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'Momente': Material for the Listener and Composer: 1

Author(s): Roger Smalley

Source: The Musical Times, Vol. 115, No. 1571 (Jan., 1974), pp. 23-28
Published by: Musical Times Publications Ltd.
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Material for the listener and composer-i

Roger Smalley

INTRODUCTION. This article has been written partly 3. HISTORY. The plans for Momente were made in
in anticipation of the forthcoming release of the Sicily during January 1962. On 20 May 1962 all the
first complete recording of Momente, made by DGG K-Moments, together with M(m), MK(d), I(d) and
in December 1972 and January 1973, immediately I(m) (duration c25') were given their first per-
following the first complete public performance, formance by the West German Radio, Cologne.
(see 3 below). But there are other, perhaps more During the Donaueschinger Musiktage in October
important reasons. First, after reading the reviews 1965 an extended version comprising all the K- and
of the first English performance (12 January 1973) M-Moments, I(d), I(m) and I was played (duration
I felt that there was a need for more factual infor- c60'). This is the version which is recorded on the
mation about Momente to be made available. Wergo and Nonesuch labels. The first performance
Second, I have just been preparing an article ofonthe complete work-consisting of all the fore-
Moment-form for the new edition of Grove and have going Moments plus the D-Moments and the long
discovered, to my astonishment, how little has been I(k) Moment-took place on 8 December 1972 in
written about Moment-form and how few composers the Beethovenhalle, Bonn (duration cl05').
have used it. Perhaps these phenomena are inter- 4. INSTRUMENTATION AND LAYOUT.
connected. This is doubly surprising in that form The unique and non-transferable composition of
is probably the weakest aspect of contemporary one's sound material is to my mind just as
music and Moment-form is the only really new, important today as, for example, the selection
linguistically independent and therefore generally of themes, motives and formal schemes was in
applicable formal concept to have arisen since 1945. earlier compositions, for the composition of
I hope that this article may awaken some composers timbres is indeed no longer the colouration of a
to the existence of new possibilities of increasing musical structure (people used to and often still
what Stockhausen calls the 'relational richness and do speak of 'scoring a piece of music') but is
from the very beginning fully equal to all other
complexity' of their music and also that it may lead
procedures that one employs in the production
some listeners to a more profound understanding of a musical composition. I also feel, therefore,
and enjoyment of Momente when they next hear it. 1 that the specific selection and combination of an
1. TITLE. Momente for soprano, four choral instrumental force for a particular work should
groups and 13 instrumentalists. remain unrepeatable and uncopyable, both
for myself and for other composers.4
2. DEDICATION. 'For my wife Mary Stockhausen- The layout of instrumental and vocal forces
Bauermeister': Stockhausen's second wife, the
specified.5 Within each choir the singers (three each
artist Mary Bauermeister whom he married in 1967.
of sopranos, altos, tenors and basses) sit in four
In the summer of 1961, when the ideas of Momente
rows; Choir I is to the conductor's left, IV to his
must have been germinating in Stockhausen's mind,right, II and III in between and further back on the
she took part in his composition course at Darm-
platform. In addition to producing sounds with the
stadt. 'To the astonishment of the composers she
voice and body each singer also plays a small per-
showed that the same compositional problems which
cussion instrument. The members of Choir I play
are applicable to present-day musical compositioneither a cardboard tube, one end of which is covered
lead, in her works, to new optical inventions and
with paper to convert it into a small drum, or a
discoveries'.2 During this period-the time of
tambourine without jingles; these instruments are
Originale, Momente and Plus-Minus-there was struck with the fingers or with rubber-headed
obviously a fruitful exchange of ideas between these
sticks. Choir II play wooden claves and Choir III
two distinctive but related creative personalities.
small plastic boxes (such as travelling soap-boxes)
Mary Bauermeister's painterly 'Kompositionsplan',
which are filled with lead shot. These can be gently
extracted from a multimedia composition for
rotated to produce a continuous swishing sound or
hearing-seeing-feeling-testing-smelling which she
shaken violently for single attacks (cf the tom-
conceived during that Darmstadt course, has much
toms filled with dried peas in Kontakte). Choir IV
in common with the conceptual and structural
play metal bars which are struck together like
thinking underlying the scores of Momente and claves (the members of the WDR Choir use the
heavy hexagonal spanners found in garages).
IStockhausen's own writings on Momente and Moment-form
are collected in his three volumes of Texte (Cologne, 1963-71);
Within each family of these so-called 'Zusatz-
certain passages are translated in K. H. W6rner: Stockhausen:
Life and Work (London, 1973). 27 pages of sketches for Momente
are reproduced in K. Stockhausen: Ein Schliissel fiir Momente 4'Nr. 13: Momente', Texte, ii, 130-3
(Kassel, 1971). Where translations exist, I have used them (by
kind permission); otherwise they are my own. 5The original layout (Schliissel, shows Percussion I and 2
immediately in front of the organs and the tam-tam forward of
2'Mary Bauermeister', Texte, ii, 167-9 and between Choirs II and III. During rehearsals for the
3This 'Kompositionsplan' is reproduced in M. Bauermeister: 1972-3 performances it was found better, for reasons of balance,
Gemalde und Objekte 1952-1972 (Munich, 1972), xvi-xviii to move the percussion players further back.

