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Overview of Microstrip Antennas

David R. Jackson
Dept. of ECE
University of Houston

1
Overview of Microstrip Antennas
Also called patch antennas

One of the most useful antennas at microwave frequencies


(f > 1 GHz).
It consists of a metal patch on top of a grounded
dielectric substrate.
The patch may be in a variety of shapes, but rectangular
and circular are the most common.

2
History of Microstrip Antennas
Invented by Bob Munson in 1972 (but earlier work
by Dechamps goes back to1953).
Became popular starting in the 1970s.

G. Deschamps and W. Sichak, Microstrip Microwave Antennas, Proc. of


Third Symp. on USAF Antenna Research and Development Program,
October 1822, 1953.

R. E. Munson, Microstrip Phased Array Antennas, Proc. of Twenty-


Second Symp. on USAF Antenna Research and Development Program,
October 1972.

R. E. Munson, Conformal Microstrip Antennas and Microstrip Phased


Arrays, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-22, no. 1 (January
1974): 7478.
3
Typical Applications

Single element Array

(Photos courtesy of Dr. Rodney B. Waterhouse)

4
Typical Applications (cont.)
MPA
microstrip
antenna
filter
DC supply
Micro-D K-connector
connector
LNA
PD
fiber input with
diplexer
collimating lens

Microstrip Antenna Integrated into a System: HIC Antenna Base-Station for 28-43 GHz

(Photo courtesy of Dr. Rodney B. Waterhouse) 5


Geometry of Rectangular Patch
y

L x
h r

Note: L is the resonant dimension. The width W is usually


chosen to be larger than L (to get higher bandwidth).
However, usually W < 2L. W = 1.5L is typical.
6
Geometry of Rectangular Patch (cont.)
View showing coaxial feed

y
surface current
A feed along the
centerline is the most
common (minimizes
higher-order modes
W and cross-pol.)

feed at (x0, y0) x


L
7
Advantages of Microstrip Antennas

Low profile (can even be conformal).


Easy to fabricate (use etching and phototlithography).
Easy to feed (coaxial cable, microstrip line, etc.) .
Easy to use in an array or incorporate with other
microstrip circuit elements.
Patterns are somewhat hemispherical, with a moderate
directivity (about 6-8 dB is typical).

8
Disadvantages of Microstrip Antennas
Low bandwidth (but can be improved by a variety of
techniques). Bandwidths of a few percent are typical.
Bandwidth is roughly proportional to the substrate
thickness.
Efficiency may be lower than with other antennas.
Efficiency is limited by conductor and dielectric
losses*, and by surface-wave loss**.

* Conductor and dielectric losses become more


severe for thinner substrates.

** Surface-wave losses become more severe for


thicker substrates (unless air or foam is used).
9
Basic Principles of Operation
The patch acts approximately as a resonant cavity (short
circuit (PEC) walls on top and bottom, open-circuit (PMC)
walls on the sides).
In a cavity, only certain modes are allowed to exist, at
different resonant frequencies.
If the antenna is excited at a resonance frequency, a strong
field is set up inside the cavity, and a strong current on the
(bottom) surface of the patch. This produces significant
radiation (a good antenna).

Note: As the substrate thickness gets smaller the patch current radiates less,
due to image cancellation. However, the Q of the resonant mode also
increases, making the patch currents stronger at resonance. These two effects
cancel, allowing the patch to radiate well even for small substrate thicknesses.
10
Thin Substrate Approximation
On patch and ground plane, Et 0 E z Ez x, y

Inside the patch cavity, because of the thin substrate, the


electric field vector is approximately independent of z.

Hence E z Ez x, y

Ez x, y

h
11
Thin Substrate Approximation
Magnetic field inside patch cavity:

1
H E
j

zE z x, y
1

j


1
j
z Ez x, y

12
Thin Substrate Approximation (cont.)

H x, y
1
j
z E x, y
z

Note: The magnetic field is purely horizontal.


(The mode is TMz.)

Ez x, y

h
H x, y

13
Magnetic Wall Approximation
On edges of patch, y

J s n 0
(Js is the sum of the top and bottom surface currents.)
W Js
Also, on bottom surface of t
patch conductor we have x
J sbot z H 0 n L

H
Hence,
n
h
Ht 0 H n H n
14
Magnetic Wall Approximation (cont.)
Since the magnetic field is approximately y
independent of z, we have an approximate
PMC condition on the entire vertical edge.

