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GR E E K AN D GOT H IC

P R O G R E SS A N D D E C AY

IN

TH E THREE A R TS
OF

AR C HIT E C T U R E SC U L P T U R E AN D P AIN T IN G
'

, , .

t BY T HE

R E V . ST . JOHN : YR WH IT T ,

[ Md on t R an/6 r,
'

Formerly Sim/m t and

C h riu C l mrc Oxf ord .

L O N D ON

WA L T E R S M I T H,

( L A T E M OZ L E Y SM I T H , ) 6, P A T E R N OST E R R O W .

1 88 1 .
LON D O N :

R . CL AY, So u s, AN D TAY L OR ,

I RM D ST R E E T HIL L.
P R E FA C E .

T HE latter part of this bo ok has already appeared be fore


the pu b lic u nder the ki nd
, e d itorship of M iss Y o nge in ,
the
M ont/1 1y P acket . I t there fou nd readers en ough to inv i te

republicatio n ; and it has seemed bes t to ad d a con nected


sketch of a ncie nt G ree k an d R oma n a rts and mo n ume nts .

I hope the w hole ma y form a re adable ha ndbook or guid e ,

to a course of stu d y . It may possibl y sho w the way i nto


a depa rtme nt of histo ry w hich becomes dail y of more
i mporta nce . A nc ie nt monu me nts yield to time d estructio n . ,

and restoratio n , and lo s e their value as docu ments ; or ne w

light is thrown on what remai ns . The M use of H istory is


like the Sibyl in respect of burni ng her boo ks ; but their
relics are al ways worth their p ri ce .

I do no t k no w o f any other connected acc ou nt of parallel

p rogress and dec ay in the T hree A rts of A rchitectu re ,

Scul p ture , and Pai nti ng si nce ord i ndsay s C /zn s tzan

L
'

L
'

,
A rt .
vi P R E FA C E .

If that w ork w ere properl y read by stude nts of history ,


w ith

due re fere nce to Seroux d A ginc o u rt and other sta ndard



,

i llustrated w or k s ; with some travel ,


w i th stud y of or i gi nals

in m useums in short ,
w ith the e nergy com mo nl y throw n

i nto stud i es b y which mone y is to be got th e n the re m ight

hardl y b e room for the prese nt wor k . But i t should b e


co nsi d ered that photography has come to the aid of histori c
a rtistic study si nce L ord L i ndsa y s editio n of 1 8 46 : and

and

that a student ma y no w, t o all i nte nts and purposes i nspe ct ,

the prese nt co nditio n of buildi ngs statues , , and eve n pictures ,

w i thout leavi ng E n g la nd . Besides large , ne w m useu m s l ik e


So uth K e nsi ngt o n are ope n fo r re fere nce , and ed ucatio nal
collectio ns of casts , &c .
, are at any r ate in cour se of fo r

mation in this cou nt ry on the model of the D resde n and

Be rli n galleries . T he ap peara nce of Mr J . . H . P arker s


M o n ume ntal P hotographs would of i tsel f be a razlron d t re

or a sem i historical b oo k
-
in co nnectio n w ith the m .

I have fou nd a ce rtai n n u m b er of repetitio ns quite un

avoidable here si nce the , t wo decorative arts are view ed


as co nnected in depe ndence on architecture and history
al i ke ; and o ne is n aturall y led over the same grou nd more
t ha n o nce . But I hope from the success of a part of the
book , that a su ffic i e nt n u mber of perso ns may b e able to
re ad t he w hole ; perhaps to con su lt so m e of its authoriti es ,

and follo w the course of stu dy to w hich its e x iste nce is


P R E FA C E . vii

d ue . Perhaps pai nters and sculptors , or n i te n di ng travellers ,

may nd it of use ; and there may be stud e nts of art w ho

have begu n (as I did n early forty y ears ago ) w i th attempts


at n atura list la ndscape , and wh o have bee n led on to
deeper and w ider i nterest in art itsel f ,
and in the che q uered
history of her co nnection ,
no t o nly w i th the nobler pleasu res
of ma n s li fe but

,
w ith his greatest achievements on earth
and highest spiritual p rospects herea fter .

R . ST . J OH N T YR WIII T T ,

C Iz mir! C l mrc/z, Oxf ord .


C O N T E N T S .

B OO K I .

E T H N I C .

P AR T I GR E E K
. .

P AGE

IN T ROD U C T I ON 3

C HAP T E R I .