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tiated pitches
A pair of bra
trombone, tenor or bass) is placed behind each

choir. The trumpets require straight, cup and

wa-wa mutes; the trombones also use a plunger
mute. Percussionists 1 and 2 (situated respectively
between Choirs I and II, and III and IV) play
between them one small tam-tam (diameter 85 cm),
one vibraphone, three tom-toms, five suspended
cumbals with diameters between 40 and 82 cms,

five small cymbals with definite pitches between
I- U,
F#" and C"', a special kidney-shaped drum which
can produce pitches within a range of up to one and
a half octaves, and three tambourines with jingles.
W The third percussionist (at the back, between
0 o. Choirs II and III) plays principally the large tam-
tam (diameter 160 cm) familiar from performances
o L
of Mikrophonie I
uj ul Immediately in front of the conductor are the two
electronic organs, a large Hammond with a key-
o board compass of five octaves, 32' pedal register and

< <,
continuously variable registration, and a smaller
Lowrey organ with pre-set stops. Emphasizing her
dominant position within the work's structure, the
solo soprano stands on a raised podium in the centre
o of the other vocal and instrumental forces.


0 > "<
? -JJ choice of such a restricted instrumentation (no
strings or woodwind, relatively little percussion) for
_J J a work of over one and a half hours' duration may

o H .
at first seem surprising. The fact that the listener
never becomes aware of these limitations is, first,
because of the extraordinary range and variety of
sounds drawn from both voices and instruments;
,.. " -. and, second, because (as suggested by the quotation
in 4 above) the initial selection of forces is an integral

U Z:

U w
part of the structure. That these reasons are inter-
dependent may be seen from fig.1, an early sketch of
instrumental and vocal relationships.6 It is clear from
:z fig.1 that to enable all instruments and voices to
participate in the formation of all types of musical
gesture (noise, pitch, sustained, short, echoing,
accentuated etc) a thorough investigation of sound-
LU -;- 0A
production possibilities was required. This resulted
not only in the use of virtually all previously known
methods of sound-production but in the introduction
w ~z _0

LU k L
of some new ones as well. There is thus a temptation
(to which more than one critic has succumbed) to
-,L Zc"J
view the sound-world of Momente as little more
than an expression of its composer's desire for cheap
NS 3'-
sensationalism. But this is a facile response, because
it avoids confronting the real issue, which is the
structural integration of vocal and instrumental
sounds-besides which, as Stockhausen points out
in a salutory story, all such judgments are relative:
A music lover had come from Barcelona for the
concert. After the performance [of Momente]
he came up to me filled with enthusiasm and said
he would never have thought it possible that in
the present state of composition one could still
draw on folkloristic elements such as those in
Spanish flamenco. He referred particularly to
those Moments in which I employed-according
to purely musical criteria-choral hand-clapping,
6Schlassel, pl.9; note the relationship between ex.2 and ex.3
(the form-scheme).

