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Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Production Management I

- Lecture 6 -

Process planning and operations scheduling

Contact:

M. Phornprapha, M. Eng. m.phornprapha@wzl.rwth-aachen.de WZL, R. 504 Tel.: 0241-80-27383

scheduling Contact: M. Phornprapha, M. Eng. m.phornprapha@wzl.rwth-aachen.de WZL, R. 504 Tel.: 0241-80-27383 © WZL

© WZL

Objectives of the lecture

• To define process planning and to define the boundaries between operations scheduling and operations control

• To explain the information media which are created in the process planning department

• To outline the functions of operations scheduling

• To explain the approach adopted in drawing up operations schedules

• To present the tasks and functions in NC-programming

• To outline the tasks involved in operations control

• To disseminate basic knowledge of scheduling and capacity planning as as shop-floor control

• To characterise the need for action with regard to a rationalisation of process planning

well

• To demonstrate the general approach to rationalisation

• To introduce planning methods and tools in order to systematise process planning

• To describe areas of application for planning tools

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Structure of lecture No. 6:

1. Overview of the process planning department

L6 page

1

1.1 Definition of process planning and delimitation of operations scheduling from operations control

L6 page 1

1.2 Information media of process planning

L6 page 2

2.

Operations Scheduling

L6 page 3

2.1 Functions of operations scheduling

L6 page 4

2.2 Drawing up operations schedules

L6 page 5

2.3 NC-programming

L6 page 10

3.

Operations control

L6 page 14

3.1 Functions of operations control

L6 page 14

3.2 Scheduling and capacity planning

L6 page 16

3.3 Shop floor control

L6 page 20

4.

Manufacturing concepts and rationalisation within process planning

L6 page 21

4.1 Planning complexity and new manufacturing concepts

L6 page 21

4.2 Options for rationalisation in process planning

L6 page 22

4.3 Methods for the rationalisation of operations scheduling

L6 page 24

5. Factors impacting on the system used to draw up operations schedules

L 6 page 25

6. Appendix

6.1

Supplement

L6 page 1

7.

Exercise

7.1 Calculation exercise

E6 page 1

7.2 Self-Calculation exercise

E6 page 1

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Summary of lecture No. 6

In the process planning department, the manufacture and assembly of the products is thought out in detail and specified, furthermore, the schedules are planned and monitored. The main functions of operations scheduling within order processing are to produce parts lists, to draw up operations schedules, NC- programming and to plan special-purpose manufacturing resources. Developing the operations schedule involves determining the unmachined part, determining the sequence of operations, selecting manufacturing resources and determining standard times. The results of these planning operations are documented in the work schedule. The data in the work schedule are extremely important since they are required for further use in many areas of the company. Among their other functions, they become part of the so-called ”working papers”. The NC-programming can be regarded as a further detail in the process of drawing up the operations schedule. NC-programs can be written by using various methods, which mainly differ in terms of the location at which the programming is done and of the level of automation involved. One of the long-term functions of operations scheduling is to develop appropriate measures to ensure economically efficient organisation and construction of the manufacturing and assembly area. The main tasks in operations control are to plan the availability of material, to plan schedules and capacities and to control the shop-floor. The duties involved in operations control revolve around the following objectives:

- to observe schedules

- to minimise the throughput times of material and capital commitment and

- to ensure that capacities are fully utilised and that operating resources and labour costs are kept low.

The function of scheduling and capacity planning is deadline-oriented planning and control of manufacturing orders, ensuring at the same time that operating resources are utilised to a permanently high level. Short-term control and monitoring of shop-floor orders is the task of shop-floor control. Rationalisation is an important aid for the economic efficiency of production. If operations scheduling is to be rationalised successfully, it is essential to ensure that the rationalisation objectives are at first formulated and that they are then pursued by systematising the organisation, documents, planning methods and tools. The rationalisation objectives have to be identified from an analysis of the company’s boundary conditions and of the requirements to be met by the operations scheduling department. This analysis encompasses the workpieces to be planned, the activities of operations scheduling and the information generated and required. The most important principle of rationalisation is the re-use of planning outcomes already developed. The production and assembly of such parts families can be planned efficiently by using standard work sheets.

Operations scheduling uses a number of different tools. The presented systematisation permits tools to be selected purposefully and to be used rationally. Different means of accessing tools selectively will be outlined within the lecture.

The rationalisation achieved by systematising operations scheduling and its tools can be further increased by using IT (information technology) -components. An approach to the introduction of IT-components will be presented while pointing out that outcomes achieved in conventional operations are an essential requirement for the successful use of IT.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture Lecture 6 6

Literature Lecture 6:

Eversheim, W.

Organisation in der Produktionstechnik Band 3: Arbeitsvorbereitung, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1988

Wiendahl, H.-P.

Betriebsorganisation für Ingenieure Hanser Verlag, München, 1989

N.N.

Methodenlehre der Planung und Steuerung Teil 1: Grundlagen Teil 2: Planung Teil 3: Steuerung Hrsg.: REFA Verband für Arbeitsstudien und Betriebsorganisation e.V. Hanser Verlag, München, 1985

N.N.

Handbuch der Arbeitsvorbereitung Teil I: Arbeitsplanung Teil II: Arbeitssteuerung Beuth-Verlag GmbH, Berlin

Kief, H.B.

NC/CNC-Handbuch '93/94 NC-Handbuch-Verlag, Michaelstadt, Stockheim, 1993

N.N.

DIN 66025 Programmaufbau für numerisch gesteuerte Arbeitsmaschinen Hrsg.: Deutscher Normenausschuß, 1983

Pritschow, G.

Tendenzen in der NC-Steuerungstechnik

Spur, G.

Carl Hanser Verlag, München, Wien, 1993

Weck, M.

Hackstein, R.

Produktionsplanung und -steuerung (PPS) Ein Handbuch für die Betriebspraxis VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1984

Spur, G.

Handbuch der Fertigungstechnik,

Stöferle, Th.

Band 6, Fabrikbetrieb, Carl Hanser Verlag, München, Wien, 1994

Eversheim, W.

Arbeitsplanung, Handbuch der modernen Fertigung und Montage Hrsg.: K. Brankamp, Verlag Moderne Industrie, München, 1975

Diels, A.

Systematischer Aufbau von Methodenbanken für die Arbeitsplanung dargestellt am Beispiel der Arbeitsplanerstellung und NC-Programmierung, Dissertation RWTH Aachen, 1989

Tönshoff, H.K.

Strategische Ausrichtung der Arbeitsplanung

Hamelmann, S.

CIM-Management 2/93

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture Lecture 6 6

Literature Lecture 6:

Eversheim, W.

Arbeitsplanerstellung für die Montage

Schulz, J.

Industrieanzeiger 108 (1986) 20

Luszek, G.

Eversheim, W.

Integrierte Arbeitsplanung und Fertigungsfeinsteuerung Schneewind, J. ZwF 87 (1992) 7

Lange, U.

Wie produktiv ist die Arbeitsplanung? Produktivitätsverbesserung in der Arbeitsplanung eines Maschinenherstellers, CIM-Management 1/92

Eversheim, W.

Produktentstehung In: Eversheim, W.; Schuh, G. (Eds.): Betriebshütte Produktion und Management Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1996

Eversheim, W.

Produktentstehung In: Eversheim, W.; Schuh, G. (Eds.): Betriebshütte Produktion und Management Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1999

Eversheim, W.

Organisation in der Produktionstechnik Band 1: Grundlagen, VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1996

Eversheim, W.

Organisation in der Produktionstechnik - Arbeitsvorbereitung Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997

Eversheim, W.

CAP-Einführung

Schneewind, J.

RKW-Verlag, Eschborn, 1993

N.N.

REFA - Methodenlehre der Planung und Steuerung Teil 3: Zeitermittlung, Erstellung von Arbeitsunterlagen, Werkstattsteuerung, Carl Hanser-Verlag, München, 1985

Wiendahl, H.-P.

Betriebsorganisation für Ingenieure Carl Hanser-Verlag, München, 1985

Hamelmann, S.

Rechnerunterstützte Arbeitsplanung - was gibt der Markt her? Die Arbeitsvorbereitung, Bd. 30 (1993)

Eversheim, W.

Die Arbeitsplanung im geänderten produktionstechnischen

Bochtler, W

Umfeld, VDI-Z 137 Nr. 3 (1995), S. 88-91

Humburger, R.

Eversheim, W.

Formation of Part Families based on Product Model Data

Deuse, J.