W Js
H t 0 (PMC) t
x
n L

n
h

PMC
15
Magnetic Wall Approximation (cont.)
n H x, y 0 y

H x, y
1
j
z E x, y
z

W t n
Hence,
x
n z Ez x, y 0 L
n z Ez x, y z n Ez x, y Ez x, y n z
z n Ez x, y 0
n
h
Ez
0
n PMC
16
Resonance Frequencies
Ez x, y
y
Ez k Ez 0
2 2

From separation of variables:


PMC
m x n y W
Ez cos cos
L W
x
(TMmn mode) L

m 2 n 2
k Ez 0
2

L W

m 2 n 2
k 0
2
Hence
L W
17
Resonance Frequencies (cont.)
y
m n
2 2

k
2

L W
W
Recall that
k 0 0 r x
L
2 f

Hence
m n
2 2
c
f c 1/ 0 0
2 r L W
18
Resonance Frequencies (cont.)
y

Hence f f mn
W
(resonance frequency of
(m, n) mode)
x
L

m n
2 2
c
f mn
2 r L W

19
(1,0) Mode
y
current
This mode is usually used because the
radiation pattern has a broadside beam.
W
x
Ez cos
L x
L
c1
f10
2 r L This mode acts as a wide
microstrip line (width W)
that has a resonant length
1 x of 0.5 guided wavelengths
J s x sin
j 0 L L in the x direction.
20
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Resonance Frequency
The resonance frequency is controlled by the patch
length L and the substrate permittivity.

Approximately, (assuming PMC walls)


Note: This is equivalent to
m n
2 2
saying that the length L is
k
2
one-half of a wavelength in
L W the dielectric:

0 / 2
(1,0) mode: kL L d / 2
r
Note: A higher substrate permittivity allows for a smaller
antenna (miniaturization) but lower bandwidth. 21
Resonance Frequency (cont.)
The calculation can be improved by adding a
fringing length extension L to each edge of the
patch to get an effective length Le .
y

Le L 2L
L L
c 1
f10 L
2 r Le x
Le
Note: Some authors use effective permittivity in this equation.
22
Resonance Frequency (cont.)
Hammerstad formula:

eff W
r 0.3 h 0.264
L / h 0.412
eff 0.258 W 0.8
r h

1/ 2
r 1 r 1 h
eff
r 1 12
2 2 W
23
Resonance Frequency (cont.)

Note: L 0.5 h

This is a good rule of thumb.

24
Results: Resonance frequency

1
NORMALIZED FREQUENCY Hammerstad
Measured
0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

0.75
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
h / 0

The resonance frequency has been normalized


r = 2.2 by the zero-order value (without fringing):
W/ L = 1.5 fN = f / f0 25
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Bandwidth: Substrate effects
The bandwidth is directly proportional to substrate
thickness h.
However, if h is greater than about 0.05 0 , the probe
inductance (for a coaxial feed) becomes large enough so
that matching is difficult.
The bandwidth is inversely proportional to r (a foam
substrate gives a high bandwidth).

26
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Bandwidth: Patch geometry
The bandwidth is directly proportional to the width W.

Normally W < 2L because of geometry constraints


and to avoid (0, 2) mode:

W = 1.5 L is typical.

27
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas

Bandwidth: Typical results


For a typical substrate thickness (h /0 = 0.02), and a
typical substrate permittivity (r = 2.2) the bandwidth is
about 3%.
By using a thick foam substrate, bandwidth of about
10% can be achieved.
By using special feeding techniques (aperture coupling)
and stacked patches, bandwidths of 100% have been
achieved.

28
Results: Bandwidth

30

25
r = 10.8
BANDWIDTH (%)

20

15

10

5 2.2

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

h /

The discrete data points are measured values. The solid curves are
from a CAD formula.
r = 2.2 or 10.8 W/ L = 1.5 29
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Resonant Input Resistance
The resonant input resistance is almost independent
of the substrate thickness h (the variation is mainly
due to dielectric and conductor loss)
The resonant input resistance is proportional to r.
The resonant input resistance is directly controlled by
the location of the feed point. (maximum at edges x =
0 or x = L, zero at center of patch. y

(x0, y0)
W

L L
x 30
Resonant Input Resistance (cont.)

Note: The patch is usually fed along the centerline (y0 = W / 2)


to maintain symmetry and thus minimize excitation of
undesirable modes (which cause cross-pol).

y
feed: (x0, y0) Desired mode: (1,0)

x
L

31
Resonant Input Resistance (cont.)
For a given mode, it can be shown that the resonant input
resistance is proportional to the square of the cavity-mode
field at the feed point.

Rin Ez2 x0 , y0
y

(x0, y0)
For (1,0) mode:
W
x0
Rin cos 2

L x
L
32
Resonant Input Resistance (cont.)

