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ICS 93.080.

20

SR 174-2
ROMANIAN STANDARD July 1997
Classification index G 71

Road works
HOT BITUMINOUS ROLLED PAVEMENT
Requirements for preparation, laying and
acceptance of the hot rolled bituminous
pavement
Lucrri de drumuri
mbrcmini bituminoase cilindrate executate la cald
Condiii tehnice pentru prepararea i punerea n oper a
mixturilor asfaltice i recepia mbrcminilor executate

Travaux routiers
Revtements bitumineux cylindrs executs chaud
Conditions techniques pour la prparation, la mise en
oeuvre des btons bitumineux et la rception des
revtements executs

APPROVAL Approved by the IRS Director General on January 15, 1997.


Replaces STAS 174-83

CORRESPONDENCE On the date of this standard approval, there is no


International or European Standard dealing with the same
subject
La data aprobrii prezentului standard, nu exist nici un
standard internaional sau european care s se refere la
acelai subiect
la date d`approbation de la prsente notme il n`existe pas
de Norme internationale ou europenne traitant du mme
sujet

TIT DESCRIPTORS Road, bituminous pavement, requirement, preparation,


laying, acceptance

ASOCIAIA DE STANDARDIZARE DIN ROMNIA (ASRO),


Adresa potal: str. Mendeleev 21-25, 70168, Bucureti 1, Direcia General: Tel.: +40 1 211.32.96; Fax: +40 1 210.08.33,
Direcia Standardizare: Tel. : +40 1 310.43.08; +40 1 310.43.09, Fax: +40 1 315.58.70,
Direcia Publicaii: Serv. Vnzri/Abonamente: Tel: +40 1 212.77.25, +40 1 212.79.20, +40 1 212.77.23, +40 1 312.94.88 ;
Fax : +40 1 210.25.14, +40 1 212.76.20
ASRO Entire or partial multiplication or use of this standard in any kind of publications and by any means (electronically,
mechanically, photocopy, micromedia etc.) is strictly forbidden without a prior written consent of ASRO

Ref.: SR 174-2.1997 6th Edition


SR 174-2

Forward
This standard is part of SR 174 and replaces STAS 174-83. The standard has been initially drafted in
1949 and revised in 1953, 1964, 1973 and 1983.

Standard SR-174 has two parts:

SR 174 - 1, Road works. Hot bituminous rolled pavement. Technical requirements for quality.

SR 174 - 2, Road works. Hot bituminous rolled pavement. Requirements for preparation, laying and
acceptance of the hot bituminous rolled pavement.

Compared to previous edition, the following changes and additions were made in this SR 174 - 2:
- the process of preparing bituminous pavements is presented in detail;
- the process of creating bituminous joints and compacting bituminous layers is described in
detail;
- material control during execution, according to valid standards, is presented
- site inspections to be performed during preparation and laying bituminous pavement are
presented in detail;
- new, automatic and computerized methods for element inspections have been introduced.

2
SR 174-2

1 General

1.1 Scope

This standard established technical requirements for preparation and laying of hot bituminous pavement
and for the acceptance of rolled bituminous pavement on roads and streets.

NOTE - Provisions of this standard can be applied to operational roads, upon agreement from the beneficiary.

1.1.1 Provisions of this standard shall not apply to bituminous pavements laid with bituminous mixture
from modified asphalt, bituminous sand or from recycled bituminous pavements.
1.1.2 Quality types and conditions for bituminous mixture laid in hot rolled bituminous pavements are
specified in SR 174-1.
1.1.3 Technical requirements that hot bituminous pavement preparation plants shall comply with are
object of a standard that is being drafted.
1.1.4 Bituminous pavements are applied on a support layer that shall comply with the requirements of
SR 6400 and STAS 7970.

1.2 References

Standards referred to within this standard are the following:

STAS 42-68 Bitumen. Determining penetration


STAS 60-89 Bitumen. Determining softening point
SR 174-1:1997 Hot bituminous rolled pavements. Technical quality requirements
STAS 539-79 Limestone filler, chalkstone filler, pulverized limoid filler
STAS 662-89 Road works. Ballast pit natural aggregates
SR 667:1997 Natural aggregates and processed stone for roads. General technical
requirements
STAS 730-89 Natural aggregates for railroad and road works. Test methods.
STAS 754-86 Non-paraffinaceous bitumen for roads
STAS 1338/1-84 Road works. Bituminous mixture and hot rolled bituminous pavements. Lining,
samples and test pieces preparation
STAS 1338/2-87 Road works. Bituminous mixture and hot rolled bituminous pavements. Test and
determination methods
STAS 1338/3-84 Road works. Bituminous mixture and hot rolled bituminous pavements. Metallic
moulds and accessories for test pieces preparation and de-casting
STAS 1598/1-89 Road works. Bordering pavements for new building works and road
modernizations. General design and execution prescriptions
STAS 1598/2-89 Road works. Bordering pavements for existing road systems reinforcement.
General design and execution prescriptions
STAS 4032/1-90 Road works. Terminology
STAS 4606-80 Heavy natural aggregates for concretes and natural binder mortars. Test
methods
STAS 6400-84 Road works. Cushion courses and foundations. General technical requirements
STAS 7970-76 Road works. Cushion course from hot rolled bituminous pavements
STAS 8849-83 Road works. Rolling surface roughness. Measurement methods
STAS 8877-72 Cationic bituminous emulsions with fast rupture for road works

1.3 Terminology

The terminology used in this standard complies with STAS 4032/1.

1
SR 174-2

2 General execution prescriptions

2.1 Preparing the support layer before laying bituminous pavements

2.1.1 Verification of support layer dimensions according to the execution plan

2.1.2 In case the support layer is composed of existing pavements, bringing it to the specified
dimensions are achieved, as case be, either by laying a bituminous equalization layer or by milling.

The quantity of bituminous pavement necessary for equalizing is determined by decreasing the lining
volume of the base course or by constant wear from the total volume of the bituminous pavement
calculated according to the dimensions in the execution plan.

2.1.3 Retrieval of failures according to valid technical regulations and cleaning the support layer.
In case of macadam support layer, it is cleaned and swept to clear the rocks of choking aggregates.

2.1.4 Priming the support layer surface and joints

Priming the support layer is evenly performed with a special device than can adjust the binder quantity
per square meter function of the nature of the support layer, by using materials specified at paragraph
2.3.3.3 in SR 174-1.

After the priming, the necessary amount of time shall pass for the solvent to melt and for the bituminous
emulsion to rupture, respectively.

Function of the nature of the support layer, the remaining bitumen quantity after priming is of (0.30.5)
kg/m2.

2.1.5 At bituminous pavements on concrete or cement-bound macadam support layer where the total
thickness of bituminous road bed layers is smaller than 15 cm, joints are covered on a width of at least 50
cm with geosynthetics or other technically agreed materials. In case the cement support layer exhibits
cracks or breaches, total coverage with bituminous pavement armored with geosynthetics is
recommended for the respective area.
Geosynthetic materials are laid on a new bituminous pavement layer at least 2 cm thick.

2.1.6 The surface of the primed support layer is dry.

2.2 Asphalt mixture preparation

2.2.1 Asphalt mixtures are prepared in equipment with pre-batching, dry, re-separation devices and
aggregate weight batchers, bitumen and filler weight batchers as well as with aggregate and bituminous
binder forced mixing devices.

NOTE Re-separation is compulsory for devices in discontinued flow.

In case of bitumen volumetric batch, it is kept in mind that its density at temperatures of (150180)C is
of (900917) kg/m3, corresponding to (1,091,11) liters for 1 kg of bitumen.

2.2.2 Bituminous mixtures are prepared as follows:

- Pre-batchers of the installation are adjusted by trial and error so that the obtained graininess
curve of the natural aggregates mix corresponds to the one calculated in the laboratory under
variation limits specified in table 4.
- Natural aggregates are heated in the dryer, pre-batched in the installation screens and weighted
in accordance with established ratios, than passed on into the mixer where they are mixed with
the cold filler, separately batched. Temperatures of the natural aggregates, of the bitumen and
bituminous mixtures are established function of the binder type, according to table 1, noting that
superior temperatures are used for bituminous mixtures in cold climates.

2
SR 174-2

Table 1

Binder type Natural aggregates Bitumen Bituminous mixture


exiting from mixer
Temperature in C
D 60/80 170190 165175 160180
D 80/100 165180 160170 155170
D 100/120 160170 150160 150160

Bituminous mixture temperature exiting from mixer is adjusted so that laying and compacting
temperatures to be insured under the real transport (distance and means of transport) and climatic
conditions in accordance with 2.4.3.

It is forbidden to heat natural aggregates and bitumen over 190 C so that binder characteristics shall not
change during the manufacturing process.

Extended heating of bitumen or repeated heating of the same quantity is avoided. If, from a technological
point of view, repeated heating could not be avoided, an asphalt-penetration test is performed. If it is not
appropriate, it shall not be used.

The mixing time, function of the installation type, is long enough to allow for a uniform and complete
enrobing of the natural aggregates and filler with the bituminous binder.

