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Unit -1

Fundamentals of Internet

Computer Network: A Network is a collection of independent computers that communicate

with one another over a shared network medium.

A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. When these computers
are connected in a network, people can share files and peripherals such as modems, printers, tape
backup drives or CD-ROM drives.

When networks at multiple locations are connected, people can send e-mail, share links to the
global internet or conduct video conferences in real time with other remote users.

Computer networks mean an inter-connected collection of computers. Two computers are said to
be inter-connected, if they are able to exchange information. The connection need not be via a
copper wire, fiber optics, microwaves and communication satellites can also be used.

Need for Networking

Networks are used for the following reasons:

Resource sharing: The goal is to make all programs, equipment and data available to
anyone on the network without regard to the physical location of the resources and the
High reliability: The goal is to provide alternative sources of supply. For example, all
files could be replicated on two or three machines, so if one of them is unavailable due to
hardware failure, the other copies could be used.
Communication Medium: It is easy for two or more people who live far apart to write a
report together. When one worker makes a change to an on-line document, the other can
see the change immediately, instead of waiting several days for a letter.

Elements of Networking:
Every network includes:
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

At least two computers server or client workstation
Networking Interface card (NIC)
A connection medium, usually a wire or cable, although wireless communication
between networked computers and peripherals are also possible.
Network Operating system software such as Microsoft Windows NT or 2000.
Novell NetWare, UNIX and Linux.

Advantages of Network:

Speed: Sharing and transferring files within networks are very rapid. Thus saving time, while
maintaining the integrity of the file.

Cost: individually licensed copies of many popular software programs can be costly.
Networkable versions are available at considerable savings. Shared programs, on a network
allows for easier upgrading of the program on one single file server, instead of upgrading
individual workstations.

Security: Files and programs on a network are password protected (i.e., provide access to
authorized users only) or designated as copy inhibit, so that you do not have to worry about
illegal copying of programs.

Centralized Software Management: Software can be loaded on one computer (the server)
eliminating the need to spend time and energy installing updates and tracking files on
independent computers throughout the building.

Resource sharing: Resources such as printers, fax machines and modems can be shared.

Electronic-Mail: e-mail aids in personal and professional communication .E-mail on a LAN can
enable staff to communicate with in the building.

Flexible Access: Access their files from computers throughout the firm.

Workgroup computing: Workgroup software such as Microsoft BackOffice allows many users
o work on a document or project concurrently.

Disadvantages of Network:

1. Applications are unavailable when server has faults

2. Network faults can cause loss of data
3. Network faults leads to loss of resources
4. User work dependent upon network
5. Hackers can access the system if proper security is not provided
6. Certain time degrade in performance takes place.

Data Communication:

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Communication is defined as transfer of information, such as thoughts and messages between
two entities. Communication of messages electronically over a long distance is known as

When a computer is used to transmit electronically textual, numeric, audio or video data to a
distant location, then the process is called Data Communication.

Data Communications concerns itself with the transmission (Sending and receiving) of
information between two locations by means of electrical signals. Data communication is the
name given to the communication where exchange of information takes place in the form of 0s
and 1s over some kind of media such as wire or wireless. Entire data communication system
revolves around three fundamental concepts:

Destiny: The system should transmit the message to the correct intended destination.

Reliability: The system should deliver the data to the destination faithfully.

Fast: The system should transmit the data as fast as possible within the technological constraints.

Components of Data Communication:

A data communication system has five components as shown in the diagram below

Message: The information that travels from one device to another.

Sender: It is the device that sends the data message

Receiver: It is the device that receives the data message.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Transmission medium: it is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to
receiver. It can be a wired or wireless and many subtypes in both.

Protocol: It is the set of rules that agreements to govern how the messages are sent, directed,
received and interpreted.

Types of Networking:

Computer networks may be identified by various categories.

1. Based on the functional relationship/network architecture

2. Based on scale
3. Based on network topology

I. Based on Functional Relationship / Network Architecture:

Computer networks may be classified according to the functional relationships which exist
among the elements of the network. They are

Active Network
Client- server networking / broadcasting
Peer-to-Peer (work group)/Point-to-Point Architecture.
1. Active Networking:

In active network, the nodes are programmed to perform custom operations on the messages that
pass through the node. Active networks allow individual users or group of users to inject
customized programs in to the nodes of the network. These are used in networks of mobile users.

For example, a node could be programmed or customized to handle packets on an

individual user basis or to handle multicast packets differently than other packets. Smart
packets use a special self-describing language that allows new kinds of information to
be carried within a packet and operated on by a node.

2. Client-Server Networking:

The term client-server refers to the concept of sharing the work involved in processing data
between the client computer and the most powerful server computer. The client-server
network is the most efficient way to provide:

Databases and management of applications such as spreadsheets, accounting,

communications and document management
Network management
Centralized file storage
The client-server model is basically an implementation of distributed or co-operative
processing. The concept of this model is splitting application functions between a client
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

and a server processor. The division of work between the different processors enables the
application designer to place an application function on the processor that is most
appropriate for that function.

Client-server application design lets the application provider mask the actual location of
application function. The user often does not know where a specific operation is
executing. The entire function may execute in either the PC or server or function may be
split between them.


Centralized: Resources and data security are controlled through the server.
Scalability : Any or all elements can be replaced individually as needs increase
Flexibility : New technology can be easily integrated into system
Interoperability : All components (Client/server) work together
Accessibility: Server can be accessed remotely and across multiple platforms.


Expense: Requires initial investment in dedicated server.

Maintenance : Large networks will require a staff to ensure efficient operation
Dependence: When server goes down, operations will cease across the network.

4. Peer-to-peer (workgroup) Networking:

In peer-to-peer networking there are no dedicated servers or hierarchy among the computers. All
of the computers are equal and are known as peers. Normally each computer serves as
client/server and there is no one assigned to be an administrator responsible for the entire
network. Peer-to-peer networks are good choices for needs of small organizations where the
users are allocated in the same general area, security is not an issue and the organization and the
network will have limited growth within the foreseeable future.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .


1. Less initial expense: no need for a dedicated server.

2. Setup : An operating system already in place may only need to be reconfigured for peer-
peer operations


1. Decentralized: No central repository for files and applications.

2. Security: does not provide the security available on a client-server network.

II. Based on Scale :

Depending on their scale, scope and purpose networks are often
classified as
1. Local Area Network (LAN):
These are private owned networks within a single building or campus up to a few
kilometers in size. They are widely used to connect personal computers and
workstations in company offices and factories to share resources such as printers and
to exchange information. LANs are restricted in size and it uses a transmission
technology consisting of a single cable by which all the machines are attached. Only
bus and ring topologies are possible for LANs.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

LAN Configuration consists of:
A File Server: A file server stores all of the software that controls the network,
as well as the software that can be shared by the computers attached to the
A Work Station: Computers connected to the file server. These are less powerful
than the file server
Cables: Cables are used to connect the network interface cards in each computer.

2. Wide Area Network(WAN):

A network that connects two or more LANs spread across a large geographical area is called a
wide area network. For instance, a company may use a LAN at its headquarters in one city,
another LAN at its manufacturing site and third one at the marketing office located in another
city. Each location needs resources, data and programs locally but it also requires to use data
available in other locations.IN such situations all the three LANs may be connected to form a
WAN. LANs may be connected together by dedicated telephone lines or fiber optic cables or
by satellite links.

3. Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

MANs are the network that is in between LANs and WANs. These networks provide city wide
services in large cities and thus the name metropolitan . MANs fill the need of extending LAN
capabilities to larger geographical areas. They are also used to connect LANs across different
offices in a city to WANs.


Personal Area Network (PAN): A PAN is a computer

network used for communication among computer and different information technological
devices close to one person. For Example, PAN are used in a personal computers, printers, fax
machines, telephones, PDAs scanners, even video game consoles. It may include wired and
wireless connections between devices typically extend to 10 meters, which is usually
constructed with USB and wireless with Bluetooth and infra-red.

5. Home Area Network (HAN): A Han is a type

of local area network that is used in an individual home. The home computers can be
connected together by twisted pair or by a wireless network. HAN facilitates the
communication and interoperability among digital devices at the home, allows to easier access
to the entertainments and increase the productivity, organize the home security.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

6. Enterprise Private Network (EPN): One
approach to a private network is to build an enterprise private network or EPN. An EPN is a
computer network that is entirely controlled by one organization and it is used to connect
multiple locations. Historically, telecommunications companies, like AT&T, operated their
own network, separate from the public internet. EPNs are commonly used in certain sectors
where security is of the highest concern.

