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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr.

2/2010

UNELE CONSIDERAII PRIVIND A FEW CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT


COMUNICAREA INSTITUIONAL INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNICATION

Oana-Sabina BZOI Oana Sabina BZOI


Universitatea Constantin Brncui din University Constantin Brncui of
Trgu-Jiu Trgu-Jiu

Rezumat: "O reea sau o instituie nu functioneaz Summary: A network or an institution does
n mod automat datorit unei dinamici interioare sau not work automatically by virtue of a dynamic or of
unui sistem de cerine: ea funcioneaz pentru c a system of requirements : it works because people
persoanele aflate in diferite puncte fac ceva, iar ceea ce situated in different points are doing something, and
fac este rezultatul modului cum definesc situaia n care what they do is the result of the way they define the
sunt chemate s acioneze" Herbert Blumer situation that are called upon to act
Herbert Blumer

Cuvinte cheie: diferite abordri ale comuncrii, Key words: different approaches of
disonana cognitiv, bariere comunicaionale cum este communication, cognitive dissonance,
perceput comunicarea,calitatea unei informaii, plan communicational barriers, how is perceived the
de comunicare intern. communication, the quality of information, plan of
internal communication.

Procesul de comunicare. Definiie


Comunicarea uman reprezint un proces Communication process. Definition
complex, universal i definitoriu ce nu se Human communication is a complex
poate exprima uor printr-o definiie. process, universal and defining what can not
Comunicarea nu reprezint doar un obiect de be express easily in a definition.
studiu academic, ci i un domeniu specific al Communication doesnt represent only an
practicii sociale.1 object of academic science, is also a specific
Comunicarea face posibil coexistena field of social practices.10
oamenilor, fiind, prin natura ei, un fenomen Communication makes possible the
social. Comunicarea este definitorie pentru human coexistence, being, into its nature, a
existena relaiilor sociale i a structurilor social phenomenon. Communication is
instituionale. Coninutul oricrei interaciuni defining for existing social relationships and
de natur instituional are o baz of institutional structures.
comunicaional, iar caracteristicile Content of any kind of interactions of
comunicrii sunt dependente, ntotdeauna, de institutional nature has a communicational
natura interaciunilor dintre indivizi, respectiv base, and communicational characteristics
dintre oamenii care formeaz ntreg are dependent, always, by nature of
personalul unei instituii, publice ori private. interactions between persons, people who is
Instituia reprezint singurul mod de forming the entire staff of a institution,
organizare economic a statului care poate public or private.
face fa provocrilor modernitii, iar Institution represents the only mode of
comunicarea contribuie la schimbul i economic organization of state who face the
mprtairea de informaii de utilitate public, challenges of modernity, and communication
ct i meninerea liantului social. contribute to the exchange and sharing of