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Ex. 1

=Sopra I L I , 14. . 4 P -
Ka - la Ka - se - sa Ba - 'u Ka - la Ka - se - sa Ba - 'u Ka-la Ka-se - sa Ka- se - sam

Ex.2 I Chorus - soprano

Solo Soprano
mfhai ka-ma

he hbe who Ki - - sses the joy as it flies lives in E - ter - ni- ty's sun - - rise
4" 1" 2" i

tongue- and finger-clicking, foot-shuffling, stamp- 6. TEXTS. (a) The Song of Solomon (in the transla-
ing and knee-slapping, as well as all sorts of other tion of Martin Luther). This is the most extensively
sounds. In Spain there is highly refined and used text, above all in the D-Moments, where it is
elaborate flamenco music in which all these
sung principally by the female voices of the chorus.
methods of articulation are artistically improvised
Shorter extracts are also heard, mainly from the solo
according to traditional rules by singers and
dancers, both individually and in groups, and soprano,
in in many M-Moments. In other Moments,
especially I(d), fragments of this text spoken and
which one can experience the most differentiated
rhythmic and dynamic forms with these sound whispered rapidly and unsynchronously by the
media. What affected the concert public herechoirs
[in are used to create textures.
Germany] as shocking, cabaretish, and extra-
(b) Extracts from a letter of Mary Bauermeister:
musical was to the Spaniard an enchanting
coupling of traditional sound media and new 'these form the main text of Moment I(k) in which
musical speech (although while composing, I they are juxtaposed with passages from the Song of
never thought for a moment that I was drawing Solomon to form a network of suggestive cross-
on Spanish folklore).4 relationships.7
In Momente Stockhausen attempts, as he already (c) Short quotations from The Sexual Life of
had in Gesang der Jiinglinge and Carrd in a less Savages by Bronislaw Malinowski, an ethnographi-
radical way, to integrate instrumental and vocal cal account of the Trobriand Islands, British New
music. Not to use instruments as an accompaniment Guinea; see, for example, M(d), where the words are
for the voice (as was the case, for example, in much repeated in a frantic incantation (ex.1).
'classical' opera) nor to use voices as an extension of (d) A quotation from William Blake: 'He who
instrumental music (as in the vocal symphonies of
kisses the joy as it flies/Lives in Eternity's sunrise'.
Beethoven and Mahler) nor yet, as in the early This appears only in M(d) (and in the 'Bonn version'
cantatas of Boulez and Nono, to treat voices and
as an insert in M) sung by the solo soprano joined
instruments on equal terms, but to unite them into
an indivisible whole. The fundamental criterion for
by a soprano from the chorus (ex.2).
the selection and treatment of the forces is therefore (e) Names from fairy tales, e.g. rapuntsel (MK);
the establishment of an ensemble in which there Invented names, e.g. kama, maka, dodi;
exists the greatest possible number of points of Shouts, e.g. bravo, pfui, nein das ist unm6glich,
contact between voices and instruments. da capo, furchtlos weiter (K(m));
To this end the members of the chorus are not Exclamations, e.g. bald ? so ? schon ? jetzt ? ja!
restricted to purely vocal methods of sound pro- immer, wann? warum? wie? wo ? sure?
duction: 'Foot stamping and hand-clapping comple- wozu? (M(k)).
ment and vary the attacks produced by felt and(f) Inverted onomatopoeic words, and purely
wooden sticks on drums and cymbals; continuous phonetically constructed nonsense syllables.
foot-shuffling and knee-slapping combine well with
sounds such as prrrr . . . (unvoiced), with rolls 7. MOMENT FORM. Momente is the most character-
produced with the sticks on the edges and skin of the istic products of a new kind of formal thinking which
tom-tom, as well as with fast tone-repetitions in the Stockhausen calls Moment-form.
low ranges of the trumpets and trombones. Foot- Momente is not a closed work with an une-
scraping and hand-rubbing resemble the rubbing of quivocally fixed beginning, formal structure and
drum skins with sticks and brushes and with the ending, but a polyvalent composition containing
sustained consonants such as shsh . . .; finger- independent
and events. Unity and continuity are less
tongue-clicks (isolated and in dense succession) the outcome of obvious similarities than of an
yield corresponding variations of timbre, allowing immanent concentration on the present, as
uninterrupted as possible.4
the composition of tone-colour transitions and
Each Moment, whether a state or a process, is
relationships between speech sounds and instru- individual and self-regulated, and able to sustain
mental sounds. The scale of sounds between an independent existence. The musical events
unvoiced consonants (i.e. noises without clearly do not take a fixed course between a determined
recognizable pitch) and vowels with distinctly beginning and an inevitable ending, and the
definable pitch is similarly differentiated, proceeding moments are not merely consequents of what
from unvoiced breathing-out through aspiration, precedes them and antecedents of what follows;
whispering, giggling, murmuring, speaking, shout-
7A translation of the entire text of I(k) appeared in the pro-
ing, screaming and laughing, to singing.4 gramme of the first London performance.