Hence, for (1,0) mode: y

x0 (x0, y0)
Rin Redge cos 2
W
L
x
L

The value of Redge depends strongly on the substrate permittivity. For


a typical patch, it may be about 100-200 Ohms.
33
Results: Resonant input resistance

200 The discrete


data points are
from a CAD
INPUT RESISTANCE (

150 formula.
r = 10.8
100

2.2
50

y
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
h /
(x0, y0)
W
r = 2.2 or 10.8 x0 = L/4
W/L = 1.5 y0 = W/2 34 x
L
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Radiation Efficiency
Radiation efficiency is the ratio of power radiated
into space, to the total input power.
Pr
er
Ptot

The radiation efficiency is less than 100% due to


conductor loss
dielectric loss
surface-wave power
35
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)

TM0
surface wave

x
cos () pattern

36
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)

Hence,
Pr Pr
er
Ptot Pr Pc Pd Psw

Pr = radiated power Pc = power dissipated by conductors

Ptot = total input power Pd = power dissipated by dielectric


Psw = power launched into surface wave

37
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)

Conductor and dielectric loss is more important for


thinner substrates.
Conductor loss increases with frequency (proportional
to f ) due to the skin effect. Conductor loss is usually
more important than dielectric loss.

1 2 Rs is the surface resistance


Rs of the metal. The skin depth
of the metal is .

38
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)

Surface-wave power is more important for thicker substrates


or for higher substrate permittivities. (The surface-wave
power can be minimized by using a foam substrate.)

39
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)

For a foam substrate, higher radiation efficiency is


obtained by making the substrate thicker (minimizing the
conductor and dielectric losses). The thicker the better!
For a typical substrate such as r = 2.2, the radiation
efficiency is maximum for h / 0 0.02.

40
Results: Conductor and dielectric losses are neglected

100
2.2
80
EFFICIENCY (%)

60
10.8
40
exact
CAD
20

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
h / 0

r = 2.2 or 10.8 W/L = 1.5 Note: CAD plot uses Pozar formulas
41
Results: Accounting for all losses

100
2.2
80
EFFICIENCY (%)

exact
60
CAD
r = 10.8
40

20

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
h / 0

r = 2.2 or 10.8 W/L = 1.5 Note: CAD plot uses Pozar formulas
42
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antenna
Radiation Patterns
The E-plane pattern is typically broader than the H-
plane pattern.
The truncation of the ground plane will cause edge
diffraction, which tends to degrade the pattern by
introducing:
rippling in the forward direction
back-radiation

Note: Pattern distortion is more severe in


the E-plane, due to the angle dependence
of the vertical polarization E and the SW
pattern. Both vary as cos ().
43
Radiation Patterns (cont.)
E-plane pattern
Red: infinite substrate and ground plane
Blue: 1 meter ground plane
0
Note: The E-plane
30 -30
pattern tucks in and
-10 tends to zero at the
horizon due to the
60 -20 -60
presence of the infinite
substrate.
-30

-40 -30 -20 -10


90 -90

120 240

150 210
44
180
Radiation Patterns (cont.)
H-plane pattern

Red: infinite substrate and ground plane


Blue: 1 meter ground plane

45 -10 -45

-20

-30

-40 -30 -20 -10


90 -90

135 225

45
180
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Directivity
The directivity is fairly insensitive to the substrate
thickness.
The directivity is higher for lower permittivity, because
the patch is larger.

46
Results: Directivity

10
r = 2.2
8
DIRECTIVITY (dB)

10.8
6

4
exact
CAD
2

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
h / 0

r = 2.2 or 10.8 W/ L = 1.5


47
Approximate CAD Model for Zin
Near the resonance frequency, the patch cavity can be
approximately modeled as an RLC circuit.
A probe inductance Lp is added in series, to account for the
probe inductance of a probe feed.

probe patch cavity

L
Lp
Zin R C

48
Approximate CAD Model (cont.)
R
Z in j L p
1 j 2Q f / f 0 1
R 1
Q BW BW is defined here by
0 L 2Q SWR < 2.0.
1
0 2 f 0
LC

L
Lp
R C

49
Approximate CAD Model (cont.)
R Rin max

Rin max is the input resistance at the resonance of the


patch cavity (the frequency that maximizes Rin).

L
Lp
R C

50
Results : Input resistance vs. frequency

80

70

60
CAD
50 exact
R in ( )

40
frequency where the
30 input resistance is
20
maximum (f0)

10

0
4 4.5 5 5.5 6
FREQUENCY (GHz)

r = 2.2 W/L = 1.5 L = 3.0 cm


51
Results: Input reactance vs. frequency
frequency where the input
resistance is maximum (f0)
80

60
CAD
exact
40
Xin ( )

20

-20
shift due to probe reactance

-40
4 4.5 5 5.5 6
FREQUENCY (GHz)
frequency where the
input impedance is real

r = 2.2 W/L = 1.5 L = 3.0 cm 52


Approximate CAD Model (cont.)
Approximate CAD formula for feed (probe) reactance (in Ohms)

a = probe radius h = probe height

0 2
Xf k0 h ln

2 k
r 0 a
This is based on an infinite parallel-plate model.
X f Lp

0.577216 (Eulers constant)

0 0 / 0 376.73
53
Approximate CAD Model (cont.)