Production Engineering Vol. IV/2 (1997), S. 97-100

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Definitions and examples of functions in process planning and scheduling

Design includes all one-off planning measures which ensure the manufacture-oriented production of a product, while
Design
includes all one-off planning measures which ensure the
manufacture-oriented production of a product, while taking
economic efficiency into constant account.
What
Examples:
How
• Drawing up a parts list for
• Determining standard
Operations
Where-
manufacture
times
scheduling
by
• Materials planning
• NC-programming
• Operations sequences planning • Cost planning
Operations
• Manufacturing
Methods and
control
resources planning
investments planning
How
includes all measures required in the course of the
order processing operations set out in the operations
schedule.
Manufacture
much
Examples:
When
• Materials disposition
Where
• Determining requirements for
assemblies and single parts
• Operating machine
Assembly
Who
• Determining net requirements
• Detailed deadline
planning
• Operating dates for in-company
manufacture
• Harmonising capacity
© WZL
Figure 1
Areas of production
Process planning

Notes on Figure 1:

Process planning is divided into the areas of operations scheduling and operations control.

In operations scheduling, decisions are made regarding

WHAT and

HOW manufacturing has to take place using

WHICH (kind of) resources.

In operations control, the issues are

HOW MUCH

WHEN

WHERE and

BY WHOM

a work-piece or assembly is manufactured.

In practice the term “operations scheduling” (“work scheduling”) is often replaced by ”production planning” or “process planning”. Likewise, the term “operations control” is sometimes replaced by “operations management”, “production control” or “process control”.

Within operations scheduling there are differences between industry (serial production) and craft (individual production).

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Input and output documents of process planning

Input documents Design drawing Welle Design parts list Order data
Input documents
Design drawing
Welle
Design parts list
Order data

Planning documents/ tools

machine file standard work schedules computing
machine file
standard work schedules
computing
tools machine file standard work schedules computing   Operations Process planning scheduling
 

Operations

Process planning

scheduling

Operations control

Output documents Drawing of manufacturing resources NC-program Quality control plan Arbeitsplan Non-order specific
Output documents
Drawing of manufacturing
resources
NC-program
Quality control plan
Arbeitsplan
Non-order specific additional documents
Manufacturing parts list
Work schedule
Completed
with order
data
Order specific follow-up documents to
work schedule
(total/ partial deduction)
Adjustment of capacity
Work progress control
Efficiency survey
Use of material
Compliance with deadlines
of capacity Work progress control Efficiency survey Use of material Compliance with deadlines © WZL Figure
of capacity Work progress control Efficiency survey Use of material Compliance with deadlines © WZL Figure
of capacity Work progress control Efficiency survey Use of material Compliance with deadlines © WZL Figure

© WZL

Figure 2

Notes on Figure 2:

If manufacture has to be economically efficient, all information acquired in the course of process planning must be documented using suitable information media, i.e. production documents and instructions.

The operations schedule is the basis for drawing up the order-specific production documents. Depending on how they will be used, the production documents contain the complete operations schedule (complete outlet) or an excerpt of the operations schedule`s heading data, containing the data of one process step each (partial outlet).

To draw up the production documents, in addition to the input documents planning documents and tools are used that will be introduced later within this lecture.

Today, production documents are usually generated by a PPS*-system (production planning and control; PPS: production planning system).

*PPS is the connecting point in which production and order data, material administration, scheduling and capacity management meet and in which they are managed in master data records. The objective is to plan, control and supervise organisationally the process of production from drawing up an offer up to the dispatch of the complete product. In doing so, special emphasis is not given on technical but on quantity-, deadline- and capacity criteria.

(Note: Further information about PPS-systems is given in PM I L7 and in PM II

L3.)

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Operations schedule for the manufacture of a drive shaft

Header Sheet: Date: 07/19/2002 Organisa- Order No. PM1V6B3 Work Schedule tional data 1 Engineer: Quantity:
Header
Sheet:
Date:
07/19/2002
Organisa-
Order No.
PM1V6B3
Work Schedule
tional data
1
Engineer:
Quantity:
Area:
W. Müller
Designation:
Drawing No :
Task
1-20
Drive shaft
170-0542
specific
Material:
Un-machined shape and dimensions:
Finished weight:
data
Round stock
Un-machined
weight: 7.6 kg
4.6 kg
St 50
60 mm
Manufacturing
Work
Wage
Machine
t
t
r
e
Work cycle description
Cost center
auxiliary
Work
cycle
No.
group
group
[min]
[min]
resources
cycle
Saw round stock to 345 mm
specific
10
300
04
4101
-
30
10,0
length
data
Cut round stock to 340 mm
1001
20
340
06
4201
30
2,0
and centre
1051
Turn shaft completely
1101/1121/
30
360
08
4313
30
2,6
1131
Drill threaded holes and cut
1201/1231/
40
350
07
4407
20
5,2
threads
1233
Mill feather key groove
50
400
09
4751
3104
45
4,7
Grind bearing seats
60
510
07
4908
- 6,7
20
Finished part control
70
900
-
9002
- 3,8
10
© WZL
Figure 3

Notes on Figure 3:

The most important document for production and assembly apart from the drawing is the operations schedule (work schedule/ work sheet). The function of the operations schedule is to structure the manufacturing task and to specify the time required to complete each unit. For individual production such a time management is not necessary.

The data in the work schedule are divided into three groups:

- organisational data to label the operations plan clearly

- task-oriented data which clearly label and characterise the initial and the final state of a part of assembly to which the operations schedule relates

- work cycle related data which characterise the individual operations in detail, giving manufacturing equipment, standard times, additional texts etc. This description must not be too long but must contain all important data.

IT-systems supporting operations scheduling are called CAP-systems (computer aided planning) as well as CAPP (computer aided process planning). Usually, computer aided operations scheduling aims not only at a reduced expense of planning but also at an improved planning quality. Whereas units for operations control (operations schedule management) within PPS-systems often offer only elementary functions of editing for the drawing up and the modification of work schedules, CAP-systems support individual planning functions more intensively.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Functions of operations scheduling

Process parts lists Draw up • assembly part lists • production part lists
Process parts lists
Draw up
• assembly part lists
• production part lists

short term planning functions

Draw up work schedules • production work schedule • assembly work schedule
Draw up work
schedules
production work
schedule
• assembly work
schedule
NC-programming • Write parts programs -NC-machines -robots
NC-programming
• Write parts
programs
-NC-machines
-robots
Planning manu- facturing resources • Developing production resources for special purpose machining tasks
Planning manu-
facturing resources
• Developing
production resources
for special purpose
machining tasks
Planning preparation • Consult design dept. • Compile planning documents
Planning
preparation
• Consult design
dept.
• Compile planning
documents
 

Functions of operations

   
Material planning •Planning: types of store and store locations •Logistic concepts
Material planning
•Planning: types of
store and store
locations
•Logistic concepts

scheduling

   
Cost planning • Preliminary costing • Feasibility study
Cost planning
• Preliminary costing
• Feasibility study
Quality assurance • Inspection planning • Quality planning
Quality assurance
• Inspection planning
• Quality planning
Investment planning Planning • manufacturing resources • facilities
Investment
planning
Planning
• manufacturing
resources
• facilities
Methods planning Developing • production methods • planning methods
Methods planning
Developing
• production methods
• planning methods

short-/ long-term planning functions

long-term planning functions

methods • planning methods short-/ long-term planning functions long-term planning functions © WZL Figure 4

© WZL

Figure 4

Notes on Figure 4:

The functions of operations scheduling are classified as short- or long-term planning functions. Whereas the economic aspects of order processing are planned and specified in the manufacturing and assembly areas as short-term activities, the objective of long-term planning is to develop appropriate measures to ensure that the organisation and layout of these areas is economically efficient.

Frequently it is distinguished between the tasks of process planning and management of production systems.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Planning methods for drawing up operations schedules

Repeat planning Work schedule Part No. Basis: same or old work schedule available 4711 Modification
Repeat planning
Work schedule
Part No.
Basis: same or old work schedule available
4711
Modification of operational data
Application in case of changes in production
conditions or in work-pieces
Variants planning
Standard-
Basis: standard work schedule
Work
Application useful only in the case of a
limited number of part categories
schedule
Adjustments planning
Search criteria:
- Drawing No.
- Part designation
Basis: similar or old work schedule available
- Classification No.
Application to part families
Selective access to work schedule required
Stock of
work
schedules
Planning from scratch (new)
Planning
experience
Basis: expert knowledge and availability
of planning documents
Not part-based
Planning
documents
© WZL
Figure 5
Planning effort

Notes on Figure 5:

Depending on the reason for planning and the planning principle adopted, various planning methods can be used to draw up an operations schedule.

Variants planning, adjustments (adaptation) planning and planning from scratch are methods used to draw up a completely new operations schedule.

The modification of an operations schedule because of changes in the work- piece or in the conditions of production is called adjustments planning. When only the order-specific organisational data such as quantity and order number are altered, this is referred to as repeat planning.