7. Campus Area Network(CAN):

A CAN is a large network that connects a number of smaller local area networks together in a
limited geographical area. This type of network is commonly found in colleges and university
campuses. The networking equipments (switches, routers) and transmission media (optical fiber,
copper, cabling etc) are mostly owned (by the campus, an enterprise, university, government etc).
In case of university, the network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings including:
academic departments, the university library and student residence halls. CAN allow transferring

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

of data between a large no. of computers and is considered to be cost effective way to keep
computer systems connected.

8. Virtual Private Network (VPN):

A VPN is a network that allows the private networks at a remote a location securely connect to
the public internet and provide access only to the intended recipients for transmitting data. VPN
is built by creating the virtual point-to-point connection using the dedicated connections, traffic
encryption or virtual tunneling protocols. It provides people, businesses, governments and
military organizations to remotely use network resources securely.

There are two types of VPN they are

Remote Access VPN: this is also called a Virtual Dial-up Network (VPDN), this is a
user-to-LAN connection used by a company that has employees who need to connect to
the private network from various remote locations. Typically a corporation that wishes to
set up a large remote access VPN provides some form of internet dial-up account to their
users using an internet service provider (ISP). Example for remote access VPN is a large
firm with hundreds of sales people in the field. Remote access VPN provide secure,
encrypted connections between a companys private network and remote users through a
third-party service provider.
Site-to-Site VPN: It allows two or more networks to be joined together. Site-to-site
VPNs can be further categorized into intranets or extranets. A site-to-site VPN built
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

between offices of the same company is said to be an intranet VPN, while a VPN built to
connect the company to its partner or customer is referred to as an extranet VPN. For
example, the connection between the branch office and its headquarters is an example of
a site-to-site VPN. Users at both locations cannot tell that they are accessing network
resources from another site because it is transparent to them.

9. Storage Area Network (SAN):

A SAN is any high-performance network whose primary purpose is to enable storage devices
to communicate with computer systems and with each other. A SAN is a collection of
storage and backup devices connected together through a network that is totally separated
from other servers via a switch. Fiber channel is the high speed technology and
communication protocol to connect those storage and backup devices. Fiber channel cables
can be of several kilometers and its first 20 meters can be copper wire, then fiber optical can
be used.
Connecting all the storage devices into a network needs a plethora of hubs ,
bridges , routers, multiplexors , copper to optical convertors and other relevant devices as we
do for a normal communications network.

SANS provides an effective solution to the data storage demands of businesses today. SANS
may be right option for business if the business is hindered by any of the following:
Complex multiple server environment
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Insufficient data storage capabilities
Low scalability
High administration costs associated with protecting data
Insufficient network data protection
Poor data access, especially for tape back- ups and restoration.
Inability to meet data storage legislation requirements/regulatory compliance.

10. Global Area Network(GAN):

A GAN refers to a network composed of different interconnected networks that cover
an unlimited geographical area. This network is used for supporting mobile
communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage area

III. Based on Network Topology:

The way in which the elements of a network are mapped or arranged is known as a
network topology. The physical layout of a network is referred to as its topology.
A topology describes the physical and the logical interconnection between the different
nodes of a network.
Network topologies are classified as physical, logical and signal topologies.
A Physical topology describes the mapping of the network nodes and the physical layout
of the devices connected to the network, including the location and cable installation.
A Logical topology refers to the way it actually operates or transfers the data to its layout.
A Signal topology describes the paths, which the signals take while they pass over the

The most commonly used topologies include:

Bus Network/Linear Bus topology :
A bus topology consists of a cable with a terminator at each end. All nodes such as file
server, workstations, and peripherals are connected to the linear cable. In this type of network
topology, all the nodes of a network are connected to a common transmission medium having
two end points. All the data that travels over the network is transmitted through a common
transmission medium known as the bus or backbone of the network. When the transmission
medium has exactly two end-points, the network topology is known by the name, linear bus
topology. In case the transmission medium has more than two endpoints, the network is said
to have a distributed bus topology.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus
Requires less cable length than a star topology
It is easy to handle and implement
It is best suited for small networks


Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.

The cable length is limited, so the number of stations that can be connected.
Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down
Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building

Ring Network :
A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other
nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node-a ring. Data
travels from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet. The ring
topology does not require a central server to manage connectivity between the nodes.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Unlike the physical bus topology, a ring topology has no beginning or end point that needs to
be terminated. A token travels around the ring stopping at each device. If the device wants to
transmit data, it adds that data and the destination address to the token. The token then
continues around the ring until it finds the destination device, which takes the data out of the
token. The advantage of using this topology is that there is no collision of data packets.
Relatively easy to install and reconfigure
There are no collisions of data packets
Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load.
Easy to add new node as only two connections need changes
The data being transmitted between two nodes passes through all the intermediate nodes.
A central server is not required for the management.


The failure of a single node of the network can cause the entire network to fail.
The movement or changes made to network nodes affects the performance of the
entire network.
A fault in the ring can disable the entire network.
It is only really used with Token ring networks.
This is very bulky and is not really suitable for running voice.
Moves and additions of node mean rewiring and re-routing cables.
Star Network :
A star topology is designed with each node such as file server, workstations, and peripherals
connected directly to a central network hub, switch or concentrator and peripherals connected
directly to a central network hub, switch or concentrator before continuing to its destination.
The hub, switch or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. It also
acts as a repeater for the data flow. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable
however it can be used with coaxial or fiber optic cable.

Easy to install and wire
Due to its centralized nature, these offers simplicity of operation.
It also achieves an isolation of each device in the network.
No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
Requires more cable length than a linear topology
If the hub, switch or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.
More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs etc.
Mesh Network:
A mesh topology consists of a network where every device on the network is physically
connected to every other device on the network. This provides a great deal of performance
and reliability; however the complexity and difficulty of creating one increases as the no. of
nodes on the network increases. For example, a three or four node mesh network is relatively
easy to create, where as it is impractical to set up a mesh network of 100 nodes.
Mesh networks are not used much in LANs but are used in WANs where reliability is
important and the number of sites being connected together is small. These are applicable to
wireless networks, wired networks and software interaction. Mesh networking is a way to
route data, voice and instructions between nodes.

The arrangement of the network nodes is such that it is possible to transmit data from one
node to many other nodes at the same time.
Eliminates traffic problems
Its a robust network
It has a very high privacy and security.


Huge amount of cable and i/o ports are required

Installation is difficult
Hardware required are very costly

Tree or Hierarchical Network:

A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of
groups of star- configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a
network to meet their needs.

Point-to- point wiring for individual
Supported by several
hardware and software vendors


Overall length of each segment is

limited by the type of cabling used
If the backbone line breaks, the
entire segment goes down.
More difficult to configure and
wire than other topologies.

Internet and its services:

Internet: The internet can be defined as a large network that connects other networks of
computers all around the world. Internet is best described as the worlds largest interconnected
network of networks. There is no centralized control of the internet, instead many millions of
individual networks and computers are interconnected throughout the world to communicate
with each other. The internet is not only technology; its a global community of people, including
corporations, non-profit organizations, educational institutions and individuals.

Advantages of internet:

There are many advantages of using internet such as:

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Email: E-mail is now an essential communication tools in business. The advantage of email is
that it is free when compared to telephone, fax and postal services.

Information: There is huge amount of information available on the internet for just about every
subject known to man, ranging from government law and services, trade fairs and conferences,
marketing information, new ideas and technical support.

Services: many services are now provided on the internet such as online banking, job seeking,
applications and hotel reservations etc.

E-commerce: E-commerce is the concept used for any type of commercial business deals that
involves the transfer of information across the globe via internet. It has become a phenomenon
associated with any kind of shopping, almost anything.

Communities: There are many types of communities in the internet. Its a great way to meet up
with people of similar interest and discuss common issues.

Drawbacks of internet:

Theft of Personal information


Virus threat

Internet Services:

The internet is a combination of many types of services and each has its own associated protocol.
The most popular services and resources of the internet are: E-Mail, Telnet, FTP, Usenet, Finger,
IRC, Gopher, web, Netscape etc.


Electronic mail (e-mail) is the term used to refer to any text message sent from one computer to
another computer. E-mail is the most common service on the internet as well as any system or
network that widely supports e-mail functions. The internet e-mail service allows a user to send
e-mail to a hundred people simultaneously.

The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), an electronic mail protocol used in a TCP/IP
network can be used to provide a facility for a user to send/receive a message to/from anyone
else on the internet. SMTP allows an internet user to read, write, edit, print, exit, delete, undelete
send, receive, save, reply or forward e-mail. An e-mail may be a text file, a binary file or a copy
of text from another e-mail. It can be distributed across the world to millions of people on the
internet flew in seconds.
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

A service that enables the user to log into another computer on the Internet. The telnet
program allows a local computer to establish a session with a remote Internet host. Once
the connection was made, Telnet acts as an intermediary between a local computer and a
remote Internet host. Telnet is used to access many public services, including library card
catalogs and other databases. It is the Internet remote login application.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) :

FTP is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers on the
Internet. A file may be a text, graphics or program file. FTP is extremely useful for
sharing information and moving files back and forth between computers connected to the
Internet. FTP permits the user to traverse a distant computers directory structure and
download copies of files to the local computer.

