David R. Jackson
Dept. of ECE
University of Houston
1
Overview of Microstrip Antennas
Also called patch antennas
2
History of Microstrip Antennas
Invented by Bob Munson in 1972 (but earlier work
by Dechamps goes back to1953).
Became popular starting in the 1970s.
4
Typical Applications (cont.)
MPA
microstrip
antenna
filter
DC supply
MicroD Kconnector
connector
LNA
PD
fiber input with
diplexer
collimating lens
Microstrip Antenna Integrated into a System: HIC Antenna BaseStation for 2843 GHz
L x
h r
y
surface current
A feed along the
centerline is the most
common (minimizes
higherorder modes
W and crosspol.)
8
Disadvantages of Microstrip Antennas
Low bandwidth (but can be improved by a variety of
techniques). Bandwidths of a few percent are typical.
Bandwidth is roughly proportional to the substrate
thickness.
Efficiency may be lower than with other antennas.
Efficiency is limited by conductor and dielectric
losses*, and by surfacewave loss**.
Note: As the substrate thickness gets smaller the patch current radiates less,
due to image cancellation. However, the Q of the resonant mode also
increases, making the patch currents stronger at resonance. These two effects
cancel, allowing the patch to radiate well even for small substrate thicknesses.
10
Thin Substrate Approximation
On patch and ground plane, Et 0 E z Ez x, y
Hence E z Ez x, y
Ez x, y
h
11
Thin Substrate Approximation
Magnetic field inside patch cavity:
1
H E
j
zE z x, y
1
j
1
j
z Ez x, y
12
Thin Substrate Approximation (cont.)
H x, y
1
j
z E x, y
z
Ez x, y
h
H x, y
13
Magnetic Wall Approximation
On edges of patch, y
J s n 0
(Js is the sum of the top and bottom surface currents.)
W Js
Also, on bottom surface of t
patch conductor we have x
J sbot z H 0 n L
H
Hence,
n
h
Ht 0 H n H n
14
Magnetic Wall Approximation (cont.)
Since the magnetic field is approximately y
independent of z, we have an approximate
PMC condition on the entire vertical edge.
W Js
H t 0 (PMC) t
x
n L
n
h
PMC
15
Magnetic Wall Approximation (cont.)
n H x, y 0 y
H x, y
1
j
z E x, y
z
W t n
Hence,
x
n z Ez x, y 0 L
n z Ez x, y z n Ez x, y Ez x, y n z
z n Ez x, y 0
n
h
Ez
0
n PMC
16
Resonance Frequencies
Ez x, y
y
Ez k Ez 0
2 2
m 2 n 2
k Ez 0
2
L W
m 2 n 2
k 0
2
Hence
L W
17
Resonance Frequencies (cont.)
y
m n
2 2
k
2
L W
W
Recall that
k 0 0 r x
L
2 f
Hence
m n
2 2
c
f c 1/ 0 0
2 r L W
18
Resonance Frequencies (cont.)
y
Hence f f mn
W
(resonance frequency of
(m, n) mode)
x
L
m n
2 2
c
f mn
2 r L W
19
(1,0) Mode
y
current
This mode is usually used because the
radiation pattern has a broadside beam.
W
x
Ez cos
L x
L
c1
f10
2 r L This mode acts as a wide
microstrip line (width W)
that has a resonant length
1 x of 0.5 guided wavelengths
J s x sin
j 0 L L in the x direction.
20
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Resonance Frequency
The resonance frequency is controlled by the patch
length L and the substrate permittivity.
0 / 2
(1,0) mode: kL L d / 2
r
Note: A higher substrate permittivity allows for a smaller
antenna (miniaturization) but lower bandwidth. 21
Resonance Frequency (cont.)
The calculation can be improved by adding a
fringing length extension L to each edge of the
patch to get an effective length Le .
y
Le L 2L
L L
c 1
f10 L
2 r Le x
Le
Note: Some authors use effective permittivity in this equation.
22
Resonance Frequency (cont.)
Hammerstad formula:
eff W
r 0.3 h 0.264
L / h 0.412
eff 0.258 W 0.8
r h
1/ 2
r 1 r 1 h
eff
r 1 12
2 2 W
23
Resonance Frequency (cont.)
