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BURJ KHALIFA

 

Burj

Khalifa

,

known

as

Burj

Dubai

prior to its inauguration, is a skyscraper in Dubai,

United

Arab

Emirates,

and

is

the tallest man-

made structure world, at 829.8 m.

in

the

Construction

began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October

2009.

The

building

officially

opened

on

4

January

2010,

and

is

part

of

the

new

2

km 2

development

called

Downtown Dubai at the

'First Interchange' along

Sheikh

Zayed

Road,

near

Dubai's

main

business district.

The design of Burj

Khalifa is derived

from

patterning

systems

embodied in Islamic architecture. The Y- shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing maximum outward

BURJ KHALIFA Burj Khalifa , known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration, is a skyscrapersetbacks occur at each element in a spiralling pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as it reaches toward the sky. To support the unprecedented height of the building, the engineers developed a new structural system called the buttressed core, which consists of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form the " id="pdf-obj-0-156" src="pdf-obj-0-156.jpg">

views and inward natural light. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. As the tower rises from the flat desert

base, setbacks

occur at each element in a spiralling pattern, decreasing

the cross section of the tower as it reaches toward the sky.

To support the unprecedented height of the building, the engineers developed a new structural system called the buttressed core, which consists of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form the

‘Y' shape. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting.

The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tonnes (4,400 short tons; 3,900 long tons) of structural steel. The central pinnacle

pipe weighing 350 tonnes (390

short tons; 340

long tons) was constructed

from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 m (660 ft) using a strand jack system. The spire also houses communications equipment.

The

exterior

cladding

of

Burj

Khalifa

consists

of 142,000

m 2 (1,528,000 sq ft)

of

reflective glazing,

and

aluminium

and

textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. The

cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. Additionally, the exterior temperature at the top of the building is thought to be 6 °C (11 °F) cooler than at its base. [52] Over 26,000 glass panels were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa.

Burj Khalifa is expected to hold up to 35,000 people at any one time. A total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators are installed. The elevators have a capacity of 12 to 14 people per cabin, the fastest rising and descending at

up to 18

m/s. Engineers had considered installing the world's first triple-

deck elevators, but the final design calls for

‘Y' shape. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it fromstrand jack system. The spire also houses communications equipment. The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa consists of 142,000 m (1,528,000 sq ft) of reflective glazing , and aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. Additionally, the exterior temperature at the top of the building is thought to be 6 °C (11 °F) cooler than at its base. O ver 26,000 glass panels were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa. Burj Khalifa is expected to hold up to 35,000 people at any one time. A total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators are installed. The elevators have a capacity of 12 to 14 people per cabin, the fastest rising and descending at up to 18 m/s. Engineers had considered installing the world's first triple- deck elevators, but the final design calls for double-deck elevators . The double-deck elevators are equipped with entertainment features such as LCD displays to serve visitors during their travel to the observation deck. Foundation The foundation system for the Burj Dubai is comprised of 192 bored piles (drilled shafts in my practice) 1.5-m in diameter and approximately 50-m deep. A 3.7-m thick raft foundation sits on top of the piles under the full footprint of the structure. The soil/rock conditions were generally loose to medium dense sands overlying weak to very week sandstone and siltstone with interbeds of gypsiferous and carbonate cemented layers (still relatively weak). Geotechnical investigations consisted of approximately 33 boreholes drilled with several techniques. In addition to SPT sampling, double-tube rock coring and approximately 60 pressuremeter tests were performed as well as cross-hole seismic surveys (both P and S-wave). Static load testing was " id="pdf-obj-1-67" src="pdf-obj-1-67.jpg">

The

double-deck elevators are equipped with entertainment features such as LCD displays to serve visitors during their travel to the observation deck.

Foundation

The foundation system for the Burj Dubai is comprised of 192 bored piles (drilled shafts in my practice) 1.5-m in diameter and approximately 50-m deep. A 3.7-m thick raft foundation sits on top of the piles under the full footprint of the structure.

‘Y' shape. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it fromstrand jack system. The spire also houses communications equipment. The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa consists of 142,000 m (1,528,000 sq ft) of reflective glazing , and aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. Additionally, the exterior temperature at the top of the building is thought to be 6 °C (11 °F) cooler than at its base. O ver 26,000 glass panels were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa. Burj Khalifa is expected to hold up to 35,000 people at any one time. A total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators are installed. The elevators have a capacity of 12 to 14 people per cabin, the fastest rising and descending at up to 18 m/s. Engineers had considered installing the world's first triple- deck elevators, but the final design calls for double-deck elevators . The double-deck elevators are equipped with entertainment features such as LCD displays to serve visitors during their travel to the observation deck. Foundation The foundation system for the Burj Dubai is comprised of 192 bored piles (drilled shafts in my practice) 1.5-m in diameter and approximately 50-m deep. A 3.7-m thick raft foundation sits on top of the piles under the full footprint of the structure. The soil/rock conditions were generally loose to medium dense sands overlying weak to very week sandstone and siltstone with interbeds of gypsiferous and carbonate cemented layers (still relatively weak). Geotechnical investigations consisted of approximately 33 boreholes drilled with several techniques. In addition to SPT sampling, double-tube rock coring and approximately 60 pressuremeter tests were performed as well as cross-hole seismic surveys (both P and S-wave). Static load testing was " id="pdf-obj-1-80" src="pdf-obj-1-80.jpg">

The soil/rock conditions were generally loose to medium dense sands overlying weak to very week sandstone and siltstone with interbeds of gypsiferous and carbonate cemented layers (still relatively weak). Geotechnical investigations consisted of approximately 33 boreholes drilled with several techniques. In addition to SPT sampling, double-tube rock coring and approximately 60 pressuremeter tests were performed as well as cross-hole seismic surveys (both P and S-wave). Static load testing was

performed on 7 test piles prior to construction and 8 production piles (approximately 1% of the piles) were tested as well. One lateral load test was performed.