The WEB:

The World Wide Web which is also known as WEB is one of the popular services of the Internet.
The WWW provides the millions of information on various topics. There are millions of web
sites on the web which provide information. Each web site is identified by the Internet Address
or Uniform Resource Locator (URL). There are some websites which search the information on
the basis of keywords; such websites are known as search engines for example,, etc.

A newsgroup is the central place where journalists , reporters , editors and producers
along with their staff works to gather news to be published in a online or offline news
paper, magazine or broadcast on radio , television or cable. Newsgroup-Network NEWS
Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is used for newsgroups.

GOPHER is a Client/Server system that allows an Internet user to access a large variety
of resources of the internet. The power of GOPHER is to provide a menu listed items
representing text files and carry out the users request. That is GOPHER provides a series
of menus from which a user can access virtually any type of textual information on the

Video Conference:

The advanced service of the Internet through which the people at different locations
communicate by watching each other is known as Video Conference.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) :

It is one of the most popular services of the Internet which allows people at different locations to
send and receive instant message. We can send voice or text message through Internet Relay


It is the service on the internet through which we can sell or buy goods. The web sites which
provides buying and selling facilities to the users are known electronic commerce.

Electronic Fax (E-FAX):

It is the service through which user can send and receive faxes directly from one
computer to another. To use E-FAX service a computer should have a modem, e-fax
program and Internet.
Netscape :
Netscape is the most creative, technically superior information browser of the Internet.
This is a web browser that can read various types of documents created by a web tool,
developed by Netscape Communications. Netscape can run on Windows, MAC and
UNIX. Netscape displays web pages faster than other web browsers.

Internet Addressing:
Internet addressing is a systematic way to identify people, computers and internet
resources. Using the internet requires an understanding of different addressing schemes.
People are identified with e-mail addresses, computers with IP addresses and domain
names, resources and files available through the WWW are identified using URLs.
1) IP (Internet Protocol ) addresses and domain names:

Every computer on the internet has a unique numerical address, called an Internet Protocol (IP)
address, used to route packets to it across the Internet. An IP address is a numerical label
assigned to each device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for
communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: Host or network interface
identification and location addressing. We can find IP address on a windows computer by
opening command prompt and typing one of the winipcfg or ipconfig.

Format of IP address:

An IP address consists of four numbers separated by periods. Each number must be between 0
and 255. For example, user computers IP address might be

Each of the four numbers uses eight bits of storage and so can represent any of 256 numbers in
the range between 0 and 255.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

If the computer connected to the Internet over a phone line, then the IP address is assigned
dynamically by user Internet Service Provider from an available pool of addresses each time the
user log on. If the users computer is permanently connected to an Internet network, such as at
the office or on a high speed home connection, then the IP address could be permanently
assigned or could be reassigned each time user reboots the computer .

Domain Name: Most computers on the Internet have a unique domain name. Special computers,
called domain name servers, look up the domain name and match it to the corresponding IP
address so that data can be properly routed to its destination on the Internet. An example domain
name is: Domain names are easier to relate to than a numeric IP address.

2) Electronic Mail Address :

An Internet E-mail address is used to identify a person and a computer for the purpose of
exchanging electronic mail messages. An example e-mail address is:
Prerana 4u is the name of the person receiving or sending the message, this is referred
to as the username.
Gmail is the part of the domain name of the organization
.com is also the part of the domain name and indicates that gmail is a commercial
3) URLs:
URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. URLs are used to identify specific sites and files
available on the World Wide Web. The structure of the URL is :


It is not necessary for all URLs to have the directory and filename.

Internet Applications:

Applications of Internet include

Communication: it is used for sending and receiving message from one and other
through internet by using e-mail. Examples of sites providing this facility are ,,
Job Searches: getting information regarding availability of job in different sectors or
areas. You can publish your resume online for concerned job. .example sites are, etc.
Finding books and study material: books and other material stored around the world
can be easily located through Internet. Latest encyclopedias are available online
Health and medicine: Internet provides information and knowledge about the field of
health and medicine .people can have information about various disease and can receive
help online by consulting doctors available online through virtual check room.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Travel: one can use Internet to gather information about various tourist places. It can be
used for booking holiday tours, hotels, trains and flights. Example sites include:, etc.
Entertainment: one can download movies , songs, news updates through Internet
Shopping: Internet is also used for online shopping. We can buy things online and we
can also pay bills online and also can perform online banking
Research: a large no. of people is using Internet for research purposes. We can
download any kind of information by using Internet.
Business purpose

Computer Viruses:

Computer virus is a program that reproduces itself and attaches that copy to other computer
programs. In most cases, the program is malicious meaning its purpose is to cause the
computer malfunction in some way.

Virus can be defined as a program inserted into another program. It gets activated by its host
program. A virus can spread from one program to another when its host is taken to be uninfected
computer. For instance, a user sending it over a network or the internet or by carrying it on a
removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD or USB drive. Meanwhile viruses can spread to
other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by
another computer.

A virus infects data or program every time the user runs the infected program and the virus takes
advantage and replicates itself.

How virus affect computers:

Viruses affect our computers by corrupting files, interrupting Internet traffic and taking over the
basic functions of systems operating system. This causes system to crash.

Viruses can record key strokes and screen data and they may steel personal information and
passwords to transmit back to the malware author. Particularly, a malicious virus completely
takes over a system, it uses e-mail programs to send out copies of itself, and it transmits packets
to other systems in an attempt to break in and establish a new infection. Once the malware author
has a large number of systems under his control, he can use them to attack servers by flooding
them with requests from hundreds or thousands of systems at once.

In some cases, viruses even have the ability to damage the BIOS, the low-level systems
programs hard coded into motherboards that are responsible for the most basic functions of a
computer. Fortunately, these are relatively rare due to the fact that each motherboard
manufacturer uses different standards for its programs.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Brain is the standard name for a computer virus that was released in its first form in January
1986 and is considered to be the first computer virus for MS-DOS. It infects the boot sector of
storage media formatted with the DOS File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. Brain was written
by two brothers, Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi from Lahore, Pakisthan. Brain affects
the IBM PC computer by replacing the boot sector of a floppy disk with a copy of the virus. The
real boot sector is moved to another sector and marked as bad. Infected disks usually have five
kilobytes of bad sectors.

Types of Viruses:

Viruses on the basis of Damages:

Boot Infectors: These viruses infect floppy disk boot records or master boot records in
hard disks. It works by replacing the first sector on the disk with part of itself. It hides
rest of itself elsewhere on the disk. With a copy of the first sector, the virus is loaded by
the built-in program when the machine is switched on. The virus loads, installs, hides the
rest of itself and then loads the original program, on a hard disk. Virus can occupy DOS
boot sector or the master boot sector. Boot infectors include: the brain virus, disk killer,
stone virus.
Program Virus: It infects executable programs like .bin, .com, .exe, .drv (driver) and
.sys(device driver ). The virus becomes active in memory, making copies of itself and
infecting files on disk. For example Sunday, cascade.
Multipartite virus: It is a combination of Boot and program viruses. These infect
program files and when the infected program is executed, then viruses infect the boot
record. When boot the computer next time the virus from the boot record loads in
memory and then starts infecting other program files on disk. They tend to hide in the
computers memory but do not infect the hard disk. Multipartite viruses include: flip,
invader, tequila.
Stealth virus: It is able to avoid detection by a variety of means such as removing itself
from the system registry, masquerading as a system file etc. for example, Frodo, Whale.
Parasitic Virus : These viruses attach themselves to other programs and are activated
when the host program is executed. It spreads to other computers when the affected
programs are copied. It embeds itself into another file or program such that the original
file is viable. For example, Jerusalem and Data crime are considered as parasitic viruses.
Polymorphic Virus: They encode or encrypt themselves in a different way every time
they infect your computer. They use different encryption and algorithms. This makes it
difficult for the antivirus software to locate those using signature or string searches.
Polymorphic viruses include: Involuntary, Stimulate, Cascade, Phoenix, Evil, Proud,
Virus 101, Satan bug, Marburg.
Macro Virus: These viruses infect the file created using some applications or programs
that contain macros such as doc, pps, xls and mdb. They automatically infect the files
with macros and also templates and documents that are contained in the file. They hide in

