that could damage them.

SOOTBLOWERS

On units firing oil, the carbon content of the flue gas normally coats the tubes causing a decrease in the rate of heat
transfer. For this reason, the units are equipped with sootblowers. These sootblowers should be operated at least once a
shift (three times a day). Failure to blow the soot off the tube surfaces on a scheduled basis makes the cleaning operation
that much harder when blowing is eventually done. Always remember that soot build up on tube surfaces directly affects
the efficiency of the boiler.

DATA

Boiler room personnel should be instructed to follow a precise schedule of data collection. Not only is this data
collection a useful record of the system's performance, but the operator will become accustomed to seeing the proper
figures on his data chart, and when something drifts off the norm, he will spot the drift and correct the system
accordingly.

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OPERATOR'S MAINTENANCE

A conscientious maintenance program should be applied. The following list is by way of suggestion.

1. Each shift
a) Check fuel pressures and temperatures at burner. Inspect flame pattern through burner and rear wall
observation ports.
b) Blowdown water column and gauge glass.
c) Operate sootblowers. (The sootblowing sequence have to follow the internal boiler gas flow).
d) Check operation of continuous blowdown.

2. Daily
a) Clean fuel strainers or filters.

3. Weekly
a) Clean lens of scanner.

4. Periodically
a) Clean and inspect inside of furnace for deterioration of refractory or insulation.
b) Clean atomizing tip on oil gun.
c) Remove pilot assembly for cleaning and resetting of spark gap.

TABLE 3
FEEDWATER QUALITY LIMITS

Below 600 psig 600 to 1000 psig 1000 psig & above
ppm ppm ppm
Total hardness 0 0 0
(as ppm CaC03) (1 temporary)
Iron 0.1 0.05 0.01
Copper 0.05 0.03 0.005
Oxygen 0.007 0.007 0.007
pH 7.0 to 9.5 8.0 to 9.5 8.5 to 9.5

TABLE 4
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Recommended Boiler Water Limits and Associated Steam Purity


as per ABMA 1982

Drum Total Dissolved Solids in Boiler Total Alkalinity (max.) Suspended Solids in
Pressure Water in Boiler Water ppm (2) Boiler Water ppm
Psig ppm (1) (max.) (4)

0-300 3500 700 15


301-450 3000 600 10
451-600 2500 500 8
601-750 1000 250 3
751-900 750 150 2
901-1000 625 125 1

1001-1800 100 Note (3) 1


1801-2350 50 N/A
2351-2600 25 N/A
2601-2900 15 N/A

Boiler Water Concentrations shall not exceed those shown in the table below with ppm defined as parts per million per
weight:

Notes:

1. Actual values reflect the TDS in the feedwater.

2. Actual values are directly proportional to the actual value of TDS of boiler water.

3. Dictated by boiler water treatment.

4. These values are exclusive of silica.

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PROCEDURE FOR USING A BOILER BLOW-OFF VALVE


TO SUPPLEMENT CONTINUOUS BLOWDOWN

When operating conditions require supplementing continuous blowdown, set up a routine to protect operating personnel
and boiler equipment. Use the following guidelines:

1. Make sure there is satisfactory protection for the boiler should the steam drum water level become drastically upset
when valve is opened.

2. CAUTION: DO NOT by-pass any steam drum low water level interlocks. Severe overheating
damage could occur.

3. Station an operator at the water column to observe the water level in the gage glass.

4. Two valves must be opened for blowdown:


CAUTION: NEVER fully open the isolation valve and the blow-off valve until it is certain that steam
drum water level can be maintained and the blowdown receiving tank can handle the
flow.
Isolation or Shut-off Valve
Fully open the isolation or shut-off valve (usually the valve most downstream of the boiler).
Blow-off Valve
Open the blow-off valve (the valve closest to the boiler) to a position no more than half-open for 10 seconds
while keeping a continuous watch on the effect of the steam drum water level.
Stop further opening and close the valve if there is a sudden uncontrollable drop in steam drum water level.
If steam drum water level is upset drastically during the first try, reduce the amount of blowdown-valve opening
when the procedure is retried.
If the steam drum water level can be maintained with the blow-off valve no more than half open, continue
blowdown for 20-30 seconds; watch water level continuously.
DO NOT leave a supplemental blow-off valve open for more than one minutes even though stable conditions
appear to be maintained.

