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CE-UG-III-2015

Spring FEB-JUN 2017


FRICTION HEAD LOSS IN CONDUIT OF
CONSTANT CROSS SECTION
Flow is steady flow
Conduit of uniform
cross section

1 2 sin 0 = 0
0 =
1 2
2 + 1 = 0


= 1 + 1 2 + 2


Where = 0

FRICTION HEAD LOSS IN CONDUIT OF CONSTANT
CROSS SECTION

After deriving the equation for

Dimensionless term

Where

We can apply to any shape of smooth walled cross section


FRICTION IN CIRCULAR CONDUITS
2
=
Circular Pipe 2
Flowing full
(Laminar or 2
turbulent flow) ==
2
= 4 = 8

PIPE FRICTION EQUATION and


DARCY &WEISBACH EQUATION
The pipe friction equation states that the head lost in
friction in a given pipe is proportional to the velocity
head.
Dimensional analysis gives us the proper form for an
equation, but does not yield numerical result, since it
does not deal with theoretical numerical factors.
FRICTION IN CIRCULAR CONDUITS
The Pipe friction equation states that the head lost in friction in a
given pipe is proportional to velocity head
The equation is dimensionally homogeneous
We may use it with any consistent system of unit
Exact form of and numerical values for and f may be
determined by experiments or other means
For circular pipe flowing full
20
= 0 =
0

0 =
2 2
0 = =
4 2 4 2
FRICTION in Non circular conduit

Equivalent diameter
D = 4Rh
2
=
4 2
4 4
Pipe Flow: = =

LAMINAR Flow in Circular PIPE
Laminar Flow in Circular Pipe
1. Equation-1 Shear stress definition
2. Equation-2 Shear stress definition with negative sign.
3. Head loss equation
4. Substituting shear stress in Head loss equation, and writing equation for du.
5. Integrating the above equation
6. Applying condition -1 and find out constant of integration for the above
equation and Putting the value of constant in equation-5
7. Write in terms of k.
8. Applying condition-2 in equation-7 and find k and substituting k and
Umax=Vc (centerline velocity) in equation 7. Equation for velocity at any
point in the x-section is formed in terms of max. velocity and ratio of radii.
9. Find the equation for max. velocity by substituting k expression in
application of condition-2.
10. Find V (average velocity) for laminar flow as Umax/2= Vaverage for a
paraboloid.
LAMINAR Flow in Circular PIPE

&
LAMINAR Flow
= 0.5
in Circular PIPE

So,
2
=
32
Loss of Head due to Friction

Laminar Flow: = 32 = 32
2 2
Hagen Poiseuille Law
Loss of head is proportional to the first power of the velocity
No empirical coefficients
In Laminar flow the friction is independent of the roughness of the pipe
wall
64 64
Laminar Flow: = =

Entrance conditions in Laminar Flow
Entrance Condition in Laminar Flow
Rounded Entrance: to avoid any initial distribution of the entering
streams
At the boundaries particles of fluid adhere to the walls. This is called
no slip condition so zero velocity there and max velocity gradient and
velocity is uniform across the rest of the diameter
As the fluid progress, friction originating from walls, slows down the
streamlines in the vicinity of the wall
As Q is constant, velocity in the centre increases until the final velocity
profile is parabola.
Theory & observations have established that maximum velocity in the
centre of the pipe will reach 99% of its ultimate value in a distance

Entrance Length Le = 0.058 RD


Entrance Condition in Laminar Flow
What would be the critical maximum value of this length
When R<2000, how critical length is affected
Un established flow/entrance flow
No frictional affects, uniform velocity outer annular zone extending
from the core of the pipe wall Invicid CORE
Thickness of the outer zone increases as it moves along the wall
Boundary Layer
Viscosity in the boundary layer acts to transmit the effect of boundary
shear inwardly into the flow
At what location boundary layer has grown, such as it occupies the
whole x-section
Velocity profile remains the same beyond this x section, flow is known
as established/fully developed flow
The flow will continue as fully developed so long as no change occurs
to the straight pipe surface.
Question:
In a refinery oil (s=0.85, =1.8 x 10-5 m2/s) flows through a 100
mm diameter pipe at 0.50 L/s, Find the centre line velocity, the
velocity at r=20mm, the friction factor , the shear stress at pipe
wall and the head loss per meter of the pipe length.
steps
Find centre-line velocity/ u max
Find k using end conditions, r=ro , then u=0 and the
equation u=u max-kr2
find velocity at 20 mm
Find pipe friction factor f
Find max shear stress at the walls, using average
velocity.
Find head loss per unit length of pipe.