Note: L 0.5 h
24
Results: Resonance frequency
1
NORMALIZED FREQUENCY Hammerstad
Measured
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
h / 0
26
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Bandwidth: Patch geometry
The bandwidth is directly proportional to the width W.
W = 1.5 L is typical.
27
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
28
Results: Bandwidth
30
25
r = 10.8
BANDWIDTH (%)
20
15
10
5 2.2
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
h /
The discrete data points are measured values. The solid curves are
from a CAD formula.
r = 2.2 or 10.8 W/ L = 1.5 29
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Resonant Input Resistance
The resonant input resistance is almost independent
of the substrate thickness h (the variation is mainly
due to dielectric and conductor loss)
The resonant input resistance is proportional to r.
The resonant input resistance is directly controlled by
the location of the feed point. (maximum at edges x =
0 or x = L, zero at center of patch. y
(x0, y0)
W
L L
x 30
Resonant Input Resistance (cont.)
y
feed: (x0, y0) Desired mode: (1,0)
x
L
31
Resonant Input Resistance (cont.)
For a given mode, it can be shown that the resonant input
resistance is proportional to the square of the cavitymode
field at the feed point.
Rin Ez2 x0 , y0
y
(x0, y0)
For (1,0) mode:
W
x0
Rin cos 2
L x
L
32
Resonant Input Resistance (cont.)
x0 (x0, y0)
Rin Redge cos 2
W
L
x
L
150 formula.
r = 10.8
100
2.2
50
y
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
h /
(x0, y0)
W
r = 2.2 or 10.8 x0 = L/4
W/L = 1.5 y0 = W/2 34 x
L
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Radiation Efficiency
Radiation efficiency is the ratio of power radiated
into space, to the total input power.
Pr
er
Ptot
TM0
surface wave
x
cos () pattern
36
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
Hence,
Pr Pr
er
Ptot Pr Pc Pd Psw
37
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
38
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
39
Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
40
Results: Conductor and dielectric losses are neglected
100
2.2
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
60
10.8
40
exact
CAD
20
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
h / 0
r = 2.2 or 10.8 W/L = 1.5 Note: CAD plot uses Pozar formulas
41
Results: Accounting for all losses
100
2.2
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
exact
60
CAD
r = 10.8
40
20
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
h / 0
r = 2.2 or 10.8 W/L = 1.5 Note: CAD plot uses Pozar formulas
42
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antenna
Radiation Patterns
The Eplane pattern is typically broader than the H
plane pattern.
The truncation of the ground plane will cause edge
diffraction, which tends to degrade the pattern by
introducing:
rippling in the forward direction
backradiation
120 240
150 210
44
180
Radiation Patterns (cont.)
Hplane pattern
45 10 45
20
30
135 225
45
180
Basic Properties of Microstrip Antennas
Directivity
The directivity is fairly insensitive to the substrate
thickness.
The directivity is higher for lower permittivity, because
the patch is larger.
46
Results: Directivity
10
r = 2.2
8
DIRECTIVITY (dB)
10.8
6
4
exact
CAD
2
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
h / 0
L
Lp
Zin R C
48
Approximate CAD Model (cont.)
R
Z in j L p
1 j 2Q f / f 0 1
R 1
Q BW BW is defined here by
0 L 2Q SWR < 2.0.
1
0 2 f 0
LC
L
Lp
R C
49
Approximate CAD Model (cont.)
R Rin max
L
Lp
R C
50
Results : Input resistance vs. frequency
80
70
60
CAD
50 exact
R in ( )
40
frequency where the
30 input resistance is
20
maximum (f0)
10
0
4 4.5 5 5.5 6
FREQUENCY (GHz)
60
CAD
exact
40
Xin ( )
20
20
shift due to probe reactance
40
4 4.5 5 5.5 6
FREQUENCY (GHz)
frequency where the
input impedance is real
0 2
Xf k0 h ln
2 k
r 0 a
This is based on an infinite parallelplate model.
X f Lp
0 0 / 0 376.73
53
Approximate CAD Model (cont.)