Feed (probe) reactance increases proportionally with


substrate thickness h.
Feed reactance increases for smaller probe radius.

0 2
Xf k0 h ln

2 k
r 0 a

54
Results: Probe reactance (Xf =Xp= Lp)

40

35 r = 2.2
CAD
exact
30
W/L = 1.5
25
Xf ( )

20 h = 0.0254 0
15
a = 0.5 mm
10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Xr

xr is zero at the center of the patch, and is


xr = 2 ( x0 / L) - 1 1.0 at the patch edge. 55
CAD Formulas

In the following viewgraphs, CAD formulas for the


important properties of the rectangular microstrip
antenna will be shown.

56
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency
erhed
er
Rs 1 3 r L 1
1 e hed
d
0
r
h / 0 16 1
p c W h / 0

where

d tan loss tangent of substrate


1
Rs surface resistance of metal
2

57
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
Psphed 1
ehed

Psphed Pswhed
r
Pswhed
1 hed
Psp
where
P hed
sp
1
2 0
0
kh
2
80 c
2
1

1
3
1 3
2 k0 h 60 c1 1
3
Pswhed
0 r

Note: hed refers to a unit-amplitude horizontal electric dipole.


58
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)

Hence we have

1
ehed
r 3
3 1 1
1 k0 h 1
4 c1 r

(Physically, this term is the radiation efficiency of a


horizontal electric dipole (hed) on top of the substrate.)

59
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
The constants are defined as

1 2/5
c1 1
r r2
3 1
p 1 k0 W a2 2a4
a2
k0 W c2 k0 L
2 2 4 2

10 560 5
1
a2 c2 k0 W k0 L
2 2

70

c2 0.0914153
a2 0.16605
a4 0.00761 60
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
Improved formula (due to Pozar)

1
e hed

2 0
c1
1

2

r
Pswhed P hed
k h 80 2
1 hed sp
0
Psp

r x 1
3/ 2
k 2 2


hed 0 0 0
P
4 r 1 x1 (k0 h) x02 1 1 r2 x1
sw

x02 1 r2 01 r r2 2 01 02
x1 x0 1
r x02 r2 12
61
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)

Improved formula (cont.)

0 s tan k0 h s

1
1 tan k0 h s
k0 h s

s cos k0 h s
2

s r 1

62
CAD Formula: Bandwidth

1 Rs 1 16 p c1 h W 1
BW d
2 0 h / 0 3 r 0 L hed
er

BW is defined from the frequency limits f1 and f2 at which


SWR = 2.0.

f 2 f1
BW (multiply by 100 if you want to get %)
f0

63
CAD Formula: Resonant Input Resistance
(probe-feed)

x0
R Redge cos
2

L

4 L h
0


0
W
Redge
Rs 1 16 p c1 W h 1
d hed

0 h / 0 3
r L 0 er

64
CAD Formula: Directivity

3 r
D k1h
2
tanc
pc1 r tan k1h
2

where
tanc x tan x / x

65
CAD Formula: Directivity (cont.)

For thin substrates:

3
D
p c1

(The directivity is essentially independent of the


substrate thickness.)

66
CAD Formula: Radiation Patterns
(based on electric current model)
L x
h r
infinite GP and substrate

The origin is at the H-plane


center of the patch.
y
(1,0) mode
W E-plane
x
J s = x cos
x
L


The probe is on the x axis.

L 67
CAD Formula: Radiation Patterns (cont.)
The far-field pattern can be determined by reciprocity.

ky W kx L
sin cos
WL 2 2
Ei (r , , ) Ei r , ,
hex

2 ky W 2 k L 2
x
i or 2 2 2

k x k0 sin cos
k y k0 sin sin

The hex pattern is for a horizontal electric dipole in the x direction,


sitting on top of the substrate.
68
CAD Formula: Radiation Patterns (cont.)
Ehex r, , E0 sin F
Ehex r, , E0 cos G

j 0 jk0 r
where E0 e
4 r

2 tan k0 h N
F 1 TE

tan k0 h N j N sec

2 tan k0 h N cos
G cos 1 TM
r
tan k0 h N j cos
N

N r sin 2 69
Circular Polarization

Three main techniques:

1) Single feed with nearly degenerate eigenmodes (compact


but narrow CP bandwidth).

2) Dual feed with delay line or 90o hybrid phase shifter


(broader CP bandwidth but uses more space).

3) Synchronous subarray technique (produces high-quality CP due


to cancellation effect, but requires more space).

70
Circular Polarization: Single Feed

The feed is on the diagonal.


The patch is nearly (but not
W
exactly) square.

