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CHM3010: Tutorial 1 September 2014

T1: Atomic theory and atomic structure

1. As quantum mechanics developed, light was found to have many


characteristics in common with electrons.
Describe an experiment carried out by Einstein that indicates the particle
nature of light.

2. If it takes 3.36 x 10-19 J of energy to eject an electron from the surface of a


certain metal, calculate the longest possible wavelength, in nanometers, of
light that can ionize the metal.

3. a) Describe the wave nature of electron as quantified by de Broglie.


b) Calculate the wavelength of an electron travelling with speed 2.65 x 10 6
m/s

4. The velocities of two particles A and B are 0.05 and 0.02 ms 1 respectively.
The mass of B is five times the mass of A. The ratio of their de-Broglie's
wavelength.
5. Briefly discuss the energy of electron in Bohr atom theory based on the
Bohrs equation.

6. For the hydrogen atom , the energy of an electron in an orbital with quantum
number n is given by the equation:
En= -2.18 x 10-18(1/n2) J.
Derive the Rydbergs equation.

7. Determine the wavelength of the light absorbed when an electron in a


hydrogen atom jumps from an orbital in which n=2 to an orbital in which
n=7.

8. A certain green light has a wavelength of 6.26 x 10 14 Hz. (a) What is its
wavelength? (b) What is the energy of one photon of this light? (c) Of one
mole of photons?

9. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom


in the gas phase. The ionization energy of gold is 890.1 kJ/mol. Calculate the
minimum wavelength of light that will ionize gold.

10.a) Sketch the 5s and and 6p orbitals

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b) Write the possible quantum numbers (n, l , ml ,ms ) for the electrons in
the 7s and and 7p orbitals.

11. Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for Cr 3+.
Determine whether it is diamagnetic or paramagnetic. Why?
(Cr : atomic weight =52, atomic number = 24)

12.The values of four quantum numbers of valence electron of an element are

n = 4, l = 0, m = 0 and s = . The element is ..

13. The maximum number of sub-levels, orbitals and electrons is 'N' shell
of an atom are respectively.

2
Answer:

CHM3010: Tutorial 1 September 2014


T1: Atomic theory and atomic structure

14. As quantum mechanics developed, light was found to have many


characteristics in common with electrons.
Describe an experiment carried out by Einstein that indicate the the
particle nature of light.

Answer:
ii) The particle nature of light is characterized by the specific
quantity of energy carried in each photon.

The photoelectric effect

Many metals emit electrons when light of sufficiently high energy


shines upon them. Electrons are knocked off its surface.

Electrons are ejected only if the light is of sufficiently short wavelength


(sufficiently high energy) , no matter how long or how brightly the
light shines.

The number of electrons emitted per second (current), increases as the


brightness (intensity) of the light increases.

The particle nature of light. E=mC2

15. If it takes 3.36 x 10-19 J of energy to eject an electron from the


surface of a certain metal, calculate the longest possible wavelength,
in nanometers, of light that can ionize the metal.

Answer:
Determine the frequency: E = h

3
3.36 x 10-19 J = (6.626 x 1034 J s) (x)
= 5.071 x 1014 s1

Determine the wavelength: = c


() (5.071 x 1014 s1) = 3.00 x 108 m/s
= 5.916 x 10 7 m
592 nm

16. a) Describe the wave nature of electron as quantified by de


Broglie.

Answer:
The velocity of a moving electron is related to its wavelength which is
given by The de Broglie relation
= h/m v
= wavelength, h= Plancks Const, m= mass,
v= velocity

b) Calculate the wavelength of an electron travelling with speed 2.65


x 106 m/s
Answer:
Apply: m= 9.11x10-31 kg
= h/m v
= 2.74 x1010 m

17. The velocities of two particles A and B are 0.05 and 0.02 ms1
respectively. The mass of B is five times the mass of A. The ratio of
their de-Broglie's wavelength.
Answer : 2:1

18. Briefly discuss the energy of electron in Bohr atom theory based
on the Bohrs equation.

Answer: En= (- bZ2/n2)


b= -2.18 x 10-18 Bohr const , Z= atomic no.

19. For the hydrogen atom , the energy of an electron in an orbital


with quantum number n is given by the equation:
En= -2.18 x 10-18(1/n2) J.
Derive the Rydbergs equation.

Answer:
En= (- bZ2/n2) = -2.18 x 10-18(1/n2) J.

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b=-2.18 x 10-18
Z=1

E Eh El ( nb2 nb2 )

h l

b 1
nl2
1
nh2
with nh nl
The Planck equation
E hv hc 1 or 1

b 1
hc nl2 n12
h

b
R 1.097 10 7 m 1
hc

20. Determine the wavelength of the light absorbed when an


electron in a hydrogen atom jumps from an orbital in which n=2 to an
orbital in which n=7.
Answer:
Apply Rydbergs equation

1 1 1
R 2
n f
2
ni R 1.097 10 7 m 1
= 397 nm

21. A certain green light has a wavelength of 6.26 x 1014 Hz. (a)
What is its wavelength? (b) What is the energy of one photon of this
light? (c) Of one mole of photons?

Solution:

1) Use = c for (a).

2) Use E = h for (b). Note that you do not need the answer to (a) to solve part (b). This
answer is nornally given in units of J.

3) Multiply the answer to (b) by Avogadro's Number. This answer is normally given in
kJ/mol.

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22. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron
from an atom in the gas phase. The ionization energy of gold is 890.1
kJ/mol. Calculate the minimum wavelength of light that will ionize gold.

Solution:
a) We need the energy of one photon:
890100 J/mol divided by 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 = 1.478 x 10-18 J

b) This time, use the one step equation:


E = hc
= hc / E
= [(6.626 x 10-34 J s) (3.00 x 108 m/s)] / 1.478 x 10-18 J
= 1.345 x 10-7 m
this is ultraviolet radiation. the visible spectrum spans 400 to 700 nm.

23. a) Sketch the 5s and and 6p orbitals

b) Write the possible quantum numbers (n, l , ml ,ms ) for the


electrons in the 7s and and 7p orbitals

Answer:
7s n=7, l=0, ml = 0 , ms= or - 2 electrons
(2,0,0, -) and (2,0,0, -)
7p n=7, l=1, ml = -1, 0, 1, , ms= or - 6 electrons
(3,1,-1, -) and (3,1,-1, -)
(3,1,0, -) and (3,1,0, -)
(3,1,1, -) and (3,1,1, -)

24. Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for Cr3+.

Determine whether it is diamagnetic or paramagnetic. Why?


(Cr : atomic weight =52, atomic number = 24)

Answer:

Cr [Ar] 4s23d4 expected

[Ar] 4s13d5 experiment

Cr3+ [Ar] 4s03d3

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[Ar]
4s 3d
Paramagnetic 3 unpaired electrons

25. The values of four quantum numbers of valence electron of an


element are

n = 4, l = 0, m = 0 and s = . The element is

Answer : potassium K

26. The maximum number of sub-levels, orbitals and electrons is 'N'


shell of an atom are respectively.

Answer; 4, 16, 30