0 2
Xf k0 h ln
2 k
r 0 a
54
Results: Probe reactance (Xf =Xp= Lp)
40
35 r = 2.2
CAD
exact
30
W/L = 1.5
25
Xf ( )
20 h = 0.0254 0
15
a = 0.5 mm
10
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Xr
56
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency
erhed
er
Rs 1 3 r L 1
1 e hed
d
0
r
h / 0 16 1
p c W h / 0
where
57
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
Psphed 1
ehed
Psphed Pswhed
r
Pswhed
1 hed
Psp
where
P hed
sp
1
2 0
0
kh
2
80 c
2
1
1
3
1 3
2 k0 h 60 c1 1
3
Pswhed
0 r
Hence we have
1
ehed
r 3
3 1 1
1 k0 h 1
4 c1 r
59
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
The constants are defined as
1 2/5
c1 1
r r2
3 1
p 1 k0 W a2 2a4
a2
k0 W c2 k0 L
2 2 4 2
10 560 5
1
a2 c2 k0 W k0 L
2 2
70
c2 0.0914153
a2 0.16605
a4 0.00761 60
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
Improved formula (due to Pozar)
1
e hed
2 0
c1
1
2
r
Pswhed P hed
k h 80 2
1 hed sp
0
Psp
r x 1
3/ 2
k 2 2
hed 0 0 0
P
4 r 1 x1 (k0 h) x02 1 1 r2 x1
sw
x02 1 r2 01 r r2 2 01 02
x1 x0 1
r x02 r2 12
61
CAD Formula: Radiation Efficiency (cont.)
0 s tan k0 h s
1
1 tan k0 h s
k0 h s
s cos k0 h s
2
s r 1
62
CAD Formula: Bandwidth
1 Rs 1 16 p c1 h W 1
BW d
2 0 h / 0 3 r 0 L hed
er
f 2 f1
BW (multiply by 100 if you want to get %)
f0
63
CAD Formula: Resonant Input Resistance
(probefeed)
x0
R Redge cos
2
L
4 L h
0
0
W
Redge
Rs 1 16 p c1 W h 1
d hed
0 h / 0 3
r L 0 er
64
CAD Formula: Directivity
3 r
D k1h
2
tanc
pc1 r tan k1h
2
where
tanc x tan x / x
65
CAD Formula: Directivity (cont.)
3
D
p c1
66
CAD Formula: Radiation Patterns
(based on electric current model)
L x
h r
infinite GP and substrate
L 67
CAD Formula: Radiation Patterns (cont.)
The farfield pattern can be determined by reciprocity.
ky W kx L
sin cos
WL 2 2
Ei (r , , ) Ei r , ,
hex
2 ky W 2 k L 2
x
i or 2 2 2
k x k0 sin cos
k y k0 sin sin
j 0 jk0 r
where E0 e
4 r
2 tan k0 h N
F 1 TE
tan k0 h N j N sec
2 tan k0 h N cos
G cos 1 TM
r
tan k0 h N j cos
N
N r sin 2 69
Circular Polarization
70
Circular Polarization: Single Feed
L W
71
Circular Polarization: Single Feed
y
Design equations:
1
The resonance frequency
BW
f 0 fCP 2Q
(Rin is maximum) is the
optimum CP frequency. (SWR < 2 ) W
x0 y0
1
f x f 0 1
2Q Top sign for LHCP, L x
1
bottom sign for RHCP.
f y f 0 1
2 Q
At resonance:
Rin Rx Ry Rx and Ry are the resonant input resistances of the two LP (x and y)
modes, for the same feed position as in the CP patch.
72
Circular Polarization: Single Feed (cont.)
Other Variations
y y
L L
L x L x
P
L
P+g/4 RHCP
74
Circular Polarization: Dual Feed
Phase shift realized with 90o hybrid (branchline coupler)
Z0 Z0 / 2 Z0
feed
g/4 Z0
50 Ohm load
g/4
LHCP
75
Circular Polarization: Synchronous Rotation
Elements are rotated in space and fed with phase shifts
180o
90o
270o
0o
a
x
h r
77
Circular Patch: Resonance Frequency
Ez
0 J m ka 0
a
78
Circular Patch: Resonance Frequency (cont.)
ka xmn
a PMC
(nth root of Jm Bessel function)
c
f mn
xmn
2 r
c
f11
x11 1.842
x11
2 a r
79
Circular Patch: Resonance Frequency (cont.)