L W

Basic principle: the two modes are excited with equal


amplitude, but with a 45o phase.

71
Circular Polarization: Single Feed
y
Design equations:
1
The resonance frequency
BW
f 0 fCP 2Q
(Rin is maximum) is the
optimum CP frequency. (SWR < 2 ) W
x0 y0
1
f x f 0 1
2Q Top sign for LHCP, L x

1
bottom sign for RHCP.
f y f 0 1
2 Q
At resonance:

Rin Rx Ry Rx and Ry are the resonant input resistances of the two LP (x and y)
modes, for the same feed position as in the CP patch.
72
Circular Polarization: Single Feed (cont.)
Other Variations

Note: Diagonal modes are used as degenerate modes

y y

L L

L x L x

Patch with slot Patch with truncated corners


73
Circular Polarization: Dual Feed

Phase shift realized with delay line y


L

P
L

P+g/4 RHCP
74
Circular Polarization: Dual Feed
Phase shift realized with 90o hybrid (branchline coupler)

Z0 Z0 / 2 Z0
feed

g/4 Z0

50 Ohm load
g/4

LHCP
75
Circular Polarization: Synchronous Rotation
Elements are rotated in space and fed with phase shifts

-180o

-90o

-270o

0o

Because of symmetry, radiation from higher-order modes (or probes)


tends to be reduced, resulting in good cross-pol.
76
Circular Patch

a
x

h r

77
Circular Patch: Resonance Frequency

From separation of variables:


a PMC
Ez cos m J m k

Jm = Bessel function of first kind, order m.

Ez
0 J m ka 0
a

78
Circular Patch: Resonance Frequency (cont.)


ka xmn
a PMC
(nth root of Jm Bessel function)
c
f mn
xmn
2 r

Dominant mode: TM11

c
f11
x11 1.842
x11
2 a r
79
Circular Patch: Resonance Frequency (cont.)

Fringing extension: ae = a + a PMC


a
c
f11
x11
2 ae r
a + a

Long/Shen Formula:

2h a h a
ae a 1 a
r 2h
2h
ln 1.7726 or ln 1.7726
a r

80
Circular Patch: Patterns
(based on magnetic current model)
2a x

h r k = k0 r
infinite GP and substrate
H-plane

The origin is at the y


center of the patch. x E-plane

a The probe is on the x axis.

In patch cavity:
J1 k 1
Ez , cos
J1 ka h
(The edge voltage has a maximum of one volt.) 81
Circular Patch: Patterns (cont.)
E0
ER r , , 2 a tanc k z1h cos J1 k0 a sin Q
0
E0 J1 k0 a sin
E r , , 2 a
R
tanc k z1h sin P
0 k0 a sin
where
tanc(x)= tan (x)/ x

2 jN
P cos 1 cos
TE

tan k0 hN jN sec
r
2 j cos
Q 1 TM N
r
tan k0 h N j cos
N
N r sin82
2

Circular Patch: Input Resistance

J12 k 0
Rin Redge 2
J1 ka

83
Circular Patch: Input Resistance (cont.)
1
Redge er
2 Psp
er = radiation efficiency
where
/2

k0 a tanc2 k0 hN
2
Psp
80 0


Q J1 k0 a sin P J inc
2 2 2 2
k0 a sin sin d

Jinc x J1 x / x

Psp = power radiated into space by circular patch with maximum


edge voltage of one volt.
84
Circular Patch: Input Resistance (cont.)

CAD Formula:


Psp ( k0 a ) 2 I c
80

6 e0 1
4 pc k0 a e2 k
2k
I c pc e2 0.400000
3 k 0
e4 0.0785710
e6 7.27509 103
e8 3.81786 104
e10 1.09839 105
e12 1.47731 107
85
Feeding Methods

Some of the more common methods for


feeding microstrip antennas are shown.

86
Feeding Methods: Coaxial Feed

Advantages:
Simple
Easy to obtain input match
x
R Redge cos 2 0
L

Disadvantages:
Difficult to obtain input match for thicker substrates,
due to probe inductance.
Significant probe radiation for thicker substrates
87
Feeding Methods: Inset-Feed

Advantages:
Simple
Allows for planar feeding
Easy to obtain input match

Disadvantages:
Significant line radiation for thicker substrates
For deep notches, pattern may show distortion.
88
Feeding Methods: Inset Feed (cont.)
Recent work has
shown that the
resonant input Wf x0
resistance varies as S W

2 x0
Rin A cos
2
B
2 L L

The coefficients A and B depend on the notch width S


but (to a good approximation) not on the line width Wf .
Y. Hu, D. R. Jackson, J. T. Williams, and S. A. Long, Characterization of the Input
Impedance of the Inset-Fed Rectangular Microstrip Antenna, IEEE Trans. Antennas
and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 10, pp. 3314-3318, Oct. 2008.
89
Feeding Methods: Inset Feed (cont.)
Results for a resonant patch fed on three different substrates.

