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conf univ dr Roxana-Daniela Paun 1 conf univ dr Roxana-Daniela Paun 2

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conf univ dr Roxana-Daniela Paun 11 conf univ dr Roxana-Daniela Paun 12


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conf univ dr Roxana-Daniela Paun 21 conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 1

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conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 4 conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 5

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conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 8 conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 9

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conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 12 conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 13

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conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 14 conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 15
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conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 16 conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 17
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conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 18 conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 19
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conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 20 conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela Paun 21

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conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela conf univ dr Roxana- Daniela
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SXWHUQLFHFKLYDOHQWFXH[LVWHQDXQHLSR]LLL UHDOL]HD]SURILWXULVXSHULRDUHPHGLHL
dominante.
[1] &RQIRUP*ORVDUXOXLGHWHUPHQLIRORVLLvQ DGLFSURILWXULFDUHGHSHVFUHPXQHUDLD
3ROLWLFDGHFRQFXUHQD8($QWLWUXVWLFRQWUROXO QRUPDODFDSLWDOXOXL 
FRQFHQWUULORUUHDOL]DWGH'LUHFLD5HODLL
([WHUQHD&RQVLOLXOXL&RQFXUHQHLS

12 13
Monopolul: &RQFXUHQSRWHQLDO
([LVWILUPHFDUHSRWFRQVLGHUDFSUHXO
2VLWXDLHDQDORJvQGRPHQLXOFHUHULL unui produs de monopol este prea mare
SHDFHDSLDLSRWSWUXQGHSHDFHD
DGLFRSLDFXXQVLQJXUFXPSUWRU SLDFXXQSURGXVDVHPQWRU
HVWHGHQXPLWPRQRSVRQ DQDOL]DWvQ VXEVWLWXLELOFXXQSUHPXOWPDLPLFSULQ
DFHVWFDSLWROvQSDJLQLOHXUPWRDUH  FDUHVDWUDJFHUHUHDSHQWUXDFHOSURGXV
(clientela).
$VWIHOSXWHUHDGHSLDDPRQRSROXOXLV
ILHSXVvQSHULFRO

14 15

&RQFXUHQSRWHQLDO Oligopolul:
$FHVWHIRUPHGHDERUGDUHIDFVGLVSDURULV Oligopolul, IRUPDFRQFXUHQHLLPSHUIHFWH
GHWHULRUH]HSXWHUHDPRQRSROXOXLSHRDQXPLW UHSUH]LQWRVWUXFWXUGHSLDFDUDFWHUL]DW
SLDDXQXLDQXPLWSURGXVVDXVHUYLFLX printr-XQQXPUIRDUWHOLPLWDWGHYkQ]WRULPDUL
1RLOHILUPHvQFHDUFVVHUYHDVFSLDDFkWPDL FDUHDVLJXUFHDPDLPDUHSDUWHDRIHUWHLXQXL
bine. DQXPLWEXQVDXVHUYLFLXVROLFLWDWGHQXPHURL
&kWLJWRULHVHvQILQDOFRQVXPDWRUXOLDUILUPD FXPSUWRULVDXFRQVXPDWRULLFDUHVXQW
QRXDSUXWYDGHLQHSXWHUHDGHFXPSUDUHD FRQWLHQLGHLQWHUGHSHQGHQDORUvQDGRSWDUHD
DFHVWXLFRQVXPDWRUGDWHILLQGSUHXULOHPDLPLFL GHGHFL]LLVWUDWHJLFHSULYLWRDUHODSUHXOYROXPXO
IDGHILUPDPRQRSROLVW SURGXFLHLLFDOLWDWHDSURGXVHORUIDSWFDUHOH
FRQIHURSR]LLHGRPLQDQWFROHFWLY

16 17
Oligopolul: Oligopolul:
n interiorul unui oligopol, fiecare QFRQVHFLQILHFDUHvQWUHSULQGHUHVRFLHWDWHYD
vQWUHSULQGHUHILUPHVWHFRQWLHQWGH OXDvQFRQVLGHUDUHHYHQWXDOHOHUHDFLLDOH
IDSWXOFSULQFRPSRUWDPHQWXOVXGH FHORUODOLDFWRULGHSHSLDQFD]XULOHGH
FRQFXUHQROLJRSROXOHVWHXWLOL]DWDGHVHDL
SLDYDDIHFWDvQPRGVHQVLELOSHFHLODOL SHQWUXDGHVHPQDVLWXDLLOHvQFDUHXQPLF
YkQ]DWRULLFRPSRUWDPHQWXOORUSHSLD QXPUGHPDULYkQ]WRULGRPLQvPSUHXQ
&KLDUGDFQXRUHFXQRVFVFRSXOPXOWRU VWUXFWXUDFRQFXUHQLDOLvQFDUHFHLODOL
oameni de afaceri este de a elimina YkQ]WRULPDLPLFLVHDGDSWHD]OD
FRQFXUHQDLGHDVHLQVWDODOHDGHUGH FRPSRUWDPHQWXODFHVWRUD0DULLYkQ]WRULVXQW
SLDSHXQDQXPLWVHFWRUSURGXVVHUYLFLX FDOLILFDLDWXQFLFDROLJRSROLWL

18 19

Oligopolul: Oligopolul:
1XPUXOGHYkQ]WRULSUH]HQLSHSLD
QDQXPLWHFLUFXPVWDQHDFHDVWVLWXDLH este suficient de mic, iar puterea
SRDWHILFRQVLGHUDWFDSR]LLHGRPLQDQW HFRQRPLFDILHFUXLDGLQWUHHLHVWHGHVWXO
FROHFWLYVDXROLJRSROLVW&D]XOVLPLODU GHPDUHSHQWUXFDDFLXQLOHvQWUHSULQVHGH
GLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHDOFXPSUWRULORUVH ILHFDUHILUPOXDWVHSDUDWVDLEXQ
QXPHWHROLJRSVRQ DQDOL]DWvQFRQWLQXDUH LPSDFWVHPQLILFDWLYDVXSUDFRQGLLLORU
GXSPRQRSVRQ  generale de vnzare-FXPSUDUHGHSH
SLDDEXQXOXLVDXVHUYLFLXOXLUHVSHFWLY

20 21
2OLJRSROXOVHFDUDFWHUL]HD]
Oligopolul:
prin:
QXPUXOUHGXVGH HVWHRIRUPPDLPXOW ntr-XQROLJRSROILHFDUHSURGXFWRUVDXYkQ]WRU
SURGXFWRULSUH]HQLSH FDUDFWHULVWLFULORU FXQRDWHIRDUWHELQHSURFHQWXOSHFDUHvOGHLQHGLQSLDD
SLDGDUFDUHDXRIRU produsului sau a serviciului respectiv
HFRQRPLFPDUH6H
dezvoltate
RULFHPRGLILFDUHDSUHXOXLVDXDYROXPXOXLSURGXFLHLGH
FRQVLGHUROLJRSROGDF este foarte clar FWUHXQDGLQILUPHOHROLJRSROLVWHHVWHUHIOHFWDWvQ
SHSLDH[LVWFHOSXLQ HYLGHQLDW YROXPXOGHYkQ]ULDOFHORUODOWH
WUHLSURGXFWRUL'DF GLIHUHQLHUHD H[LVWWHQGLQDFDJUDGXOGHLQWHUGHSHQGHQvQWUHILUPH
sunt doar doi sau unul, se PUIXULORU VILHIRDUWHPDUH
FRQVLGHUFH[LVWXQ
duopol sau un monopol. SURGXFWRULLGHLQXQ $VWIHOILHFDUHILUPWUHEXLHV-LVWDELOHDVFSUHXOL
oarecare grad de SURGXFLDvQIXQFLHGHUHDFLDFHORUODOWHILUPHGLQ
H[LVWEDULHUHODLQWUDUHD oligopol,
SHSLDvQFDOLWDWHGH FRQWURODOSUHXULORU
SURGXFWRU 2GDWVWDELOLWHSUHXULOHvQWU-un oligopol sunt rigide

22 23

3LHHROLJRSROLVWH Termenul "oligopol"