The objective is to reduce the planning from scratch (new planning) to minimum.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Process sequence to draw up operations schedules Machining task Design drawing Quantity Specification of un-machined
Process sequence to draw up operations schedules
Machining task
Design drawing
Quantity
Specification of un-machined part
Arbeitsplan
Type/ shape
Dimensions
Weight
Determination of work cycle sequence
Arbeitsplan
Work cycles
Sub-work cycles
Selection of production resources
Arbeitsplan
Machines
Jigs and fixtures
Tools
Determining standard times
Arbeitsplan
Set-up times
Unit times
© WZL
Figure 6

Notes on Figure 6:

The individual planning steps involved in drawing up the work schedule are not always performed sequentially. The process is frequently iterative:

• The definition of the initial part aims at fixing the un-machined shape and data considering technological (form, surface, material), economical (number of items, acquisition and machining costs) and timing (acquisition time) requests. The results are the kind of starting part (forging piece, flat steel, round stock), its geometry, weight etc.

• The work cycle sequence, i.e. the order in which a material or a body is lead from raw into finished state by changing its shape and/ or its property of substances, constitutes the most important information about the manufacturing of a work-piece for all the divisions concerned.

• For every operation within the work schedule the production means and devices (machines, facilities and tools) necessary for the execution have to be defined. The selection takes place considering technical variables (e.g. working room dimensions). The decision is made out of technically possible alternatives under consideration of economical criteria.

• The definition of standard times contains the determination of the target times for each operation.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Structure and calculation of standard times Conceptual meaning of standard times Structure of standard times
Structure and calculation of standard times
Conceptual meaning of
standard times
Structure of standard times
Approach to calculating
standard times
Basic setting-up time
trg
Preparing operating resources
e.g. procure tools, set up, take
down
+
Setting-up additional time
trv
Machine specific tables
+
Setting-up recovery time
trer
Supplement (approx. 5-15%) of
Irregularly occurring times, e.g.
machine starting times
=
setting-up time (allowance)
Setting-up time tr
Supplement, depending on level
+
Time for people to recover
and duration of load
Productive time th
Basic
Calculate (guideline values for
Time with direct progress in
relation to production order
+
time
machining data), measuring,
Non-productive time tn
tg
comparing
+
Additional time
tv
Regular times, contributing only
indirectly to work
Machine-specific tables
+
Recovery time
ter
=
Irregularly occurring times, e.g.
preparation at beginning of shift
Time per unit
te
Supplement (approx. 5-15%) of
basic time (allowance)
Execution time
ta = te * m
Supplement, depending on level
and duration of load
Time for people to recover
Order time T = tr + ta = tr + (te * m)
m = quantity
© WZL
Figure 7

Notes on Figure 7:

The standard times or target times of operations are determined in the standard time calculation phase. These data are very significant because important functions and decisions relating to:

- date setting

- capacity planning

- costing

- quotation costing

- investment planning and

- payment, e.g. piece-work or bonus payments are based on them.

Methods to define standard times have variant degrees of accuracy. Usual methods are:

- estimation (based on experience)

- usage of planned current market values (tables)

- recording times

- calculation (e.g. formula for calculating productive time, cf. exercise)

To determine the standard time of a partial work process it is possible to divide it into sub- operations or stages. The definition of productive and non-productive time is made for each stage then. t v and t er are often given only as a safety factor to t g . The setting-up time can be even greater than t e . Therefore it is indispensable for the calculation of order time.

The calculation of order time is the basis for every operations scheduling.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Computer Aided Planning (CAP)

Work cycle Date of number process Work cycle description Tool group
Work cycle
Date of
number
process
Work cycle
description
Tool group
Computer Aided Planning (CAP) Work cycle Date of number process Work cycle description Tool group ©

© WZL

Figure 8

Notes on Figure 8:

CAP (computer aided planning) as well as CAPP (computer aided process planning) means the use of computers within production planning, e.g. for the creation of NC*-information, work plans and parts lists.

The geometrical, numerical, technological and structural data resulting from design and construction are translated within operations scheduling into organisation and control data for production, assembly and quality assurance (production-, assembly- and control planning). The required production-, assembly- and control methods, operating resources and operation sequences as well as the resulting times and materials have to be defined individually. Sometimes even parts of cost- and investment planning are classed with work scheduling. The result of operations scheduling are work schedules and also NC- , robot- and control programs, provided that completely or partly computer aided production-, assembly- and quality assurance processes follow.

Computer aided planning aims at managing the mentioned tasks by using the aid of information technology. Furthermore, the data flow from design to operations scheduling and forward to the areas of production, assembly and quality assurance is to be optimised.

*NC (numerical control) stands for the numerical control of machine tools. The route- and switch-information is binary-coded and input into the machine tool by saving media such as diskettes or CD-ROMs or it is input directly by transmission from a control computer (DNC: direct numerical control) or alternatively from an integrated computer that is freely programmable (CNC: computer numerical control).

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Basic components of CAP-systems

neutral to business
neutral to business
dependent on business
dependent on business
Data input Definition of work cycle progression Selection of System progress machines control Current Planning
Data input
Definition of work
cycle progression
Selection of
System progress
machines
control
Current
Planning
Standard
planning
master
processing
Definition of sub-
work cycle
progression
data
data
Use of data
Selection of tools
and mechanisms
Data output
definition of
work cycle data
data data Use of data Selection of tools and mechanisms Data output definition of work cycle

© WZL

Figure 9

Notes on Figure 9:

CAP-systems often represent special solutions or they have to be provided with company-specific master data before being applied. Therefore, many companies focus on proprietary development. Generally, CAP-system components can be divided into neutral and work-specific system modules. The modules independent from users contain innately existing possibilities for dialogue- designing respectively for designing in- and output as well as mechanisms for data file handling, for planning process control and for the converting of standard- and decision tables.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Planning stages in the NC-process chain

Process planning (overall planning)

Planning of the production process

Work schedule Work cycle No. Work cycle data Work cycle Cost centre 20 NC-turning 47115
Work schedule
Work cycle No.
Work cycle data
Work cycle
Cost centre
20
NC-turning
47115
Operations planning (Detailed planning) Detailing of work cycles Operation plan NC-turning Sub-work-cycle SWC-No.
Operations planning (Detailed planning)
Detailing of work cycles
Operation plan
NC-turning
Sub-work-cycle
SWC-No.
Tool
Facing
10
SCLR 2525
NC-programming
PROGRAM
%
N001 G91 S200 M04
N002 T0103 M06
SWC-No. Tool Facing 10 SCLR 2525 NC-programming PROGRAM % N001 G91 S200 M04 N002 T0103 M06

© WZL

Figure 10

Notes on Figure 10:

NC-programming can be regarded as the most detailed form of making operations schedules since all information required for the automated manufacturing operations must be available.

The NC-program details the results of the operations planning, i.e. the description of the sub-operations or stages, down to the level of individual movement and switching commands.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Methogical and organisational classification of NC-programming systems

manual mechanical Graphical-inter- Computer Shop-floor- Shop-floor Record-based active program- programming based
manual
mechanical
Graphical-inter-
Computer
Shop-floor-
Shop-floor
Record-based
active program-
programming
based
programming
programming
ming systems
systems
programming
systems
conforming to
systems
(manual input)
DIN
Menu
N010 G17
N020 G41 D2
N030 G01 X125 Y050 F300
N040
X105 Y040
Text editor
N050 X090
N060 G03 X075 Y025 J15
N070 G01 X075 Y020
N080
X025 Y060
N090
X045 Y060
Remote from
Remote from machine
machine
Machine-oriented,
linked to machine
© WZL
Figure 11
Organisational
Methodical
Programming methods
category
category

Notes on Figure 11:

There are various methods of programming that can be classified depending on the location they are used at and on the method they are based on. Whereas the remote-from-machine programming operations based on higher-level programming languages (e.g. APT (automatically programmed tools) -technique) are non-machine-dependent, the machine-oriented systems usually depend on the control system.

Within NC-programming for simple work-pieces there is a trend towards shop- floor-oriented programming, since this ensures that the qualifications of the machine operators are utilised. Ideally, the data flow from engineering is continuously and without any disruption a digital one, i.e. without manual collection of data along the chain.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

General sequence of manual NC-programming

Resources

Planning steps

Outcomes

Specify machine Experience sequence of planner Specify tools Tool file
Specify machine
Experience
sequence
of planner
Specify tools
Tool file
Diagrams Standard value
Diagrams
Standard
value

a max = f (die plate, length of cutting edge, machine torque, max. cutting load)

length of cutting edge, machine torque, max. cutting load) Determine cutting data Subdivide cutting operation
Determine cutting data Subdivide cutting operation
Determine cutting
data
Subdivide cutting
operation

Calculate tool pathscutting edge, machine torque, max. cutting load) Determine cutting data Subdivide cutting operation © WZL Figure

torque, max. cutting load) Determine cutting data Subdivide cutting operation Calculate tool paths © WZL Figure
torque, max. cutting load) Determine cutting data Subdivide cutting operation Calculate tool paths © WZL Figure
torque, max. cutting load) Determine cutting data Subdivide cutting operation Calculate tool paths © WZL Figure
torque, max. cutting load) Determine cutting data Subdivide cutting operation Calculate tool paths © WZL Figure

© WZL

Figure 12

Machine descriptionAllocate place in magazine

Allocate place in magazineMachine description

Machine description Allocate place in magazine

Notes on Figure 12:

The technique of manual programming, in which each individual movement and switching operation conducted by the machine is determined and encoded by the NC-programmers themselves, is rarely used nowadays. Within NC-programming the definition of the co- ordinate systems of work-pieces, tools and machine tools as well as the dimensioning of drawings is essential.