450
400
Solid lines: CAD
350 Data points: Ansoft Designer
Rin (Ohms)

Wf x0
300
S W
250

200
10.2
L
150
2.42

100 h = 0.254 cm
r = 1.0
50 L / W = 1.5
0 S / Wf = 3
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
xn
r = 1.00 r = 2.42 r = 10.2
xn x0 / L / 2 Wf = 0.616 cm Wf = 0.380 cm Wf = 0.124 cm
90
Feeding Methods: Proximity (EMC) Coupling

Advantages:
Allows for planar feeding
Less line radiation compared
to microstrip feed
patch

microstrip line
Disadvantages:
Requires multilayer fabrication
Alignment is important for input match
91
Feeding Methods: Gap Coupling
Advantages:
Allows for planar feeding
Can allow for a match with high edge
impedances, where a notch might be too large

gap patch

microstrip line
Disadvantages:
Requires accurate gap fabrication
Requires full-wave design
92
Feeding Methods: Aperture Coupled Patch (ACP)
Advantages:
Allows for planar feeding
Feed-line radiation is isolated from patch radiation
Higher bandwidth, since probe inductance
restriction is eliminated for the substrate thickness,
and a double-resonance can be created.
Allows for use of different substrates to optimize
antenna and feed-circuit performance
patch

Disadvantages: slot
Requires multilayer fabrication
microstrip line
Alignment is important for input match
93
Improving Bandwidth

Some of the techniques that have been successfully


developed are illustrated here.

(The literature may be consulted for additional designs


and modifications.)

94
Improving Bandwidth: Probe Compensation

L-shaped probe:

top view

Capacitive top hat on probe:

95
Improving Bandwidth: SSFIP
SSFIP: Strip Slot Foam Inverted Patch (a version of the ACP).

Bandwidths greater than 25% have been achieved.


Increased bandwidth is due to the thick foam substrate and
also a dual-tuned resonance (patch+slot).

patch substrate patch

foam
microstrip
substrate
microstrip line slot

96
Improving Bandwidth: Stacked Patches
Bandwidth increase is due to thick low-permittivity antenna
substrates and a dual or triple-tuned resonance.
Bandwidths of 25% have been achieved using a probe feed.
Bandwidths of 100% have been achieved using an ACP feed.

patch substrates driven patch


parasitic patch
microstrip
substrate

microstrip line
slot 97
Improving Bandwidth: Stacked Patches (cont.)

-5

-10

-15
M e asure d
-20

ReturnLoss(dB)
Compute d
-25

-30

-35

-40
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Frequency (GHz)
Stacked patch with ACP feed

-10 dB S11 bandwidth is about 100%


98
Improving Bandwidth: Stacked Patches (cont.)

9080
0
10 70
110 60
120
130 50

40
40
50 1

30
0 -170 180 170 160 1

20 10 0 -10 -20
0

1
2
5
10
0.2
0.5
1
- 6
13 GHz

0-3 -
5
41 0 -1

40
-
-50
-130 4 GHz-60
-120
10 -70
0 -1
-100 -8
-90

Stacked patch with ACP feed

Two extra loops are observed on the Smith chart.

99
Improving Bandwidth: Parasitic Patches
Radiating Edges Gap Coupled
Microstrip Antennas Most of this work
(REGCOMA). was pioneered by
K. C. Gupta.

Non-Radiating Edges Gap


Coupled Microstrip Antennas
(NEGCOMA)

Four-Edges Gap Coupled


Microstrip Antennas
(FEGCOMA)

Bandwidth improvement factor:


REGCOMA: 3.0, NEGCOMA: 3.0, FEGCOMA: 5.0?
100
Improving Bandwidth: Direct-Coupled Patches

Radiating Edges Direct


Coupled Microstrip Antennas
(REDCOMA).

Non-Radiating Edges Direct


Coupled Microstrip Antennas
(NEDCOMA)

Four-Edges Direct Coupled


Microstrip Antennas
(FEDCOMA)

Bandwidth improvement factor:


REDCOMA: 5.0, NEDCOMA: 5.0, FEDCOMA: 7.0
101
Improving Bandwidth: U-shaped slot

The introduction of a U-shaped slot can give a


significant bandwidth (10%-40%).
(This is partly due to a double resonance effect.)

Single Layer Single Patch Wideband Microstrip Antenna, T. Huynh and K. F. Lee,
Electronics Letters, Vol. 31, No. 16, pp. 1310-1312, 1986.
102
Improving Bandwidth: Double U-Slot

A 44% bandwidth was achieved.

