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A Research Paper Presented to the

Faculty of Senior High School Department

College of Technological Sciences- Cebu

Cebu City, Philippines



Alburo, Van Vincent

Bontia, Leonil

Cavan, Johnriel

Demicillo, Nina Jean

Gemarino, Joseph John

Jadraque, Benmark A.

Sebal, Honey Shane

Sua, Ellyn Mae

March 2017
Table of Contents



Chapter I Page

Introduction ------------------------------------------1

Literature review - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2

Significance of the study - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3

Scope and Delimitation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4

Definition of Terms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5

Chapter 2

Design of the study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6

Research Environment - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7

Research Respondents - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8

Research Instruments - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9

Research Procedures - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10

Chapter 3

Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11

Summary of Findings and Data Analysis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12

Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13

Recommendation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14



In our Generation there a lot of student are passive student because they don't usually willing to

learn and actively participates in classroom activities so that many student will discriminate them

because they would not want to get in trouble. The passive learner usually takes backseat in most

discussion or activities that they have to take part because many of them are afraid to commit

mistakes and he will hesitate to express himself or herself in front of many people. A passive

student on the other hand is most likely to be absorbed in his or her own thoughts, without a lot

of care for what is happening in class. In other hand He or she is anti-social because of the

environment where they grow in. Friends and families can also greatly influence the nature of a

student in learning. A passive student will do as much as possible to avoid the attention of their

teachers or classmates.

An active learner will do their assignments, and probably hand in their assignments before the

deadline while passive learner will reluctantly do, and probably hand in their assignments a short

while before the deadline for submission has passed (McWhorther, 2003). Mostly passive

student only do what is expected of them when they are asked. A passive learner usually waits to

be told what to cover and learn. In extreme cases, a passive learner might be un willing to learn

because such a learner don't want to be appreciated for his or her efforts. A passive learner is not

actively involved in class activities. Passive student occur when someone discriminate them by
look down their capability skills because of that most students confirm that they willingly sit

through class after class in complete silence, depending the teacher on the teacher to fill the time,

their notebooks, and their heads.

The most effect of being discriminate of their classmates when they don't want to go to school

because some of student are affected by discrimination. According to the University of

Minnesota`s Center for Teaching and Learning, active learning is an instructional approach in

which the students engage the material they study through reading, writing, talking, listening and

reflecting. Passive learning is traditional instructional style that involves teachers lecturing and

students taking notes. Most passive learner only do what is expected of them when they are

asked. Even they are passive students are interested in passing because they would not want to

get in trouble, and they would want to succeed in life (McWhorter, 2003). Most passive learners

have to be pushed in order to participate in learning activities.

Considine & Zappala (2002) observed that children comes from those families having low

income make known more subsequent models in terms of learning outcomes; low literacy level,

low retention rate, problems in school behavior and more difficulty in their studies and mostly

display negative attitude towards studies and school. The view point of Considine and Zappala is

more strengthen by this statement of Eamon, According to Eamon (2005) Those students

usually come out from low socio-economic status or area show low performance in studies and

obtained low scores as compared to the other students or their counter parts.
Theoretical Background

The model of thinking skills that I use to develop my activities in my classroom is Benjamin

Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Thinking Skills. 1 At the lowest level of Blooms hierarchy is

knowledge. This is the level at which students recall facts, principles, and concepts. At this level

they describe and define information. They locate information in a single text and label it. My

students do this fairly well. The second level is the comprehension level where students interpret

information. This is more difficult for my students, but they do have some success when asked to

infer from information read, to give examples of or explain information. The third level in