3LHHROLJRSROLVWH SLHHOHSURGXFLHL HVWHXWLOL]DWSHQWUXDGHVHPQDVLWXDLLOHvQ
FDUHXQPLFQXPUGHPDULYkQ]WRUL
siderurgice, ale automobilelor, ale
GRPLQvPSUHXQVWUXFWXUDFRQFXUHQLDO
PDLQLORULHFKLSDPHQWHORUGHVWLQDWH LvQFDUHFHLODOLYkQ]WRULPDLPLFLVH
HQHUJHWLFLLLLQGXVWULHLFKLPLFH DGDSWHD]ODFRPSRUWDPHQWXODFHVWRUD
FRPSOH[LWDWHDXWLODMHORULWHKQRORJLLORU 0DULLYkQ]WRULVXQWFDOLILFDLDWXQFLFD
ROLJRSROLWL
QXSHUPLWDSDULLDPDLPXOWRUILUPH
Cazul similar, din punct de vedere al
mici. FXPSUWRULORUVHQXPHWHROLJRSVRQ

24 25
Termenul "oligopol" Oligopolul maximizat= cartel
/DSUREOHPHOHvQWUHSULQ]WRULORU )RUPDPD[LPGHvQHOHJHUHFHDFDUH
PD[LPL]HD]EHQHILFLLOHROLJRSROLWLORUHVWH
ROLJRSROLWLV-DXJVLWGRXWLSXULGH cartelul[1]XQDFRUGvQWUHWRLSURGXFWRULL
VROXLLFXVDXIUDFRUGXOSULORU LQGXVWULHLFDUHSRDWHDYHDXUPWRDUHOHIRUPH
Acordul poate fi definit ca fiind orice
[1] Cartelul este analizat ulterior n capitolul 10,
contract care restrnge lupta
XQGHVXQWSUH]HQWDWHLH[HPSOHGHFDUWHOXUL
FRQFXUHQLDOvQWUHFRPSDQLL VDQFLRQDWHGH&RQVLOLXO&RQFXUHQHL

26 27

Formele cartelului: Monopson


FRQFXUHQIUSUHXUL: fiecare companie Monopson HWLPRORJLFYLQHGLQJUHDF-
vQFHDUFVvPEXQWHDVFFDOLWDWHD monos = singur + opsnein = a se
prezentarea sau orice alt factor, dar DSURYL]LRQDSULQIUDQFH]monopsone).
UHVSHFWkQGSUHXOVWDELOLWGHFRPXQDFRUG Este un termen economic care
vPSULUHDFRWHORU-SULVDXDSLHHORU: GHVHPQHD]RVWUXFWXUDSLHHLFX
ILHFUHLvQWUHSULQGHULLVHGLVWULEXLHR]RQ FRQFXUHQLPSHUIHFWvQFDGUXOFUHLD
XQGHSRDWHVYkQGLVHIL[HD]R H[LVWXQVLQJXUFXPSUWRUSHQWUXXQ
SURGXFLHPD[LPFDUHQXSRDWHIL DQXPLWEXQLPXOLYkQ]WRULSHQWUXDFHO
GHSLW bun.

28 29
Monopson Monopson
&RQFUHWRILUPVDXvQWUHSULQGHUHXQLF 3HQWUXDSXWHDILvQFDGUDWFDPRQRSVRQ
FXPSUFHDPDLPDUHSDUWHDXQHLDQXPLWH UHVSHFWLYDVRFLHWDWHFRPHUFLDOWUHEXLHV
PUILVDXDXQXLDQXPLWEXQPDUIFDUHHVWH QXILHFRQFXUDWGHDOLFXPSUWRUL
IXUQL]DWGHPDLPXOLSURGXFWRULVDXRIHUWDQL DXWRKWRQLVDXVWULQLSURGXVXOWUHEXLHV
8QPRQRSVRQHVWHIRUPDH[WUHPDXQXL ILHRPRJHQLVQXSRDWILVXEVWLWXLWFHO
ROLJRSVRQFDUHGLQSHUVSHFWLYDFHUHULLVWDELOHWH SXLQSHQWUXRSHULRDGGHWLPS6LWXDLLOH
SUHXOSHSLDGHRDUHFHILLQGVLQJXUDFHVWD vQFDUHXQQXPUPDUHGHRIHUWDQLVH
SRDWHLPSXQHFRQGLLLOHFDUHV-i defavorizeze FRQIUXQWFXXQVLQJXUFXPSUWRUHVWH
SHSURGXFWRULVDXYkQ]WRUL X]XDOSHQWUXSURGXFWRULLGHHFKLSDPHQWH
militare, nave, avioane etc.
30 31

Monopson si concurenta Clasificarea monopsonului:


monopson productivFDUHFXPSUIRUDGHPXQFOD
SUHGHPRQRSVRQLYLQGHEXQXULOHRELQXWHODSUHGH
0RQRSVRQXODQXOHD]FRQFXUHQD FRQFXUHQSHUIHFW
HFRQRPLFvQVIHUDFHUHULLGDURPHQLQHvQ $FHDVWVLWXDLHVHSRDWHSURGXFHDWkWvQFD]XOH[LVWHQHL
SHSLDDXQXLVLQJXUFXPSUWRUGHIRUGHPXQF
sfera ofertei (diametral opus comparativ cu FDUHFRQWUROHD]SLDDPXQFLLODQLYHOXOXQHL]RQHVDX
monopolul). SHQWUXRRFXSDLHGDWFkWLDWXQFLFkQGOXFUWRULLDX
SHUFHSLLGLIHULWHSULYLQGILUPHOHFDUHRIHUORFXULGH
PXQFvQOHJWXUFXDVSHFWHQRQ-VDODULDOHDOHDQJDMULL
SUR[LPLWDWHFOLPDWXOGHPXQFHWF 
monopson comercialFDUHFXPSUEXQXULOHODSUHGH
PRQRSVRQLOHYLQGHODSUHGHFRQFXUHQSHUIHFW

32 33
Monopsonul apare ca rezultat al OLIGOPSON:

VSHFLDOL]ULL extreme. Oligopson este un termen care


GHVHPQHD]RIRUPDSLHHLFX
VLQGLFDOL]ULL (ndeosebi pe FRQFXUHQLPSHUIHFWvQFDGUXOFUHLDXQ
SLDDIRUHLGHPXQFGDULvQ QXPUPLFGHILUPHPDULFXPSUFHDPDL
PDUHSDUWHDXQHLDQXPLWHPUILPDUI
domeniul creditului bancar sau FDUHHVWHIXUQL]DWGHPDLPXOL
n alte domenii). SURGXFWRULVDXRIHUWDQL

34 35

OLIGOPSON: OLIGOPSON:
2OLJRSVRQXO SLDDSHFDUHXQQXPUUHGXV
1XPUXOGHVROLFLWDQLHVWHVXILFLHQWGH GHFXPSUWRULFRQWUROHD]SXWHUHDGH
mic, FXPSUDUH
SXWHUHDORUHFRQRPLFHVWHVXILFLHQWGH GLFWHD]SURGXFLDLSUHXOGHSLDDOXQXL
PDUHSHQWUXFDDFLXQHDvQWUHSULQVGH anumit produs sau serviciu.
ILHFDUHILUPFXPSUWRDUHOXDWVHSDUDW ntr-XQROLJRSVRQSUHXULOHWLQGVILHPDLPLFL
VDLEXQLPSDFWVHPQLILFDWLYDVXSUD dect ntr-RSLDOLEHUFRQFXUHQLDODDFXP
FRQGLLLORUJHQHUDOHGHFXPSUDUH-vnzare SUHXULOHvQWU-XQROLJRSROWLQGVILHPDLPDUL
GHSHSLDDPUILLUHVSHFWLYH Practic, un oligopson este inversul unui
oligopol.
36 37
([HPSOXGHFRQFXUHQSHUIHFW
&RQFXUHQDQHORLDO
?
&RQFXUHQDHVWHQHORLDODWXQFLFkQG 6HVSXQHFDJULFXOWXUDFXXQQXPU
DFWLYLWDWHDFRPHUFLDQWXOXLVHUHDOL]HD] PDUHGHRIHUWDQLRFHUHUHUHODWLY
prin folosirea de procedee nelegale, LQHODVWLFLSURGXVHDSURDSHSHUIHFW
FRQWUDUHX]DQHORUFRPHUFLDOHUHVSHFWLY substituibile, este o aproximare a
unei conduite morale n afaceri.
PRGHOXOXLFRQFXUHQHLSHUIHFWH
Etica n afaceri dezbate inclusiv
FRPSRUWDPHQWHOHDJHQLORUHFRQRPLFL $FHVWOXFUXSRDWHILDGHYUDWvQDQXPLWH
operatorilor economici, n materie de ORFXULLSHULRDGHLVWRULFHGDUQXHVWH
FRQFXUHQ DGHYUDWvQFD]XOHFRQRPLLORUPRGHUQH