Double U-Slot Rectangular Patch Antenna, Y. X. Guo, K. M. Luk, and Y. L. Chow,


Electronics Letters, Vol. 34, No. 19, pp. 1805-1806, 1998.

103
Improving Bandwidth: E-Patch

A modification of the U-slot patch.

A bandwidth of 34% was achieved (40% using a capacitive


washer to compensate for the probe inductance).

A Novel E-shaped Broadband Microstrip Patch Antenna, B. L. Ooi and Q. Shen,


Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 348-352, 2000.
104
Multi-Band Antennas

A multi-band antenna is often more desirable than a


broad-band antenna, if multiple narrow-band channels
are to be covered.

General Principle:

Introduce multiple resonance paths into the antenna. (The


same technique can be used to increase bandwidth via
multiple resonances, if the resonances are closely spaced.)

105
Multi-Band Antennas: Examples
low-band

low-band

feed high-band feed

low-band

high-band

Dual-Band E patch Dual-Band Patch with Parasitic Strip

106
Miniaturization

High Permittivity
Quarter-Wave Patch
PIFA
Capacitive Loading
Slots
Meandering

Note: Miniaturization usually comes at a price of reduced bandwidth.

General rule: The maximum obtainable bandwidth is proportional to the


volume of the patch (based on the Chu limit.)

107
Miniaturization: High Permittivity
H-plane

r 1
r 4
W E-plane W=W/2

L=L/2
L

It has about one-fourth the bandwidth of the regular patch.

(Bandwidth is inversely proportional to the permittivity.)

108
Miniaturization: Quarter-Wave Patch
H-plane H-plane

short-circuit
Ez = 0 vias

W E-plane W E-plane

L L=L/2

It has about one-half the bandwidth of the regular patch.

Neglecting losses:
Us U s U s / 2
Q 0 Q 2Q
Pr Pr Pr / 4

109
Miniaturization: Smaller Quarter-Wave Patch
H-plane

H-plane

W E-plane W=W/2 E-plane

L=L/2
L/2

It has about one-fourth the bandwidth of the regular patch.

(Bandwidth is proportional to the patch width.)

110
Miniaturization: Quarter-Wave Patch with Fewer Vias
H-plane H-plane

W E-plane W E-plane

L L
L < L

Fewer vias actually gives more miniaturization!

(The edge has a larger inductive impedance.)


111
Miniaturization: Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA)
L d / 4

shorting plate feed


or via top view

A single shorting plate or via is used.

This antenna can be viewed as a limiting case of the quarter-wave patch, or as


an LC resonator.
112
PIFA with Capacitive Loading

shorting plate feed top view

The capacitive loading allows for the length of the PIFA to be reduced.

113
Miniaturization: Circular Patch Loaded with Vias

feed c
2a

patch metal vias

The patch has a monopole-like pattern


The patch operates in the (0,0) mode, as an LC resonator

(Hao Xu Ph.D. dissertation, UH, 2006)


114
Example: Circular Patch Loaded with 2 Vias

0
0

315
-10
45

-20
-5

-30
S11[db]

-10

-20

-30

-40
-10

270
90
-15
E-theta
E-phi

-20

225
135
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Frequency [GHz]

180
Unloaded: Resonance frequency = 5.32 GHz.
(miniaturization factor = 4.8)
115
Miniaturization: Slotted Patch

Top view

0o 90o

linear CP

The slot forces the current to flow through a longer path, increasing
the effective dimensions of the patch.

116
Miniaturization: Meandering

via
via

feed feed

Meandered quarter-wave patch Meandered PIFA

Meandering forces the current to flow through a longer path,


increasing the effective dimensions of the patch.

117
Improving Performance:
Reducing Surface-Wave Excitation and
Lateral Radiation
z feed
b
shorted annular ring
o
a
x a b
h

ground plane feed

SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW

Reduced Surface Wave (RSW) Antenna


D. R. Jackson, J. T. Williams, A. K. Bhattacharyya, R. Smith, S. J. Buchheit, and S. A.
Long, Microstrip Patch Designs that do Not Excite Surface Waves, IEEE Trans. Antennas
Propagat., vol. 41, No 8, pp. 1026-1037, August 1993. 118
RSW: Improved Patterns
Reducing surface-wave excitation and lateral
radiation reduces edge diffraction.

space-wave radiation (desired)

lateral radiation (undesired)

diffracted field at edge

surface waves (undesired)

119
RSW: Principle of Operation
y TM11 mode:
1
Ez , V0 cos J1 k
hJ1 ka
a
x
M s
V0
At edge: Ez cos
h

M s n E zE
z

M s Ez a,

V0
M s cos
h
120
RSW: Principle of Operation (cont.)
y

V0
a M s cos
x h
M s

2
Surface-Wave Excitation: Ez 0 ATM 0 cos H1 TM 0 e z 0
TM

jk z


(z > h)
ATM 0 AJ1 TM 0 a

Set
J1 TM 0 a 0
121
RSW: Principle of Operation (cont.)
y

TM a x1n
a 0

x
M s
For TM11 mode: 1.842
x11

TM a 1.842
0

Patch resonance: k1a 1.842

Note: TM 0 k1 (The RSW patch is too big to be resonant.)


