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An Introduction to Air

Pollution
Chapter 8. Auxiliary Equipment:
Hoods, Ducts, and Fans

Ph.D
16th October 2012
Role of hoods in an industrial process
Performance assessment
Static pressure
Potential energy put into the system by the fan

Velocity pressure
Pressure arising from air flowing through the duct. This
is used to calculate velocity

Total pressure
Static pressure + velocity pressure

Total pressure remains constant unlike static and


velocity pressure
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Hood Operating Principles
Enclosing Hood
Canopy (Receptor) Hoods
Use and misuse of Canopy Hoods
Basic Air Flow Equations

Q=V*A

TP = SP + VP

V = 4005(VP/d)0.5
Hood Flow Rate Determination
For an enclosure capture velocity at the enclosed opening is the
exhaust flow rate divided by opening area
The capture velocity at a given point in front of the exterior
hood will be established by the hood air flow through the
geometric surface which contains the point
For a theoretical unbounded point suction source

Q = v * a = v * 4 * * x2 = 12.57 * v * x2
Where
Q = air flow into suction point, cfm
V = velocity at distance X, fpm
A = 4 * * X2 = area of sphere, ft2
X = radius of sphere, ft
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Hood Flow Rate Determination
For an unbounded line source
Q = v *2 * * x * l = 6.28 * v * x * l
Where
L = length of line source, ft
In general the equation used is
Q = v * (10 * x2 + a)
Where
Q = air flow, cfm
V = center line velocity at X distance from hood, fpm
X = distance outward along axis of flow in ft
A = area of hood opening, ft2
D = diameter of round hoods or side of essentially square hoods, ft
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Hood Losses
Entry losses occur due to formation of venacontracta at the
entrance of duct.
The hood entry loss represents the energy necessary to
overcome the loss as the air enters the duct.
The losses increase with increase in flow area.
Hoods with two or more points of loss are compound
hoods.
The basic equations used are (for simple hood)
SPh = hed + VPd
Where
SPh = hood static pressure, wg
hed = entry loss transition (Fh * VPd )
VPd = duct velocity pressure
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Hood Losses
For compound hoods:
SPh = (FS) (VPS) + (FD) (VPD) + VPD
This is when duct velocity is greater than slot velocity.
Where:
SPh = hood static pressure, wg
FS = entry loss factor for slot
VPS = slot velocity pressure, wg
FD = entry loss factor for duct
VPD = duct velocity pressure, wg
total hood loss = hood entry loss plus air acceleration loss
P (1.0 Fh )VPduct
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Designing a Canopy Hood over a
Hot Source
For a low, circular canopy hoods
Qt = 4.7 ( Dh)2.33 (T)0.42
Qt = total hood air flow, cfm
Dh = diameter of hood, ft
T = difference between temperature of the hot source, and the
ambient, F
For a low, rectangular canopy hoods
Qt = 6.2L ( W)1.33 (T)0.42
L = length of the hood, ft
W = width of hood, ft
Capturing Hoods
Hood has to generate sufficient airflow at and around the
source to capture and draw in the contaminant-laden air
Ducts
Bernoullis equation
2 2
P1 v1 P2 v2
w hf
2g c 2g c
= fluid density (ft3/lbm)
p = static pressuregauge (lbf/ft2)
z = height of fluid above some reference point (ft)
v = fluid velocity through duct, hood, etc. (ft/sec)
gc = gravitational constant (32.2 ([lbm-ft/sec2]/lbf)
= fan efficiency
w = work added by fan, etc. (ft-lbf/lbm)
hf = head loss due to friction (ft-lbf/lbm)
Ducts
Bernoullis equation
2 2
g/gc = P1 v P v
1 2 2 Hf
2g 2g
= specific weight of the fluid, lbf/ft3
g = gravitational acceleration, 32.2 ft/sec2
Hf = head loss due to friction, ft of fluid
2 2
fLv v
Hf Hf Kf
Dc 2 g 2g Kf = fitting loss factor
2
v
Hv
2g
Hv = velocity head of air, ft of air
The Pitot-static tube
Ducts
act
VPact VPstd
std

f 0.0001575QP
w

4A
Dh
P

act
Pact Pstd
std
Interchangeability of static and
velocity pressures in air systems