3 . P AU L ON M AR S ,
HI LL 9

C HAP T E R II .

T HE P A RT HE N ON 22

C HAP T E R III .

T HE EA R LY D E C ADE N C E 34

C HAP T E R IV .

o o o I o o o o o o o O o o o o l O
x C ON T E N T S .

P AR T II
. R OJII A N .

C HAP T E R I .

G REE K AR T AT RO M E

C H AP T E R II .

G RE C O RO M A N P AI N T I N G T H E WA L L S or l OM P E I l

97
-

B OO K II .

C H R I ST I A N .

P AR T l.
C ON S T R U C T I ON .

C H AP T E R I .

T HE C AT AC O M BS AN D T HE I R P A I N T I N GS n 3

C H AP T E R II .

THE SC R I P I U R AL

C YC L ES or T H E C AT AC O M BS 1 29

C HR I ST I A N SY M BO L I SM 1 5 0

C H APT E R IV .

T HE B ASI LIC A 1 8o
C ON T E N T S .
xi

C H AP T E R V .

PAC P

TH E B A SI LI C A I 9S

C H AP T E R VI .

T HE C R OSS AN D DO M E 2 08

C H AP T E R VI I .

T RAN SI T I ON S 22 6

P AR T II . D E C OR A T I ON .

C H AP T E R V II I .

M AT ER I A LS AN D M OSAI C O R N AM E N T

C H AP T E R IX .

C HR I ST I A N SC U L PT U RE

C H AP T E R X .

M SS . AN D M I N I AT U RE S 3 8 1

C H AP T E R XI .

T HE L O M BA RDS 347

AP P EN D IX 37 I

IN DE X 37 S
E R R AT A .

P age 67 , line i ke out comma after E


1 6, str milius .

1 60, 22, Lo ves,



read L
oaves.

Spalat

2 2 7, 2o, o, read Spalatro .

"
2 28 , 2 bottom, f or Spalato, read Spalatro .

"
334, irom botto m, f or B abula, read R abula
I g ) "
.

"
n u Apo moea, read A oea .

6
3 7, note, i
l ne 4 from bott om, aer P rassed e im ert h h
t oug
it mus t be )

.


note, line 2 , f or Sevorus, read Severus .
GR E E K AN D GO T H I C .

P A R T l
.
G RE E K .

I N T R OD U C T I ON .

T illustratio n o f history by w ork s o f Fi n e A rt o r o f


HE ,

w hatever m ay sta nd fo r it at particular periods is now felt t o ,

be a regular depa rt m e nt in the study of hu m an record A rts .

are la nd marks o f chro nology and historical characteristics ,

o f g e n eratio ns M e n m ust be j udged in part by the w orks


.

they leave behi nd them ; and o fte n literally nothi ng remai ns


o f their deeds except fragme nts o f sculpture o r arch itecture
,

"
so m eti m es all their triu mphs shri nk i nto a coi n A nd .

though this m ay not b e the case w ith the earliest C hristia n


or post A ugusta n ages it begi ns to b e so directly a fter t h e
-
,

age o f Con sta nti ne Chron icles gro w barre n and u ntrust
.

w orthy ; and relics o f buildi ngs and carvi ngs mosaic an d ,

M S beco m e more valua b le as authen ti c record


. A M S fo r . .
,

i nsta nce is valuable fo r its conten ts ; bu t it m ust be some


,

body s M S and may h ave a personal value also We d o



.
, .

n o t k now m uch o f S Patrick or S C olum b a ; but w ithout . .

the least se ntimentalism o r misplaced feeli ng o u r k no w ledge ,

and po wer o f co n ceptio n a b out history receives decided addi

tio n whe n we see th e b ook o f D urro w w ith its epigraph in ,


the latter sai nt s ow n han d


.

C f G p d f S C l mba Trini ty C l lege D blin Westwood s P ale o '


. os : o . o u o , u .

g p
r a ia S a I i h B i
a cr b li
. cal M P l a
r ste ii I and t ext A lso in A nglo Saxon .
, .
-

and I i h M SS
rs

.

0n th yleaf f th e M S i ts l f are th ese w d s


e o

L i be a tem hic sc i pt s
. e or r u r u

manu ipsius B C olumbekille pe r spat ium :2 d ierum an


es t a .

A t the e nd : R ogo be atitu d inem tuam , sancte resb ter P atr c e , p y i ut


q u ic un u e
q
II Z
4 GREEK AN D GO T H I C .