Blooms model is the application level where students need to be able to apply previous

knowledge to a new situation. Here students need to be able to classify, organize, generalize, and

summarize information, and it is at this level that many of my students skills are lacking. The

fourth level is analysis where students need to be able to break material into its components and

to look at how it is structured and organized. At this level students need to be able to compare,

contrast, solve, discriminate, or take apart. Tasks involving these skills are very difficult for my

students. The fifth level, synthesis, requires the ability to put the parts back together; to form a

whole that has been taken apart. Where analysis involves divergent thinking, synthesis requires

convergent thinkingthe ability to hypothesize, design, suppose, and create. The last level, the

highest level of thinking skills, is the evaluation level. Evaluation is the ability to make

judgments based on the value of the information and on definite criteria.2 It is the ability to

judge, criticize, defend, interpret, or assess. It is a skill that is very difficult for my students; even

the simplest question requiring evaluative skills is often met with blank stares or shrugs of the

shoulders. The difficulty my students encounter when asked to answer questions or demonstrate

knowledge beyond the simple comprehension level is partly due to their mental passivity and
partly due to a lack of opportunities requiring them to use higher level thinking skills. It is

important that I provide my students with opportunities to flex their mental muscles. One way to

begin this process is to ask questions that are open-ended, that cannot be answered by yes, no, or

one word, and have more than one possible response. During discussions ask students for their

opinions about the topic at hand. Questions that require students to use higher level thinking

skills will begin to stimulate their thinking.

Review of Related Literature


Galiher (2006) and Darling (2005), used GPA to measure student performance because the main

focus in the in student performance for the particular semester. Some other researchers used test

results or previous year result since they are studying performance for the specific subject or year

(Hijazi and Naqvi, 2006 and Hake , 1998). Many researchers have discussed the different factors

that affect the student academic performance in their research. There are two types of factors that

affect the student`s academic performance . These are internal and external classroom factors and

these factors strongly affect the student`s performance. Internal classroom factors includes

students competence in English, class schedules, class size, English text books, class test results,

learning facilities, homework, environment of the class, complexity of the course material,

teachers role in the class, technology used in the class and exams systems. External classroom

factors include extracurricular activities, family problems, work and financial, social and other

problems. Research studies shows that the student`s performance depends many factors such as

learning facilities, gender and age differences, etc. That can affect student performance (Hansen,

Joe B., 2000).Harb and El-Shaarawi (2006) found that the most factor with positive effect on

student`s performance is Parental Involvement.

Simply defined, learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, skills or behaviors.

Therefore, if learning is defined as quest for knowledge, skills or behaviors, then students need to

be active in that quest. Students must be proactive to seek the knowledge by seeking as well as

receiving information in an outside classroom. How the students seek and receive information

are usually reflected in their behaviors in the classroom. The behaviors of students in classroom
may range from passive to active participations. They may just sit quietly, taking notes, listening,

doing something else, or asking questions, giving opinions, or answering questions posed (Mohd

Yusof, et al 2011; Hussein, 2010; Bas, 2010). The first four is a passive type of behaviors while

the latter is an active type of classroom behaviors. Liu (2001) elaborated four types of student

behaviors in the classroom as full integration, participation in the circumstances, marginal

interaction, and silence observation. In full integration, students engage actively in the class

discussion, know what they want to say and what they should not say. Their participation in class

is usually spontaneous and occurs naturally (Zainal Abidin 2007). Participation in the

circumstances occurs when students influenced by factors, such as socio-cultural, cognitive,

affective, linguistic, or the environment and these often lead to student participation and

interaction with other students and instructors become less and speak only at appropriate time. In

marginal interaction, students act more as listeners and less to speak out in the classroom. Unlike

the students who actively participate in the classroom discussions, this category of students

prefer to listen and take notes than involved in the classroom discussion. Lastly, in silent

observation, students tend to avoid oral participation in the classroom. They seem to receive

materials delivered in the classroom by taking notes using various strategies such as tape-

recording or writing. Based on the various types of classroom behaviors, to be an active learners,

whenever in the classroom, students must engage actively by playing the roles of information

seekers. The acts of asking questions, give opinions or simply answering questions posed by the

instructor or fellow students are examples of active type of classroom participation. According to

Davis (2009), students enthusiasm and willingness to participate in a classroom through these

verbal engagements will create a conducive classroom environment.

