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198 Methods of Nonviolent Action

I N S T I T U T I O N THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT PROTEST AND THE METHODS OF SOCIAL NONCOOPERATION

Research, Publications and Consultations on Nonviolent Struggle


PERSUASION Ostracism of Persons
Formal Statements 55. Social boycott
1. Public Speeches 56. Selective social boycott
2. Letters of opposition or support 57. Lysistratic nonaction
3. Declarations by organizations and institutions 58. Excommunication
4. Signed public statements 59. Interdict
5. Declarations of indictment and intention Noncooperation with Social Events, Customs, and
6. Group or mass petitions Institutions
Communications with a Wider Audience 60. Suspension of social and sports activities
7. Slogans, caricatures, and symbols 61. Boycott of social affairs
8. Banners, posters, displayed communications 62. Student strike
9. Leaflets, pamphlets, and books 63. Social disobedience
10. Newspapers and journals 64. Withdrawal from social institutions
11. Records, radio, and television Withdrawal from the Social System
12. Skywriting and earthwriting 65. Stay-at-home
Group Representations 66. Total personal noncooperation
13. Deputations 67. Flight of workers
14. Mock awards 68. Sanctuary
15. Group lobbying 69. Collective disappearance
E I N S T E I N

16. Picketing 70. Protest emigration ( hijrat )


17. Mock elections
Symbolic Public Acts
THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC
18. Displays of flags and symbolic colors
NONCOOPERATION: ECONOMIC BOYCOTTS
19. Wearing of symbols
Actions by Consumers
20. Prayer and worship
71. Consumers boycott
21. Delivering symbolic objects
72. Nonconsumption of boycotted goods
22. Protest disrobings
73. Policy of austerity
23. Destruction of own property
74. Rent withholding
24. Symbolic lights
75. Refusal to rent
25. Displays of portraits
76. National consumers boycott
26. Paint as protest
77. International consumers boycott
27. New signs and names
Action by Workers and Producers
28. Symbolic sounds
78. Workmens boycott
29. Symbolic reclamations
A L B E R T

79. Producers boycott


30. Rude gestures
Action by Middlemen
Pressures on Individuals
80. Suppliers and handlers boycott
31. Haunting officials
Action by Owners and Management
32. Taunting officials
81. Traders boycott
33. Fraternization
82. Refusal to let or sell property
34. Vigils
83. Lockout
Drama and Music
84. Refusal of industrial assistance
35. Humorous skits and pranks
85. Merchants general strike
36. Performances of plays and music
Action by Holders of Financial Resources
37. Singing
86. Withdrawal of bank deposits
Processions
87. Refusal to pay fees, dues, and assessments
T H E

38. Marches
88. Refusal to pay debts or interest
39. Parades
89. Severance of funds and credit
40. Religious processions
90. Revenue refusal
41. Pilgrimages
91. Refusal of a governments money
42. Motorcades
Action by Governments
Honoring the Dead
92. Domestic embargo
43. Political mourning
93. Blacklisting of traders
44. Mock funerals
94. International sellers embargo
45. Demonstrative funerals
95. International buyers embargo
46. Homage at burial places
96. International trade embargo
Public Assemblies
47. Assemblies of protest or support
427 Newbury Street
48. Protest meetings THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC
Boston, MA 02115
USA 49. Camouflaged meetings of protest NONCOOPERATION: THE STRIKE
tel: 617.247.4882 50. Teach-ins Symbolic Strikes
fax; 617.247.4035 Withdrawal and Renunciation 97. Protest strike
e-mail: 51. Walk-outs 98. Quickie walkout (lightning strike)
einstein@igc.org
52. Silence Agricultural Strikes
web:
www.aeinstein.org 53. Renouncing honors 99. Peasant strike
54. Turning ones back 100. Farm Workers strike
Strikes by Special Groups 154. Severance of diplomatic relations
101. Refusal of impressed labor 155. Withdrawal from international organizations
102. Prisoners strike 156. Refusal of membership in international bodies
103. Craft strike 157. Expulsion from international organizations
104. Professional strike
Ordinary Industrial Strikes THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT INTERVENTION
105. Establishment strike Psychological Intervention
106. Industry strike 158. Self-exposure to the elements
107. Sympathetic strike 159. The fast
Restricted Strikes a) Fast of moral pressure
108. Detailed strike b) Hunger strike
109. Bumper strike c) Satyagrahic fast
110. Slowdown strike 160. Reverse trial
111. Working-to-rule strike 161. Nonviolent harassment
112. Reporting sick (sick-in) Physical Intervention
113. Strike by resignation 162. Sit-in
114. Limited strike 163. Stand-in
115. Selective strike 164. Ride-in
Multi-Industry Strikes 165. Wade-in
116. Generalized strike 166. Mill-in
117. General strike 167. Pray-in
Combination of Strikes and Economic Closures 168. Nonviolent raids
118. Hartal 169. Nonviolent air raids
119. Economic shutdown 170. Nonviolent invasion
171. Nonviolent interjection
THE METHODS OF POLITICAL 172. Nonviolent obstruction
NONCOOPERATION 173. Nonviolent occupation
Rejection of Authority Social Intervention
120. Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance 174. Establishing new social patterns
121. Refusal of public support 175. Overloading of facilities
122. Literature and speeches advocating resistance 176. Stall-in
Citizens Noncooperation with Government 177. Speak-in
123. Boycott of legislative bodies 178. Guerrilla theater
124. Boycott of elections 179. Alternative social institutions
125. Boycott of government employment and positions 180. Alternative communication system
126. Boycott of government depts., agencies, and other bodies Economic Intervention
127. Withdrawal from government educational institutions 181. Reverse strike
128. Boycott of government-supported organizations 182. Stay-in strike
129. Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents 183. Nonviolent land seizure
130. Removal of own signs and placemarks 184. Defiance of blockades
131. Refusal to accept appointed officials 185. Politically motivated counterfeiting
132. Refusal to dissolve existing institutions 186. Preclusive purchasing
Citizens Alternatives to Obedience 187. Seizure of assets
133. Reluctant and slow compliance 188. Dumping
134. Nonobedience in absence of direct supervision 189. Selective patronage
135. Popular nonobedience 190. Alternative markets
136. Disguised disobedience 191. Alternative transportation systems
137. Refusal of an assemblage or meeting to disperse 192. Alternative economic institutions
138. Sitdown Political Intervention
139. Noncooperation with conscription and deportation 193. Overloading of administrative systems
140. Hiding, escape, and false identities 194. Disclosing identities of secret agents
141. Civil disobedience of illegitimate laws 195. Seeking imprisonment
Action by Government Personnel 196. Civil disobedience of neutral laws
142. Selective refusal of assistance by government aides 197. Work-on without collaboration
143. Blocking of lines of command and information 198. Dual sovereignty and parallel government
144. Stalling and obstruction
145. General administrative noncooperation
146. Judicial noncooperation Far too often people struggling for democratic rights and
147. Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation by justice are not aware of the full range of methods of non-
enforcement agents violent action. Wise strategy, attention to the dynamics
148. Mutiny of nonviolent struggle, and careful selection of methods
Domestic Governmental Action can increase a group's chances of success.
149. Quasi-legal evasions and delays
150. Noncooperation by constituent governmental units
Gene Sharp researched and catalogued these 198 meth-
International Governmental Action
ods and provided a rich selection of historical examples
151. Changes in diplomatic and other representations
152. Delay and cancellation of diplomatic events
in his seminal work, The Politics of Nonviolent Action (3
153. Withholding of diplomatic recognition Vols.) Boston: Porter Sargent, 1973.