Origi nal w orks art are docume nts in short w hatever they
of , ,

look like T hey may b e ru de or shattered or have bee n


.
,

al ways beautiless or have lost their beauty ; o r w hat is l e ft o f


,

it m ay only irritate mi nds u ntaught to feel it ; as w ith s o


m uch early Christia n w ork But there they are and the .
,

studen t must gai n by a cert ai n k no wledge rst o f w hat they , ,

are at present seco ndly o f what they w ere in their rst glory
, ,
.

H e w ill n eed all the help he c an get in the study o f D ark


A ge H istory t o support him w ith sen se o f truth and reality
, ,

thro ugh his necessary perusal o f pai nfully w ri t te n and d ubious


chro nicles .

What an i m pulse it would give to the histo ry o f this period ,

if an illustrated A mmia n us or a Paul the D eaco n picture d , ,

l ik e the Vatica n Virgil (of perhaps nearly the sa m e date )


could turn up in some I talian libra ry ! I t w ill hardly do to
d well o n great s upposed results in this matter or some ne w ,

Simo nides will go straightw ay and discover w hat w e are


calli ng fo r .

T here is no doubt that all historia n s o f the decayi ng e m pire ,

from G ibbo n t o M ilma n feel the d istress o f its decay and


, ,

t he m ela n choly o f their study But the con ti n uity o f history .

m ust be preserv ed and the D ark A ges bridged over somehow


, .


We w ho are G oths or Teutons o r N o rt h m en if we are t o
, , ,

u ndersta nd ourselves must learn h o w m uch w e are i ndebted


,

t o the co nstructive scie nce o f R ome and the creative art o f ,

A the ns : to the law and la nguage o f the o ne and the thought ,

and la nguage o f the other We all k no w G reek from R oma n


.

an d G othic ; w e w an t t o k no w more o f how G oths lear n t

fro m R ome and through R o m e from G reece


, .

I t has bee n obse rved th at the a rts are the one fai nt light
o f the D ark A g e s I n the I co noclastic period their l ight is
.
,

that o f c o nagrat ion and soo n a fter it they seem to die aw a y


from sight t o be re new ed in the earliest Tusca n R e naissa nce
,

o f th e eleve n th ce n tury ; b ut the eighth alone su f ciently


proves the conn ectio n bet ween art history and secular or -

h unc libellu m manu ten ue rit, m eminerit o u mbae sc riptoris, q u i h o eC l


sc rips i
li
ipsemet E vange u m pe r xii d ierum s at um, grat a D om ni nos tr
.

p i i i i .

Be lo , in a c ontem o rar
w and p
yh
Ora pro me, frater m i : D om nus tecu m i
I N T R OD U C T I ON .
5

ecclesiastical record We shall have to re fer abu nda ntly to


.

Seroux D A gin c o u rt ; but this remark o f his a bout the earl y


'

Chri s t ia n w orks o f the Catacombs has its best place here :


U ne circo nsta nce part iculi ere m a impos la loi de parler de


ces c im e t ieres souterrai ns ; c est que les prod uctio ns de la
sculpture e t de la pei nture qui o nt servi E les o m er so nt a
p e n pr es les seuls m o n u m e ns des premi eres si e cles de la
dcade n ce
the o nly remai ni ng toke ns o f the faili ng e n ergies
o f t h e E m pire d e scribed in w ords b her decade n t historia ns
, y ,

and correspo ndi n g in mutual evide n ces o f decay .

A fter the fourth and ft h ce nturies three thi ngs seem le ft ,

o f the a n cie n t order to m arshal an d guide the ne w T euto n ic

c haos . There is the Faith o f Christ represe nted by Ch urch ,

orga n izatio ns ; there are the co nstructive la ws o f R ome ; the


sci e ntic pri ncipl e s by w hich a polity m ay b e fra m ed or a ,

city b e b uilt to last ; there are reli cs and pri nciples o f the
arts o f G reece b oth decorative and co nstructive ; and o f her
great thoughts A ll k now ledge is virtually C ra co R o m a n
.
-
,

or G re e k by i nve ntio n and R oma n by a nnexatio n The in .

spiratio ns o f epic o f tragedy and dithyram b or the gram m ar


, ,

w hich secured their purity o f expressio n the pro fou n d s p e c u


l atio n o f ethic and metaphysic and their dialectic o f accurate
,


de nitio n and strict deduction all rst atte m pts at e x pe ri
m e n t al sci e n c e ; the la nguage o f the G ospels and the logic o t ,


the Fath e rs all this comes to us from A the ns t h rough R o m e ,

or else by w ay o f A lexa ndri a .

