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MOTION Lecture Notes

MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION Therefore: (km/h)/3.6 = m/s

1. Definitions Slope:
Position (x): Location of an object with respect to an For any graph:
origin. Position is a vector.
xB=-4 xA=+3
rise
rise slope =
run
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x run

Displacement (x):
Change in position. Displacement is also a vector.
Ex:
In physics shows change.
= (Change) = (Final) (Initial)
x =xf - xi

Ex:
An object moves from x=2 to x=5. Find its
displacement.
big constant slope small constant slope slope = 0
Ex:
An object moves from x=-3 to x=-1. Find its
displacement.
{Draw the figure}
[The + sign in the answer shows the direction of the
displacement vector]
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[In the example both the initial and final points are
minus but dispalcement is plus. Therefore knowing the minus constant slope changing slope
displacement does not mean that we know where the
object is]
2. Motion with constant velocity:
Ex: [A drunk man after a long night leaves the bar at A (Uniform motion)
and tries to reach his home at B] An object travels equal distances in equal times, if its
velocity is constant.
Displacement:
Vector t=0 t=1s t=2s t=3s
A B Distance: Scalar
x=0 x=5m x=10m x=15m x

Velocity (v): v = 5 m/s


Velocity is displacement in unit time
Position-time graph of constant velocity
x Unit: m/s or km/h
v= x
t
Note: Straight line on x-t
Speed (v): graph shows constant velocity.
Speed is the distance traveled in unit time.
distance t
speed = Unit: m/s or km/h
t
Finding velocity from x-t graph:
Ex: A car travels A
250 km x
from city A to city B
in 5 hours round the rise x
slope = =
mountains as in the B x rise run t
map. Find its speed
run
and velocity. d=450 km slope = v
t t
Question: What does the speedometer of a car read? Rule: Slope of x-t graph gives velocity.
Speed or velocity.

Ex: Convert 72 km/h into m/s

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MOTION Lecture Notes

Ex: Which car is faster, x(m) Ex: v-t graph of an v (m/s)


A or B? A object is given.
a) What is the 9
B
displacement
Ans: VA=VB, only the b) Draw x-t graph
starting pozitions are 7
different. t(s) 0 4 t(s)
0
At t=0 Ans: b) We can not draw, because we dont know
where to start from.
B A
x=0 x=7m 36 m
? ?
Ex: Find the velocity and draw v-t graph. if, (say) x0=10 m then: {draw the graph}
x(m)
v(m/s)
Ex: Draw x-t graph, if
15 the object is on x=3 at
t=0. 12

t(s)
0 3
4
Ex: Draw v-t graph. t(s)
x(m) 0 2 5

Ex:
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13
v (km/h)

60
3

0 5 12 t(s) t (h)
2 5
0
Displacement in uniform motion: - 40

v= x/t x = v t only if v=const. Draw corresponding x-t graph. (x0=0)

Also: Ex: Two cars A and B have respective velocities 15


m/s and 20 m/s in the same direction. At the beginning,
v
A is 40 m behind B. How far does A move until B
Rule: Area under overtakes it?
v-t graph gives
Area=v t velocity Displacement equation:
Area=x x= v t xf x0 = v t
0 t xf = x0 + v t

v Ex: Analyze the equation x(t)= -15 + 2.5 t


Object moving in (+) direction
Ex: Draw the graph of x(t) = 20 4t

0 t

Object moving in (-) direction

2
MOTION Lecture Notes

3. Motion with changing velocity Question: In which direction is the car moving?
(Non-uniform motion)
Ex: Analyze the motion of the object for which
Average velocity (between t1 and t2) position time graph is given.
x x
v AV = tot
ttot
C
[That is, we are only interested in the distance between
the initial and final points, we have nothing to do with
B
what the object did between these points] D
x
A

0 t
x

t
Ex: Find average
t x(km)
t1 t2 velocity:
a) Between
[The slope of the line which intersects the graph at two t=0 and t= 4h
points (which we call a secant line) is the average 120
b) Between
velocity] t=0 and t= 5h 80
d) Find
Instantaneous velocity instantaneous
means velocity of the object at time t1 (not between t1 velocity at t= 1h 0 2 4 5 t(h)
and t2 like average velocity). and t =2.5h.
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Rule: x
Ex: A car travels at 60 km/h for 2 h, then at 90 km/h
Instantaneous for 2.5 h, then at 120 km/h for 30 min, all in the same
velocity is the direction. Find vav=? (take x0=0)
slope of tangent x
{first solve by formula}
line to the x-t t
graph at one x(km)
point.
405
t1 t
345