Pre-conditions and approach to define an NC-program are the knowledge of machine tools parameters (e.g. working area, revolutions per minute), knowledge of regulation and control (e.g. input format) and knowledge of machining possibilities (advance- and cutting velocity, infeed).

Manual programming contains:

1. Combination of geometrical and technological tasks to a work plan according to the

work steps and to a program sequence plan

2. Translation of the operational tasks given by a text into a short form according to certain

rules (presentation of information according to DIN 66025 in short form). To each work step one sentence is dedicated: a group of words which are treated as an entity and which

contain the complete data for the accomplishment of one work step. Sentences contain variant data/ information.

3. Transcription of these predefinitions (encoding). Encoding means allocating signs of

one character set to the signs of another character set. Carriers of information can be

punched tape, diskettes, magnetic tapes or rams.

Basically, the planning steps involved in manual programming are also contained in automated programming operations. However, in these systems the planning steps are conducted in a computer-assisted or, in some cases, automated operation.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

NC-programming system

shaft
shaft
Tool selection
Tool
selection

Simulation of tool routes and standard machine components

selection Simulation of tool routes and standard machine components NC-programming List of parameters © WZL Figure
selection Simulation of tool routes and standard machine components NC-programming List of parameters © WZL Figure
selection Simulation of tool routes and standard machine components NC-programming List of parameters © WZL Figure
selection Simulation of tool routes and standard machine components NC-programming List of parameters © WZL Figure
NC-programming List of parameters
NC-programming
List of parameters
selection Simulation of tool routes and standard machine components NC-programming List of parameters © WZL Figure

© WZL

Figure 13

Notes on Figure 13:

Computer aided NC-programming of a machine tool contains the positioning of a machining program using a problem-oriented programming language including the subsequent converting in an IT-system (EDP-equipment) in order to gain the numerical control program (according to DIN 66025-1/2: Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN); the German institute for standardisation).

The formulation of the part program can take place interactively-graphically.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Functions of operations control

Process planning Operations scheduling Operations control Scheduling, capacity Material planning Shop-floor control
Process planning
Operations scheduling
Operations control
Scheduling, capacity
Material planning
Shop-floor control
planning
• Stock level control
• Throughput scheduling
• Work distribution and
provision
Time
• Determination of
requirements
Deadline
• Capacity planning
• Progress monitoring
Time
• Order planning
Optimal order quantity
Quantity
Time
Xopt
Costs
Consumption
Stock level
Deadline overviewLoad
Optimal order quantity Quantity Time Xopt Costs Consumption Stock level Deadline overviewLoad © WZL Figure 14

© WZL

Figure 14

Notes on Figure 14:

According to REFA (Reichsausschuss für Arbeitszeitermittlung; Association for Time and Motion Studies), the function of operations control is to give instructions for, to monitor and to ensure the execution of tasks in terms of quantity, date, quality and cost. This is based on the work and assembly schedules drawn up in the operations scheduling department and on the order dates. The objectives of the control system, some of which are contradictory, are:

- to observe deadlines

- to ensure short throughput times for the materials and low levels of capital commitment and

- high use of capacities coupled with low operating equipment and human resource costs.

(Note: Materials management as part of the function of operations control is explained in PM I L4/5, management of deadlines and capacities in PM I L7).

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Multi-dilemma of operations control

Lead time
Lead time
Workload
Workload
Transfer to capital lockup
Transfer to
capital lockup
Scheduled delivery date
Scheduled
delivery date
of operations control Lead time Workload Transfer to capital lockup Scheduled delivery date © WZL Figure

© WZL

Figure 15

Notes on Figure 15:

Two challenges must be taken into account within the multi-dilemma of operations control:

• Conformity between workload in production (by customer orders respectively market specific orders) and own capital commitment

• Adjustment of lead time of production orders with the scheduled delivery date. At this point, the wait time within the lead time and the delivery date should be considered.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Order- and capacity-based scheduling

Phase 1 Phase 2 (Focus: work-piece) (Focus: machine) Order-based scheduling Capacity-based scheduling Deadline plan
Phase 1
Phase 2
(Focus: work-piece)
(Focus: machine)
Order-based scheduling
Capacity-based scheduling
Deadline plan
Deadline plan
Order 1
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
Order 1
Order 2
Order 3
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
2.2, 2.3
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
Deadline overview
Deadline overview
Lead time for order 1
Lead time for order 1
A
1.1
A
1.1
3.1
B
1.2
B
2.2
1.2
3.2
C
1.3
C
2.3
1.3
3.3
Deadline
Deadline
© WZL
Figure 16
Work systems

Notes on Figure 16:

When setting the dates for customer-oriented production, the start and completion dates for each step (operation) must be determined with the completion date in mind. Various types and methods of date-setting are used.

Within order-oriented scheduling, only the data relating to one order are taken into account. The basic scheduling methods (e.g. forward and back-ward scheduling (c.f. PM I L7) are used.

Within capacity-oriented scheduling, the mutual dependency between orders and therefore between capacity limits is considered.

As a rule, at first order-oriented then capacity-oriented scheduling is conducted.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Load

machine options

machine options

Alternative

machine options

Alternativ-e

Time- and machine-based harmonisation of capacity

Technical capacity harmonisation

Time Machine A Machine B Load
Time
Machine A
Machine B
Load
capacity harmonisation Time Machine A Machine B Load Combination of technical and time-based capacity

Combination of technical and time-based capacity harmonisation

Time Machine A Machine B Machine C
Time
Machine A
Machine B
Machine C
capacity harmonisation Time Machine A Machine B Machine C Time Time-based capacity harmonisation Alternativ-e ©
Time Time-based capacity harmonisation Alternativ-e
Time
Time-based capacity harmonisation
Alternativ-e
Time Machine A Machine B Machine C Time Time-based capacity harmonisation Alternativ-e © WZL Figure 17

© WZL

Figure 17

Notes on Figure 17:

Within capacity planning, the distribution of activities among the individual units of capacity is optimised, under consideration of the load limitations. Capacity harmonisation and capacity adjustment are possible measures.

A further distinction is made between technical (e.g. parallel dispatching of an order on another machine) and time-based capacity harmonisation (e.g. the same machine, but later dispatching).

In industrial practice, time-based and technical capacity harmonisation operations are usually combined. Normally, the time-based harmonisation is first, in order to retain optimum use of capacity in terms of both engineering and cost. Placing an order with an external company (extended work-bench principle) is a further option.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Capacity management (PPS-system)

Start-up of production A Handling time Control period Transitional period 1. Cut within production 2.
Start-up of production A
Handling time
Control period
Transitional period
1. Cut within
production
2. Cut within
production
Start-up of production B Control period Handling time 1. Cut within production Transitional period 2.
Start-up of production B
Control period
Handling time
1. Cut within
production
Transitional
period
2. Cut within
production
1. 1. 1. cut within Produktions- Produktions- Free Frei Frei production schnitt für schnitt für
1.
1.
1. cut within
Produktions-
Produktions-
Free
Frei
Frei
production
schnitt für
schnitt für
Free
Frei
Frei
for order B
Auftrag B
Auftrag B
Occupied
Belegung
Belegung
Occupied
with order C
Belegung
Belegung
durch
durch
with
2.
2.
2. cut within
Produktion-
Produktion-
durch
durch
Auftrag C
Auftrag C
order A
production
schnitt für
schnitt für
Auftrag A
Auftrag A
(Split factor 0)
(Spittfaktor0)
(Spittfaktor0)
for order B
Auftrag B
Auftrag B
1. Day
2. Day
3. Day
Capacity of machine 1

occupied

free

for order B Auftrag B Auftrag B 1. Day 2. Day 3. Day Capacity of machine
for order B Auftrag B Auftrag B 1. Day 2. Day 3. Day Capacity of machine
for order B Auftrag B Auftrag B 1. Day 2. Day 3. Day Capacity of machine

© WZL

Figure 18

Notes on Figure 18:

Handling time/ Transitional period/ Control period

Handling and control time mark constant values. Handling time is added before the start-up of a process operation, control time is added after the ending of an operation. Both factors do not occupy any capacity but they heighten the machining time.