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

documents shared through e-mail and networks. It includes: Relax, Bablas, Melissa.A,
Memory Resident Virus: They usually fix themselves inside the computer memory.
They get activated every time the OS runs and end up infecting other opened files. They
hide in RAM. Memory resident Viruses include: CMJ, meve, randex, mrklunky.
Overwrite Viruses: These type of viruses delete any information in a file they infect,
leaving them partially or incompletely useless once they are infected. Once in the
computer, they replaces all the files content but the file size doesnt change. Overwrite
viruses include: Trj.Reboot, Way, Trivial.88.D
Direct Action Viruses: These viruses mainly replicate or take action once they are
executed. When a certain condition is met, the viruses will act by infecting the files in the
directory or the folder specified in the AUTOEXEC.BAT. The viruses are generally
found in the hard disks root directory but they keep on changing location. Direct Action
viruses include: Vienna virus.
Directory Viruses: Also known as cluster virus or file system virus. They infect the
computers directory by changing the path indicating file location. They are usually
located in the disk but affect the entire directory. Directory Viruses include: dir-2 virus.
Web Scripting Viruses: Most of the web pages include some complex codes in order to
create an interactive and interesting content. Such a code is often exploited to cause
certain undesirable actions. They mostly originate from the infected web pages or
browsers. Web scripting viruses include: JS.Fortnight a virus that spreads via malicious
FAT Viruses: These viruses attack the file allocation table (FAT) which is the disc part
used to store every information about the available space, location of files, unusable
space etc. FAT viruses include: the link virus.
Companion viruses: These types of viruses infect files just like the direct action and the
resident types. Once inside the computer, they accompany other existing files.
Companion viruses include: Asimov.1539, Stator and terrax.1069.
E-mail Virus: This virus spreads via an e-mail. Such virus will hide in an e-mail and
when the recipient opens the mail.
Viruses on basis of Function and Propagation :
Trojan Horse : Trojan horse are the files that provide the attackers with remote access to
the victims computers. Trojans can illegally trace important login details of users online.
These programs act as the sneaky means for a hacker to gain access to someones
computer to send out spam e-mails or steal passwords. O n the other hand, do not self
replicate. For example, E-Banking is very common among users, therefore , vulnerability
of tracing your login details whenever your PC is working without any strong powerful
antivirus installed.
Spyware Programs: Spyware programs monitor a computer users activity, such as
websites they visit, without the user knowing it, and may cause unsolicited

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

advertisements to pop up(adware) or may steal sensitive information such as credit card
Worm: Unlike viruses, worms do not have to attach themselves to a program in user
computer, and may not damage files on an infected computer. Instead, worms more often
slow down computer networks by eating up bandwidth, or user computers ability to
process data, as the malware replicates and spreads. It spreads through network for
another machine that has specific security hole. It duplicates itself and finally clogging
the entire system with copies. Worm viruses include: lovgate.F, sobig.D , trile.C,
PSWBugbear.B, Mapson.
Browser Hijackers: This virus can spread in many different ways including a voluntary
download. It infects certain browser functions especially in form of redirecting the user
automatically to certain sites. Browser hijackers include: the cool web search.
Bomb: Bomb doesnt propagate itself at all , but is placed by a human or another
program and activated by a trigger such as time or event . Usually it does something
unpleasant when it goes off.
Port Scanner: Port Scanner is hidden on a system and scans the surrounding
environment for IP addresses and open ports that makes available to other malicious code
or individuals.


A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information
resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a URL and may be a
web page, image, video or other piece of content. Examples include Netscape, Microsofts
Internet Explorer, Mozilla FireFox and Mosaic.

Types of Browsers:

All web browsers are application programs that are developed to access information on World
Wide Web. Although the primary applications of all the web browsers is same, they differ from
each other in more than one aspect. The general, primary and secondary features and facilities
offered by web browsers include downloads, bookmarks and password management. They also
offer functions like spell checking, search engines, toolbars, tabbed browsing, advertisement
filtering, HTML access keys and pop-up blocking.

The major browsers are Internet Explorer, Google chrome, Mozilla Firefox, safari, opera etc.

Internet Explorer: Internet Explorer (IE) is a product from software giant MicroSoft . This is
the most commonly used browser in the universe. This was introduced in 1995 along with
Windows 95 launch and it has passed Netscape popularity in 1998.


C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

There are regular Microsoft updates that IE supports.
Favicon allows and image to be used as a bookmark.
It supports Integrated Windows Authentication.


Free to download at no cost.

Offers every help option we looked for, including direct support via e-mail and telephone.
Provides speed and functionality.
Easy to use.


Bugs come in IE (Internet Explorer) users at different times and fixing them is time
Microsoft is unaware of finding any bugs hidden within the browser to fix.
Installation of software such as Adobe Flash Player can be slow and has to be done
manually sometimes when it comes to updates that need to be installed.
Lack of security in ActiveX controls.
Lack of built in features to synchronize bookmarks.
Confusion between 32 bit and 64- bit versions of IE.
Lack of cross-platform experience (used in windows but not MAC)
Huge target for hackers and cyber-thieves

Google Chrome:

This web browser is developed by Google and its beta version was first released on September 2,
2008 for Microsoft Windows. Today, chrome is known to be one of the most popular web
browsers with its global share of more than 50%.

Features :

The main standout feature is the malware and phishing warning that the browser suggests
when the user wants to browse a site.
There is a user tracking option available with chrome.


Fast Browsing performance

Built in flash and PDF support
More control over tabs
More dynamic home page for common used search engines and bookmarks
More speed and wont slow down on your browsing through internet.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Have sync capabilities that allow you to access your customized browser from any
Makes searching so simple and ease of use
Provides great security
Free to download at no cost


Lack of parental control

Minor site incompatibilities
Graphics hardware acceleration does not work with all graphics cards

Mozilla Firefox:

Firefox is a new browser derived from Mozilla. It is released on 2004 and has grown to be the
second most popular browser on the Internet. It was earlier named Phoenix, Firebird and
eventually Firefox.


As it is open source software, it allows everyone to access the code.

It supports tabbed browsing that allows the user to open multiple sites in a single window.
Session storage is also an important feature of Firefox, which allows the user to regain
access to the open tabs after he has closed the browser window.


Provides more intuitive navigation, secure privacy mode and downloading

Offers lot of help and support on Firefox tutorial.
Speed and more compatible and ease to have add-ons.
More customization
Free to download at no cost.


No thumbnail previews or mouse gestures however there are free plug-ins from Firefox
Mozilla that addresses both these issues.
Resource heavy uses a heavy portion of memory to run.


Safari is a web browser from Apple Inc., which is compatible with MAC OS X, Microsoft
Windows, and the iPhone OS. It was first released as a public beta in January 2003. It has very
good support for latest technologies like XHTML, CSS2 etc.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .


The Safari 4 beta had many features like Voiceover screen reader that reads aloud
everything that is on the screen, including text and web links.
Provides a built-in feature of grammar checking, which performs a grammar check on
the typed text and gives suggestions to correct your sentence if wrong.
It also has the features like CSS Canvas, LiveConnect, XML1.0 and JavaScript support.
Special feature of resizing web search box option available.


Ease of use and speed compatibility

Provides security features and cleans up unnecessary junk.
Free to download and extremely fast to download for MAC users
Impressive page load time and adds extensions from safari extensions.


Lack of customization options many competitors offer.

Support system may be missing some options for users in FAQ section
Trouble with Google built-in search engine that cant be changed
Difficulty in deleting cookies on exit automatically.


This browser was developed by Opera software in 1996. It is well-known browser that is mainly
used in Internet-activated mobile phones, PDAs and smart phones. Opera mini and Opera Mobile
are the browsers used in smart phones. It is compatible with many OS such as Solaris, Linux,
MAC OS X and Microsoft Windows. It is also compatible with Symbian and Windows Mobile
operating systems for smart phones and PDAs. The company claims that opera is the fastest
browser in the world.


It also has some common functions like zoom and fit-to-width, content blocking, tabs and
sessions, download manager with BitTorrent and mouse gestures.


Opera is smaller and faster than most other browsers.

User-friendly with keyboard interface, multiple windows, zoom functions
Java and non-Java enabled versions available.

Netscape Navigator:

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

It was developed by Netscape Communications Corporation and was most popular in the 1990s.
Exceptional features were provided at the time of its release, which helped it to rise to fame with
a market share of more than 50% in the 1990s. It was compatible with almost every OS.


Internet Applications

Using Internet Explorer:

Internet Explorer (IE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included
as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, started in 1995. Internet Explorer is
a browser that is nearly as old as the internet and the browser is having several versions and
present version is Internet Explorer 11.

The latest version of Internet Explorer is 11 (IE 11) officially released on October 17,2013 for
Windows 8.1 and on 7 November 2013 for Windows 7. It includes an incomplete mechanism for
syncing tabs. It has a major update to its developer tools, enhanced scaling for high DPI screens.
HTML5 prerender and prefetch, hardware accelerated JPEG decoding , closed captioning,
HTML5 full screen etc.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Standard Internet Explorer Buttons:

When you open Internet Explorer, the window that you see on your computer screen has the
standard window parts: title bar, status bar, scroll bars, menu bar, toolbar and maximize,
minimize and close buttons.