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n definirea comunicrii exist mai multe information of public utility, and maintain
abordri i anume: social binder.
-procesul prin care o persoan sau un grup In defining communication, exists
(emitor) transmite un coninut conceptual (o several approaches, namely:
atitudine, o stare emoional) unei alte - process by which a person or group
persoane sau unui alt grup (receptor).2 (transmitter) is sending a conceptual content
-arta transmiterii informaiilor, (an attitude, an emotional feeling) to another
atitudinilor, n mod interpersonal. person or group (receiver);11
n comunicarea instituional, managerul - art of information transmission,
ocup o poziie central n fluxul unui anumit attitudes, in a interpersonal way.
tip de informaii. n procesul de comunicare, In institutional communication, the
publicul int este receptorul iar cel care executives managers occupy a central
comunic informaia trebuie s in cont de position in a given flow of any information.
contextul preocuprilor destinatarilor. Ea In the communication process, the target is
poate fi transmis n form brut sau se poate the receiver, and who is communicating the
lucra la formularea ei. ntotdeauna, informaia information must take into account of
trebuie conceput ntr-un limbaj perceptibil de recipients of context concerns. Its can be
ctre destinatar. De exemplu: la nivel transmitted unwrought or they can work to
managerial, limbajul trebuie s fie perspectiv, formulate. Always, information must be
pe termen lung, adic s transmit designed in a language perceptibly by
receptorului anumite idei care s aduc receivers. For example, at managerial level,
beneficii. Comunicarea n cadrul unei the language must be perspective, for long
instituii trebuie s fie gndit n funcie de term, that is to pass the receiver convey
contextul organizaional, context care se afl ideas that will benefit. Communication into
la baza oricrei analize a unei astfel de an institution must be sought depending on
comunicri. Comunicarea trebuie s fie un the organizational context, context which is
proces dinamic, adic odat lansat based on an analysis of any such
informaia, pentru a exista un ntreg proces de communications. Communication should be
comunicare, trebuie s angreneze anumite a dynamic process, namely, information that
efecte. Un dezavantaj al comunicarii ar fi is released once, for there is a whole process
ireversibilitatea sa, n sensul c mesajul odat of communication, must fit in certain effects.
transmis nu mai poate fi retras, putnd crea, n A disadvantage of communication is its
situaii excepionale, prejudicii morale sau irreversibility, in meaning that once the
chiar materiale. Comunicarea trebuie s aib message sent can not be withdrawn, in
loc ntr-un context situaional (fizic, social, exceptional circumstances can create moral
cultural i temporal) i nu ntr-un vid. Scopul or material damage. Communication should
comunicrii este acela de a produce anumite take place in a situational context (physical,
efecte asupra receptorului (cum ar fi social, cultural and temporal) not in a
schimbarea comportamentului) i ine de vacuum. The communication purpose is to
dimensiunea persuasiv, respectiv orice produce certain effects on receptor (such as
ntrebare a managerului sau a personalului changing of conduct) and keeps from
subordonat este un exemplu banal de mesaj persuasive dimension, respective, any
persuasiv pentru c se urmrete declanarea questions of the manager or subordinate staff
unui rspuns. is a trivial example of persuasive message
because it aims to trigger a response.
Cum percep oamenii comunicarea?
n cadrul unei instituii, comunicarea este How people perceive communication?
perceput sub form de semnale, care, Within an institution is perceived as

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transpuse, pot fi att sub form oral, ca de communication signals, which can be
exemplu: organizarea unor conferine, translated as both perceived oral, namely:
prezentari, briefing; sub form scris- organizing briefing, conference,
ntocmirea unor cereri, rapoarte, decizii; i presentations; written form: preparation of
non-verbal (gestica i mimica i chiar reports, application decisions; and non
vestimentaia, recuzita, etc.) 3 verbal (mimic, gestures, clothing, props).12
Toate funciile manageriale sunt realizate All management functions are
cu ajutorul comunicrii, ca un proces de performed through communication, like a
nelegere ntre oameni cu ajutorul transferului process of understanding between people
de informaie. using information transfer.
De aici rezult cele trei aspecte Here follows three significant aspects of
semnificative ale comunicrii: communication:
*Mesaj: ideea, informaia care trebuie Message: idea, information to be
transmis receptorului ori destinatarului. transmitted to receiver.
*Emitor-receptor: comunicarea implic Transmitter receiver: communication
prezena a cel puin dou persoane fr de involves presence at least two people
care nu are sens (personalului subordonat, n without whom has no sense (subordinate
cazul comunicrii descendente; managerului- staff in case of downward communication, to
n cazul comunicrii ascendente) manager in upward communication).
*Cuvnt - nelegere: utilizarea cuvintelor Word understanding: use words so
astfel nct s fie neles de ctre participanii be understood by participants in the
la procesul comunicrii. communication process.
Nu ntotdeauna, comunicarea i atinge Not always, its purpose in dealing
scopul n relaiile cu interlocutorii, n sensul with interlocutory, in that it can generate
c se pot genera frustrri, nemulumiri. frustration, discontent.
Comunicarea scris sau oral poate fi Written or oral communication can
deficitar att n interiorul instituiei ct i n be poor both inside and outside institution, if
afara ei, dac modul de prezentare este the presentation is confusing or too long,
confuz, neconvingtor ori prea lung. unpersuasive.
Comunicarea verbal trebuie tratat ca o Verbal communication should be
parte integrat a responsabilitii fiecrei treated as an integral part of each person's
persoane fa de cei din cadrul colectivului. personality from those of the team.
n cazul comunicrii scrise, pentru a-i In written communication, to achieve
atinge scopul, informaia transmis trebuie s the information submitted must be clearly,
fie clar, lizibil, corect i foarte important, legible and accurate, very important, well
bine gndit. thought.
Un alt mod esenial de comunicare este Another essential way to
comunicarea non-verbal prin intermediul communicate is non-verbal communication,
creia pot fi transmise mesaje ce nu pot fi that through can be transmitted messages
exprimate prin cuvinte. Astfel, comunicarea that can not be expressed in words. Such
se poate face prin contactul vizual, gestica, communication is done through eye contact,
mimica, vestimentaia i alte elemente de gestures, mimics, and other clothing items of
natur fizic ale emitorului. physical transmitter.
O modalitate de comunicare oral A way of efficient oral
eficient, n cadrul unei instituii, o reprezint communication, within an institution, is an
"politica uilor deschise" menit s creeze open-door policy designed to create
posibilitatea angajailor de a comunica direct opportunity for employees to communicate
cu managerul sau liderul, fr a parcurge directly with manager or leader, without