Long/Shen Formula:
2h a h a
ae a 1 a
r 2h
2h
ln 1.7726 or ln 1.7726
a r
80
Circular Patch: Patterns
(based on magnetic current model)
2a x
h r k = k0 r
infinite GP and substrate
Hplane
In patch cavity:
J1 k 1
Ez , cos
J1 ka h
(The edge voltage has a maximum of one volt.) 81
Circular Patch: Patterns (cont.)
E0
ER r , , 2 a tanc k z1h cos J1 k0 a sin Q
0
E0 J1 k0 a sin
E r , , 2 a
R
tanc k z1h sin P
0 k0 a sin
where
tanc(x)= tan (x)/ x
2 jN
P cos 1 cos
TE
tan k0 hN jN sec
r
2 j cos
Q 1 TM N
r
tan k0 h N j cos
N
N r sin82
2
Circular Patch: Input Resistance
J12 k 0
Rin Redge 2
J1 ka
83
Circular Patch: Input Resistance (cont.)
1
Redge er
2 Psp
er = radiation efficiency
where
/2
k0 a tanc2 k0 hN
2
Psp
80 0
Q J1 k0 a sin P J inc
2 2 2 2
k0 a sin sin d
Jinc x J1 x / x
CAD Formula:
Psp ( k0 a ) 2 I c
80
6 e0 1
4 pc k0 a e2 k
2k
I c pc e2 0.400000
3 k 0
e4 0.0785710
e6 7.27509 103
e8 3.81786 104
e10 1.09839 105
e12 1.47731 107
85
Feeding Methods
86
Feeding Methods: Coaxial Feed
Advantages:
Simple
Easy to obtain input match
x
R Redge cos 2 0
L
Disadvantages:
Difficult to obtain input match for thicker substrates,
due to probe inductance.
Significant probe radiation for thicker substrates
87
Feeding Methods: InsetFeed
Advantages:
Simple
Allows for planar feeding
Easy to obtain input match
Disadvantages:
Significant line radiation for thicker substrates
For deep notches, pattern may show distortion.
88
Feeding Methods: Inset Feed (cont.)
Recent work has
shown that the
resonant input Wf x0
resistance varies as S W
2 x0
Rin A cos
2
B
2 L L
450
400
Solid lines: CAD
350 Data points: Ansoft Designer
Rin (Ohms)
Wf x0
300
S W
250
200
10.2
L
150
2.42
100 h = 0.254 cm
r = 1.0
50 L / W = 1.5
0 S / Wf = 3
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
xn
r = 1.00 r = 2.42 r = 10.2
xn x0 / L / 2 Wf = 0.616 cm Wf = 0.380 cm Wf = 0.124 cm
90
Feeding Methods: Proximity (EMC) Coupling
Advantages:
Allows for planar feeding
Less line radiation compared
to microstrip feed
patch
microstrip line
Disadvantages:
Requires multilayer fabrication
Alignment is important for input match
91
Feeding Methods: Gap Coupling
Advantages:
Allows for planar feeding
Can allow for a match with high edge
impedances, where a notch might be too large
gap patch
microstrip line
Disadvantages:
Requires accurate gap fabrication
Requires fullwave design
92
Feeding Methods: Aperture Coupled Patch (ACP)
Advantages:
Allows for planar feeding
Feedline radiation is isolated from patch radiation
Higher bandwidth, since probe inductance
restriction is eliminated for the substrate thickness,
and a doubleresonance can be created.
Allows for use of different substrates to optimize
antenna and feedcircuit performance
patch
Disadvantages: slot
Requires multilayer fabrication
microstrip line
Alignment is important for input match
93
Improving Bandwidth
94
Improving Bandwidth: Probe Compensation
Lshaped probe:
top view
95
Improving Bandwidth: SSFIP
SSFIP: Strip Slot Foam Inverted Patch (a version of the ACP).
foam
microstrip
substrate
microstrip line slot
96
Improving Bandwidth: Stacked Patches
Bandwidth increase is due to thick lowpermittivity antenna
substrates and a dual or tripletuned resonance.
Bandwidths of 25% have been achieved using a probe feed.
Bandwidths of 100% have been achieved using an ACP feed.
microstrip line
slot 97
Improving Bandwidth: Stacked Patches (cont.)
