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Physics 145

Physics 145 Andrew Foland Josh Boehm MWF 10 AM

Andrew Foland Josh Boehm MWF 10 AM

About the Class

About the Class Let me come to the subject matter at the end (!) Class meets

Let me come to the subject matter at the end (!) Class meets 3 times weekly Sections T/Th 7:30-9 Office hours to be determined

Course is small enough to be taught rather differently from most other physics courses

It will be possible to simply come, sit quietly, and get an A, but that’s not the way to get the most out of the opportunity a small class affords

2 Handouts Today

Syllabus Assignment packet

Survey, MtP

Survey, MtP In addition to HW #1, there is Survey—please fill out! ADF’s version of the

In addition to HW #1, there is

Survey—please fill out! ADF’s version of the survey--I’ve already done my assignment :)

Meet the Professor Next week, meet with me in small groups in my office, just so we can get to know each other (and so you can learn where my office is!) Four times, circle your preference, and cross out any you CANNOT make I’ll let you know by Friday which time to come

Prerequisites

Prerequisites Absolute minimum: the 15 sequence and 143 a/b Special Relativity Quantum Mechanics Desirable extras: Stat

Absolute minimum: the 15 sequence and 143 a/b

Special Relativity Quantum Mechanics

Desirable extras: Stat Mech (!), a lab course (123 or 191), any knowledge of “second quantization” Math

Will assume you are good at calculus “The difference between the experimenter and the theorist is that the theorist knows what to do when you are stuck: integrate by parts.”—S. Teukolsky Will teach you rudiments of group theory and statistics as needed

Seminars

Seminars If possible (depends on enrollment), every one of you will present a seminar summary of

If possible (depends on enrollment), every one of you will present a seminar summary of a classic paper in the history of the field

“Discovery papers” of things such as the positron, neutron, J/y, Z, t, etc

Will be a talk given in the evening (section time) after the break

Josh and I will give example seminars before Spring Break

Books

Books Griffiths: “The Good Book” of Particle Physics Perkins: more on phenomenology and experimental apparatuses,

Griffiths: “The Good Book” of Particle Physics Perkins: more on phenomenology and experimental apparatuses, more up to date PDG booklet

Up-to-the-biannum text summarizing the state of human knowledge about particle physics

Goldhaber and Cahn: contains the classic papers of the field

Grading

Grading 20% HW 25% Seminar 20% Midterm 35% Final (probably take-home)

20% HW 25% Seminar 20% Midterm 35% Final (probably take-home)

Style

Style It's a problem that physicists have learned to deal with: They've learned to realize that

It's a problem that physicists have learned to deal with:

They've learned to realize that whether they like a theory or they don't like a theory is not the essential question. Rather, it is whether or not the theory gives predictions that agree with experiment. It is not a question of whether a theory is philosophically delightful, or easy to understand, or perfectly reasonable from the point of view of common sense. The theory of quantum electrodynamics describes Nature as absurd from the point of view of common sense. And it agrees fully with experiment.

R.P. Feynman, QED

Matters of elegance ought to be left to the tailor and to the cobbler.

L. Boltzmann

Field Trip!

Field Trip!

How We Got Here

How We Got Here Crises! Atomic Stability Emission lines Photoelectric effect Blackbody radiation Light indicates
How We Got Here Crises! Atomic Stability Emission lines Photoelectric effect Blackbody radiation Light indicates

Crises!

How We Got Here Crises! Atomic Stability Emission lines Photoelectric effect Blackbody radiation Light indicates
How We Got Here Crises! Atomic Stability Emission lines Photoelectric effect Blackbody radiation Light indicates
How We Got Here Crises! Atomic Stability Emission lines Photoelectric effect Blackbody radiation Light indicates
How We Got Here Crises! Atomic Stability Emission lines Photoelectric effect Blackbody radiation Light indicates

Atomic Stability Emission lines Photoelectric effect Blackbody radiation

Light indicates special behavior at the atomic scale

Experiments for the Day

Experiments for the Day

Wave Interference

Wave Interference Suppose propagating plane waves happen upon absorbing material The wavefronts in the non- absorbing
Wave Interference Suppose propagating plane waves happen upon absorbing material The wavefronts in the non- absorbing

Suppose propagating plane waves happen upon absorbing material The wavefronts in the non- absorbing slits act as new sources

Huygens! Born scattering

Huygens! Born scattering

Each slit is point source, causing an expanding circular wavelet!