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circuitul ierarhic, unde, dac s-ar parcurge, hierarchical circuit through, and if it should
informaia s-ar putea distorsiona sau eventual, go through, information it could possibly
opri. Un dezavantaj al comunicrii orale l distort or stop. A disadvantage of oral
constituie lipsa elementelor nonverbale, ca de communication, is the lack of nonverbal
exemplu: n situaia comunicrii prin telefon, elements, namely: in case of communication
prezena acestor elemente de natur non- by telephone, this non-verbal nature of these
verbal ar aduce un aport semnificativ n items would make a significant contribution
transmiterea informaiei. to information transmission.
Fenomenul disonanei cognitive este Dissonance phenomenon is very
foarte obinuit n instituii. Astfel, cnd un regular in institutions. so when a group is to
grup se constituie pentru a discuta diferite discuss various issues, I notice that that the
probleme, constatm c, de la efii department heads, to ministers, general
departamentelor, la ministere, la directori directors of different institutions, to
generali ai diferitelor instituii, la secretari de secretary of state, etc., each find group
stat, etc., fiecare gsete grupul unde ceilali where others have the same vision problems.
au aceeai viziune asupra problemelor. Cnd When meeting starts and the members of
ntlnirea ncepe i membrii grupului i group expose their personal opinions, they
expun opiniile personale, ei aud propriile hear their own points of view presented in
puncte de vedere prezentate n cuvinte diferite different words and go to strengthen their
i pleac ntrii n convingerile lor iniiale, initial beliefs, which are similar to others
care sunt asemntoare cu ale celorlali i pot and can generate feedback that helps the
genera un feedback care ajut individul s afle individual to determine if his conduct had
dac comportamentul lui a avut efectul scontat the desired effect.
. in the way of communication can
n calea comunicrii pot aprea i anumite occur some barriers, such as:
bariere, ca de exemplu: interpretarea eronat a misinterpretation of words with multiple
unor cuvinte cu mai multe semnificaii sau meanings or ignoring information and their
ignorarea informaiilor i evaluarea subiectiv subjective evaluation.
a acestora. What it means quality of information?
Ce nseamn calitatea unei informaii? Quality of information is different
Calitatea unei informaii difer deoarece because people perceive different some
oamenii percep diferit anumite cuvinte, care words, which eventually, can have other
eventual, pot avea i alte sensuri. meanings.
Dac sensul dorit de ctre emitor este i If the transmitter is desired purpose
sensul neles de ctre receptor and meaning understood by the receiver
(comprehensibil n totalitate) nseamn c (totally incomprehensible) means that
informaia transmis este de calitate. De quality information is transmitted. Also,
asemenea, calitatea unei informaii depinde de quality of an information depends on how
ct de inteligibil este informaia, respectiv understandable is the information, the staff
capacitatea de nelegere a personalului din capacity of understanding, from institution.
instituie. Understanding = integration into a
nelegere = integrare ntr-o reea de network of understood elements 13.
elemente nelese 4 The person who received correctly
Persoana care a recepionat corect information, will adjust the conduct
informaia i va ajusta conduita n funcie de depending of received message.
mesajul primit. To rearrange different visions for staff,
Pentru a recontextualiza viziunile diferite it must take account to the next question :
ale personalului trebuie s inem cont de What do you think ? must listen answer of