R eaders o f history may w o nder more at wh at is le ft tha n


w hat is go ne o f the great m o nu m e nts o f a ntiquity
,
They .

are despoiled or re m oved agai n and agai n and they perish , .

Sculptures and pai nti ngs are assem b led en m asse in some
great co nqueri ng metropolis and destroyed in her destructio n
,
.

R ome collects the plu nder o f the elder w orld and the n e w ,

w orld sacks and b urns R ome and her booty I n her hour o f .

co nquest as J uvenal said


,

M agnoru m artic em frangebat poc u la m i es l


U t pbale ris gaud eret equus

In the hour o f ve ngea nce the citizens an d soldiers o f R ome


, ,

s u ch as were le ft o f either could t h i nk o f no better use for


,
6 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

the scu lpt ure o f m i ght y h ands tha n burni ng them i nto lime , ,

o r thro w i ng them on the heads o f stormi ng parties .

T h e i nterest o f the great dra m a shi fts place from age to age ;
but its ru i ned theatres remai n for yet a wh i le Perhaps the y .

are deserted and mournfully silent bere ft of the passio nate ,

audience and the puissa n t actio n w hich once made them echo
to the world s debate Perhaps rest i s de n ied the fallen cit y
'
.
,

and her rui ns must also perish ; s w ept aside by trade and

travel w hich k no w no aw e and thro nged w it h ever ne w


, ,

crow ds o f clamorous masquers mimes in the form o f Go d ,


m ost H igh who act out w hat is in this world the tragedy o f
,

H is purpose Y e t relics o f the beauty o f the great w orld s



.

spectacle are le ft A nd they seem to show at ti m es a peculiar


.

p o w er o f e n forc i ng o n the m oder n E nglish mi n d the lesso n it



is slo west t o lear n that the past was o nce present and th e ,

presen t w ill be of the pas t T hey show ho w the past glides


.

'

through ages t o the prese nt like H eraclitus river w hich not , ,

only moved but s u ere d cha nge and w hose progress w as flux
'

and dissolutio n .

O ne w ay or other the arts are sure to be w ell represe nted


,

at the ce ntral are nas o f the w orld s actio n A n i mperial


.

city o r race o fte n i nvites and adopts great w ork m e n w ho ,

may have bee n born and bred apart u nder circumsta n ce s ,

rather happy tha n i mperia l A the ns w as ce ntre o f b oth art s


.

and arms for a while Sparta bei n g a k i nd o f R ome w i thou t


,

ge nius or governi ng po wer where m en k ne w o nly how to ,

die R ome did m ore than co nquer and collect in bestow i n g


.
,

o n architecture her great gi fts o f the arch t h e cupola vault , ,

and the scie ntic use o f brick I n spite o f the destructio n .

o f ce ntur i es she remai ned to B ru nelles c h i s day and a fter


'

, , ,

hi m ce ntre o f the architecture o f state and size and scie nce


, , ,

as w ell as the exhibitio n room o f I taly for m en w hose hearts ,

and studios were in Flore nce Pisa or Ve n ice O ne must b e


, , .

w ith t he ea gles at least to observe the tra nsitio n betw ee n


, ,

the li n tel and the rou n d arch w h i ch is the R u b ico n o f ,

Greek and R oma n buildi ng .

With the seco nd centu ry comes a per i od o f ack nowledged


decadence and it e nds in the Byza nti ne tra nsitio n w hich
, ,

carries us i nto and t h rough t he D ark A ges It is not .


8 GR E E K AN D G OT H I C .

T he earliest ages o f the C hristia n C h urch had m ade use


o f carved o r pai n ted sym b ol t o co nvey its highest thou ghts .

T hat h ad bee n do ne b e fore in E gy pt and in G reece ; b ut ,


new forces ca me w ith t h e new Superstitio n i nto R o m a n
li fe
. I t gave li fe more sig nica nce it had more ideas to ,

express it had m uch to set fort h which it only s aw d arkly


,

as in a glas s ; and that could be show n by sym b ol o nly .

M e n had fou nd new u nl i m ited hopes in deat h n e w purity ,

o f li fe T hemselves almost be neath the con tempt o f the


.