The transitional period indicates a time exposure that arises from product transport within manufacturing from one workplace to an other or from an effort conditional on production after a process operation (e.g. cooling, drying etc.).

Split factor (cut within production)

If the temporal effort of production for one process operation cannot take place on a single work day because of lack of capacity or duration of the production, time has to be spread on one or several days. If such a splitting is not possible or only in parts because of production reasons, the splitting can be managed by depositing the split factor within the process operation.

Capacity factor

Usually, the basic capacity of a workplace is deposited within the machine group with 100% of the available time. This available capacity can be used and scheduled only lessened because of external factors such as machine's cooling times and values from practical experience. Therewith, additional capacity reserves for squeeze situations can be created.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Measures for adapting to capacity

Internal/ external

alternative capacity Measures for adap ting to capacity Internal/ external Overtime/ short-time working Additional shift Investment Internal

Overtime/

short-time working capacity Internal/ external alternative capacity Overtime/ Additional shift Investment Internal External influencing

Additional shift Investment
Additional shift
Investment
Internal
Internal
External
External

influencing factors

• external priority

• penalty

• labour market

• economic situation

influencing factors

• effectiveness

• duration

situation influencing factors • effectiveness • duration • internal priority Selection and execution of measures

• internal priority

Selection and execution of measures geared to adapting to capacity

• duration • internal priority Selection and execution of measures geared to adapting to capacity ©

© WZL

Figure 19

Notes on Figure 19:

When the company-specific parameters change, e.g. expansion, acquisition of a new major customer etc., the capacity harmonisation measures are generally not enough and it becomes necessary to adapt capacity to the changed parameters.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Monitoring the execution of tasks

Production planning Production planning Shop-floor control Target-Actual Target comparison Actual - Schedule card
Production planning
Production planning
Shop-floor control
Target-Actual
Target
comparison
Actual
- Schedule card
Work papers
- Pay slip
PDA
Production
Feedback of
quantities and schedules
Provision
Quantity of goods
Starting/ completion
Material consumption
data
PDA: Production data acquisition
© WZL
Figure 20

Notes on Figure 20:

According to REFA, monitoring involves recording the actual data and any deviations of the actual data from the target data continuously or at regular intervals throughout the performance of the task.

In addition to data collection during manufacture (recording operating data), i.e. monitoring in the narrower sense, quality, cost and working conditions must be monitored, i.e. monitoring in a broader sense.

The planning precision in operations management depends largely on the up-to- dateness of the actual data available.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Increase in planning complexity by the use of new manufacturing concepts

Automation Planning depth flexible production system planning of transport and monitoring manufacturing
Automation
Planning depth
flexible
production
system
planning of transport
and monitoring
manufacturing
Simulation of manufacturing and
production processes
tool monitoring
work-piece transport
pallet store and pallet changer
automatic measuring
cell
+
shop-floor
NC-programming
programming
programming handling devices
partial operating cycles
detailed geometry
tool selection
cutting values
+
conventional
planning of operation
sequences
operation
standard times
• increase in planning tasks with higher levels of automation
• increase in planning for complete machining
Planning effort
tasks with higher levels of automation • increase in planning for complete machining Planning effort ©

© WZL

Figure 21

Notes on Figure 21:

The depth of planning required and with it the planning outlay rises as the level of automation increases. Process and operations planning must therefore be rationalised by systematisation and, in some cases, automation.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Options for rationalisation in process planning

Options for rationalisation Systematisation Automation Organisation working sheet – part list admin.
Options for rationalisation
Systematisation
Automation
Organisation
working sheet –
part list admin.
Product-oriented structure
Order processing centre
materials
materials
disposition
planning
Documents
Catalogues of materials
Catalogues of standard times
IT-
drawing up of
work schedules
NC-
Systems
programming
Planning methods/ tools
capacity
order
planning
scheduling
Planning on the basis of
- planning results
monitor
- planning rules
progress
Target for rationalisation Requirements Company parameters • sector • little outlay for processing and
Target for
rationalisation
Requirements
Company parameters
• sector
• little outlay for processing and
administration
Fields of
• range of products
activity of
• manufacturing structure
• high quality planning and continuity
process
• type of manufacture
• transparent planning procedures
planning
• manufacturing technology
• short throughput times
• organisational structure
• gradual introduction and expansion
• staff training
times • organisational structure • gradual introduction and expansion • staff training © WZL Figure 22

© WZL

Figure 22

Notes on Figure 22:

Concrete objectives are a requirement for successful rationalisation. Automation depends on systematisation.

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Application of various planning methods Planning effort Repeat Variants Adjustments Planning from planning
Application of various planning methods
Planning
effort
Repeat
Variants
Adjustments
Planning from
planning
planning
planning
scratch (new)
KR-
47
11
copy 4711 4712 4710 4709 same or old work schedules Alternative planning Basis methods
copy
4711
4712
4710
4709
same or old work
schedules
Alternative planning
Basis
methods
fill in shaft 4711 4711 D > xx L < yy D > xx D
fill in
shaft 4711
4711
D
> xx
L
< yy
D
> xx
D
< xy
L
< yy
L
> yx
D
> xx
shaft
L
< yy
D
< xy
L > yx
D
> xx
< xy
L
< D yy
L
> yx
D
< xy
L
> yx
standard work
schedules
adjust Mill groove similar or old work schedules
adjust
Mill groove
similar or old work
schedules

+

draw up catalogues, tables,
draw up
catalogues,
tables,
work schedules adjust Mill groove similar or old work schedules + draw up catalogues, tables, ©

© WZL

Figure 23

Notes on Figure 23:

Distinctions in terms of short-term planning outlay can be drawn between methods of operations scheduling. Similarities between products are used as a source of information (cf. figure 5). The main concern should be with a preferably high systematisation. It facilitates an unerring retrieval.

Within repeat planning, the appropriate operations schedule is seeked from the existing work schedules by using a classifying drawing number; it is completed and the organisational order data are updated. Because of the minor planning effort it should be checked for every new order to what extend the required planning documents can be made available by using repeat planning.

Variants planning is based on the use of standard work schedules. After enhancement and adjustment of the work schedule data given in the standard operations schedule (e.g. necessary because of changed parts parameters) and after a completion with the order-specific details the new originated work schedule is filed under a new identity number.

In adjustments planning (similarity planning) one also reverts to existing operations schedules, completes the organisational order data and accomplishes modifications, e.g. of work process data. This method is applied mainly with modifications of parts geometry or with using new and more economic procedures. Existing partial solutions to new work schedules are combined or existing work schedules for similar parts are adapted. For an efficient similarity planning a well directed access to drawings of similar parts and to the work schedule inventory has to be possible. Auxiliary means enabling fast access are keys for classification and strips for object parameters.

With the launch of new products with which planning adjustments are no longer economic it is necessary to plan from scratch (new planning).

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Methods for the rationalisation of operations scheduling

OPERATIONS SCHEDULING

Requirements • accuracy • up-to-dateness • reproducibility • • level of automation • type of
Requirements
accuracy
up-to-dateness
reproducibility
level of automation
type of manufacture
proportion of skilled
workers
lot size
 
 
 

Data transfer

organisational data

feedstock data

operations

sub-operations

machine groups

cost centres

set-up times

times per unit

•cutting data

•additional text

• machine groups • cost centres • set-up times • times per unit •cutting data •additional

MANUFACTURE

WORKPIECE ANALYSIS

project structure

frequency scale (standard parts, similar parts, product group parts)

scale (standard parts, similar parts, product group parts) ANALYSIS OF ACTION incorporating • type of action

ANALYSIS OF ACTION

incorporating

type of action

duration of action

planning methods

planning means

of action • planning methods • planning means ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION • document-bound communication

ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION

document-bound

communication

non-document-bound

communication

Main focuses of rationalisation

document-bound communication • non-document-bound communication Main focuses of rationalisation © WZL Figure 24

© WZL

Figure 24

Notes on Figure 24:

The required depth of planning can be ascertained from the analysis of the company parameters. The rationalisation objectives can be derived from this depth of planning.

The main focuses of rationalisation can be detected from an analysis of operations scheduling.

Methods for this analysis of operations scheduling are the analysis of action, analysis of information and the work-piece analysis.

By using work-piece analysis parts can be grouped according to similarity criteria (compare work-piece describing classification systems, e.g. Opitz-Key). Similar parts provide an area of application for standard work papers. In contrast to the work-piece analysis, the ABC-analysis classifies the range of parts according to quantifiable criteria, e.g. depending on the costs incurred.

The potentials of rationalisation within operations scheduling can be identified on the basis of an analysis of action (activity analysis).