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urmtoarea ntrebare: Ce credei? Trebuie each person and, also, to be prepared to


ascultat rspunsul fiecrei persoane i, de discuss alternatives and make compromise
asemenea, s fim pregtii s discutm on the solution.
variante i s facem un compromis asupra Internal communication as a tool of
soluiei. management
Comunicarea intern ca instrument de I develop this idea to demonstrate that is
management a fundamental principle of internal
Dezvolt aceast idee pentru a demonstra communication. Following example presents
c este un principiu fundamental al a public service placed in a crisis situation.
comunicrii interne. Urmtorul exemplu Here is raising two problems of
prezint un serviciu public aflat ntr-o situaie management, for instance: organization
de criz. Aici se ridic dou probleme fostering cooperation and motivation. is
principale ale managementului comuncrii i interesting to follow the role of internal
anume: organizarea cooperrii i stimularea communications, taking into account that
motivaiei. Este interesant de urmrit rolul always has a function in motivating staff.
comunicrii interne, innd cont de faptul c,
ntotdeauna a avut o funcie n motivarea A plan of internal communication to
personalului. help and support the staff into a
Un plan de comunicare intern pentru a destabilized context
ajuta i solidariza personalul ntr-un context Global context
destabilizant We are in a medical institution, in 2009.
Contextul global General context offers no grounds for
Ne aflm ntr-o instituie medical, n anii enthusiasm. The medical institution
2009. Contextul general nu ofer motive de undergoes a period of budgetary restrictions
entuziasm. Instituia medical trece printr-o and staff cuts. In front of these difficulties,
perioad de restricii bugetare i restructurri the work demands have not diminished.
de personal. n faa acestor dificulti, Contrary, are more patients to care, cases are
exigenele privind activitatea nu s-au more difficult, and the period of
diminuat. Dimpotriv, sunt mai muli pacieni hospitalization short-What increases much
de ngrijit, cazurile sunt i mai dificile, iar more the volume of work. All sections are
perioadele de spitalizare scurte, ceea ce involved in this process, situation in which
mrete i mai mult volumul de munc. Toate administrative and technical staff is afraid
seciile sunt implicate n acest proces, situaie that will be affected and that will get other
n care personalul administrativ i tehnic se tasks. Unions protest on the destruction of
teme c va fi afectat i c va primi alte sarcini. the public hospital. Medical staff is, also,
Sindicatele protesteaz pe tema distrugerii dissatisfied, supporting consequences of
spitalului public. Corpul medical este, de budget restrictions. This need to reduce the
asemenea, nemulumit, suportnd i el number of places trains stress and a state of
consecinele restriciilor bugetare. Aceast tensions between medics, each watching his
necesitate de a reduce numrul de locuri own interest, general stress increasing for
antreneaz tensiuni i o stare de crispare ntre the entire staff of medical institution.
medici, fiecare urmrindu-i propriul interes, The staff of medical institution can
stresul general crescnd pentru ntregul not understand this developments and not
personal al instituiei medicale. even the imposed changes, so, in the biggest
Personalul instituiei medicale poate nu part, is possible to disagree what is
nelege aceste evoluii i nici schimbrile happening. This status leads them to an
impuse, astfel c, n cea mai mare parte, este attitude of demotivation, criticizing leaders
posibil s nu fie de acord cu ceea ce se speech (managers) Who always says same