2.3 Transporting bituminous mixtures

Hot bituminous mixtures are transported with appropriate dump trucks for minimal temperature losses
during transport.
For transport distances longer than 20 km or taking more than 30 minutes irrespective of season, as well
as on cold weather (+10C+15C), dump trucks are covered with special baffle cloth immediately after
loading. The bed bodies are clean and dry.

2.4 Laying bituminous pavements

2.4.1 Laying bituminous pavements are performed between March and October, under atmospheric
temperatures of more than 10C and in dry weather.

2.4.2 Laying bituminous pavements shall only be performed mechanically with distributors-finishers
provided with automatic leveling system for technical class I, II and III roads that also provide compacting.
In case of works in narrow spaces (case areas), bituminous mixtures are laid manually. Every layer of
bituminous mixture is laid continuously and all over the area scheduled for the day.

In case of accidental interruptions leading to lower temperatures of the not compacted mixture in the
distributor's site, the machine is immediately taken away from the interruption area, the leveled surface is
immediately compacted and mixture leftovers are moved off from the band head. The bunker and
vibrating beam shall simultaneously be cleaned.

This operation is performed outside areas where there is or will be bituminous mixture. The interrupted
band head is considered as transversal joint according to the provisions in 2.4.6.

2.4.3 Bituminous mixtures shall have, upon laying and compacting, function of the binder type,
temperatures established in table 2.

3
SR 174-2

Table 2

Binder type Bituminous mixture Bituminous mixture temperature,


temperature when C when compacting,
laying, min.
C, Start Finish
min.
D 60/80 145 140 110
D 80/100 140 135 100
D 100/120 135 130 100

NOTE - Compacting temperature for asphalt mortars is approximately 20C lower than values specified in table 2.

2.4.4 Proper technologies are to be applied when compacting bituminous mixtures, to provide technical
characteristics and compacting degree specified for every type of bituminous mixture and separate layer.

Bituminous mixture compacting is performed with wheeled and roll compactors equipped with adequate
vibrating devices so that a compacting degree of minimum 96% is achieved for every pavement layer, as
specified in SR 174-1.

To obtain the specified compacting degree, the optimal number of compactor runs is determined on an
experimental sector, function of their performances and of the pavement layer thickness.

The experimentation is performed before laying the layer, by using bituminous mixtures prepared under
similar conditions as the production ones.

In order to obtain the necessary compacting degree, the minimal number of compactor runs is considered
those specified in table 3.

Compacting is performed for every separate layer.

Table 3

Layer type Compacting installation


A B
Wheeled compactor, Roll compactor, Roll compactor,
160 KN 120 KN 120 KN
Minimal no. of runs
Wear layer 10 4 12
Binding layer 12 4 14

2.4.5 Compacting is performed longitudinally, the first runs being in the band joint areas
(images 1d and 1e) then from the lower edge to the higher one.

On slope sectors, the first run of the compactor is uphill.

Compactors shall work continuously, with slower speed in the beginning in order to avoid pavement
corrugation. Places inaccessible to the compactor, especially along the rims, around drainage inlets or
inspection chambers, are compacted either mechanically or manually.

2.4.6 Upon laying bituminous pavements, attention is kept on joints. After compacting the binding or
the wear layer in the first band, a narrow, less compacted and generally bent zone of several centimeters
(figure 1a) remains. The same happens on work interruption on transversal section in the respective band
head, but on a larger area of usually 10 cm width.

Upon resuming work, in both cases, on the same band or on the adjacent one, the areas close to the
joints is cut all the way so that they result in a vertical edge.

This operation is not necessary on longitudinal joints of the binding layer if the interrupted layer was laid
on all the respective length during the same day with the adjacent band layer.

4
SR 174-2

Cut edge joint is primed (figure 1b). Upon laying the adjacent band layer, the joint is capped with (510)
cm of mixture.

This material surplus is then pulled with a scraper over the fresh laid mixture so that the joint appears
(figure 1c).

Compacting is then performed according to 2.4.5.

Wear layer 10 cm mould mark

Binding layer joint

Scraper Light bituminous


mixture

Compactor
First run

Compactor
Continuation of
compacting

Figure 1 - Transversal pavement section

LAID LANE

Figure 2 - Order of compactor runs

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SR 174-2

For two-layered bituminous pavements, transversal and longitudinal joints of the wear layer are offsetted
with at least 10 cm from those of the binding layer. If the pavement is laid on a bituminous base layer,
work layer joints are interlaced.

In longitudinal view, joining the new pavement with the old existing one is achieved through a key joint
with a 0,5% acclivity of variable length, function of the thickness of the new layer (figure 3).