I mperium they b elieved in O ne despised The n they w ere


, .

k now n as a pernicious supe rstitio n and drive n to de ns and ,

caves o f the earth ; and there the y b uried all fait h ful dead
together They lay rou nd their mart yrs w ho were the seed
.
,

o f the Church Thither the surv ivors bore their ha b it o f sym


.

bol and picture teachi ng till the tu fa vaults were clad w ith ,

images o f their Shepherd Vi n e R ock ; w ith t he types o f H is


, ,

D eath and R esurrectio n H is P e rson and m iracles o f m ercy


, .

T hese su bj ects or the earliest o f them w ere treated in classic


, ,

forms in a P rimitive age w ith so m e o f the G reek grace o f ,

older t imes ; they have b e e n co nti nued i nto m edi e val and
modern w ork They w ere the w ork o f G reek Christia ns
. .

T hey m ight have b ee n ren ew ed u nder the Vitruvia n o r


Ci nque Ce n to R e naissa nce had that move m en t c ared for
-
,

C hristia nity or bee n really devoted to G r eek art


,
But it was .

in fact and i t has co nti nued to be a like in I taly Fra n ce


, , , ,

and E ngla nd a re newal o f the sci e nce the po m p and


, , ,

peda ntry o f post A ugusta n R ome O u r o wn age calls itsel f


-
.

Christia n and a sect ion o f it perhaps large and certai nly


, ,

loud tell it it do es not believ e in Ch rist I n as far as it


, .

follo w s the R e naissa nce it ad apt s the taste and morals no t


, ,

o f H eathe ns w h o did believe in Ze u s but o f P aga ns w h o did ,

not . I n as far as its taste is peda ntic or barbarous it may b e ,

e ndured b ut when it describes itsel f as H elle nic we can no t ,

b ut remark that it has very little title to that na m e The .

chie f o bject o f the early part o f this book is to d is m iss the


appeal made by the modern A theistic R enaissance to G ree k
A rt an d L i fe as if they cou n te na nced and e ncouraged its
,

o wn nihilis m .
C H A PT E R I .

s . PA UL ON M AR S
'

HI LL .

A BOO K called f A rt T eaching o tire P rim it ive C / mrc/z ,

S P C K 1 8 7 4 has bee n I believe fou n d use ful by stu


. . . .
, , , ,

dents o f e ccl e s iastical and perhaps o f secul ar history


,
It .

w ill b e re ferred to w ith other w orks o f greater i m porta nce


, ,

in the follo w i ng pages w hich w ill co n tai n a short list o f


,

books o f re fere nce A ll o f them eve n to the co m plete set


.
,

o f P arker s photographs should be fou nd in eve ry large


'

collectio n o f books and all but o ne o r two in most libraries


o f moderate size .

T h e prese nt w ork takes a w id er ra nge su f cie ntly i ndicated ,

b y the ti tles o f i ts four books or secti o ns I t will begi n w ith .

a sketch o f t h e progress or decade nce (as di fferen t people m ay


co nsider it at d i e re nt times ) o f the three arts o f A rchitecture
'

Sculpture and P ai nti ng ; start i ng from the age o f P he id ias


, ,

w hich is assu m ed as the culmi n ati ng poi nt at least o f the ,

t wo rs t I t w ill not tou ch their arch aic periods ; w e are


co ncerned w ith their grad ual decli ne ; w ith their adoptio n
and di ffusio n by mea ns o f R oma n rule ; w ith such mo n u

me nt al fragme nts o f their Sple ndour as have bee n preserved


fo r us ge nerally from the wrecks o f R ome ; and w it h
,

s uch pri n ciples and examples o f their tech nical beauty as

ha ve b ee n preserved fo r us chiey through Byza nti n e or ,

mo nastic artists I t is possible to assert the existe nce o f a


.

Byza n ti ne R e naissa n ce or re ne w al o f activity in art ; but it


,

is more conve nie nt to co nsider Byza n ti ne art as the survival


o f G r e co R oma n or Classical traditio n in C h u rch ha nds u ntil
-
,
IO GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

the true L ombard E tru ria n R e na i ssa nce w he n G reek stud y o f


-
,

nature w as revived o r em ulated b y N iccola P isa n i T h is .

appears to me to be the true d ividi ng period or turni ng poi nt -

o f moder n art .