38 39

([HPSOXGHFRQFXUHQSHUIHFW
?
3HSLDDJOREDODDJULFXOWXULLDJULFXOWRULORU
HXURSHQLVDXDPHULFDQLOLVHRIHU
VXEYHQLLLDUDFHWLDvLH[SRUWSURGXVHOH )RQGXOGHFRPHU
ODSUHXULGHGXPSLQJSUHXULVXEFRVWXULOH
GHSURGXFLH
2ULFHIRUPGHLQWHUYHQLH Subiectele dreptului concurenei-
JXYHUQDPHQWDOFXPDUILVXEYHQLLOH SHUVRDQHIL]LFHLMXULGLFH
GHIRUPHD]SLDDFHHDFHGXFHOD
GLVSDULLDFRQFXUHQHLSHUIHFWH

40 1
)RQGXOGHFRPHUvQDOWHDFWHQRUPDWLYH

)RQGXOGHFRPHU- &RQVLGHUDLLJHQHUDOH
-DUWOLWD /HJHDQUSULYLQGUHJLVWUXO
FRPHUXOXLUHSXEOLFDW
([SUHVLDIRQGGHFRPHUHVWHUDUXWLOL]DWvQGUHSWXO
- DUWDOLQ  /HJHDQUSULYLQGXQHOH
URPkQLGUHSWXOIUDQFH] ,
PVXULSHQWUXDFFHOHUDUHDUHIRUPHLHFRQRPLFH
)RQGXOGHFRPHUDUHUROLPSRUWDQWvQGHVIXUDUHD 79,5HJLPXOMXULGLFDOJDUDQLLORUUHDOHPRELOLDUH
DFWLYLWLLFRPHUFLDOHvQIXQFLHGHRELHFWXOFRPHUXOXL - DUWOLWF /HJHDSHQWUXPRGLILFDUHD
poate fi reprezentat de bunuri- PRELOLHUORFDOPUIXUL LFRPSOHWDUHD/HJLLQUSULYLQG
LQVWDODLLEUHYHWHGHLQYHQLLHWF FRPEDWHUHDFRQFXUHQHLQHORLDOH
&&RPQXFXSULQGHGLVSR]LLLFDUHVUHJOHPHQWH]H - vQDFWHQRUPDWLYHFDUHUHJOHPHQWHD]DFWLYLWDWHD
UHJLPXOVXMXULGLF &&RPFRQLQHRUHIHULUHODIRQGXO FRQWDELOVHXWLOL]HD]H[SUHVLDIRQGGHFRPHU
GHFRPHUvQDUW&RG&RPHUFLDO ) stabilindu-LFRQLQXWXOSULQDSUHFLHUHDFHVWHR
SDUWHDIRQGXOXLFRPHUFLDO
2 3

,PSRUWDQDFXQRDWHULLFDUDFWHUXOXL 'HILQLLDIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU
IRQGXOXLGHFRPHU
$QVDPEOXGHEXQXULPRELOHLLPRELOHFRUSRUDOHL
- pentru comerciant- pentru a-LDVLJXUDSURWHFLD LQFRUSRUDOHDIHFWDWHGHFWUHFRPHUFLDQW
EXQXULORUSHFDUHOHXWLOL]HD]vQDFWLYLWDWHD GHVIXUULLXQHLDFWLYLWLFRPHUFLDOHFXVFRSXO
DWUDJHULLFOLHQWHOHLLRELQHULLXQXLSURILWGLQ
FRPHUFLDOGHDIDFHUL
DFWLYLWDWHDGHVIXUDW
- SHQWUXSURWHMDUHDLQWHUHVHORUFUHGLWRULORU 'HILQLLDFI/HJLLQUSHQWUXPRGLILFDUHD
FRPHUFLDQWXOXL LFRPSOHWDUHD/HJLLQUSULYLQG
5HFXQRDWHUHDIRQGXOXLGHFRPHUHVWH FRPEDWHUHDFRQFXUHQHLQHORLDOHDUWOLWF 
LPSRUWDQWSULQSULVPDEXQXULORUFDHOHPHQWH FRQVWLWXLHIRQGGHFRPHUDQVDPEOXOEXQXULORU
active ale patrimoniului comerciantului, bunuri PRELOHLLPRELOHFRUSRUDOHLQHFRUSRUDOH
GHVWLQDWHDFWLYLWLLFRPHUFLDOH PUFLILUPHHPEOHPHEUHYHWHGHLQYHQLL
YDGFRPHUFLDO XWLOL]DWHGHXQFRPHUFLDQWvQ
YHGHUHDGHVIXUULLDFWLYLWLLVDOH
4 5
'HOLPLWDUHDQRLXQLLGHIRQGGHFRPHU 'HOLPLWDUHDQRLXQLLGHIRQGGHFRPHU
GHDOWHQRLXQLvQYHFLQDWH GHDOWHQRLXQLvQYHFLQDWH
a) QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVH d) QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVH
GHOLPLWHD]GHQRLXQHDGHPDJD]LQ GHOLPLWHD]GHQRLXQHDGH
E QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVH vQWUHSULQGHUH
GHOLPLWHD]GHQRLXQHDGHFOLHQWHO H QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVH

F QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVH GHOLPLWHD]GHQRLXQHDGHVRFLHWDWH
GHOLPLWHD]GHQRLXQHDGHLPRELOvQ FRPHUFLDO
FDUHvLGHVIRDUDFWLYLWDWHD I QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVH
GHOLPLWHD]GHQRLXQHDGHVXFXUVDO
6 7

c) QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVHGHOLPLWHD]
'HOLPLWDUHDQRLXQLLGHIRQGGHFRPHU GHQRLXQHDGHLPRELOvQFDUHvLGHVIRDU
GHDOWHQRLXQLvQYHFLQDWH DFWLYLWDWHD

a) QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVHGHOLPLWHD]GH ,PRELOXOLIRQGXOGHFRPHUQXDSDULQvQWRGHDXQD
QRLXQHDGHPDJD]LQ DFHOHDLSHUVRDQH
IRQGGHFRPHU SRDWHFXSULQGHRX]LQXQELURX IRQGXOGHFRPHU DUHRQDWXUPRELOLDU
XQPDJD]LQDPSODVDWSHVSDLLvQWLQVH LPRELOXO HVWHH[FOXVGLQVIHUDGHUHJOHPHQWDUHD
PDJD]LQ HVWHVSHFLILFFRPHUXOXLHQGHWDLO dreptului comercial
b) QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVHGHOLPLWHD]GH 'DFLPRELOXOLIRQGXOGHFRPHUDXDFHHDL
QRLXQHDGHFOLHQWHO GHVWLQDLHUHVSHFWLYDIHFWDUHDORUXQXLVFRS
FOLHQWHOD HVWHRFRPSRQHQWDQRLXQLLGHYDG HFRQRPLFOXFUDWLYGHOLPLWDUHDWUDGLLRQDOIFXWGH
FRPHUFLDOFDUHVHUHIOHFWvQFLIUDGHDIDFHULD &RGXOFLYLOvQEXQXULPRELOHLLPRELOHSDUHDIL
FRPHUFLDQWXOXL GHSLW