Joining is done as follows:

- the bituminous layer is leveled on a length l so that the new layer has a constant thickness (figure
3b).
- the leveled surface is primed and the key joint is filled with bituminous mixture, then the
compacting follows (figure 3c).

It is recommended that joining the new pavement with the existing layer to be done in a v shape under a
45 angle (figure 4).

2.5 During the pavement warranty period, all problems that may appear are solved by the builder.

2.6 Bordering pavements is performed in accordance with STAS 1598/1 for new building works and
road modernization and with STAS 1598/2 for reinforcement works for existing road structures.

3 Work verification during execution

3.1 Materials verification

Materials is verified for conformity with product standards' specifications and with additional conditions
specified at 2.3 in SR 174-1.

Verifications and determinations are performed by the site laboratory and comprise the following:

a) Bitumen:
- penetration at 25C STAS 42, STAS 754;
- softening point by ring and ball: STAS 60, STAS 754.

b) Chipping:
- granularity: STAS 730, SR 667;
- stress concentration factor: STAS 730, SR 667;
- fraction content under 0,09 mm: STAS 730, SR 667;
- argil component: STAS 730, STAS 4606.

c) Aggregate:
- granularity: STAS 730, STAS 662;
- grain shape: STAS 730, STAS 662;
- fraction content under 0,63 mm: STAS 730, STAS 662;
- leachable part: STAS 4606, STAS 662.

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SR 174-2

New bituminous layer

Existing road pavement

to level

Figure 3 - Longitudinal joining

Road axis

Carriageway edge

Figure 4 -Joining new pavement with existing pavement

d) Sand:
- granularity: STAS 4606, STAS 730, STAS 662 and SR 667;
- organic matter: STAS 4606;
- foreign bodies content: STAS 4606, STAS 662 and SR 667;
- sand equivalent: STAS 730, STAS 662;
- activity factor: STAS 730, SR 667;
- mineral nature: STAS 4606, STAS 662, SR 667.

e) Filler:
- definition: STAS 539;
- humidity: STAS 539.

3.2 Verifications for preparation and laying bituminous mixtures

The following is verified with the frequency mentioned below within the site:
- aggregate granularity correspondence for the designed bituminous mixture type: at the beginning
of campaign or each time different aggregates are used;
- aggregate cleanliness (content in impurities): at the beginning of campaign or each time different
aggregates are used;
- binder temperature before entering the mixer: permanent;
- hot and dry natural aggregates' temperature upon exiting the drying drum: permanent;
- correct operation of weighing or volumetric dosing equipment: at the beginning of every work day;
- mixture granularity upon exiting the mixer, before adding the binder (to be linked with the bitumen
dose established for the mixture, including the permitted deviations in binding content): daily or
each time the bituminous mixture quantity is insufficient;

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SR 174-2

- bituminous mixtures' temperature on preparation: every hour of the working schedule;


- appropriate bitumen dosing as specified by the laboratory dosage (by extractions): daily;
- bituminous mixture composition according to 3.3.2: daily;
- preparing the support layer: daily upon beginning work on the respective sector;
- bituminous mixtures' temperature at laying and compacting: at least twice a day;
- compacting method: daily;
- joint creation method: daily.

3.3 Verification of composition and physics-mechanical characteristics of laid


bituminous mixtures and pavements

3.3.1 Verifications are performed on:

- sampled bituminous mixtures from the mixer or layer: a 20 kg sample for each (200..400) t of
bituminous mixture irrespective of the mixture type, function of the installation productivity;
- laid pavements: a board of at least (40x40) cm for every 700 m2 of coated surface;
- for density, absorption and layer thickness verifications, cores can be extracted;
- to determine the executed compacting degree, approved non-destructive methods can be used;
- in situ on laid pavements.

Samples are taken in the presence of representatives from both the constructor and the beneficiary, at
approximately 1 m from the pavement edge, and are accompanied by a written protocol.

Areas established for sample extraction are chosen so that they represent as accurately as possible the
qualitative aspect of the laid pavement.
To characterize limited and isolated sectors with visible failures, established by the beneficiary or by the
acceptance committee, additional samples can be extracted which will be accompanied by a special note.

3.3.2 Bituminous mixture composition verifications

In order to verify the composition of the bituminous mixtures, mineral aggregates granularity are
determined as specified by STAS 1338/2 as well as the bitumen dosing, that have to correspond to the
laboratory-established dosages. Permitted deviations from the specified granularity are noted in table 4.

Table 4

Fraction, mm Permitted deviations from dosage, %


25...31,5 5
1625 5
816 5
3,158 5
0,633,15 4
0,20,63 3
0,09...0,2 2
00,09 1,5

For the binder contents, permitted deviations from dosage can be between (0..0,3)%.