Back and Forward buttons:

Back and forward buttons are for quickly going back or forward in current browsing history.
These buttons are active only when you have visited at least two web pages. When you click on
the button, you can see the browsing history and you can go back or forward by clicking any
item in the list.

We can also move back one page at a time by pressing BACKSPACE or ALT+LEFT arrow key
on the keyboard. We also move forward one page at a time by pressing ALT+RIGHT Arrow key
o n the keyboard.

Address Bar:

Address bar contains the address of the webpage. The address bar shows the URL (uniform
resource locator) also called address, for the webpage that is accessed by the user. We can type
the URL in the address bar and press ENTER key to display the page whose location we typed.

The actual web page is shown in the bottom part of the browser window. The browser will show
scroll bars if the page is too wide or too lengthy to fit in the window.

The address bar can fetch the web page in two ways :

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Type it : type the URL in the address bar and press enter or click GO button
Drop List: the addresses we typed previously in the address bar are kept in the list that
drops from the bar. New addresses will eventually replace the old addresses on the list.

Links Bar :

Links bar is a convenient spot for shortcuts to your most frequently accessed web pages. IE
comes with some Microsoft sites already showing on the Links bar. Different versions will have
different sites listed. We can delete those and add our own list.

Search Button :

Search button is another way to start searching.

Tracking protection Indicator:

Tracking protection indicator shows up each time something is blocked on the web page you are
currently on. Tracking protection does not necessarily mean something malicious, in most cases
this just keeps online advertisement companies from tracking your behavior and customizing
web ads for you.

Compatibility Mode button:

Compatibility mode button is useful when a site does not follow web standards correctly and
web pages on the site appear badly laid out or do not display contents well. Click the button and
IE will try to recover from these errors and display the web page correctly.

Refresh and Stop button:

When we want to refresh a page, click on refresh button or press function key F5 on key board.
To stop loading a page, click stop button or press ESC on key board.


Tab makes navigating between open web pages easier. You can open a new tab by clicking the
small empty tab right to the last open TAB or press CTRL +T on the keyboard.

You can close active tab by clicking the X button in the right top of the tab or by press CTRL+W
on the keyboard.

To navigate between open tabs, click on the required tab or press CTRL+TAB to move forward
one tab at a time or CTRL+SHIFT+TAB to move back one tab at a time.

Horizontal and vertical Scroll bars:

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Horizontal and vertical scroll bars are for moving left and right , up and down in currently
opened web page. The scroll bars appear only if the page content does not fit in the window.

Click and hold on a scroll bar and move the mouse to scroll a webpage. You can also use arrow
keys to scroll a webpage, PAGE UP(PgUp) and PAGE DOWN(PgDn) key to scroll one page at a
time, or use HOME key to jump to the top of the page or END key to jump to the bottom of the

Menu Bar and Command Bar:

Menu bar has been hidden since IE 7. Just press ALT key on the key board and Menu bar appears
below the address bar until you use it. After selecting a command, automatically menu bar
disappears again.

Command Bar:

Command bar includes most often used commands. Command bar and Menu bar are now
replaced with three or four buttons.

Home: opens your home page. We can also use keyboard shortcut ALT+HOME
Favorites, Feeds, History: opens a list of your favorite pages, feeds and browsing
history. You can use keyboard shortcut ALT+C or CTRL+I to open Favorites, CTRL+G
to open Feeds or CTRL+H to open History. The lists now open on the right side of the
Internet Explorer.
Tools: Most used Menu items, such as print, zoom, safety or Internet Options. Use
keyboard shortcut ALT +X for this.
Feedback: in windows 10 only, the smiley emoticon allows sending positive (ALT+J) or
negative (ALT+K) feedback to Microsoft.

Favorites Bar: Favorites bar includes some of your favorite web sites and web parts. This bar is
meant for pages and web parts you visit most often.The first button on Favorites bar is Add to
Favorites Bar button. When you click it, your current opened page or selected web part will be
added to Favorites bar as a button.

Title Bar: The Title bar shows the title of the page and the browsers name at the left. At the
right it contains standard buttons: Minimize, Maximize and close.

Status Bar:

The status bar shows messages and icons that tell you what the browser is doing .

Tool Bar:

The toolbar has buttons for the most commonly used commands. When the mouse is over a
button, it will gain colors and look raised. Some buttons wont show if the window size is small.
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Entering the Website Address:

In the Address Bar you can also type the path to a folder or a file. Internet Explorer11 has an
improved Address Bar with the integrated Search and AutoComplete from History, Favorites and
Feeds Contents.

Normal URL to a page on the web looks like


It starts with the protocol, then the domain name, then the path to the particular page.

A path to a file on your computer looks like :


A path to a folder looks like :


Searching the Internet:

There are five ways to search the Internet on the computer, they are

Surfing the Web: following links from page to page without a particular plan is called
Surfing. We can find fascinating places on the web in this way. Sites may have links to
similar sites or to sites with related matter.
General Publications : you might see a web address in an advertisement, in an article in
a magazine or newspaper, or on a business card or letterhead.
Special Publications: many magazines and websites have lists of interesting websites.
Huge books have been published describing websites that are useful, informative etc.
Word of mouth: A friend might tell you about some interesting things in some site
Search engines: special websites called search engines or web directories keep track of
whats there on the web. A search engine is a computer program that automatically
searches the Internet for the web pages and makes an index of what it finds. All major
search engines index the entire text of the page

Introduction to Social Networking:

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Social media are computer mediated tools that allow people or companies to create, share or
exchange information, career interests, ideas and pictures, videos etc in virtual communities
and networks.

Social media is defined as A group of Internet based applications that build on the
ideological and technological foundations of web and that allow the creation and exchange of
user-generated content.

Social media depends on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive
platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss and modify
user-generated content.

There are many effects that stem from Internet usage, According to Nielson, Internet users
continue to spend more time with social media sites than any other type of site

Honey comb Framework of Social Media :

H.Kietzmann, Kristopher Hermkens, Ian P. McCarthy and Bruno S.Silvestre present a framework
that defines social media by using seven functional building blocks: Identity, Conversations,
Sharing, Presence, Relationships, Reputation, and Groups. These building blocks help explain
the needs of social media audience.

Identity: this block represents the extent to which users reveal their identities in social
media setting. This can include disclosing information such as name, age, gender,
profession etc.
Conversations: This block represents the extent to which users communicate with other
users in a social media setting. Many social media sites are designed to facilitate
conversations among individuals and groups. People tweet, blog etc to meet new like-
minded people to build their self-esteem or to be on the cutting edge of new ideas or
trending topics.
Sharing: This block represents the extent to which users exchange, distribute and receive
Presence: This block represents the extent to which users can know if other users are
accessible. It includes knowing where others are in the virtual world and /or in the real
world and whether they are available.
Relationships: this block represents the extent to which users can be related to other
users. Two or more users have some form of associations that leads to communicate,
share objects etc.
Reputation: this block represents the extent to which users can identify others, including
themselves. In most cases reputation is a matter of trust.
Groups: this block represents the extent to which users can form communities and sub
communities. The more social a network becomes, the bigger the group of friends,
followers and contacts.
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Popular social media are
Facebook is a social networking service launched in February 4, 2004. It was founded by
Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University student
Eduardo Saverin. Initially the websites membership is limited to the founders to Harvard
University students later on expanded to other Universities in Canada and United States.
As of September 2006, the network is extended to everyone with a registered email
Facebook has various features like chatting with friends , sharing your opinions, creating
events, making new friends, uploading videos, voice calling, video calling, messaging ,
allows users to send virtual gifts to friends etc .
Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Evan Williams, Biz Stone and Noah
Glass and launched in July 2006. It gained more than 100 million users posting 340
million tweets a day in 2012. In 2013, Twitter was one of the ten most-visited websites
and has been described as The SMS of the Internet.
On Twitter, one can discover what is happening right now anywhere in the world. Twitter
is an online social networking site that enables users to send and read short 140-character
size messages called tweets. Registered users can read and post tweets, but those who
are not registered can only read them. Users can access Twitter through the website, or
mobile device app. Twitter is in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the
Yahoo! Buzz was launched in 2008. Yahoo! Buzz is having 1.8 million unique visitors in
July 2010.
GOOGLE + is a social networking site that builds off to your google account. If you have
a Google account, you can activate your GOOGLE+ account as easily as you would
activate Google. Google + is designed to allow anyone to upload high resolution photos
without interfering with the quality of the image. The Google+ service delivers
functionality and many features similar to Facebook.
YouTube is a videos sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California, United
States. This service was created by three former PAYPAL employees in February 2005.
YouTube now operates as one of Googles subsidiaries. This site allows users to upload,
view, rate, share and comment on videos and it makes use of WebM , MPEG-4, AVI,
Adobe Flash Video technology to display a wide variety of user generated and corporate
media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV clips, music videos, movie
trailers and other content such as video blogging, educational videos etc .