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rather the concentration on the Now-on every beginning? Webern's thinking remained, neverthe-
Now-as if it were a vertical slice dominating over less, primarily pitch-orientated (as can be seen from
any horizontal conception of time and reaching his sketch books) although at times other para-
into timelessness, which I call eternity: an meters (dynamics, rhythmic structure, instrument-
eternity which does not begin at the end of time,
but is attainable at every Moment.8
ation) approached the same level of organization.
During the decade following World War II
A legacy of the Classical-Romantic period is the this total integration of parameters is popularly
conception of a music which moves forward presumed to have been achieved, in a few works by
dynamically through time. The basis of this music Messiaen, Boulez, Stockhausen, Nono and others.
lies in the notion of continuous growth-themes This is, however, something of an illusion, since
and motives are stated in their simplest or mostpitch actually retained its dominant position because
pregnant form and then evolve towards a final goalof the fact that a pitch series was always arrived at
through a process of rhythmic intensification andfirst, and an attempt was then made to organize the
harmonic expansion. The form within which thisother parameters on an equivalent basis. This pro-
development takes place or, alternatively, which iscedure gave rise to some fairly improbable musical
created by the nature of the development, is itselfsituations, as well as to a widespread lack of
evolutionary, reflecting on a large scale the thematic,understanding on the part of listeners. Composers
harmonic and rhythmic processes of its constituentsoon realized that the scale of organization would
have to be expanded if the musical processes were
These formal processes evolved in answer to the to be clearly followed, and that new systems of
needs of, and as a result of the possibilities of, the musical organization-more broadly based and
tonal system-a system of musical organization more inclusive-would have to be developed. The
which gives pride of place to pitch, and in which expansion of scale (which does not refer particu-
there exists an apriori network of pitch relationships. larly to the length of a work, although it did allow
Already during the first decade of this century composers to write longer works) can be observed
Schoenberg was facing the formal problems posed particularly clearly in Stockhausen's progression
by the collapse of the tonal language into atonality from Point to Group to Moment forms. The struc-
and the consequent absence of the foundation on tures of Kontakte, Momente and Carre show that it is
which composers had previously built their musical no longer the case that every parameter is straight-
structures. Although the development of the 12-note jacketed into conformity with a pitch-dominated
system solved this problem on the small scale, it did system (our expanded sound-world now includes so
not possess any inherent criteria for the organi- many percussive, noise and pitchless elements that
zation of large-scale form. One way of looking at it would, in any event, be unprofitable, if not
the work of the Second Viennese School would
impossible, to think again primarily in terms of
be as a continuous (and unresolved) search for pitch).
forms to parallel the non-hierarchical nature of the At the beginning of this section I used the words
pitch-systems. Of the three composers Webern made 'formal process' to describe Moment-form, in order
the most radical discoveries. He accepted the to distinguish it from formal schemes such as sonata
absence of a priori criteria and created forms which and rondo, which assume the presence of specific
were an extrapolation in architectural terms of formal elements (first subject, episode etc). Moment-
relationships which existed between the pitches of form makes no such prescriptions. Its only assump-
the series (unlike Schoenberg, who attempted to tion is of a model which will govern the distribution
reconcile the 12-note system with classical formal and interaction of all parameters. Whereas in
models). In the second movement of Webern's Webern's later music this model was provided by
Symphony op.21, for example, the theme, seven the pitch series, in Moment-form it arises from the
variations and coda are each mirrored around a
totality of possibilities inherent in the diverse
central point and the form as a whole is sym- materials which the composer brings together for
metrical around the middle of the fourth variation.
each particular work. It follows, therefore, that a
This structure is nothing more or less than a mag-
composer must be aware of all the potentialities of
nification of the prime-retrograde relationship his material before he actually begins to notate the
which exists between the two hexachords of the
score; and this accounts for Stockhausen's obses-
basic series (ex.3) and which is itself the 'theme'
sive of
interest in the categorizing and pre-composi-
tional ordering of his basic material.
Ex. 3
Webern op. 21
When this has been done the composer is in a

's1El position,
over vis-.-vis
a town his material,
rather than ofwalking
of someone someone flying
its streets. His is not a journey of discovery but a
process of synthesis, of bringing the material he has
these variations. In this movement the principle of chosen into meaningful relationships and com-
causality which operates in the tonal system is binations. (I do not want to give the impression that
decisively weakened. Are not all of these variations this is a purely mechanical process, once the initial
'individual and self-regulated, and able to sustain an plans have been completed. In fact the act of
independent existence' and 'not merely conse- composition itself brings about all kinds of un-
sequents of what precedes them and antecedents of foreseen situations which have to be creatively
what follows', because each variation leads not resolved. There are, in Momente, numerous instances
forwards to the next, but backwards to its own of details in the ground-plan being disregarded for
8'Erfindung und Entdeckung', Texte, i, 222-58 (see p.250) contextual reasons.)