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petrece. Acest status i conduce la o atitudine thing to justify restrictions14. Plus, heads of
de demotivare, criticnd discursul conducerii the intermediate levels may feel powerless.
(managerului) "care spune mereu acelai Not supported by their hierarchical
lucru pentru a justifica restriciile" 5. n plus, superiors, who face the same difficulties as
efii de la nivelurile intermediare se pot simi they.
neputincioi. Nu sunt susinui de efii lor This intermediate frames can say that
ierarhici, care ntmpin aceleai dificulti ca their bosses are completely absorbed by
i acetia. Aceste cadre intermediare pot numerous problems about restructuring and
afirma c efii lor sunt complet absorbii de deplores the total lack of responsibility of
numeroasele probleme de restructurare i superiors from numerous problems faced
deplng lipsa total de disponibilitate a due to lack of teams motivation.
superiorilor fa de nenumratele probleme cu
care se confrunt, ca urmare a lipsei de The development of an institutional
motivare a echipelor. communication methods
Punerea la punct a unei metode de Managerial communication involves
comunicare instituional two partners: manager and subordinate or his
Comunicarea managerial implic doi collaborator. Both partners can be
parteneri: managerul si subordonatul sau transmitters or receivers and follow, equally,
colaboratorul acestuia. Ambii parteneri pot fi that the communication to facilitate
emitori sau receptori si urmresc n egal achieving the targets. Manager personality
msur ca prin comunicare s se faciliteze can inhibit, in many cases, communication
atingerea obiectivelor stabilite. Personalitatea between two partners. Is important to
managerului poate inhiba, n multe cazuri, determine what role each plays in the
comunicarea dintre cei doi parteneri. Este communication process and which are
important s se determine ce rol joac fiecare obligations incumbent.
n procesul de comunicare si care sunt Manager, the position in which has,
obligaiile ce le revin. exercise considerable power and influence
on interlocutor. For some employees, leader
d sfaturi. Acest transfer de sentimente, de is the first representative of authority, a wise
obicei incontient, explic de ce conductorul person who can guide, protect, support,
constituie un model cruia i se atribuie gives advices. This transfer of feelings,
imaginea de tat pe care nu o are usually unconscious, explain why the leader
ntotdeauna cu adevrat. is a model, which is assigned the father
La ndemnul responsabilului image which has not always true.
departamentului de comunicare, echipa de The impulse o department responsible,
conducere ar trebui s accepte s ia n encouraged communication, management
considerare aceast problem de comunicare team should accept consider this problem of
i s dezbat liniile generale ale unui plan de communication, and debate the broad
comunicare intern, pentru a iei dintr-o outlines of a plan of internal communication,
potenial criz, schimbnd climatul n to get out of a potential crisis, changing
instituie 6. Pentru ca aceste obiective s fie climate in the institution15 .If these goals are
realizabile, echipa de conducere, la attainable, management team, at the proposal
propunerea responsabilului departamentului of department of communication manager,
de comunicare, trebuie s lanseze un plan de should launch an internal communication
comunicare intern n trei etape: plan in three stages:
1. Prima etap: constituirea unui comitet 1. First stage: establish a committee to
de coordonare a operaiunii i lansarea coordinate the operation and its launch.
acesteia. 2. Second stage: achieving participatory