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

WhatsApp is a free to download messenger app for smart phones. WhatsApp uses the
Internet to send messages, images, audio or video. The service is very similar to text
messaging services however, whatsapp uses the internet to send messages. It includes
several features like group chatting, voice messages, sharing images and videos etc. we
can create whatsapp account by using the valid mobile number and we can use the
features of it .
In 2002, Reid Hoffman gathered a team of old SocialNet and PayPal Colleagues to work
on new idea a network that allows professionals to find and connect with one another.
People are now exchanging information, ideas and opportunities through LinkedIn and
therefore it led to rise in the users of LinkedIn.
LinkedIn has become the good platform for all business professionals on the planet.
LinkedIn provides purposes like creating groups, endorsements, career management etc.
TUMBLR is a micro-blogging platform and social networking website founded by David
Karp in 2007, and owned by Yahoo! Since 2013.Tumblr launched to make it easier for
people to write, share and discover blogs about anything.
The features of Tumblr includes dashboard, queue, tags etc. Dashboard enables users to
comment, re-blog and like posts from other blogs that appear on their dashboard. Queue
provides users to set up a schedule to delay posts that they make.

Flicker is one of the largest photo hosting and sharing sites on the web, with more than
five billion images uploaded to its servers. Registration is free , but there are limits to the
file size and number of photos and videos you can upload. A pro membership can be
purchased which includes unlimited uploads and file size.
Skype can be the go-to tool for video chatting, conference calls, and long-distance
conversations. Skype provides a way for users to create groups, chat rooms, voice and
video calls, and also allows users to instantly share files with one another.
YELP is one of the more popular social networking sites that focus on reviewing
businesses and sharing information about them. It is founded in 2004 in San Francisco.
The website is like a large online bulletin board featuring user generated content, all
geared towards personal reviews based on experiences at local businesses.
VIMEO is a video-sharing website that allows members to view, upload and share
videos. Members can chose between VIMEOs free service and a number of paid
services. Vimeos paid services aimed at helping organizations control how their video
appear on the Internet.Vimeos free services allow members to employ a number of
creative tools in order to enhance videos, add music tracks etc. It also provides users with

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

a video school to improve their own video production for long-term personal or financial




The World Wide Web (WWW) or Web is a software application that makes it easy and possible
for anyone to publish and browse hypertext documents on the Internet. It is called web because
the interconnection between the documents resembles the spiders web.

The documents are formatted in Hyper Text Markup language (HTML) that supports links to
other documents, as well as graphics, audio, video files etc. Users can traverse from one
document to another simply by clicking on hot spots. Hyper text document is called as WEB
PAGE. Operations on the WWW are based on Client-Server Model.

Each application uses the Internet as a transport mechanism. The web runs on the HTTP
protocol. Browsers are multiprotocol, means that they can talk to many different resources that
make up the Internet and the protocols are included in the browsers.

The central idea in the development of the web was the Uniform Resource Locators (URL). A
URL is a web page address that uniquely identifies a document on the web. The non-linear
nature of the web is one of its main attractions.

The language of the web:

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

There are three main components to this language to communicate in the web.

Uniform Resource Locator (URLs): URLs provide the hypertext links between one
document and another. These links can access a variety of protocols (eg:FTP, gopher or
http) on different machines or your own machine.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): HTML a standardized system for tagging text
files to achieve font, color, graphic and hyperlink effects on web pages.
Common Gate Interface (CGI) : CGIs provide a gateway between the HTTP server
software and the host machine.

A web application or web app is a client-server software application which the client (or
user interface) runs in a web browser. These applications use web documents written in
HTML and Javascript, which are supported by a variety of web browsers. Web
applications are computer programs allows the users to submit and retrieve data to/from a
database over the Internet using web browser. The data is then presented to the user
within their browser as information is generated dynamically by web application through
a web server.
Web applications can be considered as a specific variant of client-server software where
the clients software is downloaded to the client machine when visiting the relevant web
page, using standard procedures such as HTTP. The web browser interprets and displays
the pages and acts as the universal client for any web application. The common web
applications include webmail, online retail sales, online auctions, instant messaging
service etc.

Web Terminologies:
A world wide grid of networked (inter-linked) computers.

A closed network of inter-linked computers using the same technologies as the Internet. It is
used by organizations for sharing internal information.
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Group of computers and devices on a network.
Domain name:
A Name that identifies one or more computers on the network. Domain names are used in web
FTP (File Transfer Protocol):
It is the protocol used on the Internet for sending files from one computer to another.
HTML (Hypertext markup language):
Web pages are written in HTML language. The files written in this language will have the
extension .html or .htm
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP):
HTTP is a set of standards that allows web browsers and web servers to exchange data.
WEB Browser:
Browser is software which is used to retrieve web pages which are written in HTML.
Examples are Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome etc.

Web Server:
Web server is a software application
IP Address:
An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP
protocol route messages based on the IP addresses of the destination. The format of an IP
address is a 32-bit numeric address written
as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. An example of an IP
address is

ISP (Internet Service Provider):

ISP is a company that provides access to the Internet. For a monthly fee, the service provider
gives you a software package, username, password and access phone number. System equipped
with modem, you can then log on to the Internet and browse the WWW and send and receive e-
mail. In addition to serving individuals, ISPs also serve large companies, providing a direct
connection from the companys networks to the Internet. ISPs, themselves are connected to one
another through Network Access Points (NAPs). ISPs are also called Internet Access Providers

Search Engines:

The search engine will return a result with prioritized rankings based on the structure of the page
and the nature of search.

User name:

A name used to gain access to a computer system. User names and passwords are required in
multiuser systems. In such systems, users can select their own usernames and passwords.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Web Page:

A file written in HTML that allows information in various formats to be viewed on the Internet.


Collection of Web pages that contain similar content and share an internet address.


WWW or Web is a subset of the Internet, which uses a combination of text, graphics, audio and
video to provide information on every subject.

Web Hosting:

An organization which supplies a website hosting service allows space on their web server or
computer to store a live copy of your web site which you sue in conjunction with your domain
name. you can buy your own web server or you can pay someone else for the use of their web

Website hosting providers are specialists who have one or more powerful web servers that can be
shared by several companies. A website host provider can be an ISP or a dedicated host service
provider. A website host allows each website appear with its own domain name, like

WEB Server:

A web server is a computer with special software to host web pages and web applications. A web
server serves web pages to clients across the Internet or an Intranet. The web server hosts the
pages, scripts, programs, and multimedia files and serves them with scripts, programs and
multimedia files and serves them using HTTP, a protocol designed to send files to web browsers
and other protocols. The most common web server is Apache, Web sphere, web logic etc

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Web Browser:

A web browser is a computer application that allows you to view web pages nothing but html
files. These files were designed for use on the Internet but can be stored locally on your
computers hard disk. The most popular web browsers are Internet Explorer, Netscape navigator,
Google Chrome etc.

Web pages have their own addresses. These addresses are published in all sorts of places such as
advertisements, articles in the media and on the letter heads of people or organizations that write
to you. We can find web pages by using search engines.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator):

URL is the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. The term
Web Address is a synonym for a URL that uses the HTTP or HTTPs protocol. The URL was
developed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1994. URL is a web location of a file on World Wide Web
displayed with a web address.

The first part of the URL is called a protocol identifier and it indicates what protocol to use and
the second part is called a resource name and it specifies the IP address or the domain name
where the resource is located. The protocol identifier and the resource name are separated by a
colon and two forward slashes

Components of URL:

A URL is a specific type of URI (Universal Resource Identifier). A URL normally locates an
existing resource on the Internet. A URL is used when a web client makes a request to a server
for a resource. URL contains four components.

A URL for HTTP (or HTTPS) is normally made up of three or four components:

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

1. A scheme. The scheme identifies the protocol to be used to access the resource on the
Internet. It can be HTTP (without SSL) or HTTPS (with SSL).

2. A host. The host name identifies the host that holds the resource. For
example, A server provides services in the name of the host, but hosts
and servers do not have a one-to-one mapping.