Production management I (Prof. Schuh)

Lecture 6

Factors impacting on the system used to draw up operations schedules

Organisation

Organisation
Volume of project data new working sheets modified working sheets number 1997 2002
Volume of project data
new working sheets
modified working sheets
number
1997
2002

Planning aids

modified working sheets number 1997 2002 Planning aids nomograms files t a b l e s
nomograms files
nomograms
files
sheets number 1997 2002 Planning aids nomograms files t a b l e s catalogues Range

tables

catalogues

Range of parts/ machining methods frequency CAP/CAPP- System Software - operating system - applications software
Range of parts/
machining methods
frequency
CAP/CAPP-
System
Software
-
operating system
-
applications software
-
communications software
-
firmware
-
Information flow
Information flow

Planning methods

- planning from scratch

- variants planning

- similarity planning

- repeat planning

Hardware

Hardware
- planning from scratch - variants planning - similarity planning - repeat planning Hardware © WZL

© WZL

Figure 25

Notes on Figure 25:

The presented tools and methods are the main selection criteria for a CAP- as well as for a CAPP-system to automate operations scheduling.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Produktionsmanagement I - Anhang 6 - Arbeitsvorbereitung / Arbeitsplanung Vorlesungsbetreuer: M. Phornprapha, M. Eng.
Produktionsmanagement I
- Anhang 6 -
Arbeitsvorbereitung / Arbeitsplanung
Vorlesungsbetreuer:
M. Phornprapha, M. Eng.
m.phornprapha@wzl.rwth-aachen.de
WZL, R. 504
Tel.: 0241-80-27383
WZL, R. 504 Tel.: 0241-80-27383 © WZL Arbeitsvorbereitung / Arbeitsplanung A6 Seite I

© WZL

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Ausgangsteilbestimmung

Auftragsdaten Werkstückdaten Werkstoffdaten Ausgangsteilbestimmung Schmiedeteil Halbzeug Auftragsstückzahl: <
Auftragsdaten
Werkstückdaten
Werkstoffdaten
Ausgangsteilbestimmung
Schmiedeteil
Halbzeug
Auftragsstückzahl: < 3000
Auftragsstückzahl: > 3000
Stückzahl: 2
Ausgangsmaterial: Stange rund
345
Materialkatalog
60
Werkstoff: ST 50
Material: Stange rund, blank
Durchmesser[mm]
Länge[mm]
Gewicht[Kg/100mm]
• Material: Stange rund, blank
40
2000
0,97
• Durchmesser: Ø = 60 mm
50
2000
1,53
• Länge: L = 340 + 5
L = 345 mm
60
2000
2,21
• Gewicht: G = 2,21 * 345/100
G = 7,6 Kg
70
2000
3,00
© WZL
Bild 1
Ermittlung der
Bestimmung der
Rohteildaten
Rohform

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Die Ausgangsteilbestimmung dient zur Festlegung von Rohform und Rohteildaten unter Berücksichtigung der Anforderungen des Werkstücks anhand folgender Kriterien:

• technologische (Gestalt, Oberfläche, Werkstoff),

• wirtschaftliche (Stückzahl, Beschaffungs- und Bearbeitungskosten),

• zeitliche (Beschaffungszeit).

Die Ergebnisse dieser Planungsfunktion sind:

Art/ Form des Ausgangsteils (z.B. Schmiedeteil, Flachstahl, Rundmaterial),

Geometrie (z.B. Durchmesser, Länge, Höhe),

Gewicht,

 

.

.

.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Arbeitsvorgangsfolgeermittlung

• Auftragsdaten • Rohteildaten • verfügbare Fertigungsverfahren • Werkstückdaten
• Auftragsdaten
• Rohteildaten
• verfügbare Fertigungsverfahren
• Werkstückdaten
Arbeitsvorgangsfolgebestimmung
Fertigungsablauf
Erläuterung
AVO 10: Sägen
Säge:
Ausgangsmaterial: Stange rund, mit Aufmaß zum
Planen
AVO 20: Ablängen und Zentrieren
Zentriermaschine:
Vorbedingung für:
-Drehen
-Gewinde schneiden
-Bohren
AVO 30: Komplett Drehen
Drehmaschine:
Vorbedingung für:
-Fräsen
-Schleifen
AVO 40: Bohren und Gewindeschneiden
Bohrmaschine:
2 Axialbohrungren M6 x 20 für die Befestigung eines
Deckels
AVO 50: Fräsen
Fräsmaschine:
Nuten fräsen für Paßfeder mit Paarung P9
AVO 60: Schleifen
Schleifmaschine:
Lagersitz auf Nennmaß schleifen
Schleifmaschine: Lagersitz auf Nennmaß schleifen © WZL Bild 2 Anmerkungen zum Bild: Die

© WZL

Bild 2

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Die Arbeitsvorgangsfolge, d. h. die Reihenfolge, durch die ein Stoff oder Körper über schrittweise Verändern der Form und/ oder der Stoffeigenschaften vom Rohzustand in einen Fertigzustand überführt wird, stellt für alle betroffenen Unternehmensbereiche die wichtigste Information zur Herstellung eines Werkstücks dar.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Fertigungsmittelbestimmung

• Auftragsdaten • Rohteildaten • verfügbare Fertigungsverfahren • Werkstückdaten Fertigungsmittelbestimmung
• Auftragsdaten
• Rohteildaten
• verfügbare Fertigungsverfahren
• Werkstückdaten
Fertigungsmittelbestimmung für Arbeitsvorgang "Komplett Drehen"
Daten des
M M
Spitzen-
NC-
M
Kopier-
Beispiels
1 drehmaschine
drehmaschine
2
3
drehmaschine
Kostenstelle/ Lohngruppe
-
360/08
360/08
360/07
max. Durchmesser [mm]
60
340
300
350
max. Länge [mm]
340
700
700
650
Prozess-
M1
M2
M3
kosten
M2
M3
M1
Auftragsstückzahl
2
1
50
100
150
2
Stückzahl
Kostenstelle:360
Lohngruppe :08
Werkzeugkatalog
Bezeichnung
Werkzeug-
Skizze
Inv.-Nr.
Operation
Nr.
Schruppdrehmeißel
1101
Längs-
Längs-HM
1101
schruppen
Schruppdrehmeißel
1102
Plan-HM
© WZL
Bild 3
Werkzeugauswahl
Maschinenauswahl

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Zu jedem Arbeitsvorgang im Arbeitsplan müssen die zur Ausführung erforderlichen Fertigungsmittel/ -hilfsmittel (Maschinen, Vorrichtungen und Werkzeuge) bestimmt werden.

Die Auswahl erfolgt dabei zuerst unter Berücksichtigung technischer Einflussgrößen (z.B. Arbeitsraumabmessungen, Maschinengenauigkeit). Die Entscheidung zwischen technisch möglichen Alternativen wird dann unter Berücksichtigung wirtschaftlicher Kriterien vorgenommen. Dazu werden in der Regel nur die variablen Kosten berück- sichtigt, die jedoch auch losfixe Kostenanteile (z.B. zur NC-Programmerstellung) beinhalten können.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Vorgabezeitbestimmung

• Auftragsdaten • Rohteildaten • verfügbare Fertigungsverfahren • Werkstückdaten Vorgabezeitbestimmung für
• Auftragsdaten
• Rohteildaten
• verfügbare Fertigungsverfahren
• Werkstückdaten
Vorgabezeitbestimmung für den Arbeitsvorgang „Komplett Drehen“
Lfd.
th
tn
1. Einspannung
Arbeitsschritte
Nr.
(min)
(min)
1
Einspannen
0,30
2
Reitstock positionieren
0,15
3
rechte Seite komplett Drehen
1,08
1,60
4
Umspannen
0,40
5
Stufe Drehen
0,05
0,30
6
Werkzeugwechsel
0,30
2. Einspannung
7
Fase rechts Drehen
0,03
0,15
8
Werkzeugwechsel
0,30
9
Einstechdrehen
0,06
0,25
10
Ausspannen
0,15
Gesamt
1,22
3,90
X
= Arbeitsschritt
Grundzeit
5,12
Verteilzeit (Zv = 12%)
0,61
Arbeitsschritt 3 umfasst Längsdrehen,
Fase Drehen, Freistiche Drehen
Erholzeit (Zer = 8%)
0,41
Stückzeit (te)
6,14
Rüstzeit: tr = 4,6 min (Tabellenwert)
(te) 6,14 Rüstzeit: tr = 4,6 min (Tabellenwert) © WZL Bild 4 Anmerkungen zum Bild: Die

© WZL

Bild 4

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Die Methoden zur Bestimmung der Vorgabezeiten haben einen unterschiedlichen Genauigkeitsgrad. Gängige Verfahren sind:

• Schätzen (Erfahrungswerte),

• Verwenden von Planzeitwerten (Tabellen),

• Zeitaufnahme,

• Berechnen.