8 9
'HOLPLWDUHDQRLXQLLGHIRQGGHFRPHU
e) QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVHGHOLPLWHD]
GHDOWHQRLXQLvQYHFLQDWH
GHQRLXQHDGHVRFLHWDWHFRPHUFLDO-
d) QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVHGHOLPLWHD]
GHQRLXQHDGHvQWUHSULQGHUHcare este mult VRFLHWDWHD XQFRQFHSWMXULGLFVRFLHWDWHD
PDLYDVW1RLXQHDGHvQWUHSULQGHUHHVWHDQDOL]DW FRPHUFLDOHVWHRSHUVRDQMXULGLFXQVXELHFWGH
GHFWUHWLLQHOHSXUHFRQRPLFHLGHGUHSWXO GUHSW
PXQFLLvQWUHSULQGHUHD IRQGXOGHFRPHUHIRUPDWGLQWU-un ansamblu de
QXVHOLPLWHD]QXPDLODDFWLYLWLOHFRPHUFLDOHH[LVWL EXQXULFDUHDSDULQXQHLVRFLHWLFRPHUFLDOH
SURIHVLXQLOLEHUDOHvQWUHSULQGHULFLYLOHDJULFROHGH
DUWL]DQDWHWF &RQFOX]LH vQWUHIRQGXOGHFRPHULVRFLHWDWHD
SRDWHILXQVXELHFWGHGUHSWDUHSHUVRQDOLWDWHMXULGLF FRPHUFLDOH[LVWROHJWXUMXULGLFWUDGLLRQDO
IRQGXOGHFRPHUHVWHOLSVLWGHDXWRQRPLHSDWULPRQLDO OHJWXUDGLQWUHSHUVRDQLEXQXUL)RQGXOGH
FRQLQHHOHPHQWHPDWHULDOHLXPDQHJUXSDWHRUJDQL]DWH FRPHUHVWHXQHOHPHQWDOSDWULPRQLXOXLVRFLHWLL
GHFRPHUFLDQW IRQGXOGHFRPHUQXLQFOXGHLIDFWRUXO FRPHUFLDOH FDUHUHXQHWHLDOWHYDORULGHDFWLYGH
uman) SDVLYLvQSDUWLFXODUEXQXULLPRELOH
10 11

'HOLPLWDUHDQRLXQLLGHIRQGGHFRPHU
7UVWXULOHGHILQLWRULLDOHVXFXUVDOHL
GHDOWHQRLXQLvQYHFLQDWH
f) QRLXQHDGHIRQGGHFRPHUVH DEVHQDSHUVRQDOLWLLMXULGLFH
GHOLPLWHD]GHQRLXQHDGHVXFXUVDO DXWRQRPLDGHJHVWLXQH
7HUPHQXOGHVXFXUVDOQXDIRVWGHILQLWGHFkW
$YDQWDMHOHHFRQRPLFHDOHVXFXUVDOHLFRQVWDXvQ
GHMXULVSUXGHQGHLHVWHGHVXWLOL]DWvQ IDSWXOFDFHDVWDDUHGUHSWXOVGLVSXQGH
GUHSWXODIDFHULORU LQVWDODLLSHUPDQHQWHLWUHEXLHVILHFRQGXVGH
7RWXLVXFXUVDOHOHVXQWGHILQLWHGHDUWGLQ RSHUVRDQFDUHDUHSXWHUHDGHDWUDWDFXWHUH
OHJHDSULYLQGVRFLHWLOHFRPHUFLDOH SHUVRDQHLGHDDQJDMDVRFLHWDWHDvQDFHVWH
UHSXEOLFDWFXPRGLILFULOHLFRPSOHWULOH UHODLL
ulterioare
12 13
(IHFWXODFHVWRUWUVWXULGHILQLWRULL
(OHPHQWHOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU-
DOHVXFXUVDOHL
GLVSXQGHFOLHQWHOSURSULH GDWRUDW (OHPHQWHFRUSRUDOHDOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU
DXWRQRPLHLGHJHVWLXQH LDXIRQGGHFRPHU bunuri imobile prin natura lor- H[FOGLULOH
GLVWLQFWGHFHODOvQWUHSULQGHULL LPRELOHSULQGHVWLQDLDORU- H[LQVWDODLLXWLODMH
WULEXQDOHOHDXFRPSHWHQDGHDVROXLRQDOLWLJLLOH PDLQL
FDUHDSDULQVXFXUVDOHORU * bunuri mobile corporale- H[-materii
prime, materiale destinate a fi prelucrate
VXFXUVDOHOHWUHEXLHVVHvQPDWULFXOH]HvQ
-SURGXVHOH PUIXULOH UH]XOWDWHGLQ
UHJLVWUXOFRPHUXOXL DFWLYLWDWHDFRPHUFLDO
(OHPHQWHLQFRUSRUDOHDOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU
14 15

Elemente incorporale ale fondului de


Firma
FRPHU
SULYHVFGUHSWXULSULYDWLYHFDUHFRQIHU )LUPDVDXILUPDFRPHUFLDOeste un element
comerciantului dreptul exclusiv de a le exploata GHLQGLYLGXDOL]DUHDFRPHUFLDQWXOXLvQVIHUD
vQIRORVXOVXvQFRQGLLLOHVWDELOLWHGHOHJH DFWLYLWLLFRPHUFLDOH
firma, emblema, clientela, vadul comercial, 5HJLPXOMXULGLFDOILUPHORUFRPHUFLDOHHVWH
EUHYHWHOHGHLQYHQLLPUFLOHLLQGLFDLLORU UHJOHPHQWDWGH/JSULYLQGUHJLVWUXO
JHRJUDILFHGUHSWXOGHDXWRU FRPHUXOXLFDSUHJLPXOILUPHORUL
emblemelor

16 17
Firma )LUPDXQXLFRPHUFLDQWSHUVRDQMXULGLF
)LUPDHVWHQXPHOHVDXGXSFD]GHQXPLUHDVXEFDUH DUHFRQLQXWGLIHULWvQIXQFLHGHIRUPDMXULGLFD
XQFRPHUFLDQWvLH[HUFLWFRPHUXOLVXEFDUH VRFLHWLLFRPHUFLDOH- DUW-
&DUDFWHUHOHILUPHL
VHPQHD]
- DWULEXWGHLGHQWLILFDUHDFRPHUFLDQWXOXL
/HJHDGLVWLQJHvQWUHILUPDFRPHUFLDQWXOXLSHUVRDQ
- ILUPDSRDWHIL- LQGLYLGXDO- SHQWUXFRPHUFLDQWXO
IL]LFLMXULGLFDUW/JSULYLQGUHJLVWUXO SHUVRDQIL]LF
FRPHUXOXL - VRFLDO- SHQWUXVRFLHWLOH
)LUPDXQXLFRPHUFLDQWSHUVRDQIL]LF, se comerciale
FRPSXQHGLQQXPHOHFRPHUFLDQWXOXLVFULVvQvQWUHJLPH - RULJLQDU FRQVWLWXWLY
VDXGLQQXPHOHLLQLLDODSUHQXPHOXLDFHVWXLD - GHULYDW GREkQGLWGHODDGHYUDWXO
WLWXODU

18 19

1DWXUDMXULGLFDIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU
&RQFOX]LLSULYLQGIRQGXOGHFRPHU
7HRULL
)RQGXOGHFRPHUFDHQWLWDWHGHVLQH 7HRULDSHUVRQLILFULLIRQGXOXLGH
VWWWRDUHVHSRDWHUHJVLGLQSXQFWGH FRPHU
YHGHUHQRLRQDOvQFDGUXOvQWUHSULQGHULL 7HRULDXQLYHUVDOLWLLGHGUHSW
VRFLHWLLVXFXUVDOHLILLQGXQHOHPHQW 7HRULDXQLYHUVDOLWLLGHIDSW-
FRPXQSHQWUXDFHVWHDGDUIUVVH
7HRULDSDWULPRQLXOXLGHDIHFWDLXQH
FRQIXQGHFXQLFLXQDGLQHOH
7HRULDSURSULHWLLLQFRUSRUDOH

20 21
&DUDFWHULVWLFLOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU &DUDFWHULVWLFLOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU

EXQXQLWDU PRELOPRELOLQFRUSRUDO EXQPRELOVXSXVUHJLPXOXLMXULGLFDO


EXQXQLWDUGLVWLQFWGHHOHPHQWHOHFDUHvO EXQXULORUPRELOH H[HFXWDUHDVLOLWDIRQGXOXL
compun SRDWHIDFHRELHFWXOXQHLYkQ]UL GHFRPHUXUPHD]SURFHGXUDDSOLFDELO
ORFDLXQLJDUDQLLUHDOHLPRELOLDUH$FHVW bunurilor mobile conform Codului de
FDUDFWHUQXvQOWXULQGLYLGXDOLWDWHD SURFHGXUFLYLO QDEVHQDGLVSR]LLLORU
HOHPHQWHORUFRPSRQHQWHFDUHvLSVWUHD] OHJDOHvQPDWHULHGDFIRQGXOGHFRPHU
UHJLPXOORUMXULGLF FXSULQGHLEXQXULLPRELOHXUPULHDORUVH
UHDOL]HD]vQFRQGLLLOHSUHY]XWHGHOHJH
SHQWUXH[HFXWDUHDVLOLWDEXQXULORULPRELOH
22 23

&DUDFWHULVWLFLOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU (OHPHQWHOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU-
(OHPHQWHFRUSRUDOHDOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU
EXQPRELOLQFRUSRUDO- IRQGXOGHFRPHU
EXQXULOHLPRELOHLPRELOHFRUSRUDOH
GHLHVWHXQEXQPRELOLQFRUSRUDO poate
* bunuri imobile prin natura lor- H[FOGLULOHLPRELOH
face obiectul unui drept de uzufruct, i se SULQGHVWLQDLDORU- H[LQVWDODLLXWLODMHPDLQL
DSOLFWHRULDDFFHVLXQLLQXLVHDSOLF * bunuri mobile corporale- H[

SUHVFULSLDLQVWDQWDQHHUHJOHPHQWDWGHDUW -materii prime, materiale destinate a fi


prelucrate
&RGFLYLO
-SURGXVHOH PI UH]XOWDWHGLQDFWLYLWDWHD
FRPHUFLDO
(OHPHQWHLQFRUSRUDOHDOHIRQGXOXLGHFRPHU

24 25
Elemente incorporale ale fondului de 6XELHFLDLUDSRUWXOXLMXULGLFGH
FRPHU concuren
3ULYHVFGUHSWXULSULYDWLYHFDUHFRQIHU Statul
comerciantului dreptul exclusiv de a le 3URIHVLRQLVWXO 3HUVRDQDIL]LF3HUVRDQD
H[SORDWDvQIRORVXOVXvQFRQGLLLOH MXULGLF
VWDELOLWHGHOHJHILUPDHPEOHPDFOLHQWHOD Operatorii economici
YDGXOFRPHUFLDOEUHYHWHOHGHLQYHQLL
Consumatorul
PUFLOHLLQGLFDLLORUJHRJUDILFHGUHSWXOGH
DXWRU

26 27

Persoana IL]LF- &RPHUFLDQWXOSHUVRDQIL]LF 


persoana IL]LF DXWRUL]DW comerciantul DJHQW 3HUVRDQHOHIL]LFHFDUHVYkUHVFIDSWHGH
permanent, DVRFLDLD IDPLOLDO FRPHUDXFDOLWDWHDGHFRPHUFLDQW
1X sunt FRPHUFLDQL auxiliarii de FRPHU $FWLYLWDWHDFRPHUFLDQWXOXLSHUVRDQIL]LF
SUHSXVXO YkQ]WRUXO comis-YRLDMRUXO), HVWHUHJOHPHQWDWGH/HJHDQU
deoarece actele de FRPHU vQFKHLDWH de SULYLQGDXWRUL]DUHDSHUVRDQHORUIL]LFHLD
DFHWLD nu sunt vQFKHLDWH vQ nume propriu, DVRFLDLLORUIDPLOLDOHFDUHGHVIRDU
ci vQ numele L pe seama comerciantului la DFWLYLWLHFRQRPLFHvQPRGLQGHSHQGHQW
care sunt DQJDMDL sau la care OXFUHD]

28 29
&RPHUFLDQWXOSHUVRDQIL]LF  &RPHUFLDQWXOSHUVRDQIL]LF 
$UW3HUVRDQHOHIL]LFHFHWHQLURPkQLVDXFHWHQL $VRFLDLDIDPLOLDOHVWHRIRUPDVRFLDWLY
VWULQLFDUHSURYLQGLQVWDWHOHPHPEUHDOH8QLXQLL OLSVLWGHSHVRQDOLWDWHMXULGLFFDUHVHSRDWH
(XURSHQHLGLQVWDWHOHDSDULQkQG6SDLXOXL(FRQRPLF vQILLQDODLQLLDWLYDXQHLSHUVRDQHIL]LFHLVH
European, SRWGHVIXUDDFWLYLWLHFRQRPLFHSH
WHULWRULXO5RPkQLHLvQPRGLQGHSHQGHQWVDXSRW FRQVWLWXLHGLQPHPEULLGHIDPLOLHDLDFHVWHLDvQ
FRQVWLWXLDVRFLDLLIDPLOLDOHvQFRQGLLLOHSUHY]XWH WHPHLXODFHOXLDLDFWQRUPDWLY6XQWFRQVLGHUDL
GHSUH]HQWDOHJH PHPEULLXQHLIDPLOLLvQVHQVXOSUH]HQWHLOHJL
3HUVRDQHOHIL]LFHLDVRFLDLLOHIDPLOLDOHSRWILDXWRUL]DWH VRXOVRLDLFRSLLLDFHVWRUDFDUHDXvPSOLQLW
VGHVIRDUHDFWLYLWLHFRQRPLFHvQWRDWHGRPHQLLOH YkUVWDGHDQLODGDWDDXWRUL]ULLDVRFLDLHL
PHVHULLOHLRFXSDLLOHFXH[FHSLDFHORUUHJOHPHQWDWH IDPLOLDOHSUHFXPLUXGHOHDFHVWRUDSkQOD
SULQOHJLVSHFLDOH JUDGXODOSDWUXOHDLQFOXVLY
30 31

&RPHUFLDQWXOSHUVRDQIL]LF  Persoana MXULGLF-


3HQWUXDGHVIXUDRDFWLYLWDWHHFRQRPLF &RQVWLWXLW din
vQPRGLQGHSHQGHQWSHUVRDQDIL]LFL VRFLHWLOH comerciale,
DVRFLDLDIDPLOLDOWUHEXLHVGHLQ UHJLLOH autonome,
DXWRUL]DLHDGPLQLVWUDWLYLFHUWLILFDWXOGH
RUJDQL]DLLOH cooperatiste,
vQUHJLVWUDUHHOLEHUDWHvQFRQGLLLOH/HJLLQU
 Jrupurile de interes economic.

32 33
&RPHUFLDQWXOSHUVRDQMXULGLF 
&RPHUFLDQWXOSHUVRDQMXULGLF 
6RFLHWDWHDFRPHUFLDOFXSULQGHVRFLHWLOH
FRQVWLWXLWHFRQIRUPOHJLLLSHFHOHFX 5HJLDDXWRQRP[1] DOXDWILLQSULQ
FDSLWDOGHVWDWvQILLQDWHvQED]DOHJLLILLQG UHRUJDQL]DUHDXQLWLORUHFRQRPLFHGHVWDWvQ
DQDOL]DWGHWDOLDWvQWU-XQFDSLWROGLVWLQFW8QHOH WHPHLXOOHJLLQUvQUDPXULVWUDWHJLFHDOH
VRFLHWLFRPHUFLDOHFXFDSLWDOGHVWDWFDUHDXFD
RELHFWDFWLYLWLGHLQWHUHVSXEOLFQDLRQDOVXQW
HFRQRPLHLQDLRQDOHLGHVIRDURDFWLYLWDWH
GHQXPLWHFRPSDQLLQDLRQDOHVDXVRFLHWL FRPSDUDELOFXFHDDVRFLHWLORUFRPHUFLDOH
QDLRQDOH[1] ILLQGSHUVRDQHMXULGLFHFDUHIXQFLRQHD]SHED]
[1] &RQIRUPDUWDOLQ  5HJLLOHDXWRQRPHFDUH GHJHVWLXQHHFRQRPLFLDXWRQRPLHILQDQFLDU
SUHVWHD]VHUYLFLLGHXWLOLWDWHSXEOLFSUHFXPL >@ $VHYHGHD28*QUSULYLQG
UHJLLOHDXWRQRPHGLQDOWHGRPHQLLGHDFWLYLWDWH UHRUJDQL]DUHDUHJLLORUDXWRQRPHFXPRGLILFULOH
FDUHvQUHJLVWUHD]SLHUGHULVHLQFOXGFXSULRULWDWH LFRPSOHWULOHXOWHULRDUH
vQSURJUDPHOHGHUHRUJDQL]DUHvQFRQIRUPLWDWHFX
SUHYHGHULOHSUH]HQWHLRUGRQDQHGHXUJHQ 34 35