Host names can also be followed by a port number. Well-known port numbers for a service are
normally omitted from the URL. Most servers use the well-known port numbers for HTTP and
HTTPS , so most HTTP URLs omit the port number.
3. A path. The path identifies the specific resource in the host that the web client wants to
access. For example, /software/htp/cics/index.html.
4. File name is the name of the web page being requested by the browser
5. A query string. If a query string is used, it follows the path component, and provides a
string of information that the resource can use for some purpose The query string is usually
a string of name and value pairs;
The scheme and host components of a URL are not defined as case-sensitive, but the path and
query string are case-sensitive. Typically, the whole URL is specified in lowercase

The components of the URL are combined and delimited as follows:


The scheme is followed by a colon and two forward slashes.

If a port number is specified, that number follows the host name, separated by a colon.

The path name begins with a single forward slash.

If a query string is specified, it is preceded by a question mark.

Here is an example of an HTTP URL:

Searching WWW:

Search Engine allows people to access online information on the web. It is a computer program
that does the following

Allows you to submit a form containing a query that consists of a word or phrase
describing the specific information you are trying to locate on the web.
Searches its database to match your query.
Collates and returns a list of clickable URLs containing presentations that match your
query. The list is usually ordered, with better matches appearing at the top.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Permits you to revise and resubmit a query.
The popular search engines include Yahoo, Google, Alta Vista, HotBot, etc.

Search Engines and Examples:

A search engine is a service that allows you to search web pages that have been traversed by its
robot program. It is composed of the following three components:

Robot (also known as spider): A program that traverses web servers around the world
to gather important information (URLs, text, links) of the web pages on servers.
Index: A database containing the important information gathered by spider.
Search Software: A software that enables users to query the index and displays a list of

Search engines crawl through the websites using computers to make an electronic copy of
website. When we enter a search term and it brings up number of pages from its databases which
it thinks are applicable to your search terms.

Some common search engines are:

Google was developed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin in 1998. The homepage of Google
has a button labeled as Im Feeling Lucky. When the user types in a search phrase and
clicks on the button, the user is directly taken to the first search result. Google has various
special features which include weather, unit conversion, currency conversions, time ,
calculator and maps etc.
Bing :
Bing is Microsofts attempt to challenge Google in the area of search but despite their
efforts they still did not manage to convince users that their search engine can produce
better results than Google.

Yahoo was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated
on March 2, 1995. Yahoo was one of the pioneers of the early internet era in the 1990.
Since October 2011 Yahoo search is powered by Bing. Yahoo is also one of the most
popular e-mail providers.
Ask is based on a question/ answer format where most questions are answered by other
users or in the form of polls. It also has the general search functionality but the results
returned lacks quality when compared with Google or Yahoo.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

HTML , its structure and features

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. A webpage is created when an ordinary plain
text is marked up using HTML tags and then displayed using a browser. The tags are pre-
defined combination of characters that are enclosed in between < and > symbols. HTML
allows to create a web page with specific designing of data. HTML is not case sensitive. i.e,
<HTML > and <html> are treated as same.
HTML tag Syntax:
The basic form of HTML tags is

<tagname attrib1=val1 attrib2=val2,.>

Item to be formatted.

Where tag is any HTML tag and attrib means any attribute .

Attribute: An attribute specifies the property of the tag. The number of attributes varies
from one tag to another tag. In the general form represented here, we have two attributes
namely attrib1, attrib2. Here value1 and value 2 are assigned to the two attributes
Features of HTML:
Some of the important features of HTML are
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

HTML is an error-free language
HTML is not case sensitive language
It provides designing of web page with different styles
It supports list type of data
It provides tabular representation of data
It supports frame representation
It supports hyperlink navigation
It supports different types of web graphics, multimedia objects and cascading style

Structure of HTML Document

To produce an HTML document, we need a text editor to create a file with an extension
.html. Every HTML document has two parts namely HEAD and BODY.

A common HTML program contains the following structure.

<html> <html>:-
This is the main tag where all the sub tags can be placed.
<head> ..</head> :-
This is the header area of the document which includes other html tags
The title tag is contained within the head of the document to provide title.
<body></body> :-
The body tag specifies html code which is displayed on the browsers window.

Basic tags in HTML:

A Web page can be designed with the help of the following tags.
i) Head tag: <head>
The <head> has no attributes. Several tags can be included inside the <head>. The
following are some of the tags used in the head section
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

<title> : this tag allows to specify identification name for the current web page.
<title> any title </title>
<basefont>: this tag defines the font size that is used in the HTML document and
is included in the head tag.
<basefont size=4>
Here size is an attribute of the basefont tag. It can takes values from 1 to 7 only.
Meta tag (<meta>): this tag is used to tell hints about a web page. It contains
content attribute.
<meta content =keywords >

Body tag <body> :- this tag is the 2nd main part of every HTML document. The text and HTML
code are written in between the body tag is rendered and displayed in the document area of the
browsers window. It contains several attributes. they are

Bgcolor: this attribute is used to set the background of the HTML document into
a single color.
<body bgcolor=any color>
Text: this attribute is used to change the text color for the entire document.
<body text =any color>
Background:- this attribute allows to display an image as a background for the
web page.
<body background = url path >

Font tag ( <font>):-

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

HTML allows individual font styles, colors and sizes for individual data. This can be achieved
with the help of font tag. It contains three attributes namely size, color and face

Size: this attribute is used to change the font size of individual part of document
Color: this attribute is used to modify the color of segment of the text.
Face: this attribute allows to specify a particular font type.


<font size= 4 color= pink face= arial>


HTML Formatting Tags:

HTML language allows to change the appearance of textual data by changing the formats of the
data. HTML formatting includes paragraph tag and heading tags. By using these tags you can
make your web page more reliable and interesting.

Paragraph tag (<p>) :-

This tag is used to break the text into paragraphs. To design a block of text as a
paragraph, enclose the text in the paragraph tag. Beginning and ending tags are <p> and

A paragraph formatting can be done with the help of align attribute. The align attribute
can take the values left, right, center.
<p align = left/right/center>
Any text
Heading tag:
In many forms of writing it is common to include headings in the document. Most
browsers support a hierarchy of six levels of heading tags. The beginning tag for heading
is <hi>, here i can be any value from 1 to 6 and the corresponding ending tag is</hi>. The
largest heading tag is <h1> and the smallest is <h6>
The heading tags are useful for dividing the document into sections. The align attribute of
heading tag is used to align the text either left, right, center.

<h1 align = left/right/center>

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .


Sample program

Explain about image tag and Hyperlinks

Image tag: <img>

The <img> is used for including inline images in the document.


<img src= url height= 40 width= 40 alt= any text>

Example: <img src= globe.gif height= 50 width= 50 alt= globe>

Most important attribute of image tag is src which is used to specify the image path. Any type
of image can be specified using src attribute. The most common image formats are gif, png, jpg.

Each image must be retrieved separately. The browser can obtain the size of the image by using
height and width attributes. The image tag has another attribute known as alt, when the user
selects the image the text in an alternative attribute is displayed in the tool tip of mouse pointer.

Sample program:

Anchor Tag: <a>

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

A hyperlink is an association among multiple web pages or within the same web page. The hyper
link allows navigating in between different web pages.

HTML language allows to create Hyperlink with the help of <a>. The three basic parts of
hyperlink are

The beginning and ending tag. i.e, <a> and </a>

The Href attribute that specifies the URL of the page that is to be downloaded when you
select hyperlink.
The text or graphic that appears as active link.

Hyperlinks can be done in two ways:

Clickable Text Hyperlink:

Consider the following example
<a href= main.html> CLICK </a>
In this example, the href attribute of anchor tag is used to create a hyper text CLICK. By
clicking on this hypertext the webpage main.html will be loaded.
Clickable image hyperlink:
Consider the following example:

<a href= first.html>

<img src= pyramid.gif height= 40 width= 40>
In this example , the href attribute of anchor tag is used to create a hyper image
pyramid. By clicking on this hyper image the webpage first.html will be loaded.

Hyperlink colors:
There are some attributes that are used to change the color of hyper text.
These attributes are included in the body tag. They are link, vlink and alink.
Link: the color value assigned to the link attribute sets the color for all unvisited
Vlink: (visited hyperlink link): the color value assigned to sets the color for all visited
Alink: the color value assigned to alink sets the color to the hypertext when the user
selects it
<body link = RED
Vlink = BLACK
Alink= GREEN >
HTML Colors:
HTML supports different types of color representation. These colors can be represented
either by color names or hexadecimal format. A hexadecimal format should be preceeded
with # symbol. These colors are represented using RGB color format.

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Color Hexadecimal code
Black #000000
Blue #0000FF
Gold #FFD700
Orange #FFA500
Yellow #FFFF00
Purple #DDA0DD
Green #00FF00

Explain about semantic and syntactic tags?