Ex: Increasing velocity


120
x
big slope 0 2 4.5 5 t(h)

[Note the increasing velocity and the shape of the


graph. Compare with example about increasing
velocity ]

small slope 4. Acceleration (a)


t Acceleration is the change in velocity in one second (=
unit time). Acceleration is a vector.
Question: In which direction is the car moving?
m
Ex: Decreasing velocity v v2 v1 s = m
a= So: a = unit :
t t 2 t1 s s2
x small slope
big slope
v=0 v=5m/s v=10 m/s v=15 m/s

t=0 t=2s t=3s t=4s


a=5m/s2

3
MOTION Lecture Notes

Acceleration from v-t graph Ex: Find v(m/s)


acceleration
v a) At t=2s 15
rise v b) At t=6s
slope = = c) Average
v rise run t
acceleration
run between t=0 5
slope = a
and t=12s.
t t 0 4 12 t(s)

Rule: Slope of v-t graph gives acceleration. Using a-t graph:


Straight line = Constant acceleration
a (m/s2)
Rule: Area under a-t
Velocity in uniformly accelerated motion: graph gives velocity
v change.
a= v = a.t Area = a.t
t
Area = v
a
v0 vf
0 t(s)
t
Ex: Draw v-t graph. a (m/s2)
vf=v0+v vf=v0+a.t (velocity formula)
Ans: We can not. 5
Note: We can use this formula only if acceleration is Because we dont
constant. know the velocity at
time t=0.
v(m/s) 0 8 t(s)
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Ex: Which car has greater


acceleration? A or B? A
Ex: v-t graph of a car is v (m/s)
B
given.
a) In what direction is the 12
car moving?
b) Draw a-t. 5
t(s)
0 t (s)
0
8
Ex : A car starts from rest and speeds upto 108 km/h
in 6 s. Find acceleration. a (m/s2)
Ex: Find velocity at t=6s if
Ex: A train slows from 20 m/s to zero in 8 s. Find the initial velocity is 7 m/s.
5
acceleration.
Note: slowing down acceleration is called [ b)Draw v-t graph]
deceleration t (s)
0
[Question: What is the direction of motion?] 4 6
-3
Ex: The initial speed of an object is v=12.7 m/s. Find
its speed 4 s later if it
a) accelerates uniformly at 3m/s2 and; 2
b) accelerates uniformly at 3 m/s2 Ex 27: Draw v-t graph if a (m/s )
{Draw the object moving on x axis, also show v0=0.
directions of velocity and acceleration} [Question: Describe the 5
motion. In what direction
was the object moving 0 16
Ex: Draw a-t graph. 8 t(s)
v (m/s) between 0 and 8s,
between 8s and 16s? -5
What is the difference?]

12
5. Displacement in uniformly accelerated motion

v=0 v=5m/s v=10 m/s v=15 m/s

t (s) t=0 t=2s t=3s t=4s


0 2 4 5

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MOTION Lecture Notes

a (m/s2)
3. Put t=v/a in the first formula
v + v v v0
x = 0
5 2 a
t(s)
0 4
area v 2 v02
slope v (m/s) x = (timeless formula)
2a
20
Note: 1.All these formulas we can use only if a=const.
t(s)
0 4 2. x, v and a are vectors; look at the directions.
x (m) 3. Generally t is written in place of t
slope 40 area
Usage:
-Draw a picture
- We have 5 variables (x, v0, v, a, t). When 3 of
them are given we can find the other 2 by using the
0 4 t(s)
formulas.
v0 a v
Ex: A car uniformly speeds up from v=10 m/s to v=20 x
m/s in 4 s. Find the average velocity.
t
x
v AV = tot [We know t , so we need x, but
ttot IF a=const along x:
apparently we can not use the formula x=vt, because
it is only for constant velocity.] v=v0+at (velocity formula)
v +v
x= 0 (first x formula)
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v1=10m/s v2=20 m/s t


