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# Chapter 6 Metallic Waveguide and Cavity Resonators

## 6-1 General Metallic Waveguides

1. eigenvalues and the longitudinal field-components of the corresponding eigenmodes by
solving the wave equations. Substituting the longitudinal field-components into the
longitudinal components, we can obtain the other components. If the eigenmode is
injected into a waveguide, it can propagate along an infinitely-long straight waveguide
without any deformation. However, in case the input EM wave is not an eigenmode, some
power loss occurs and then it becomes the eigenmode gradually. All the eigenmodal
functions in an infinitely-long straight metallic waveguide are orthogonal to each other.
Moreover, these eigenmodes form a complete set (a basis in a vector space), such that any
electromagnetic fields within the waveguide can be uniquely expressed by the
eigenmodal functions.
Obtain the quantities of the physical characteristics for a given eigenmode, such as the

## How to study the theory of metallic waveguides (by L. J.

Chu, ):
2. Specify a proper coordinate system, and derive
waveguides equations to express the transverse
components of the E- and H-fields in terms of the
longitudinal components by Maxwells equations.
3. Caculate the eigenmodes (TM mode, TE mode, TEM
mode or other types of modes) of the waveguide, and
obtain the eigenvalues and the longitudinal field-components of the corresponding
eigenmodes by solving the wave equations. Substituting the longitudinal field-
components into the longitudinal components, we can obtain the other components. If the
eigenmode is injected into a waveguide, it can propagate along an infinitely-long straight
waveguide without any deformation. However, in case the input EM wave is not an
eigenmode, some power loss occurs and then it becomes the eigenmode gradually. All the
eigenmodal functions in an infinitely-long straight metallic waveguide are orthogonal to
each other. Moreover, these eigenmodes form a complete set (a basis in a vector space),
such that any electromagnetic fields within the waveguide can be uniquely expressed by
the eigenmodal functions.
4. Obtain the quantities of the physical characteristics for a given eigenmode, such as the
cutoff frequency (fc), the propagation constant (=+j), the phase velocity (vp=/),
v g /
the group velocity ( ), the impedance Z, etc.
Waveguides equations: According to Amperes law and Faradays law, we obtain
1 H z0 E z0
H x 2 ( j ) H y0 1 ( H z j E z )
0 0 0

h x y h 2
y x
,
1 E z0 H z0 1 E z0 H z0
E x0 ( j ) E y0 2 ( j )
h 2
x y h y x
, , where h2=2+k2,

2E k 2E 0 t2 E ( 2 k 2 ) E 0 [ t2 h 2 ]E

2 H k 2 H 0 t2 H ( 2 k 2 ) H 0 [ t2 h 2 ]H
and

## Case 1 TEM mode: Ez=Hz=0

1
vp
h 0 TEM k TEM jk j
2 2 2

,
E x0 j TEM 1
Z TEM H z E
H y0 TEM j Z TEM
and

Note: All frequencies make TEM is pure imaginary TEM wave can propagate at any
frequency, no cutoff

## Case 2 TM mode: Hz=0, Ez0 and t2Ez+h2Ez=0

j E z0 0
0 E z0
Hx 2
0 j E E Ey 2
0

h y H y h 2 x E x h 2 x
0 z 0 z
h y
, , ,
E x0 E y0 j 1
Z TM ( ) H ( z E )
Hy 0
Hx 0
j Z TM
and
f 2 h
h2 k 2 h 1 ( ) fc
fc 2
, where
1
f f vp
j j 1 ( c ) 2 Z TM 1 ( c ) 2
f f 1 ( f c / f ) 2
If f>fc, ,
Case 3 TE mode: Ez=0, Hz0 and t2Hz+h2Hz=0
H z0 H z0 j H z0 j H z0
Hx 2
0
H 0
y E 0
x Ey 2
0

h x h 2 y h 2 y h x
, , ,
E x0 E y0 j
Z TE 0 0 ( )
Hy Hx j E Z TE ( z H )
and
fc 2 f
j jk 1 ( ) j 1 ( c ) 2
f f
If f>fc,

Z TE vp
1
1 ( fc / f ) 2
1 ( f c / f ) 2
,

## 6-2 ParallelPlate Waveguides

E z ( x, y ) E z0 ( y )e z
Case 1 TMn mode: Hz=0,
dE z0 ( y )
h 2 E z0 ( y ) 0
dy 2 E z0 ( y ) 0
, at y=0 and b
n ny
E z ( y ) An sin(
0
)
b b
Eigenvalues: h= , , n=0, 1, 2, 3,
0 j dE z ( y ) j
0
ny
H x ( y) 2 An cos( )
h dy h b

E 0 ( y ) dE z ( y ) h A cos( ny ) n 2
0

y n h 2 2 ( ) 2
h 2 dy b b
and
n
2b
Cutoff frequency: fc= fulfills =0. (Note: n=0 is the TEM mode)

H z ( y, z ) H z0 ( y )e z
Case 2 TEn modes: Ez=0,
d 2 H z0 ( y ) dH z0 ( y ) ny
2
h 2
H 0
z ( y ) 0 0 H z0 ( y ) Bn cos( )
dy dy b
, at y=0 and b and fc=
n
2b

j dH z0 ny
H y ( y) Bn sin(
0
2
)
h dy h b

E 0 ( y ) dH z j B sin( ny ) n 2
0

x n ( ) 2
h 2 dy h b b
and = , n=1, 2, 3,
Eg. (a)Write the instantaneous field expression
for TM1 mode in a parallel-plate waveguide. (b)
Sketch the E- & H- field lines in the yz-plane.

## (Sol.) (a) For n=1,

b y
E y ( y, z, t ) A1 cos( ) sin( t z )
b