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2. A doua etap: realizarea unei proceduri procedures in four phases, with the entire
participative n patru faze, cu ntreaga echip team of manager, trough which to provide
a managerului, prin care s se furnizeze idei ideas on actions to be taken, for example:
privind aciunile ce trebuie ntreprinse i first phase presentation by top level plan.
anume: prima faz- prezentarea planului de Second phase animation sessions and
ctre vrful ierarhiei. A doua faz - animarea situation review, by each chief who will
edinelor de analiz a situaiei, de ctre consult with his subordinates, meetings
fiecare ef care se va consulta cu subalternii where are hold in two-three levels of
si, edinele fiind organizate pe dou- trei hierarchy institution. Third phase synthesis
niveluri ale ierarhiei instituiei. A treia faz- of ideas on actions to be taken at the
sinteza ideilor privind aciunile ce trebuie coordinating committee and proposing an
ntreprinse la nivelul comitetului de action plan.
coordonare i propunerea unui plan de The development and recommendation
aciune. Punerea la punct i recomandarea tracking tools and stock assessment. Last
unor instrumente de urmrire i de evaluare a phase inform all senior staff through
aciunilor. Ultima faz- informarea tuturor sessions of the same type as in the second
cadrelor de conducere, prin edine de acelai phase, an action plan. Implementation by
tip ca i n faza a doua, asupra planului de management tracking methods and stock
aciune. Aplicarea de ctre conducere a assessment.
metodelor de urmrire i de evaluare a 3. Third stage requires effective
aciunilor. implementation of action plan developed and
3. A treia etap: presupune implementarea its coordination by the managerial team.
efectiv a planului de aciune elaborat i First stage of communication plan is the
coordonarea acestuia de ctre echipa establishment of a coordinating committee
managerial. and initial actions. Its mission is to develop
Prima etap a planului de comunicare o an action plan meant to restore confidence
reprezint constituirea unui comitet de lansare among staff, despite the significant
i coordonare a aciunilor. Misiunea sa este s description that occurred. So, is trying to
pun la punct un plan de aciune menit s explain decisions that were taken regarding
reinstaureze climatul de ncredere n rndurile restrictions, according to the specific
personalului, n pofida perturbrilor requirements of each sector( explicit
importante care au aprut. Prin aceasta se objective). Secondary objective, that
ncearc s se explice deciziile care au fost implicitly of this communication plan is
luate n ceea ce privete restriciile impuse n provide leadership necessary management
funcie de specificul fiecrui sector de tools to cope with destabilizing and help
activitate (obiectivul explicit). Obiectivul employees to regain confidence and team
secundar, respectiv implicit al acestui plan de spirit.
comunicare este de a oferi conducerii In the second stage, coordinating
instrumentele manageriale necesare pentru a committee should make an analysis centered
face fa situaiilor destabilizatoare i pentru on sources of demotivation on the current
a-i ajuta pe angajai s-i recapete ncrederea staff. This analysis should be submitted to
i spiritul de echip. the general director. It should serve as a
n cadrul celei de-a doua etape, comitetul foundation for introductory speech, argued
de coordonare trebuie s fac o analiz a before the working group composed of
situaiei, centrate pe sursele demotivrii executives in the first stage of the
actuale a personalului. Aceast analiz trebuie participatory approach. Coordinating
transmis directorului general. Ea va trebui s committee believes that the actions foreseen
serveasc drept fundament pentru discursul in the communication plan must be based on

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introductiv susinut n faa grupurilor de lucru active participation of employees,


formate din cadrele de conducere n prima considering the situation that they are
etap a demersului participativ. Comitetul de unmotivated. Would be good, in these
coordonare consider c aciunile prevzute n situations, to be given , first, to employees,
planul de comunicare trebuie s se sprijine pe an action plan. Coordinating committee may
participarea activ a angajailor, innd cont c decide to offer a service chiefs main lines of
acetia sunt demotivai de situaie. Ar fi bine, an action plan that will present each of these
ca n aceste situaii, s se ofere personalului, subordinates, so that each service chief will
n primul rnd, un plan de aciune. Comitetul lead a working group.
de coordonare ar trebui s propun tuturor This scheme is a participatory plan,
efilor de servicii liniile principale ale unui because the content of least stage is not yet
plan de aciune pe care fiecare dintre acetia l established, every chief has to decide
va prezenta subordonailor, astfel nct fiecare solitary. The action who will be tuned must
ef de serviciu va conduce un grup de lucru. be submitted to heads of services (heads of
Aceast schem este un plan participativ, important administrative services, technical,
ntruct coninutul ultimei etape nu este nc medical, etc.)
stabilit, fiecare ef trebuind s le hotrasc First phase
solitar. Cadrul de aciune care va trebui pus la Objective requires awareness of the
punct trebuie s fie prezentat efilor de need to act, management involvement in the
servicii (efii importantelor servicii medical institution is established procedure,
administrative, tehnice, medicale, etc.). redefinition of proposed plan.16
Prima faz Ways of achieving presentation
Obiectivul- presupune contientizarea before leadership of medical institution,
necesitii de a aciona; implicarea conducerii situation analysis conducted by the
instituiei medicale n procedura stabilit; coordinating committee, presence of
redefinirea planului propus.7 manager who emphasizes the role of each
Modaliti de realizare- prezentarea n faa member of management team; discussion on
conducerii instituiei medicale, a analizei scheduling meetings.
situaiei realizate de ctre comitetul de Second phase animation work
coordonare; prezena managerului care sessions, situation analysis produced by each
subliniaz rolul fiecrui membru al echipei de head (training for two or three levels).
conducere; discuii privind programarea Objectives - like in first phase,
edinelor. awareness of the need to act; preparing the
A doua faz animarea edinelor de next step : build collective responses (
lucru, analiza situaiei, realizat de ctre instead of criticism an disengagement) ant,
fiecare ef (formarea grupurilor pe dou ori therefore, identify opportunities to break the
trei niveluri) deadlock, without being reluctant to
Obiective- ca i n prima faz, changes.
contientizarea necesitii de a aciona; Ways animation by every chief
pregtirea etapei urmtoare: edificarea unor who attend the presentation sessions, of
rspunsuri colective (n locul criticilor i al subordinate groups, on: presentation of
dezangajrii) i, prin urmare, identificarea situation analysis; completion, during
unor perspective pentru a iei din impas fr a discussion of this analysis; presentation of
fi refractari la schimbare. participatory plan; discussing the success of
Modaliti- animarea de ctre fiecare ef the plan; reiteration of content of these
care particip la edinele de prezentare, a sessions by every chief, together with its
grupurilor de subordonai, privind: subordinates. Each management framework
prezentarea analizei situaiei; finalizarea, n will have to pass synthesis of group