122
RSW: Principle of Operation (cont.)
z feed
b
shorted annular ring
o
a
x a b
h

ground plane feed

SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW

TM b 1.842
0

The radius a is chosen to make the patch resonant:


k1 x11
J1
J1 k1a kTM 0

Y1 k1a k1 x11
Y1
kTM
0
123
RSW: Reducing Lateral Wave
y

b V0
x M s cos
h
M s

1 jk0
Lateral-Wave Field: E LW
ALW cos 2 e

z
(z = h)

ALW BJ1 k0b

Set J1 k0b 0
124
RSW: Reducing Space Wave
y
V0
M s cos
h
a
x
M s
Assume no substrate outside of patch:

1 jk0
Space-Wave Field: EzSP ASP cos e
(z = h)

ASP CJ1 k0b

Set J1 k0b 0
125
RSW: Thin Substrate Result
y
For a thin substrate:
a
x TM k0
0

M s

The same design reduces both surface-wave and


lateral-wave fields (or space-wave field if there is no
substrate outside of the patch).

126
RSW: E-plane Radiation Patterns
Measurements were taken on a 1 m diameter circular ground plane at
1.575 GHz.
Measurement
0 Theory 0

30 -30 30 -30

-10 -10

60 -20 -60 60 -20 -60

-30 -30

-40 -30 -20 -10 -40 -30 -20 -10


90 -90 90 -90

120 240 120 240

150 210 150 210

180 180

conventional RSW
127
RSW: Mutual Coupling

Reducing surface-wave excitation and lateral radiation


reduces mutual coupling.

space-wave radiation

lateral radiation

surface waves

128
RSW: Mutual Coupling (cont.)
Reducing surface-wave excitation and lateral radiation reduces mutual coupling.

0
RSW - Measured
-10 E-plane
RSW - Theory
-20
Conv - Measured
-30 Conv - Theory

-40
S12 [dB]

-50

-60

-70

-80

-90

-100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Separation [Wavelengths]

Mutual Coupling Between Reduced Surface-Wave Microstrip Antennas, M. A. Khayat, J.


T. Williams, D. R. Jackson, and S. A. Long, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol.
48, pp. 1581-1593, Oct. 2000. 129
References
General references about microstrip antennas:

Microstrip Patch Antennas, K. F. Fong Lee and K. M. Luk, Imperial


College Press, 2011.

Microstrip and Patch Antennas Design, 2nd Ed., R. Bancroft, Scitech


Publishing, 2009.

Microstrip Patch Antennas: A Designers Guide, R. B. Waterhouse,


Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. J. Bahl,


and A. Ittipiboon, Editors, Artech House, 2001.
Advances in Microstrip and Printed Antennas, K. F. Lee, Editor, John
Wiley, 1997.

130
References (cont.)
General references about microstrip antennas (cont.):

CAD of Microstrip Antennas for Wireless Applications, R. A. Sainati,


Artech House, 1996.

Microstrip Antennas: The Analysis and Design of Microstrip Antennas


and Arrays, D. M. Pozar and D. H. Schaubert, Editors, Wiley/IEEE
Press, 1995.
Millimeter-Wave Microstrip and Printed Circuit Antennas, P. Bhartia,
Artech House, 1991.

The Handbook of Microstrip Antennas (two volume set), J. R. James


and P. S. Hall, INSPEC, 1989.

Microstrip Antenna Theory and Design, J. R. James, P. S. Hall, and


C. Wood, INSPEC/IEE, 1981.
131
References (cont.)

More information about the CAD formulas presented here


for the rectangular patch may be found in:

Microstrip Antennas, D. R. Jackson, Ch. 7 of Antenna Engineering


Handbook, J. L. Volakis, Editor, McGraw Hill, 2007.

Computer-Aided Design of Rectangular Microstrip Antennas, D. R.


Jackson, S. A. Long, J. T. Williams, and V. B. Davis, Ch. 5 of Advances
in Microstrip and Printed Antennas, K. F. Lee, Editor, John Wiley, 1997.

132
References (cont.)

References devoted to broadband microstrip antennas:

Compact and Broadband Microstrip Antennas, K.-L. Wong,


John Wiley, 2003.

Broadband Microstrip Antennas, G. Kumar and K. P. Ray,


Artech House, 2002.

Broadband Patch Antennas, J.-F. Zurcher and F. E. Gardiol,


Artech House, 1995.

133