HTML allows to render textual representation by using the browser. A large number of HTML
tags are used for specifying textual data. HTML tags are basically divided in to two types. They

Semantic tags
Syntactic tags

Semantic based style type:

These are also known as content based style type. It allows to represent the data based on pre-
defined or built-in style types. Some of the semantic tags are

Emphasis tag ( <em> ):

This tag is used to get thicker format of text.
Eg: TCP <em> Transmission control protocol </em>
Strong tag <strong>:-
This tag is used to get even higher level of emphasis tag.
Eg: SMTP <strong> Simple Mail Transfer Protocol </strong>
Address tag :
The address tag allows to represent the data in an addressable format
Eg: mail to:
< Address> </address>
Code tag:
This tag is used to display the data in a programming language code format
Eg: <code>
Let i have the value 1
While i less than n
Increment i
Variable tag:

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

This tag is used to define a variable in a programming language code
Eg: <code>
Int <var> I </var>
Big tag:
This tag allows to display the text in an increase font size when compared to the
surrounding text.
IP<big> Internet Protocol </big>
Small tag:
This tag is used to reduce the font size when compared to the surrounding text.
Ex: POP <small> Post office protocol </small>
Syntactic based style types :
These are also known as physical based style types. Some of the syntactic tags are
Bold tag : <b>
This tag is used to make the text in bold format.
<b> Internet </b>
Italic tag: <I>
This tag converts the enclosed text in italic style
Eg: <i> all the best<i>
Underline tag: <u>
This tag is used to underline the text.
<u> internet technologies </u>
Strike tag :<strike>
This tag is used to strike out a specific data through a single line
Eg: <strike> Good Night </strike>
Blink tag :<blink>
Flashing text is created by using the blink tag
Eg: <blink> Good Luck</blink>
Superscript :<sup>
This is used to produce any mathematical equations
Eg: x<sup>2</sup>
Subscript tag <sub>
This tag allows to display data in subscript format. It is useful to create chemical
Eg: H<sub>2</sub>o
Monospaced typewriter tag :<tt>
This tag allows to specify the text in monospaced typewriter font.
<tt>my dad my hero </tt>
Example program :

<title>Text Formats</title>

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

<body bgcolor=royalblue text=gold>
<h2 align="center"><u>INDIAN CULTURE</h2></u>
<font face="monotype corsiva" size=5 color="cyan">
<em>India is our Mother land</em>
<strong> We love India, India has a glorious heritage of several centuries
<big>Indias culture and traditions are the Integration of several different
states and people </big><br>
<small> India occupies a small geographical space on the globe
<em>The various discussions and thoughts about India are expressed by
several great outstanding personalities like </em><br>
<address><u>Mahatma Gandhi<br>
Jawaharlal Nehru<br>
<small> Various Interesting books are available about India such as
<cite>Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru <br>
Ramayana by Valmaki </cite>
<font face="Arial" size="5" color="snow" >
<marquee> It will be great pleasure and pride to know that we are Indians
and belong to India</marquee>
<blink>Great India</blink></font>
Horizontal Ruler Tag <hr>:

Horizontal ruler tag is used to create horizontal line across the browsers window. This tag is
generally used to separate headers and footers. It contains the following attributes:

Width:- this attribute is used to specify the width of the horizontal line based on the given

eg: <hr width= 30>

Size:- this attribute allows to specify the thicker line based on the given value.

Eg: <hr size= 11>

Align: this attribute is used to align a line based on the selected type of alignment.

Eg:< hr align =center>

Noshade:- this attribute is used to produce a darker, floater horizontal line across the browsers

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Eg: <hr noshade>

Color:-this attribute is used to change the color of horizontal line.

Eg: <hr color= green>

Sample program

<title>Horizontal Line Example</title>
<p>This is paragraph one and should be on top</p>
<hr />
<p>This is paragraph two and should be at bottom</p>

Explain about list tags in HTML ?

HTML offers three ways for specifying lists of information. All lists must contain one or more
list elements. Lists may contain:

<ul> - An unordered list. This will list items using plain bullets.
<ol> - An ordered list. This will use different schemes of numbers to list your items.
<dl> - A definition list. This arranges your items in the same way as they are arranged in
a dictionary

Unordered List:
An unordered list is a collection of related items that have no special order or sequence. This list
is created by using HTML <ul> tag. Each item in the list is marked with a bullet. Each item in an
unordered list is identified by the list item tag <li>. Unordered list contains type attribute .
The type Attribute
You can use type attribute for <ul> tag to specify the type of bullet you like. By default, it is a
disc. Following are the possible options:
<ul type="square">
<ul type="disc">
<ul type="circle">

Sample program

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

<title>HTML Unordered List</title>
<ul type="square">

Ordered List:-

If you are required to put your items in a numbered list instead of bulleted, then HTML ordered
list will be used. This list is created by using <ol> tag. The numbering starts at one and is
incremented by one for each successive ordered list element tagged with <li>. Ordered list
contains two important attributes. They are type and start .

The type Attribute

You can use type attribute for <ol> tag to specify the type of numbering you like. By default, it is
a number. Following are the possible options:
<ol type="1"> - Default-Case Numerals.
<ol type="I"> - Upper-Case Numerals.
<ol type="i"> - Lower-Case Numerals.
<ol type="a"> - Lower-Case Letters.
<ol type="A"> - Upper-Case Letters.

The start Attribute

You can use start attribute for <ol> tag to specify the starting point of numbering you need.
Following are the possible options:
<ol type="1" start="4"> - Numerals starts with 4.
<ol type="I" start="4"> - Numerals starts with IV.
<ol type="i" start="4"> - Numerals starts with iv.
<ol type="a" start="4"> - Letters starts with d.
<ol type="A" start="4"> - Letters starts with D.
sample Program

<title>HTML Ordered List</title>

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

<ol type="i" start="4">

Definition List:
HTML and XHTML supports a list style which is called definition lists where entries are listed
like in a dictionary or encyclopedia. The definition list is the ideal way to present a glossary, list
of terms, or other name/value list.

Definition List makes use of following three tags.

<dl> - Defines the start of the list
<dt> - A term
<dd> - Term definition
</dl> - Defines the end of the list

Sample Program:
<title>HTML Definition List</title>
<dd>This stands for Hyper Text Markup Language</dd>
<dd>This stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol</dd>

Explain about table tags?

Tables in HTML allows to organize the information in a row and column format. HTML tables
are used to represent any type of information in the form of table.
C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Table tags:

The following tags are used to represent the table in HTML.

1. Table tag: <table> .. </table>:

The table tag allows to represent the data in the form of table representation, that is in a row and
column format. This tag contains the following attributes.

Border: this attribute allows to specify the border for the table based on given value.

Eg : <table border= 2>

Bordercolor: this attribute allows to specify the color for table dividers.

Eg: <table bordercolor= black>

Bgcolor: this attribute allows to specify the background color for the entire table

Eg : <table bgcolor= green>

Background: this attribute allows to represent an image as a background for the entire table.

Syntax : <table background = url

Width: this attribute allows to control the width of table according to browser window.

Eg: <table width= 11%>

Align : this attribute allows to align the table at a specific position on the browser window.

Eg: <table align= right>

Cell spacing :this attribute allows to specify the horizontal and vertical gap in between the cells.

Eg: <table cellspacing =4>

Cell padding: this allows to increase the size of the table cells based on given value.

Eg: <table cellpadding=11>

Table row tag: <tr>.</tr>: this tag allows to represent the data in a row specification. It
contains the following attributes

Align: this attribute is used to positional items in a row at one time

Syntax: <tr align= left/right/center>
Bgcolor: this allows to specify background color for the entire row
Eg: <tr bgcolor= black>

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

Table data tag <td></td>:

Each item in a row is specified using table data tag. It contains the following attributes.

Align: this attribute allows to position the item of a cell based on given value.
Eg: <td align = left/right/center>
Bgcolor: this attribute allows to specify background color for a single cell
Eg: <td bgcolor =green>
Rowspan : this allows to combine multiple rows as a single row based on given value.
Eg: <td rowspan=11>
Column span : <colspan> this attribute allows to combine multiple columns into a
single column based on given value.
Ex: <td colspan=11>
Height : this attribute is used to increase the height of the cell
Eg: <td height =7>
Width : this attribute is used to increase the width of the cell
Eg: <td width =5>

Table heading tag <th> </th>:

The <th> tag is used to include headings in the table. This tag contains attributes similar to the
table data tag that is align, bgcolor, rowspan, colspan, height and width.

Eg: <th rowspan=11>

<th colspan=11>

Caption tag <caption>:

Table caption are produced using caption tag. This tag can be placed either inside of the table tag
or outside of the table tag. It contains align attribute .

Syntax : <caption align= top/bottom>

Sample program:

<title>HTML Table Header</title>

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .

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<td>Ramesh Raman</td>

C.Krishna Priya M.C.A, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Lect. in Computer Science, Sri Sai Degree College, Anantapuramu .