Another important factor that influenced the students to speak up in class is the perception of

classmates. One important finding from the study by Siti Maziha, Nik Suryani & Melor (2010)

on undergraduate students in the classroom of a university in Malaysia found that the traits

shown by peers or classmates play an important role in providing incentives for students to

participate in class discussions. Besides that, Cayanus & Martin (2004).


General :This study aims to investigate the effects of rampant discrimination of the passive

student of the Collage of Technological Sciences-Cebu, St.Rita. Its implication to their academic


Specific : 1. What are the possible effects of the students if they do discrimination ?

2.) If you see your classmates being discriminate to your friends, how would you feel ?

3. What are the possible ways to prevent the students for not discriminating other students ?


With significant influence of the effects of rampant discrimination of the passive student of

St.Rita students at the College of Technological Sciences-Cebu.

Significance of the Study

This study will be of great assistance and benefit to the following:

Students. The students will be able to improve their attitude towards discrimination to others.

For the reason that it will help the student to boost their knowledge stop discriminate to others.

Researchers. The importance of this research is to provide new ideas to researchers who reads it.

It can be used as a guide to the knowledge of other researchers about their studied like this about

the effect of rampant discrimination of the passive student.

Parents. This study will be beneficial to the parents because it will lessen their worries

for their child/children when it comes to their studies knowing they are doing great towards their


Teachers. This study is valuable to teachers, student`s level of thinking skills how they

help them in choosing the suitable instructional methodology and strategy for the students

capability with their abilities even they are passive student.

Society. This study will help produce effective and efficient individuals which will be

beneficial to the society.


The research covers the important issues of our school. It strengthening of information about the

problems and solutions for the problems of our school deterioration of the quality of knowledge

of the passive student due to their learning's.

The research instruments were only administered once it done. The results will be based on their

questionnaire that will be provided by the researchers.

This study will be conducted among 15 students at the College of Technological Sciences-Cebu,

N. Bacalso St. Cebu City, St.Rita.


Passive Learning - is a method of learning or instruction where students receive information

from the instructor and internalize it, often through some form of memorization or rote learning,

and "where the learner receives no feedback from the instructor".

Look Down on someone or something to view someone or something as lowly or unworthy.

Discrimination - the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things,

especially on the lower order thinking skill.



Design of the study

The researcher will used Grounded Theory as research approach in conducting the research. For

the reason that the study aims to generate a theory which is

The theory will be generated from the data after being analyzed and interpreted.

Research Environment

The researchers will be conduct the study in the College of Technological Sciences-Cebu located

at Natalio B. Bacalso Ave, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines. This study is limited only inside the

Research Respondents

This study will be conducted among 15 respondents from College of Technological Sciences-

Cebu, St.Rita. The chosen respondents must be studying up until the present and may or may not

be inclined to discrimination.

Research Instruments

The researchers will be using a research interview questionnaire as a researcher instrument in

conducting the study. The questions will be follows:



Age:____ Gender: ______ Student ( ) Out-Of-School ( )

Instruction: Please put a check mark on the box that represent the level of gravity on the

1. Never observed
2. Often observed
3. Sometimes observed
4. Always observed
5. Very well observed

Rating Scale
1.) What will be the effects of being discriminate?

4 5
1 2 3

Frustration to her self

He will blame her self

He may cutting classes

Lack of interest in learning

(Others, please

2.) If you see your classmates being discriminate to your friends, how would you feel ?

4 5
1 2 3

(Others, please
Research Procedure
Date Collection Procedure

The constructed questionnaires will be distributed to the identified respondents. In case the

researchers find any supplement data needed in the study, an interview were made.

Data Analysis Procedure

The gathered data will be analyzed through a focus group discussion and contet analysis. The

respondent`s ideas and behaviors will be analyzed from the data collected by the researchers.