TP1 TP2 SP1 VP1 SP2 VP2 pressure loss


Fans
Primary air moving devices used in industrial
applications

Basic groups of fans are:


Axial fans
Centrifugal fans

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Fan Types
Air exits
with
centrifugal Rotation
force

Pressure
side

Axial Fan - Air is moved through the fan in an


Suction side
axial direction. High flow very low pressure
development.
Centrifugal Fan Operation
Fan Types
Air exits
with
centrifugal Rotation
force

Pressure
side

Backward Curved Centrifugal - Air enters


Suction side
the eye of the impeller drawn in by the
suction side of the blade. Less flow than
axial but more pressure development.
Fan Curve, Backward-Curved
Centrifugal Blade
TP=total pressure

SP=static pressure

TE=total efficiency

=QPtotal/Wshaft

SE=static efficiency

HP=horsepower
Fan Types
Forward Curved
Centrifugal - Generates more
air volume and higher static
pressure than backward curved
of the same size but at the
expense of lower efficiencies.
The scooping action of the
forward curved generates a
high air velocity which in turn
give a high dynamic pressure.
The fan scroll converts this
into static pressure.
Fan Types
Mixed Flow Fan - A compromise between
an axial and backward curved centrifugal.
Axial throughput but with the performance of
a backward curved.

Tangential Fan - These move air in a


strange manner. Air exits in a similar way to
a centrifugal fan but air enters the impeller
through the blades.
Comparison of each fan type
Fan Selection
Various factors effecting fan selection are:
Volume required (cfm)
Fan static pressure
Type of material handled
Explosive or inflammable material
Direct driven vs belt driven
Space limitations
Noise
Operating temperature
Efficiency
Corrosive applications

Fans 28
System Pressure Effects
Fan curves are typically given in terms of total pressure vs.
volumetric flow rate
A typical fan running at a fixed speed can provide a greater
volumetric flow rate for systems with smaller total
pressure drops (if were to the right of the peak in the fan
curve).
Total pressure loss=static pressure loss + dynamic pressure
loss
Ptotal Pin,static Pout ,static Vin2 Vout
1 2

2
If exit and inlet area of a duct are about the same, the
dynamic pressure loss (or gain) may be minimal.
Total pressure of fan

The total work a fan must do to move a specified volume of


air against the static pressure plus the velocity pressure is
defined as total pressure of the system
Rating Tables
FSP TPoutlet TP inlet VPoutlet

FSP ( SPoutlet VPoutlet ) ( SP inlet VPinlet ) VPoutlet

FSP SPoutlet SPinlet VPinlet

FSP Psuction side Pdischarge side VPinlet

Fans 31
Fan static pressure rise
System Resistance
Sum of static pressure losses in system
Increases with square of flow rate

Actual with
system
resistance

calculated

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Fan Laws
Fan data for geometrically similar fans can be
collapsed onto a single curve using
dimensionless numbers
Q=volumetric flow rate
D=fan diameter
N=fan rotational speed
FSP W=fan power
N 2 D 2 =fluid density
P=fan pressure rise
w
N 3 D5
Fan Laws
Example
Fan Operating Efficiency Evaluation
The parameters to be studied in detailed are:
Air /gas rates of fans / main ducts
Static pressure and dynamic pressure and total pressure
Power consumption of fan (for estimating the operating
efficiency of the fans)
Monitor present flow control system and frequency of
control valve operation if any (for application of variable speed
drives)

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Fan efficiency

k (P)Q

w

FSP1 1Q1
2
Fan Operating Efficiency Evaluation
Q in m3/ s x static pr. developed by fan in mmwc 102
Fan static kW =

Fan static kW x 100


Fan static efficiency % = Input kW to motor x m

Fan mechanical Efficiency % Fan total kW x 100 Input kW to


=
motor x m

Parameter Details Unit


Q Air flow rate m3/ s
Static pressure Difference between discharge & suction pressure mmwc
Fan static/ total kW Static / total power consumption of the fan kW
Input kW to motor Measured power consumption of the motor kW
m Efficiency of the motor at operating load
Total pressure Difference between discharge & suction pressure mmwc
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