&RPHUFLDQWXOSHUVRDQMXULGLF  
&RPHUFLDQWXOSHUVRDQMXULGLF 
*UXSXULOHGHLQWHUHVHFRQRPLF *,( 
2UJDQL]DLLOHFRRSHUDWLVWHcare 5HSUH]LQWRIRUPDVRFLDWLYDOFUHLVFRSHVWH
GHVIRDUDFWLYLWLGHSURGXFHUHL vQOHVQLUHDVDXGH]YROWDUHDDFWLYLWLLHFRQRPLFHD
GHVIDFHUHGHPUIXULLSUHVWULGHVHUYLFLL PHPEULORUVLSUHFXPLvPEXQWLUHD
UH]XOWDWHORUDFWLYLWLLUHVSHFWLYH
2UJDQL]DLLOHFRRSHUDWLVWH au personalitate
6XQWUHJOHPHQWDWHGHOHJLVODLDQRDVWUDWkWvQ
MXULGLFLvLGHVIRDUDFWLYLWDWHDSHED]D
IRUPDORUQDLRQDOFkWLvQIRUPDHXURSHDQ
SULQFLSLLORUJHVWLXQLLHFRQRPLFH
*UXSXULOHGHLQWHUHVHFRQRPLFHXURSHDQ-
*,(( 

36 37
5DSRUWXO&RQVLOLXOXL&RQFXUHQHL
&RQFOX]LDSHSLDDFUHGLWHORUGHFRQVXP
&RQFXUHQDvQVHFWRUXOEDQFDUL GLQ5RPkQLDVHPDQLIHVWRFRQFXUHQvQ
FUHWHUHGHLQXVHDWLQJHQLYHOXOGH
n sectorul de retail alimentar FRQFXUHQGHSHDOWHSLHHUHJLRQDOH
Conform raportului Consiliului
FRPHUFLDOL]DUHFXDPQXQWXO &RQFXUHQHL
a produselor alimentare) n
2012

1 2

Sectorul bancar
n sectorul bancar din Romnia sunt active "Sectorul bancar romnesc a traversat o
GHLQVWLWXLLGHFUHGLW- EQFLXQLYHUVDOH GHFDGGHWUDQVIRUPULVXEVWDQLDOH
GRXLQVWLWXLLEDQFDUHSHQWUXHFRQRPLVLUH WUDQVIRUPULFDUHDXYL]DWFUHWHUHD
LFUHGLWDUHvQGRPHQLXOORFDWLYQRX ponderii capitalului privat (93,4% din total
VXFXUVDOHDOHLQVWLWXLLORUGHFUHGLWGLQ DFWLYHvQOXQDPDUWLH SUHFXPL
VWDWHOHPHPEUH8(LRLQVWLWXLHEDQFDU FUHWHUHDSRQGHULLFDSLWDOXOXLVWULQ 
de credit cooperatist (Creditcoop), potrivit din total active n luna martie 2011)"
datelor Consiliului.

3 4
Sectorul bancar Sectorul bancar
&UL]DILQDQFLDUDDIHFWDWSURIXQG DQXOQXDDGXVVFKLPEUL
activitatea din sectorul bancar romnesc, semnificative n structura sistemului
DWkWYHQLWXULOHFkWLUDWHOHGHSURILWILLQG bancar romnesc.
VHPQLILFDWLYGLPLQXDWH VFGHUHGH &RPSDUDWLYFXDQXOQXPUXO
a profitului nainte de achitarea taxelor n VXFXUVDOHORUEQFLORUVWULQHV-a diminuat
IDGHvQVHFWRUXOEDQFDU  FXRXQLWDWHDMXQJkQGODHQWLWLOD
GHFHPEULHvQWLPSFHQXPUXO
EQFLORUDXWRKWRQHDUPDVDFHODL
UHVSHFWLYGHXQLWL

5 6

Sectorul bancar Sectorul bancar


VWUXFWXUDDFLRQDULDWXOXL ODVIDQvQ $FLXQLOH(PSRULNL%DQNDXIRVWDFKL]LLRQDWHGH
VLVWHPXOEDQFDUURPkQHVFVHUHJVHVFEQFL FWUHJUXSXOIUDQFH]&UHGLW$JULFROHLDVWIHO
cu capital integral sau majoritar de stat (CEC EDQFDDIRVWUHGHQXPLW&UHGLW$JULFROH%DQN
Bank si Eximbank), 4 cu capital majoritar privat Romania S.A.
autohton (Banca Transilvania, Banca %DQFD&RPHUFLDO5RPkQ- BCR SA a integrat
&RPHUFLDO&$53$7,&$/LEUD,QWHUQHW%DQNL activitatea sucursalei Anglo Romanian Bank , iar
%DQFD&RPHUFLDO)HURYLDU FXFDSLWDO DFLXQLOHGHLQXWHGHVWDWOD%DQFDGH([SRUW-
PDMRULWDUVWUDLQVXFXUVDOHDOHXQRUEQFL Import a Romaniei Eximbank au trecut din
VWULQHLRRUJDQL]DLHFRRSHUDWLVWGHFUHGLW administrarea AVAS n administrarea
DXWRUL]DW %DQFD&5(',7&223  0LQLVWHUXOXL)LQDQHORU3XEOLFH

7 8
Sectorul bancar Sectorul bancar
9%,%HWHLOLJXQJV*PEKDGHYHQLWDFLRQDU 3RQGHUHDGHLQXWGHSULPHOHFLQFLEQFL
majoritar la Volksbank Romania SA, iar la n volumul agregat al activelor a fost, la
0DUILQ%DQN5RPkQLDDFLRQDUXOPDMRULWDU finele anului 2011, de 54,6%, n cel al
a devenit Marfin Popular Bank PCL Cipru. creditelor de 52,3 %, n cel al depozitelor
'RXEQFLL-au schimbat denumirea, de 58,0 %, n cel al capitalurilor proprii de
noile titulaturi fiind Caixa Bank (fosta La LvQFHODOWLWOXULORUGHVWDWGH
&DL[D L/LEUD,QWHUQHW%DQN IRVWD/LEUD %.
Bank).

9 10

Sectorul bancar Sectorul bancar


Analiznd comparativ calitatea portofoliilor &KLDUGDFWHQGLQDGHFUHWHUHDSRQGHULL
GHFUHGLWHDOHEQFLORUURPkQHWLFXFHOH creditelor neperformante a afectat sistemul
DOHEQFLORUGLQDOWHVWDWHPHPEUH8(VH bancar n ansamblu, ponderea creditelor
REVHUYRGHJUDGDUHDEUXSWvQSHULRDGD UHVWDQWHGHSHVWH]LOHSHQWUXEQFLOHGH
2009-IDGHSHULRDGD-2008, WDOLHPDUHVHPHQLQHVXEYDORDUHD
cnd sectorul bancar romnesc era DFHOXLDLLQGLFDWRUSHQWUXEQFLOHGHWDOLH
competitiv din acest punct de vedere, n PLMORFLHLPLF
UDSRUWFXDOWHVWDWHGLQUHJLXQHLFKLDUGLQ
vestul Europei.
11 12
Sectorul bancar Sectorul bancar
3ULQDFWLYLWDWHDGHUHJOHPHQWDUHL 0DMRULWDWHDEQFLORUGLQ5RPkQLDDX
VXSUDYHJKHUHD%QFLL1DLRQDOHD caracter universal, adresndu-se att
5RPkQLHLDFHDVWDDUHXLWVPHQLQ FOLHQLORUSHUVRDQHIL]LFHFkWLFOLHQLORU
stabilitatea sistemului, n Romnia nefiind persoane juridice.
QHFHVDUDVLVWHQDILQDQFLDUDVWDWXOXL 'LQDFHVWPRWLYFRQFXUHQDVHUHDOL]HD]
SHQWUXVDOYDUHDXQRUEQFLDDFXPV-a la nivelul mai multor categorii de produse.
ntmplat n alte state membre UE.

13 14

Sectorul bancar Sectorul bancar


1XH[LVWEQFLFXFDUDFWHUUHJLRQDOvQ Dincolo de complexitatea business-ului
sensul unei strategii declarate n acest EDQFDUDFWLYLWDWHDGHED]DLQVWLWXLLORUGH
sens. FUHGLWLPSOLFDWUDJHUHDGHUHVXUVHGHOD
%QFLOHPDULDFRSHUSUDFWLFWRWWHULWRULXO FOLHQL GHSR]LWH LSODVDUHDGHUHVXUVH
QDLRQDOLDUEQFLOHPLFLVHFRQFHQWUHD] ILQDQFLDUHVXEIRUPGHFUHGLWHFWUH
pe anumite poluri urbane sau cu o SHUVRDQHIL]LFHFRUSRUDLLVDXFWUH
GHQVLWDWHDSRSXODLHLULGLFDW sectorul guvernamental.