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cursul dezbaterilor a acestei analize; discussions to manager; sending proposals


prezentarea planului participativ; discutarea to the coordinating committee.
condiiilor de reuit ale planului; reiterarea Third phase animation working
coninutului acestor edine de ctre fiecare group of management staff to get ideas in
ef, laolalt cu subordonaii si. Fiecare cadru this confrontation situation. Main objective
de conducere va trebui s transmit sinteza should be represent their collective identity
discuiilor de grup managerului; transmiterea strengthening and adaptation to real
propunerilor ctre comitetul de coordonare. difficulties encountered in the field and as a
A treia faz - animarea grupurilor de lucru way to be animated the working group on :
ale cadrelor de conducere pentru a obine idei Taking account the situation, which will be
n vederea nfruntrii situaiei. Obiectivul interventions on staff?
principal trebuie s l reprezinte ntrirea Fourth phase calls for a synthesis
identitii lor colective i adaptarea la of proposals by coordinating committee and
dificultile reale ntlnite pe teren iar ca establish an action plan to be presented to
modalitate trebuie animat grupul de lucru pe the leadership. Should aim to choose a set of
tema: "innd cont de situaie, care ar fi actions to achieve and the third stage of the
interveniile asupra personalului?" plan, form values and orientations from the
A patra faz presupune realizarea unei proposed collective groups. As main way :
sinteze a propunerilor de ctre comitetul de testing of ideas supported by interviews, on
coordonare i stabilirea unui plan de aciune a sample of executives.
care s fie prezentat conducerii. Trebuie s Fifth phase information chiefs at all
aib ca obiectiv alegerea unui ansamblu de hierarchical levels, establishing instrument
aciuni pentru a realiza a treia etap a planului, of tracking and evaluation of actions.
pornind de la valorile i orientrile colective Objectives: information on the results of
propuse de grupuri. Ca principal modalitate : synthesis. Way information on selected
testarea, prin interviuri a ideilor reinute, pe un measures and an application procedures and,
eantion de cadre de conducere. also, information on tracking tools and
A cincia faz- informarea efilor de la evaluation on ways of implementing.
toate nivelurile ierarhice, stabilirea For resolution of these problems, can
instrumentelor de urmrire i de evaluare a be raised several issues, namely:
aciunilor. Obiective: informarea asupra Institution leadership believes in
rezultatelor sintezei. Modalitate informare effectiveness of internal communication?
asupra msurilor alese i asupra procedurilor Situation has been adequately
de aplicare i, de asemenea, informarea asupra analyzed?
instrumentelor de urmrire i de evaluare i Responsibles knows how to use
asupra modalitilor de aplicare. information procedures rising to estimate
n vederea soluionrii acestor probleme, the psychological factor of internal
pot fi ridicate cteva probleme eseniale i communication?
anume: These are some of the questions
Conducerea instituiei crede n which should take into account to implement
eficacitatea comunicrii interne? a quality process of communication.
Situaia a fost analizat adecvat? In terms of external communication
Responsabilii tiu s utilizeze procedurile of the institution, notes the fact that
de informare ascendent pentru a estima institution takes shocks from external
factorii psihologici ai climatului intern? environment and is trying to respond by
Anunarea proiectului s-a fcut corect? initiating, at organizational level, of steps
Sunt doar cteva din intrebrile eseniale oriented to changes, transformations,
de care trebuie s inem cont pentru rebalancing. On the other hand, any