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This method of working both promotes and
encourages what Stockhausen called, in his pro- Fi. 2 (Form- sAheme, BOn Version) V
gramme note to the 1965 performance of Momente,
'polyvalent thinking':
Right up to the end of my time as a student my c oo
thoughts were so chock full of dualistic pairs of
concepts, such as object-subject, intellect-
emotion, being-meaning, material-ideal, the-
matic-athematic, tonal-atonal, periodic-aperiodic,
homophonic-polyphonic, sound-noise, note-
silence, and so on and so forth, that a latent
dubiousness about all merely bipolar values
X L<n
spread in all directions in my mind. In my first
works I withdrew into an extremely monistic way
of thinking. I then slowly extended this into
trivalent and polyvalent thought.9
In Momente there are many instances of poly- oco a4u a
valent thinking, from the initial choice of Moment- LOO
form and the pre-compositional ordering which this ?c o
implies, to the variable form and use of inserts
(see 9 below)-even the fact that parts were able to
be performed before the whole was completed. roo

I had my hands full keeping open the new and
unknown world of electronic sound for such
guests: I wanted them to feel 'at home' and not
'integrated' by some administrative act, but rather,
genuinely engaged in an untrammelled spiritual
encounter. 10
oQoooO LJLe
Thus Stockhausen, on his use of folk-music in
Telemusik. Almost the same could be said of the
diverse materials in Momente. Although virtually
I\/I' f
every parameter is organized to some degree, the
systems are chosen according to the nature of each
different type of material, and they all spring from
the basic model which is that of the polyvalent
Moment-structure. A composer is no longer in the CQ w aqoo

position of beginning from a fixed point in time and ce; lt~3 "m cn Lo~~ ~
moving forwards from it; rather he is moving in all
directions within a materially circumscribed world. M rA
This is a reflection of the relativistic nature of the
1 04T -, C
physical world and of our search to define our own
position within it by integrating the plurality of
information about ourselves and others of which
we are increasingly and unavoidably made aware.
In its acceptance of diversity and (as hinted at in .~4mO(Y)OO
Aln 0 000
the quotation above about Telemusik) its attitude
of non-coercion, Moment-form also reflects if not
Nr ,tf4O)oo
the actuality then at least the desire for a society in
which the rights of all individuals are respected.
8. FORM. Momente is made up of three large
Moment-groups identified by the capital letters in a
D (Dauer, duration), K (Klang, timbre) and M
(Melodie), and four I Moments (see fig.2, which IIv -N
should be read from left to right following the
sloping lines: I(k), DKM, DK(m), D(d-m), D(k)
etc). The dominant characteristics of each group are CO r r i,
summarized in fig.3. Within each group the central
Moment (D, K and M in fig.2) expresses the
characteristics of that group in their purest form. By
a process of musical cross-breeding each of these
central Moments produces a family-tree of related
Moments in which the characteristics of the different
Moment-groups are combined in varying pro-
portions. All three groups follow the same plan.