Die Haupt- und Nebenzeiten werden entweder pro Arbeitsvorgang bestimmt, oder es erfolgt eine Feinplanung des Arbeitsvorgangs mithilfe von Teilarbeitsvorgängen (Arbeits- schritten), wobei die Zeiten dann pro Teilarbeitsvorgang ermittelt werden. Die Stückzeit für den Arbeitsvorgang ergibt sich aus der Summe von Haupt- und Nebenzeiten der Teilarbeitsvorgänge unter Berücksichtigung von Zuschlägen für die Verteil- und Erholzeit.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Vorgabezeitberechnung eines Teilarbeitsvorgangs

Vorgabezeitberechnung „Stufe-Drehen“ Lfd. Arbeitsschritte th tn Nebenzeittabelle (Kst. 360) Nr. Drehoperation
Vorgabezeitberechnung „Stufe-Drehen“
Lfd.
Arbeitsschritte
th
tn
Nebenzeittabelle (Kst. 360)
Nr.
Drehoperation
Längs
Plan
1
Anstellen
0,10
Anstellen
tn (min)
0,10
0,12
Stufendrehen
2
0,05
(Längsdrehen)
Rücklauf mm
50
100
150
200
Zurück-
fahren
tn (min)
1,10
0,11
0,12
0,13
3
Zurückfahren
0,10
Messlänge mm
50
100
150
200
Messen
4
Messen
0,10
tn (min)
0,10
0,11
0,12
0,13
Gesamt
0,05
0,30
Hauptzeitberechnung (th):
Schnittwerttabelle Schruppen
(Formeln siehe Hauptzeittabelle)
Werkstoff: St50
Schneidstoff: P25
th
=
π*D*L*i
i =
D-d
Längs-
f*vc*1000
2*ap
Plandrehen
drehen
D
= 60; d = 45; L = 30
{ ap (mm)
8,0
6,0
(Maße aus der Zeichnung)
ap = 7,5; f = 0,6; vc = 180
f (mm)
0,6
0,5
vc (m/min)
180
160
th ≈ 0,05 min
© WZL
Bild 5

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Für die Vorgabezeitermittlung eines Teilarbeitsvorgangs ist eine Aufgliederung des Teilarbeitsvorgangs in Arbeitsstufen möglich. Die Haupt- und Nebenzeitermittlung erfolgt dann pro Arbeitsstufe. In dem Beispiel wird die Ermittlung der Hauptzeit mithilfe einer Hauptzeitformel (vgl. Übung) gezeigt, wobei die technologischen Daten einer Schnittwerttabelle entnommen werden. Zur Bestimmung der Nebenzeitanteile wird hier eine Nebenzeittabelle genutzt.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Systematik der Standardarbeitsplanerstellung und -nutzung

Bildung von Werkstückgruppen ähnlicher Teile metrisches Gewinde Standard- Whitworth- arbeitsplan- Gewinde
Bildung von Werkstückgruppen ähnlicher Teile
metrisches
Gewinde
Standard-
Whitworth-
arbeitsplan-
Gewinde
erstellung
metrisches
Feingewinde
Standardisierung der Werkstückgruppen
WZL-Arbeitsplanung
8 Arbeitsvorgangs-
123
4 567
struktur
Maschinendaten
Werkzeugdaten
Planungsregeln
Vorgabezeiten
Dokumentation der Planungsinformationen
Standard- Anpassung/
Aktueller
Nutzung
Zeichnung
arbeitsplan
Erweiterung
Arbeitsplan
Nutzung Zeichnung arbeitsplan Erweiterung Arbeitsplan © WZL Bild 6 Anmerkungen zum Bild: Für eine Teilefamilie

© WZL

Bild 6

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Für eine Teilefamilie (Werkstückgruppe) werden Standardarbeitsabläufe ermittelt, die in Standardarbeitsplänen dokumentiert werden.

Der Arbeitsplaner ordnet das Werkstück einer Teilefamilie zu und kann dann den zugehörigen Standardarbeitsplan nutzen. Der Arbeitsplan für das Werkstück entsteht durch die Kombination der erforderlichen Wahlarbeitsgänge des Standardarbeitsplans.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Informationsgrundlagen und Inhalt eines NC-Programms Werkstück Maschine Bearbeitungs- x segment X P3 P4
Informationsgrundlagen und Inhalt eines NC-Programms
Werkstück
Maschine
Bearbeitungs-
x
segment
X
P3
P4
Startpunkt
z
P7
P1
Geometrie
P2
Technologie
P6
Maschinendaten
P5
Werkstück-
nullpunkt
Z
NC-Programmblatt
Satz
Weg-
Kreismittelpunkt-
Vorschub-
Drehzahl-
Werkzeug-
Hilfs-
Wegbefehle
Nr.
bedingung
abstand
befehl
befehl
befehl
funktionen
N
G
X
Z
I
K
F
S
T
M
%
N01
G95
S 350
M04
N02
T0103
M06
N03
G00
150
300
N04
Maschinendaten
G01
Wohin wird gefahren ?
N05
G01
Schnittwerte
Wie wird gefahren ?
6000
Bewegungsdaten
Technologische Daten
© WZL
Bild 7

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Als Eingangsinformationen für die Erstellung des NC-Programms müssen neben den Werkstückdaten (Geometrie- und Technologiedaten) auch Angaben zu der einzu- setzenden Bearbeitungsmaschine vorliegen.

Das Ergebnis der (manuellen) Programmierung ist ein Teileprogramm im Satzformat gemäß DIN 66 025, das die explizite Vorgabe aller Bewegungen, Funktionen und Werte für die Durchführung der Bearbeitung enthält.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Arbeitsplanung in Abhängigkeit von der Fertigungsart

ARBEITSPLANUNG Einzel- und Kleinserien- fertigung Serienfertigung ANFORDERUNGEN DATENÜBERGABE 1 Stück
ARBEITSPLANUNG
Einzel- und Kleinserien-
fertigung
Serienfertigung
ANFORDERUNGEN
DATENÜBERGABE
1 Stück
Auftragsstückzahl
80 Stück
Organisatorische Daten
1 h
Planungsaufwand
6 h
Genauigkeit
Rohmaterialdaten
Aktualität
Arbeitsvorgänge
Nr.
MGR
AVO
t e
Nr.
MGR
Art der Arbeit
Reproduzierbarkeit
Teil-Arbeitsvorgänge
ABSAEG
Maschinengruppen
05
1147
ABSAEG
5
05
1213
t
e
= 5,1;
t R
= 2,1
Kostenstellen
10
2010
FRAES
9
FREAS
Restzeiten
10
2017
t
e
= 8,06; t
= 2,1
R
15
3020
S - BO
5
s = 140 mm/min
Automatisierungs-
Zeiten je Einheit
v = 80 m/min
grad
20
4015
SCHLEIF
3
15
Fertigungsart
Schnittwerte
Anteil Facharbeiter
Zusatztexte
Losgröße
durchschnittliche Abweichung der ermittelten
% von der gemessenen Vorgabezeit
20
10
+ 5
+20%
+5%
- - 5
-
-10
FERTIGUNG
-20
20 10 + 5 +20% +5% - - 5 - -10 FERTIGUNG -20 © WZL Bild

© WZL

Bild 8

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Aus der Analyse der betrieblichen Randbedingungen kann die notwendige Planungstiefe ermittelt werden. Aus ihr können die Rationalisierungsziele abgeleitet werden.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Aufbau der Teilevielfalt in einer Werkzeugmaschine

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Teileart Produktspezifische Normteile Ähnlichkeitsteile Teile Schrauben Deckel
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Teileart
Produktspezifische
Normteile
Ähnlichkeitsteile
Teile
Schrauben
Deckel
Zahnräder Gehäuse
Betten
Stifte
Buchsen Wellen Lagerböcke
Hebel
Schlitten
Passfedern
© WZL
Bild 9
Anz ha l der ve sr
hc iedenen E ni zelteile