3.3.3 Bituminous mixtures physic-mechanical characteristics' verifications

Physics-mechanical characteristics of the bituminous mixture have to correspond to the conditions of SR


174-1. Determinations are done according to the methodology specified in STAS 1338/1; STAS 1338/2;
and STAS 1338/3 on bituminous mixture samples taken from the mixer or from the laying process before
compacting.

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SR 174-2

For laid pavements the width of the layer, the apparent density and water absorption are determined for
each layer separately on test pieces from perfect samples (cores taken from the pavement) and have to
comply with conditions in table 9 from SR 174-1.

3.3.4 Verification of the compacting degree of laid pavements

3.3.4.1 Verification of the compacting degree is obligatory and done by the constructor, all during
execution of bituminous pavements, by laboratory trials or in situ.

3.3.4.2 Verification of the compacting degree in laboratory is done on test pieces from perfect samples
(for each layer) taken from the pavement, by determining the apparent density on boards or cores
according to STAS 1338/2 and reporting it to the apparent density of the same bituminous mixture type
taken from the mixer or the laying process (before compacting).

The compacting degree is established by the balance between the apparent density of the bituminous
mixture from the layer and the apparent density determined by the Marshall cylinders prepared in the
laboratory from the same bituminous mixture.

3.3.4.3 In case non-destructive investigative devices are available that allow for in situ measurements of
the compacting characteristics of the pavements, they can be used only under the specified conditions
imposed by competent authorities.

3.4 Verification of for geometrical elements

3.4.1 Verification of geometrical elements includes compliance with the quality conditions for the
support layer and foundation, before laying bituminous mixtures, as specified in STAS 6400.

3.4.2 Verification of pavement thickness is performed function of the data in the analysis bulletins
drawn up after testing samples from the laid pavement and, at the acceptance committee's request, by at
most two samplings per kilometer performed at 1 m from the pavement edge.

3.4.3 Verification of the transversal profile is performed with approved adequate equipment

3.4.4 Verification of longitudinal profile dimensions is performed along the axis, for the roads, and along
the axis and drains for streets, with the help of topographic leveling equipment.

3.5 Verification of longitudinal uniformity is performed with approved adequate equipment, maximum
permitted values being specified at 2.6.1 and in table 10 within SR 174-1.

3.6 Roughness verifications

3.6.1 Pavement roughness verifications are performed with an SRT device, in observance of the
provisions of STAS 8849, or by sand height.

3.6.2 Verification of pavement roughness verifications can be automated, with approved adequate
equipment. Results reading are done in accordance with working instruction specific for the respective
devices. Limit values are indicated in table 11 of SR 174-1.

4 Works acceptance

4.1 Preliminary acceptance of works by the beneficiary is performed according to valid norms. The
acceptance committee examines the works and compares them with the technical approved
documentation and with the control documentation created during execution.

Verification of for rolling surface uniformity is done in accordance with chapter 3 of this standard.

Verifications for longitudinal profile dimensions are performed on the road axis on at least 10% of the road
length. For streets, dimension at axis is verified on at least 20% of the length and drain dimensions on all
length in angle change points.

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SR 174-2

Thickness verifications are performed as in 3.4.2.5 and on samples taken for pavement quality
verifications.

History of all verifications shown in chapter 3 is part of the control documentation of preliminary
acceptance.

4.2 Final acceptance is performed in accordance with legal provisions. Exploitation behavior
verification period for definitive works is of one year from preliminary acceptance.

10
Members of the Technical Committee CT 187 "Roads" that participated in drawing up this
standard:

President: Mr. Laurentiu Stelea

Secretary: Mr. Manole Serbulea AND

IRS Representative: Mrs. Mihaela Udran

Members: Mrs. Adriana Raicu AND


Mr. Cristian Popa IPTANA
Mrs. Gabriela Giusca INCERTRANS
Mr. Ion Racanel UTCB
Mr. Paul Diaconescu CCCF - S.A.
Mrs. Rada Varga AND

Conceptual design of this standard has been drawn up by: Mrs. Cornelia Oprea CESTRIN
Mr. Radu Andrei CESTRIN

A Romanian standard does not necessarily include the totality of necessary provisions for contracting.
Standard users are responsible for its enforcement.
It is important that users of Romanian standards ensure they have the latest edition and all changes.
Information on Romanian standards (enforcement date, changes etc.) is published in the Romanian
Standards Catalogue and in the Standards Bulletin.

Amendments after publication

Standards Bulletin no./year


Amendment no. Points amended