Various finite element software packages were used in the analysis of the foundation system for the structure. The figure above from Poulos & Bunce (2008) shows the interesting layout of the piles as well as contours of the maximum axial load.

performed on 7 test piles prior to construction and 8 production piles (approximately 1% of thePutzmeister created a new, super high-pressure trailer this project. Over 45,000 3 m concrete pump , the BSA 14000 SHP-D, for of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation. " id="pdf-obj-2-6" src="pdf-obj-2-6.jpg">

Construction

The primary structure is reinforced concrete.

created a

 

new, super high-pressure trailer

this project. [24]

Over

45,000

3 m
3
m

concrete pump, the BSA 14000 SHP-D, for

of

concrete,

weighing

more

than

110,000

were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation.

Burj Khalifa's construction used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 55,000 tonnes (61,000 short tons; 54,000 long tons) of steel rebar, and construction took 22 million man-hours.[10] A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations of Burj Khalifa. A cathodic protection system under the mat is used to minimize any detrimental effects from corrosive chemicals in local ground water.

The

Burj

Dubai

Tower

utilizes

the

latest

Burj Khalifa's construction used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 55,000 tonnes (61,000 short

advancements in construction techniques and material technology. The walls are formed using Doka’s SKE 100 automatic self-climbing formwork system. The circular nose columns are formed with circular steel forms, and the floor slabs are poured on MevaDec panel formwork. Wall reinforcement is prefabricated on the ground to allow for fast placement. Three primary self-climbing Favco tower cranes are located adjacent to the central core, with each continuing to various heights as required. The cranes have been specially modified to be able to lift the extreme lengths of cable required, as well as 25-metric-tonne payloads, at high speeds. High-speed (120-m/minute), high-capacity (3,200-kg), construction hoists were used to transport workers and materials to the required heights. Because of limitations of conventional surveying techniques, a specialized GPS monitoring system has been developed to monitor the verticality of the structure.

The construction sequence for the structure has the central core and slabs being cast first, in three sections; the wing walls and slabs follow behind; and the wing nose columns and slabs follow behind these. Concrete is distributed to each wing utilizing concrete booms that are attached to the jump form system. Two of the largest concrete pumps in the world were used to deliver concrete to heights over 600 m in a single stage. A horizontal pumping trial was conducted prior to the start of the superstructure construction to ensure pumpability of the concrete mixes.

Wind engineering For a building of this height and
Wind engineering
For
a building
of
this
height
and

slenderness, wind forces and the resulting motions in the upper levels become dominant factors in the structural design. An extensive program of wind tunnel tests and other studies were undertaken by the wind tunnel consultant, RWDI, in its boundary layer wind tunnels in Guelph, Ontario, to evaluate the effects of wind on building loading, behavior, and occupant comfort. Additionally, the wind tunnel testing program was utilized as part of a process to shape the building to minimize wind effects. As mentioned above, this process resulted in a substantial reduction in wind forces on the tower by confusing the wind — by encouraging disorganized vortex shedding over the height of the tower. The wind tunnel testing program included rigid-model force balance tests, a full aeroelastic model study, measurements of localized pressures, and pedestrian wind environment studies. Wind statistics played an important role in relating the predicted levels of response to return period. Extensive use was made of ground- based wind data, balloon data, and computer simulations employing Regional Atmospheric Modeling techniques to establish the wind regime at the upper levels. Based on the results of the wind tunnel testing program, the predicted building motions are within the ISO standard recommended values without the need for auxiliary damping.

Window Technology

When

constructing

any

skyscraper

the

control

of

heat

is

an

extremely important factor. With the introduction of air conditioning builders were able to avoid their towers becoming large glass greenhouses cooking the people inside. However, the heat of Dubai, which reaches 104 degrees Fahrenheit in the shade with 90 percent humidity, as well as the height of the tower means new measures needed to be taken beyond air conditioning.

Special two-paned windows were designed for use in the Burj Khalifa. The outside face reflects daily solar heat. It is coated with a thin layer of metal, which deflects ultra-violet radiation. However, this first pane is useless again infrared radiation. So, the inner pane is coated with a thin layer of silver, which keeps the infrared rays out.

The building is covered in 30,000 glass panels; enough to cover 17 soccer fields.

Window Technology When constructing any skyscraper the control of heat is an extremely important factor. With

Conclusion

Burj Dubai Tower has eclipsed all previous height records, and is the tallest structure ever built. It represents an enormous collaboration and coordination effort of many individuals across all sectors of the building profession. Conventional and cutting-edge technologies and building systems were utilized, developed, and further advanced to create this unprecedented structure, taking this building and the profession to literally new heights.