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Durch die Werkstückanalyse können Teile nach Ähnlichkeitskriterien gruppiert werden (vgl. werkstückbeschreibende Klassifizierungssysteme, z.B. Opitz-Schlüssel). Ähnlichkeitsteile bieten eine Einsatzmöglichkeit für Standardarbeitspläne. Im Unter- schied zur Werkstückanalyse ordnet die ABC-Analyse das Teilespektrum nach quantifizierbaren Kriterien, z.B. nach den verursachten Kosten.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Zeitaufwand für Tätigkeiten bei der Arbeitsplanerstellung Tätigkeiten Zeitaufwand - Auftrag prüfen auf
Zeitaufwand für Tätigkeiten bei der Arbeitsplanerstellung
Tätigkeiten
Zeitaufwand
- Auftrag prüfen auf Vollständigkeit
4
- Material vorhanden
- Zeichnung lesen
5
- Rücksprache Konstruktion
- Fertigungstechnische Kontrolle
5
- Rücksprache Werkstatt
3
- Ähnlichkeitsteile suchen
- Arbeitsvorgangsfolgeermittlung
30
- wirtschaftlicher Verfahrensvergleich
- Prüfung/ Korrektur der Arbeitsvorgangsfolge
5
15
- Zeitkalkulation
- Auftrag abschließen
3
- Weitergabe des Arbeitsplans zur Datenerfassung
3
- Datenerfassung
2
- Endprüfung
0
3
6
9
12
15
30
Zeit
min
Basis: Erfassungszeit 2 Wochen, 80 Arbeitspläne, 5-8 Arbeitsvorgänge/ Plan
© WZL
Bild 10

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Mit der Tätigkeitsanalyse werden Rationalisierungspotentiale in der Arbeitsplanung aufgedeckt.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Anwendung von Planungshilfsmitteln in der Arbeitsplanung

Planungshilfsmittel Anwendungsbereich Stücklistenverarbeitung Ausgangsteilbestimmung Arbeitsvorgangsfolgebestimmung
Planungshilfsmittel
Anwendungsbereich
Stücklistenverarbeitung
Ausgangsteilbestimmung
Arbeitsvorgangsfolgebestimmung
Maschinenauswahl
Vorrichtungsauswahl
Werkzeugauswahl
Vorgabezeitberechnung
NC-Programmierung
Sonderbetriebsmittelplanung
© WZL
Bild 11
Arbeitsplanerstellung
Normen, Vorschriften, Richtlinien
Wiederholteilkatalog
ähnliche Arbeitspläne
Standardarbeitspläne
Relativkostenkatalog
Materiallagerkatalog
Materialprospekt des Handels
Maschinenkatalog, Maschinenkartei
Vorrichtungs-, Messmittel-, Lehrenkat.
Werkzeugkatalog
Schnittwerttabelle
Zeitrichtwertkatalog
Tabelle mit Maschinenstundensätzen
Lohnkostentabelle

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Die Tabelle ordnet die Hilfsmittel der Arbeitsplanung den Tätigkeiten zu, die sie unterstützen.

Mit einem Relativkosten-Katalog können beispielsweise alternative Verfahren für eine kostenoptimale Bearbeitung ausgewählt werden.

Die Maschinenkarte liefert dem Arbeitsplaner Informationen zur Auswahl und zum Einsatz von Maschinen.

In Richtwerttabellen werden in Abhängigkeit von Werkstoff/ Schneidstoffpaarungen technologische Einstellbedingungen festgehalten, die nach verschiedenen Zielkriterien wie maximale Standzeit oder minimale Kosten ausgerichtet sind.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Relativkosten für verschiedene Schweißverfahren

a Werkstoff: St 5 4 3 MIG/MAG-Schweißen Metall-Lichtbogenschweißen 2 Unterpulverschweißen 1 3 4 5 6
a
Werkstoff: St
5
4
3
MIG/MAG-Schweißen
Metall-Lichtbogenschweißen
2
Unterpulverschweißen
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Schweißnahtdicke a
Legende:
MIG:
Metall-Intergas-Schweißen
MAG:
Metall-Aktivgas-Schweißen
nach: Busch
© WZL
Bild 12
Relativkosten

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Mit einem Relativkosten-Katalog können alternative Verfahren für eine kostenoptimale Bearbeitung ausgewählt werden.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Dokumentation von Maschinendaten

(Prof. Schuh) Vorlesung 6 Dokumentation von Maschinendaten © WZL Bild 13 Anmerkungen zum Bild: Die Maschinenkarte
(Prof. Schuh) Vorlesung 6 Dokumentation von Maschinendaten © WZL Bild 13 Anmerkungen zum Bild: Die Maschinenkarte

© WZL

Bild 13

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Die Maschinenkarte (z.B. AWF-Karte) liefert dem Arbeitsplaner Informationen zur Auswahl und zum Einsatz von Maschinen.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

INFOS-Richtwerttabellen für das Drehen

Richtwertempfehlung für das Außenlängsdrehen Wärmebehandlung geglüht auf BG Werkstoffnummer 1.7335 I
Richtwertempfehlung für das Außenlängsdrehen
Wärmebehandlung geglüht auf BG
Werkstoffnummer 1.7335
I
Zugfestigkeit 500 N/mm 2
Härte 148 HB
Werkstoff 13CrMo 4 4
N
Oberfläche vorgedreht
k
1-m c =0,86
c1,1 =144
F
VSTAND=571
E=-0,20
F=-0,10
G=-0,20
H=0,24
O
Schnittgeschwindigkeit
v
cmax =350m/min
v
Plattenform SPUN 120308
S
cmin =200
Schneidteil
γ=6°
α=5°
λ=0°
χ=70°
Beschichtetes Hartmetall
Besonderheiten Mehrbereichssorte
Schnitttiefe a p (mm)
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Anwendungsbereich
01 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
.250
350
330
320
310
300
P
50
110
170
220
280
3
6
9
12
14
M
87
165
240
310
375
K
Schnittgeschw. V c (m/min)
.315
340
310
300
290
290
Schnittkraft F c (daN)
60
130
200
270
340
4
7
10
13
17
Schnittleistg. P (kW)
107
195
283
365
456
Volumenrate (cm 3 /min)
.400
320
300
290
280
270
80
170
250
340
420
Standzeit T = 10 min
5
9
12
16
19
128
240
348
448
540
VB max = 0,3 mm
nach:
EXAPT
© WZL
Bild 14
Vorschub f (mm)
AACHEN

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

In Richtwerttabellen werden in Abhängigkeit von Werkstoff/ Schneidstoffpaarungen technologische Einstellbedingungen festgehalten, die nach verschiedenen Zielkriterien wie:

- maximale Standzeit oder

- minimale Kosten

ausgerichtet sind.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Anwendungsmöglichkeiten von Zugriffssystemen auf Planungshilfsmittel

Planungshilfsmittel Identnummer (Suchsystem) Werkstückorientierte Klassifizierung Verfahrensorientierte
Planungshilfsmittel
Identnummer
(Suchsystem)
Werkstückorientierte Klassifizierung
Verfahrensorientierte Klassifizierung
Kreuzliste
Alphabetisches Inhaltsverzeichnis
Nummer
Indextabelle
Sachmerkmalleiste
© WZL
Bild 15
Suchsysteme
Klassifizierung
Normen, Vorschriften, Richtlinien
Wiederholteilkatalog
ähnliche Arbeitspläne
Standardarbeitspläne
Relativkostenkatalog
Materiallagerkatalog
Materialprospekt des Handels
Maschinenkatalog, Maschinenkartei
Vorrichtungs-, Messmittel-, Lehrenkat.
Werkzeugkatalog
Schnittwerttabelle
Zeitrichtwertkatalog
Tabelle mit Maschinenstundensätzen
Lohnkostentabelle

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

Die Vielzahl der Dokumente und Hilfsmittel ist nur durch einen systematischen Zugriff zu nutzen. Die unterschiedlichen Planungshilfsmittel können mit den aufgeführten Zugriffs- systemen verwaltet werden.

Produktionsmanagement I (Prof. Schuh)

Vorlesung 6

Dokumentation der Auswahlkriterien in Entscheidungstabellen

1801 Härten ENTSCHEIDUNGSTABELLE Auswahlkriterien Arbeitsvorgangs- 2002 lfd. REGELN nummer 1901 Drehen Nr. R1
1801
Härten
ENTSCHEIDUNGSTABELLE
Auswahlkriterien
Arbeitsvorgangs-
2002
lfd.
REGELN
nummer
1901
Drehen
Nr.
R1
R2
R3
Auswahlkriterien
Nut vorhanden
1
X
X
Nutbreite<=10
2
X
2001
Nuten ziehen
2002
Nuten fräsen
F.-Gewicht<=10
3
X
Auswahlkriterien
Auswahlkriterien
Rohdurchm.>20
4
X
Werkstoff C45
5
X
2101
NC-Bohren
Rohlänge>=250
6
X
Auswahlkriterien
Dokumentation in
Entscheidungstabellen
AV 802 vorhanden
7
X
NIMM AV 2002
1
X
2201
Schleifen
GEHE NACH AV 2101
2
X
X
Auswahlkriterien
GEHE NACH AV 2402
3
X
© WZL
Bild 16
Bedingungen
Maßnahmen

Anmerkungen zum Bild:

In IT-Systemen zur Arbeitsplanerstellung (CAP: Computer Aided Planning) ist die Planungslogik häufig in Form von Entscheidungstabellen implementiert.