5. To stop blowdown:
Tightly close blow-off valve.
When flow stops, close the isolation valve.
Recheck both valves to make sure blowdown flow has stopped completely.

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SHUTTING DOWN

NOTE: When steel boilers are out of service for any length of time, such as a lay-up for summer, water
side must be protected from corrosion.

1. If the boiler fires oil, the fire box and convection zones should be thoroughly cleaned so that sulphur residue does not
lay on tube surfaces.

2. Prior to shutting the boiler down, operate the sootblowing equipment more often than normal.

3. Once the boiler is down, mechanically clean or water-wash the inside of the furnace and convection zones.

4. When the cleaning is complete, the main burner should be fired to completely dry the inside surfaces. The moisture
vapour coming from the stack can be a gauge as to whether or not the inside of the boiler is dry. Any moisture
remaining in the fire side of the boiler combined with residual products of combustion will cause corrosion pitting of
the tubes.

5. When a boiler is to be brought down from ON-line service, the firing rate should be throttled back to the minimum
fire position then shut off.

6. The fan should be allowed to continue running to purge the furnace and to help cool the unit.

7. The water level should be maintained at the normal water level until the unit has stopped steaming.

8. When the pressure has dropped to ten (10 psig), open the drum vent valve.

9. When steam stops flowing from the drum vent, it is possible to shut off the feedwater supply and open the blow off
valve in the lower drum.

CAUTION: As the boiler is draining, be sure the vent valve is left open so as not to create a
vacuum.

10. After the unit is drained, open the drum manways and wash down the internal.

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SHUTTING DOWN (cont'd)

11. Inspect the unit for any maintenance work required.

CAUTION: If the washing is done with a chemical cleaning solution, the surfaces must be rinsed
and dried thoroughly so that the cleaning chemicals do not lay on surfaces and causes
corrosion problems.

NOTE: If the unit is going to be off-line for only a short while or will be needed back ON-line on short notice,
then it should be stored, filled with water.

CAUTION: If there is danger of freezing, then do not use this "wet" method storage.

When there are two boilers connected to the same stack and only one boiler is to be shut down, extreme care must be
taken before entering into the boiler surface or drums for inspection and maintenance.

Be sure that the main steam shut-off valve and the feedwater supply valve are locked close.

Also unbolt the expansion joint and the economizer outlet between the joint and the economizer.

Using the supplied shut-off gate plate, slide it between the damper and the joint and re-tight the joint bolts.

The burner and F.D. fan must also be securely locked so that no one can start them without the chef operator
authorisation.

Before putting the boiler back into service be sure to unlock all valves, safety controls and to have all boiler inspection
and access openings closed.

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WET STORAGE

S.H. CAUTION: If the unit is equipped with a superheater, it must never be filled with water or any
kind of liquid, so always use the dry storage method for the superheater.

1. To protect against corrosion, add caustic soda and sodium sulphite in such a proportion that the water will have a
concentration of 450 ppm caustic soda and 200 ppm sodium sulphite. The caustic soda maintains an alkaline
condition while the sodium sulphite serves as an oxygen scavenger.

2. Fill the boiler with fresh oxygen free condensate or chemically treated feedwater until water runs from the drum
vent.

3. When water overflows from the drum vent, raise the water pressure just above atmospheric and shut off water
supply. This slight pressure should be maintained during the storage period. The unit can also be pressurized
using a nitrogen cap.

CAUTION: If the unit is to be stored for a long period of time or if there is danger from freezing, then the "dry"
method should be used.

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DRY STORAGE

THE PROCEDURE PRESENTED HERE IS AN ALTERNATE PROCEDURE TO THE DRY METHOD DESCRIBED
IN ASME CODE.

1. Be sure that all internal surfaces are dry. Insure that no moisture can enter the boiler from feed lines, steam lines,
etc.