9'Momente', Texte, iii, 31-9

l 'Telemusik', Texte, iii, 75-7

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Fig.3 Characteristics of the Moment-groups it will be seen that if the order of Moment-groups is
D-K-M then I(m) must also be able to precede or
K-Moments M-Moments D-Moments follow I(d). All of these possibilities (including the
Timbre Melody Duration
Movement vertical horizontal diagonal last) are shown on plate 4a of Schliissel. However,
(vertical, it is clear from fig.2 that in making the 'Bonn
Texture homophony monophony polyphony Version' Stockhausen broke his own rules by
heterophony placing I(d) between D- and K-groups and I(k) at
Rhythm regular random irregular the beginning. The likeliest explanation is that
Timbre noise pitches, noise pitch Moment I(k) was the last to be composed, many
Instruments percussion brass electric organs years after the first form plans were made. It has
Voices men solo soprano women
Dynamics f mf pp now assumed such an introductory function, with
Inserts give give, receive receive
the solo soprano's opening incantation, 'Hbrt die
Momente, Musik der Liebe', and her repeated cries
First the principal character of each group is of 'Kommt herein' to the offstage chorus and
combined with smaller amounts (indicated by small brass that it is difficult to imagine it anywhere except
letters in brackets) of the other two groups (D(k), at the opening of either the first or second halves of
D(m), K(m), K(d), M(d), M(k)-see fig.2, third a performance.
level from the bottom). On the fourth level up the Viewed as a whole this is a brilliant example of a
number of derived Moments has doubled to 12; each variable form-scheme. The fact that any number
Moment-group has four, two of which combine and combination of Moments can change position
equally the characteristics of two groups (DK, DM means that there is a very large number of possible
etc) and two which add a smaller proportion of the forms. On the other hand the polynuclear arrange-
third group (DK(m), DM(k) etc). There are five ment of the Moments means that a Moment can
Moments additional to this scheme. These are the be replaced only by another Moment belonging to
four D Moments on the fifth level and M(m) (third-
the same structural level, and that the number of
level, far right). DKM is the only Moment which different positions which each individual Moment
combines the characteristics of all three Moment can occupy is relatively limited so that all possible
groups in equal proportions. The others are allconnections can be foreseen. Thus although the
so-called feedback (riickgekoppelter) Moments, form
in of Momente is highly variable there is no
which the same letter appears both as a capital question of an 'indeterminate' structure.
and as a small letter. In DK(d) and DK(k) one of
9. INSERTS. When the sequence of Moments has been
the two main components reflects on another aspect fixed for a particular performance each Moment
of itself; M(m) is a 'self-reflecting' Moment and can influence, and/or be influenced by, the Moments
D(d-m) proceeds from self-reflection to reflection surrounding it according to a system of inserts
about m. In these Moments two different character-
(Einschiibe). A small number of highly character-
istics of the same group are sharply contrasted. This
istic sections from each Moment are reprinted on
can be heard particularly clearly in M(m) where the loose strips of paper. These strips have 'tongues' in
closely related characteristics of monody (unac- the centre which can be inserted into vertical slits
companied soprano solo) and heterophony (huge cut into the score. Each Moment has a sign govern-
outbursts of parallel chords from the entire forces) ing the deployment of these inserts:
alternate in block Opposition. Since 'melody' itself
is the dominant characteristic of the group the insert an Einschub from the previous
soprano solo does, in fact, occupy a larger pro- Moment into the present one
portion of the total duration. (memory);
For each performance the order of Moments can I insert an Einschub from the present
be varied. Moment-groups D and M are inter- Moment into the previous one
changeable around group K, which must always be (where it functions as a premonition);
central. Within each Moment-group all the Moments insert an Einschub from the present
which have a common centre may be interchanged Moment into the next one (where it
at each level. In Moment-group K, for example, functions as a memory);
the two sub-groups K(m), KM, KM(d) and K(d), I ' insert Moment
an Einschub from the following
KD, KD(m) are interchangeable around K, Moments into the present one (where
KM and KM(d) around K(m) and Moments KD and it functions as a premonition);
KD(m) around (Kd). M(m) must always follow S the Moment is 'neutral'; it gives and
receives no Einschiibe.
The three main Moment-groups are divided by If the arrow has a figure two above it, it means
four I (informal, also indeterminate) Moments. 'next-but-one Moment' or 'last-but-one Moment'.
The exact rules for determining the position of A plus and a minus sign above the arrow means that
these I Moments remain unclear. In one of his the Moment referred to is to be played twice, first
most recent writings on the subject (the introduc- with the Einschub and then without it.
tion to Schliissel) Stockhausen says: 'I(d) always These signs are entered in fig.2, and show that the
stands between the M- and K-groups, I(k) always M-Moments both give and receive Einschiibe, the
between the K- and D-groups. The I(m) Moment is K-Moments only give Einschiibe (although naturally
independent and can stand at the beginning or they must receive those given by other K-Moments)
before or af er I(k); according to its position it will and the D-Moments only receive Einschiibe.
be read either forwards or backwards. Moment I
The second part of Roger Smalley's article will
always stands at the end'. Following this scheme
appear in next month's MT.

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