Find when the two wavelets are in, out of phase Then add (Huygens) Constructive, destructive interference

Sunrise on Beebe Lake

Sunrise on Beebe Lake
Sunrise on Beebe Lake

Interference Cartoon

Interference Cartoon d Along solid lines E 1 =E 2 ; in phase U α (E

d

Interference Cartoon d Along solid lines E 1 =E 2 ; in phase U α (E

Along solid lines

E 1 =E 2 ; in phase U α (E 1 +E 2 ) 2 = 4A “Constructive interference”

Along dashed lines

λ = sin

d

θ

E 1 =-E 2 out of phase U α (E 1 +E 2 ) 2 = 0 “Destructive Interference”

= sin d θ E 1 =-E 2 out of phase U α (E 1 +E

Interference

Interference E = E sin( kx −ω + t ) E sin( kx −ω t )
E = E sin( kx −ω + t ) E sin( kx −ω t )
E
=
E
sin(
kx
−ω +
t
)
E
sin(
kx
−ω
t
)
tot
1
2
(
2
)
2
2
h
x
= L + h = L +
1
1
2
E
sin(
kx − ωt
)
1
h
x
= x + d
sin θ
≈ x + d
2
1
1
L
x
1
p
1
h
x
E
sin(
kx − ωt
)
2
2
d
θ
θ
L

p 2

Postulates of Quantum Mechanics

Postulates of Quantum Mechanics The world is made up only of particles For every particle, there

The world is made up only of particles

For every particle, there exists a probability function Ψ(x,t)

particle, there exists a probability function Ψ (x,t) aka “wavefunction” The probability to measure any

aka “wavefunction”

The probability to measure any particle observable “O” with value “o 0 ”:

Pdo =

The probability to measure any particle observable “O” with value “o 0 ”: Pdo = 2

2 do

Ψ ( )

o

0

Ψ ( ) o 0

Ψ(x,t, observables) contains everything there is to know about the particle

Outline

Outline History of the field The Standard Model of Physics Symmetries Detectors and Accelerators Field Theory

History of the field The Standard Model of Physics Symmetries Detectors and Accelerators Field Theory Lite and Feynman Calculus The Known Interactions (aka Lagrangians) Gauge Theories The Higgs Mechanism

Postulates of Quantum Mechanics

Study particle physics! The world is made up only of particles
Study
particle
physics!
The world is made up only of particles
particle physics! The world is made up only of particles Statistics For every particle, there exists

Statistics

physics! The world is made up only of particles Statistics For every particle, there exists a

For every particle, there exists a “wavefunction” Ψ(x,t)

every particle, there exists a “wavefunction” Ψ (x,t) The probability to measure any particle observable “O”

The probability to measure any particle observable “O” with value “o 0 ”:

Pdo =

Ψ ( ) o 0
Ψ ( )
o
0

2 do

Ψ(x,t, observables) contains everything there is to know about the particle

In quantum mechanics, energy and momentum are represented by

ˆ

t

p

x

E

=h

i

ˆ =−h

i

The Big Questions of the Day

The Big Questions of the Day Why is the universe made mostly of matter? Why is

Why is the universe made mostly of matter? Why is the cosmological constant neither 0 nor huge? How can particles have mass?

What keeps WLWL scattering unitary? Might neutrino masses arise differently?

Why are there 3 different generations of particles?

What is the deal with gravity?

The Smaller Questions of the Day

The Smaller Questions of the Day What is the mixing scheme of neutrinos? Is there Supersymmetry?

What is the mixing scheme of neutrinos? Is there Supersymmetry? What is Dark Matter? Are protons stable? Why is there such a thing as lepton number?

Summary

Summary Syllabus / Intro Meet the Professor next week Despite Wave/Particle duality dogma The world is

Syllabus / Intro Meet the Professor next week

Despite Wave/Particle duality dogma

The world is made of particles