2. Tightly close all connections to the boiler, blanking the lines if it is deemed necessary. To protect against moisture
from the air, a suitable moisture absorbent, such as quicklime or silica gel shall be placed nearby each manhole
opening of boiler drums. Moisture absorbing material, such as quicklime at the rate of 7 lb or silica gel at the rate
of 8 lb for 100 cu.ft of boiler volume, may be placed in cotton bags inside the boiler near each manholes to absorb
moisture from the air.

3. Close all manholes and hand holes tightly.

4. During the storage period, regular inspections should be made and the lime replaced when necessary. (Every two
or three months the boiler should be checked and the lime or other desiccant replaced or regenerated if necessary).

The furnace and convection zones should be protected from the moisture in the air by sealing either the fan inlet or the
system outlet or both. In a high humidity climate this moisture will cause corrosion which can damage the tubes or
casing.

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PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

While operating the boiler, if anything happens where obvious damage may occur by continuing to operate, load should
be reduced and the unit taken out of service as soon as possible. Inspection should be made to assess the problem. If
there are questions about the condition of the unit, contact the INDECK Service Department.

Problems which may arise during the operation of a boiler can be separated into two (2) categories: The first is
"Operational Problems", the second is "Maintenance Problems". In this section, the second category will be dealt with.
Keep in mind the basic axiom that preventive maintenance is the best tool towards avoiding problems that ultimately
cause untimely shut down and loss of production.

REFRACTORY

Routine maintenance is normal with any refractory construction. When the boiler is subjected to cyclic operation, (fired
and shut down frequently) the maintenance of the refractory increases. Since refractory is not ductile, any shock load can
crack it. When cracking of the castable walls occurs, hot gases can seep into the wall and either destroy the backing
insulation or overheat the casing. Once the backing insulation is destroyed, the casing becomes exposed to the flame
temperature. Spalling, when a fragment of the refractory breaks loose, is not abnormal. Spalling can be tolerated,
provided the loss of material is not over half of the thickness of the original pour.

Spalling should be patched with a compatible mortar at the next outage of the unit. Cracks in the refractory should be
stuffed with high temperature ceramic fibre felt, but never patched with mortar. In the event that high casing
temperatures do arise, the boiler should be brought OFF-line as soon as possible for internal inspection and repair. A
reputable refractory firm or the INDECK Service department should be consulted before any extensive refractory work
is attempted.

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TUBES

Another routine maintenance problem is soot build up on the gas side of tube surfaces. As has been discussed earlier in
this manual, soot or carbon build up can impede thermal transfer and is due to high soot build up, the most likely cause
is the burning rate, or the air-fuel ratio is out of proportion. At every outage, if possible, check the water side of the tubes
for scale build up. If a scale deposit is formed on the tube surfaces, heat cannot pass effectively into the water. The scale
causes the steel tube to become overheated and they could blister or swell to a point of rupturing. Preventing scale build
up requires close cooperation with a reputable water treatment laboratory, and close surveillance of the feedwater system.
To remove this scale build up from the tube surface, a mechanical tube cleaner can be used, but chemical cleaning has
been found to be more effective. If the chemical cleaning is done, it must be closely supervised and it is advisable to hire
professional personnel since the process, if done incorrectly, can cause irreparable damage to the tube metal.

COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT

The main component of the combustion equipment which requires maintenance, is the burner. This component will be
covered in the "Burner Operating and Instruction" manual. The valves in the fuel system require routine maintenance,
such as stem packing.

WATER COLUMN AND AUXILIARY FLOAT TYPE LEVEL CUT-OFF

The water column and water gauge glass should be blown down at the beginning of each shift. The three times a day
schedule will insure two things: first, the sludge or sediment will not have a chance to accumulate in the column or glass.
Any accumulation can cause an erroneous level indication. Second, the boiler attendant, by observing blowdown and
return of liquid to glass, will be assured of proper actuation of one of the most important safety devices of the unit.

When the boiler is out of service for the annual inspection, dismantle the water column, gauge glass, etc. and clean the
internals thoroughly.

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