15 16
3ULQFLSDOHOHSLHHGLQSHUVSHFWLYD
3LHHVSHFLILFHVHFWRUXOXLEDQFDU
serviciilor oferite, se pot structura:
3LDDFUHGLWXOXLGH 3LDDGHSR]LWHORUOD 3LDDGHIDFWRULQJ
consum termen 3LDDGHOHDVLQJILQDQFLDU
3LDDFUHGLWXOXL 3LDDVHUYLFLLORUGH 3LDDPRQHWDULQWHUEDQFDU
comercial cont curent / de
3LHHOHGHIDFWRULQJLGHOHDVLQJ
3LDDFUHGLWXOXL HFRQRPLLLD
depozitelor pe ILQDQFLDUFXSULQGLDOWHvQWUHSULQGHUL
ipotecar / imobiliar
termen scurt FDUHDFWLYHD]vQDFHDVWHGRPHQLL
SUHFXPLQVWLWXLLOHILQDQFLDUHQHEDQFDUH
VDXLQVWLWXLLVSHFLDOL]DWHvQOHDVLQJ
financiar.

17 18

Indicatori n sectorul bancar: 3LDDFUHGLWXOXLGHFRQVXP


'XSIRUPDGHSURSULHWDWHDFDSLWDOXOXLvQ 6HREVHUYRWHQGLQGHFRQFHQWUDUHD
VHFWRUXOEDQFDUURPkQHVFvLGHVIRDU SLHHLFUHGLWXOXLGHFRQVXP$FHVW
DFWLYLWDWHDEQFLFXFDSLWDOLQWHJUDOVDX WHQGLQGHFRQFHQWUDUHFDUDFWHUL]HD]GH
PDMRULWDUGHVWDWEQFLFXFDSLWDOSULYDW DOWIHOWRDWHSLHHOHLGHQWLILFDWHvQVHFWRUXO
EDQFDU([SOLFDLDDFHVWXLIHQRPHQHVWH
DXWRKWRQEQFLFXFDSLWDOPDMRULWDU OHJDWGHFUL]DHFRQRPLFLILQDQFLDU
SULYDWVWULQVXFXUVDOHDOHEQFLORUGLQ care a eliminat o parte dintre competitori.
VWULQDWDWHLRLQVWLWXLHGHFUHGLW QDFHODLWLPSHYROXLDFRWHORUGHSLDvQ
cooperatist. VHFWRUXOEDQFDUUHSUH]LQWXQIDFWRUDYXW
vQYHGHUHGHDXWRULWDWHDGHFRQFXUHQ
19 20
3LDDFUHGLWXOXLGHFRQVXP 3LDDFUHGLWXOXLFRPHUFLDO
3HSLDDFUHGLWXOXLGHFRQVXPWUHEXLH 3HSLDDFUHGLWXOXLFRPHUFLDOVH
DYXWHvQYHGHUHLVHUYLFLLOHSUHVWDWHGH vQUHJLVWUHD]RFUHWHUHUDSLGDJUDGXOXL
LQVWLWXLLOHILQDQFLDUHQHEDQFDUH ,)1  de concentrare, valoarea HHI, fiind
FDUHGHLDIHFWDWHSXWHUQLFGHFUL]GHLQ DSURSLDWGHQLYHOXOGHFRQVHFLQD
vQFSRQGHULLPSRUWDQWHSHSLHD FUL]HLILQDQFLDUHFDUHDIFXWFDPXOWH
PHQLRQDW EQFLGHWDOLHPLFVvLUHGXF
H[SXQHUHDLVUHVWUkQJDFWLYLWDWHDGH
FUHGLWDUHFWUHVHFWRUXOFRUSRUDWLVW

21 22

3LDDFUHGLWXOXLFRPHUFLDO 3LDDGHSR]LWHORUODWHUPHQ
valoareaHHI (Indicelui Hirschman- 3HSLDDGHSR]LWHORUODWHUPHQVH
Herfindahl (HHI) a cotelor regionale de vQUHJLVWUHD]GHDVHPHQHDRFUHWHUHD
RFXSDUHDIRUHLGHPXQF++,HVWHR nivelului de concentrare, probabil datorat
PVXUFRQFHQWUDW3HQWUXVFRSXULOH restrngerii volumului de activitate al unor
DFHVWHLDQDOL]HFOXVWHUHOLQGLFJUDGXOGH MXFWRUL1LYHOXOFRQFHQWUULLHVWHvQV
FRQFHQWUDUHVHFWRULDO VHQVLELOPDLVF]XWGHFkWFHOvQUHJLVWUDWSH
SLDDFUHGLWXOXLFkWUHvQWUHSULQGHUL
UHVSHFWLYSHSLDDFUHGLWXOXLGHFRQVXP

23 24
3LDDVHUYLFLLORUGHFRQWFXUHQW
Bariere la intarea n sector
de economii
3LDDVHUYLFLLORUGHFRQWFXUHQWSUH]LQWXQ Sectorul bancar este probabil cel mai atent
JUDGPHGLXGHFRQFHQWUDUH8QHOHEQFL reglementat sector al economiei. Banca
GHWDOLHPLFQXVXQWIRDUWHDFWLYHSH FHQWUDODUHDWULEXLLGHUHJOHPHQWDUHL
DFHDVWSLDFDUHQHFHVLW VXSUDYHJKHUHSUXGHQLDO
LPSOHPHQWDUHDXQRUVROXLLLQIRUPDWLFH EDULHUHOHODLQWUDUHVXQWGHUHJOHPHQWDUHL
costisitoare (ex. e-banking). structurale.

25 26

&HULQHOH%15FXSULYLUHOD 3XWHUHDGHSLDvQVHFWRUXO
vQILLQDUHDXQHLLQVWLWXLLGHFUHGLW bancar
3HQWUXvQILLQDUHDXQHLEQFLvQ5RPkQLDVXQW Pentru sectorul bancar, un indicator
necesare: DOWHUQDWLYDOSXWHULLGHSLDvOUHSUH]LQW
Capital social de minim 5 milioane euro. LQFLGHQDYHQLWXULORUGLQWD[HLFRPLVLRDQH
/LFHQLHUHD%15SHQWUXPHPEULLGLQ ODYHQLWXULOHRELQXWHGLQGREkQ]L$FHVW
FRQGXFHUHDH[HFXWLY LQGLFDWRULQGLFDELOLWDWHDEQFLLGHD
3RWHQLDOLLDFLRQDULDLXQHLEQFLWUHEXLHV H[WUDJHYHQLWXULGLQSLDLSRDWHILIRORVLW
vQGHSOLQHDVFDQXPLWHFHULQHOHJDWHGHFDOLWDWH SHQWUXHYDOXDUHDSXWHULLGHSLDD
SUHVWLJLXOSHUVRQDO H[IUFRQGDPQULSHQWUX
EQFLORUvQDQXPLWHFRQGLLL
LQIUDFLXQLILQDQFLDUHHWF 

27 28
3XWHUHDGHSLDvQVHFWRUXO
bancar
Raportul YHQLWXULGLQWD[HLFRPLVLRDQH (YROXLDGLIHUHQHLGLQWUHQLYHOXOGREkQ]LLOD
venituri din dobnzi DFXQRVFXWRVFGHUH FUHGLWHLUHVSHFWLYGHSR]LWHHVWH
vQvQVVHUHPDUFRUHYHQLUHvQ LQIOXHQDWGHHYROXLDSLHHORUILQDQFLDUH
valoarea acestui raport pentru anul 2011. H[FRVWXOGHILQDQDUHULVFXOGHDUDO
Un alt indicator care poate constitui o 5RPkQLHLHWF GDUvQDFHODLWLPSHVWHL
PVXUDSXWHULLGHSLDDMXFWRULORUGLQ UH]XOWDWXOQLYHOXOXLGHFRQFXUHQvQVHFWRU
VHFWRUXOEDQFDUHVWHGLIHUHQDGHGREkQG
GLQWUHFUHGLWHLGHSR]LWHDWkWvQVROGFkWL H[SULPDWSULQWHQGLQDGHVFGHUHDPDUMHL
nou acordate.