5
10
15
M e asure d
20
ReturnLoss(dB)
Compute d
25
30
35
40
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Frequency (GHz)
Stacked patch with ACP feed
9080
0
10 70
110 60
120
130 50
40
40
50 1
30
0 170 180 170 160 1
20 10 0 10 20
0
1
2
5
10
0.2
0.5
1
 6
13 GHz
03 
5
41 0 1
40

50
130 4 GHz60
120
10 70
0 1
100 8
90
99
Improving Bandwidth: Parasitic Patches
Radiating Edges Gap Coupled
Microstrip Antennas Most of this work
(REGCOMA). was pioneered by
K. C. Gupta.
Single Layer Single Patch Wideband Microstrip Antenna, T. Huynh and K. F. Lee,
Electronics Letters, Vol. 31, No. 16, pp. 13101312, 1986.
102
Improving Bandwidth: Double USlot
103
Improving Bandwidth: EPatch
General Principle:
105
MultiBand Antennas: Examples
lowband
lowband
lowband
highband
106
Miniaturization
High Permittivity
QuarterWave Patch
PIFA
Capacitive Loading
Slots
Meandering
107
Miniaturization: High Permittivity
Hplane
r 1
r 4
W Eplane W=W/2
L=L/2
L
108
Miniaturization: QuarterWave Patch
Hplane Hplane
shortcircuit
Ez = 0 vias
W Eplane W Eplane
L L=L/2
Neglecting losses:
Us U s U s / 2
Q 0 Q 2Q
Pr Pr Pr / 4
109
Miniaturization: Smaller QuarterWave Patch
Hplane
Hplane
L=L/2
L/2
110
Miniaturization: QuarterWave Patch with Fewer Vias
Hplane Hplane
W Eplane W Eplane
L L
L < L
The capacitive loading allows for the length of the PIFA to be reduced.
113
Miniaturization: Circular Patch Loaded with Vias
feed c
2a
0
0
315
10
45
20
5
30
S11[db]
10
20
30
40
10
270
90
15
Etheta
Ephi
20
225
135
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Frequency [GHz]
180
Unloaded: Resonance frequency = 5.32 GHz.
(miniaturization factor = 4.8)
115
Miniaturization: Slotted Patch
Top view
0o 90o
linear CP
The slot forces the current to flow through a longer path, increasing
the effective dimensions of the patch.
116
Miniaturization: Meandering
via
via
feed feed
117
Improving Performance:
Reducing SurfaceWave Excitation and
Lateral Radiation
z feed
b
shorted annular ring
o
a
x a b
h
119
RSW: Principle of Operation
y TM11 mode:
1
Ez , V0 cos J1 k
hJ1 ka
a
x
M s
V0
At edge: Ez cos
h
M s n E zE
z
M s Ez a,
V0
M s cos
h
120
RSW: Principle of Operation (cont.)
y
V0
a M s cos
x h
M s
2
SurfaceWave Excitation: Ez 0 ATM 0 cos H1 TM 0 e z 0
TM
jk z
(z > h)
ATM 0 AJ1 TM 0 a
Set
J1 TM 0 a 0
121
RSW: Principle of Operation (cont.)
y
TM a x1n
a 0
x
M s
For TM11 mode: 1.842
x11
TM a 1.842
0
TM b 1.842
0
b V0
x M s cos
h
M s
1 jk0
LateralWave Field: E LW
ALW cos 2 e
z
(z = h)
Set J1 k0b 0
124
RSW: Reducing Space Wave
y
V0
M s cos
h
a
x
M s
Assume no substrate outside of patch:
1 jk0
SpaceWave Field: EzSP ASP cos e
(z = h)
Set J1 k0b 0
125
RSW: Thin Substrate Result
y
For a thin substrate:
a
x TM k0
0
M s
126
RSW: Eplane Radiation Patterns
Measurements were taken on a 1 m diameter circular ground plane at
1.575 GHz.
Measurement
0 Theory 0
30 30 30 30
10 10
30 30
180 180
conventional RSW
127
RSW: Mutual Coupling
spacewave radiation
lateral radiation
surface waves
128
RSW: Mutual Coupling (cont.)
Reducing surfacewave excitation and lateral radiation reduces mutual coupling.
0
RSW  Measured
10 Eplane
RSW  Theory
20
Conv  Measured
30 Conv  Theory
40
S12 [dB]
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Separation [Wavelengths]
130
References (cont.)
General references about microstrip antennas (cont.):
132
References (cont.)
133
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