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implementarea unui proces calitativ de transformations or changes are felt in the


comunicare. outer, institution influencing and shaping, in
n ceea ce privete comunicarea extern a turn, social environment.
instituiei, se observ faptul c instituia preia Concluding, internal communication is a
ocurile provenite din mediul extern i managerial act because, first, is initiated and
ncearc s le rspund prin iniierea, la nivel coordinated by executive, second, because
organizaional, a unor demersuri orientate spre answer like any kind act of management, to
schimbri, transformri, reechilibrri. Pe de a problem that reveals institution operation
alt parte, orice transformare sau schimbare and its human potential.17
este resimit i n exterior, instituia We must leave behind the classical
influennd i modelnd, la rndul ei, mediul model of information theory, who can not
social. explain the communication process, so,
Concluzionnd, comunicarea intern este communication is not just a transfer of
un act managerial deoarece, mai nti, este information. We must detach the language
iniiat i coordonat de conducere, apoi, models, sociological, psycho-sociological of
pentru c rspunde, ca orice act de communication, they were prepared to study
management, unei problematici ce relev other systems, than institutional, and aimed
funcionarea instituiei i potenialul su uman at optimizing interpersonal relationships and
8
. achieving goals, communication is
Trebuie s lsm n urm modelul clasic al representing a collective construction of
teoriei informaiei, care nu poate s explice people. 18
procesul de comunicare, astfel, comunicarea Not always, communication is
nu reprezint doar un transfer de informaii. efficient, but using smile, friendly tone,
Trebuie s ne detam de modelele listening carefully, we can resolve many
lingvistice, sociologice sau psihosociologice problems from the beginning : A smile
ale comunicrii, ele fiind elaborate pentru costs nothing but rendered more, says a
studiul altor sisteme dect cel instituional, i Chinese proverb.
s urmrim optimizarea relaiilor interumane
i realizarea obiectivelor propuse,
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1
Nicolae Brnzan, Comunicare Note de curs, Editura Academica Brncui, 2010, Trgu-Jiu, p.2
2
Maior Corneliu Management Public, Editura Vasile Goldi, Press, Arad, 2006, p. 63
3
Mucchielli Alex, Comunicarea n instituii i organizaii, Polirom, Iai, 2008, p. 100
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idem, p.33
5
Idem, p. 166
6
Jianu Maria Magdalena, Jianu Alexandru , Imagine Instituional, Trgu-Jiu, 2008, p. 69
7
Coman, Cristina, 2009, Comunicarea de criz. Tehnici si strategii, Editura Polirom, Bucureti
8
Dinu. M., Comunicarea repere fundamentale, Editura Algos, 2000, p. 23
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Paillart I., Spaiul public i comunicarea, Bucureti, Editura Polirom, 2003, p.67
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Brnzan Nicolae, Communication,Course notes Academica Brncui Publishing, Trgu-Jiu, 2010, p.2
11
Maior Corneliu, Publique Management, Vasile Goldi Publishing, Press, Arad, 2006, p. 63
12
Mucchielli Alex Communication in institutions and organizations,, Polirom, Iai, 2008, p. 100
13
idem, p.33
14
Idem, p. 166
15
Jianu Maria Magdalena, Jianu Alexandru , Institutional Image, Trgu-Jiu, 2008, p. 69

16
Coman, Cristina, 2009, Crisis communication. Techniques and strategies, Polirom Publishing, Bucharest.
17
Dinu. M., Communication fundamental parts,Algos Publishing, 2000, p. 23
18
Paillart I., Publique Space and communication, Bucharest, Polirom Publishing, 2003, p.67

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