2
x=?
1
x=v0t+ at2 (second x formula)
2
v(m/s) v 2 v02
x= (timeless formula)
x= 60 m; So: 2a
20 vav= 60m / 4s
vav= 15 m/s [First we decide on which displacement are we talking
Area=20 m about; v0 is the velocity at the beginning of this
10 But also: displacement, v is the velocity at the end of this
Area=40 m 10 + 20 displacement, t (or t) is the time during this
t(s) 15 = displacement, and a is the acceleration which is
0 4 2
constant along this displacement. All of these
Rule: If velocity is increasing uniformly (a=constant) quantities (except time) are vectors, therefore they can
v +v v +v be minus or plus]
vav = 1 2 = 0
2 2 Ex: A car initially at rest starts to accelerate at a=2
[Remember this is because we could calculate the area m/s2. Find its speed and displacement 3 seconds later.
under the straight line on v-t graph] Sol:
Displacement formulas: v0=0 a=2m/s2 v=?
1. x= vav.t
x=?
v +v t=3s
x = 0 t (first formula)
2 First method: Use formulas [See? we know three of
them]
Second method : Draw graphs
2. Put v=v0+a t in the first formula
Ex: A car can accelerate from rest to 144 km/h in 8s.
v0 + (v0 + at ) a) Find acceleration
x = t
2 b) Find displacement. [Use formula and v-t graph again]

1 Ex: At t=0, speed of a car is 20 m/s. Find speed and


x = v0 t + at 2 (second formula) displacement of the car at t= 3s, if
2
a) it accelerates at a=2m/s2.
b) it decelerates at a=2 m/s2.

5
MOTION Lecture Notes

{Explain the solution on the pictures}


Ex: Find velocity at t=6s if a (m/s2)
Ex: A car travels 250 m in 10 s. accelerating uniformly the initial velocity is 7 m/s.
starting from rest. Find the distance traveled in first 4 s. 5
{common mistake: v=25m/s ::: x=25x4=100m } [ b)Draw v-t graph]
t (s)
Ex: An object accelerates at a=10 m/s2 starting from 0
4 6
rest. Find its displacement during the third second. -3
v0=0 x2
x=? Ex: v-t graph of a car is v (m/s)
t=0 t=1s t=2s t=3s given.
x3 a) In what direction is the 12
car moving?
5
First method: x=x3-x2 [For both x2 and x3 b) Draw a-t and x-t graphs.
(take x0=0) t (s)
v0=0] 0
8
Second method: x=v0t+(1/2)at2 [Now v0=20m/s, t=1s]

Ex: A supertrain speeds up from v=10 m/s to v=20 m/s Ex: Draw a-t, v-t and x-t graphs assuming the car
as it moves 50m. speeds up and slows down uniformly. (x0=0)
a) Find acceleration
b) Find the time v=10m/s v=10m/s
v=0 v=0
Ex: A car moving at 72 km/h skids to rest leaving 25m t=0 t=5s t=8s t=12s
long brake trails.
a) Find acceleration
Ex: Explain the v
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b) Find the time.


motion of the object I
Ex: A car traveling at 40 m/s starts to decelerate at 4 {direction of motion
m/s2. How long and how far will it take it to stop? and increasing or II
decreasing speed} t
Ex: A cars slows down from 26 m/s to zero in 10s. III
What distance does it travel? [Use formula and v-t graph]

Ex: Maximum velocity and acceleration of a car are


given as 5 m/s2 and 180 km/h. Find maximum possible
displacement in 20 s. (v0=0) [v-t graph] Ex: v
a) Draw x-t graph.
Ex: A jet plane lands with a velocity 100 m/sand can (take x0=0) I
decelerate amax=-5 m/s2. b) Draw a-t graph II
a) How long does it take to stop after touching the t
runway?
b) What is the minimum length of the runway? [to III
prevent a disaster].

Ex: A car moving slows down from 40 m/s to 20 m/s


in 120m. In what distance will it stop? [if it keeps the Ex: Explain x
same acceleration.] the motion of
the object
Ex: An object moves according to the equation according to III
IV
V
x= 15+25t-4t2. Find a=? and v0=? the x-t graph
aside. II VI
Ex: A parked motorcycle police officer starts to I VII
accelerate at 2 m/s2, as a car passes at v=20 m/s
(const). t
a) Find the time to catch the car
b) Find the speed and displacement of the motorcycle
as it reaches the car.

Ex: What is the final velocity of an object after


accelerating at 0.5 m/s2 for a distance of 80 m if its
initial velocity is 10 m/s?
{Write the third formula as v2=v02+2ax}