29 30

Concluzii: Concluzii:
ODILQDOXODQXOXLDDYXWORFRVFGHUH GLIHUHQDGLQWUHPDUMHOHFUHGLWH depozite n
SXWHUQLFDDFHVWRUPDUMHH[SUHVLHD VROGLFHOHQRLGHQRPLQDWHvQOHLVHPHQLQPDL
LQWHQVLILFULLFRQFXUHQHLSHSDUWHDDWUDJHULLGH mari dect valorile credite depozite
resurse (depozite) la nivelul ntregului sector. denominate n euro.
pe parcursul anului 2009 s-a nregistrat o n ultima parte a perioadei analizate se
revenire a acestor marje la niveluri apropiate de REVHUYRWHQGLQGHFUHWHUHDGLIHUHQHLGLQWUH
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nivelul din 2008, pentru marjele la lei. noi, denominate n lei, spre deosebire cele
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GHVFUHVFWRDUH

31 32
,QFLGHQDSHWLLLORU ,QFLGHQDSHWLLLORU
consumatorilor la ANPC consumatorilor la ANPC
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VXEVWDQLDODDFHVWRUDGDWRULWLQWUULLvQ vQWRWDOXOSHWLLLORUSULPLWHGH$13&GHOD
vigoare a OUG nr. 50/2010 privind 16,5% la 3,1%.
contractele de credit pentru consumatori,
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primul loc n topul celor mai reclamate
SLHHGHFRQVXP
33 34

,QWHUYHQLLDOH&RQVLOLXOXL ,QWHUYHQLLDOH&RQVLOLXOXL
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,QYHVWLJDLHVHFWRULDOSHSLDDVHUYLFLLORU &RQVLOLXO&RQFXUHQHLDSURPRYDW28*QU
GHSOLEDQFDUH 50/2010 privind contractele de credit
,QYHVWLJDLHSULYLQGSRVLELODvQFOFDUHD SHQWUXFRQVXPDWRULFDUHDvQOWXUDW
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practicate la acordarea de credite.
35 36
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Concluzii
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Studiu de impact asupra efectelor post Sectorul bancar romnesc este
aplicare OUG 50/2010 acest studiu reglementat n conformitate cu normele
FRRUGRQDWGH&RQVLOLXO&RQFXUHQHLD 8QLXQLL(XURSHQHLHVWHVXSUDYHJKHDWGH
HYDOXDWHIHFWHOHHOLPLQULLFRPLVLRQXOXLGH EDQFDFHQWUDO3ULQQRUPHOHVDOH
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UHILQDQDUHLGHDVHPHQHDDHYDOXDW PVXULH[FHSLRQDOHVDXGHLQWHUYHQLD
HFRQRPLLOHUHDOL]DWHGHFOLHQLSULQ statului n acest sector, n perioada crizei
eliminarea acestui comision. financiare.
37 38

Concluzii Concluzii
&UHWHUHDJUDGXOXLGHFRQFHQWUDUHSHXQHOH &XWRDWHDFHVWHDLQGLFDWRULLFDUHYL]HD]
SLHHGLQVHFWRUXOEDQFDUUHSUH]LQWXQHOHPHQW SXWHUHDGHSLDDEQFLORUDXFXQRVFXW
GHvQJULMRDUHFXSULYLUHODSRVLELODHYROXLHD HYROXLLPL[WHvQVSHFLDOGDWRULWYRODWLOLWLL
FRQFXUHQHLvQVHFWRUvQSHULRDGDXUPWRDUH
PHGLXOXLHFRQRPLFvQSHULRDGDDQDOL]DW
OUG 50/2010 a eliminat comisionul de
UDPEXUVDUHDQWLFLSDWOXFUXFDUHDIDFLOLWDW
UHILQDQDUHDLPRELOLWDWHDFOLHQLORUDGXFkQG
economii de aproximativ 290 milioane euro42
consumatorilor.

39 40
3LDDSOLORUQRQ- cash 3LDDSOLORUQRQ- cash
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0LMORDFHOHGHSODW WLSXULLHYROXLL FDUGXULGHSODW- XQHOWHGHSODWVXE
nregistrate la nivel comunitar forma cardurilor de plastic, emise de
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3ULQFLSDOHOHPLMORDFHGHSODWQRQ-cash pe
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FRPHUFLDQL prin intermediul aparatelor
POS (point of sale) LUHWUDJHUHDGH
numerar prin intermediul aparatelor ATM
(automated teller machine).
41 42

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ale emitentului cardului;

43 44
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format electronic, implicnd utilizarea
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speciale.

45 1

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DVXSUDXQXLDOWDJHQWHFRQRPLFVDXPDLPXOWRUDOL activ, prin contract sau prin alte mijloace.
DJHQLHFRQRPLFL
2 3
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6XQWLQWHU]LVHFRQFHQWUULOH Prevederile capitolului 10 din legea 21/1996
economice care, avnd ca efect QXVHDSOLFRSHUDLXQLORUGHFRQFHQWUDUH
crearea sau consolidarea unei HFRQRPLFDWXQFLFkQGFLIUDGHDIDFHUL
FXPXODWDDJHQLORUHFRQRPLFLLPSOLFDLQX
SR]LLLGRPLQDQWH, conduc sau ar GHSHWHHFKLYDOHQWXOvQOHLD
putea conduce la restrngerea, HXURLQXH[LVWFHOSXLQDJHQLHFRQRPLFL
vQOWXUDUHDVDXGHQDWXUDUHD LPSOLFDLvQRSHUDLXQHFDUHVUHDOL]H]HSH
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URPkQHDVFVDXSHRSDUWHDDFHVWHLD afaceri mai mare dect echivalentul n lei a
conform art. 12. 4.000.000 euro

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Legea 21/1996 FRQFHQWUDUHHFRQRPLF (art 11)

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10 11
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ILQDQFLDU beneficiarilor sau ale consumatorilor;
12 13

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OSHUDLXQLOHGHFRQFHQWUDUH HFRQRPLF) HVWHGHILQLWLvQOHJLVODLD
HFRQRPLF- criterii, conform art. 13 HXURSHDQDQWLWUXVW
o opHUDLXQHGHFRQFHQWUDUHVHUHDOL]HD]
I FRQWULEXLDODSURJUHVXOWHKQLFL DWXQFLFkQGGRXVDXPDLPXOWHvQWUHSULQGHUL
economic. LQGHSHQGHQWHDQWHULRUIX]LRQHD]DWXQFL
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&RQVLOLXOXL&RQFXUHQHL venture/entreprise commune de plaine
exercice

14 15
Procedura de control al Procedura de control al
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n dreptul european, procedura de 2SHUDLXQLOHGHFRQFHQWUDUHFDUHDWLQJ
FRQWURODORSHUDLXQLORUGHFRQFHQWUDUH pragurile cifrei de afaceri definite de
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Regulamentul de aplicare. WHUPHQGHRVSWPkQGHODvQFKHLHUHD
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16 17

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operatiunilor de concentrare operatiunilor de concentrare
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18 19
criterii pentru aplicarea conceptului
Concentrarea de salvare de concentrare de salvare:
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20 21

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22 23
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MXULGLFHSULQFDUHVHUHDOL]HD]WUDQVIHUXO urma analizei realizate pe baza criteriilor stabilite
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prin fuziune sau prin dobndirea direct sau DSUHFLD]FVXQWFRPSDWLELOHFXXQFOLPDW
indirect a controlului asupra unuia sau mai FRQFXUHQLDOQRUPDOLDUDJHQLLHFRQRPLFL
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ar putea conduce la restrngerea sau HFRQRPLFHLDFRPSHWLWLYLWLLODH[SRUW
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24 25

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care au ca scop descurajarea recurgerii FRQFHQWUULORUHFRQRPLFH 02QU
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DFWRULLGHSHSLD ODGDWDSXEOLFULLV-a avut n vedere att
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26 27
Regulamentul cuprinde
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28 29

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- WHUPHQXOvQFDUH&RQVLOLXO&RQFXUHQHL
DXWRUL]ULL&RQVLOLXOXL&RQFXUHQHL
SRDWHVROLFLWDFRPSOHWDUHDXQHLQRWLILFUL
incomplete, respectiv 20 de zile de la data
vQUHJLVWUULLQRWLILFULL

30 31