But havi ng to d o w ith much secular or eth nic or pro fan e


, , ,

w ork I propose t o treat i t from the sta ndi ng poi n t o f the


,
-

Christia n Church T here is practically no other hypothesis


.

o f art possible except the A t h eistic or Materi alistic


, Thi ngs .

are either by D ivi ne O rder or th ey all resol ve the m selves i nto


,

co ncourse o f ato m s and atoms ca nnot make P he id ias or the


E lgi n frieze ; or if they c an they must have an excelle nt spirit
,

in them I n givi ng accou nt o f art or w orks o f art o ne is led


.
,

by necessity to try to accou nt fo r the spirit that is in the


artist ; and if such a thi ng exists at all i t is m y Opi n io n that ,

E nglish Christi anity gives the b est obt ai nable hypothesis and
accou nt of its existe nce and deve lopme nts .

It seems that we have to ad m it and regret th e existe nce o f


s everal mistake n te nde n cies o f the British mi nd as to art an d ,

those devoted t o it First to look o n the w hole thi ng w ith


.
,

suspicio n as i m moral or irreligious ; seco ndl y w ith c on


, ,

tempt as u npro table ; thirdly to select its w orst forms ; ,

fou rthly to i nvest them w ith a vulgarity w hich seems to b e


,

i nseparable from some of its o wn prevaili ng w eak nesses .

E very w riter o n m oder n art or its history must n ecessarily


come in co ntact w ith these four heads o f Suspicio n Conte m pt , ,

Frivolity and Vulgari ty ; and I am privileged in havi ng to


,

d e al w ith the w orks o f dead w orkme n fo r death i nvolves ,

delivera nce fro m these am o ng other evi ls ,


.

I n speaki ng o f the G reek spirit and its great achieveme nts ,

w e nd A rt and R eligio n obviously and ins e narably co nnected ,

in pri nciple and in d etail Somethi ng accordi ngly w ill h ave


. , ,

t o b e said o f G reek religio n ; and the key note o f all th at is -

t o be said w ill be fou nd in the w ords o f S Paul at A the ns : .


Whom ye ig nora ntly w orship him declare I u nto yo u , S . .

Paul k new Me na nder and A ratus and he must in all pro b a , ,

bility have k no w n P he id ias by n ame and history


,
H e spoke .

on Mars H i ll j ust belo w the Part he n o n surrou nded by gods


'

, ,

and heroes They w ere idols to him and n othi ng at all ;


.

except that his spirit was sti rred w ithi n h im by a greate r


5 P A UL ON M AR S H I L L

. . I I

Spirit w he n he s aw m e n given over so e ntirely to th em He .


spoke to the follo w i ng poi nts an d if his la nguage to idolaters


is very di ffere nt fro m that o f T ertullia n or A ugusti n e it is to ,

be reme m bered that they w rote w ithout the A postle s clear


'

visio n o f his Master s w ill and with the memory o f ce ntu


'

ries o f persecutio n in the name o f false gods The A the nia ns .

as yet had not see n and hated .

o r i ncli ned to i rra



A the n ia ns are t oo supe rstitious
I
I.
,

t io nal fear o f an u nk now n God w ithout love for H im H e , ,

bei ng in fact u nk no w n as to H is love for them


, , .

2. This U nk no wn God is no w preached to them i a H e is , . .


,

made k now n as to their co ncer n w ith H im


, .

3. A ll these images are attempts to symbolise H im t o see


H im w h o is o nly to be felt a fter The use o f the m is a s in .

o f ig nora n ce and al w ays has bee n o ne


,
.

4. N evertheless in ig n ora n ,
tly seeki ng the G od Whose off
s pri ng they are and k no w the m selves to b e they obey H is
, ,

guid ance : and H e w i nks at all ti mes o f their s in o f


ig nora nce in this w orship u ntil now .

5. B u t n o w H e co m ma n ds A the n ia ns an d all m e n every


w here to repe nt and belie v e in o ne rise n from the dead
, .

This strikes directly at the G reek propensity and supreme


faculty o f represe n tatio n ; o f setti ng be fore itsel f gods in
ma n s i m age : wh e reas m an w as made in G od s image ; and


as M in uc iu s Felix said a fterw ards What i mage shall we ,

make o f G od w he n if you thi nk aright m an is hi msel f the


, , ,

i m age o f G od ( O c tcw ix c irc A D . . . .

N o w w e have no reaso n to suppose eit h er that S Paul


,
.

w as a fraid o f his audience or that they were particularly ,

i ndig na n t w ith him Some mocked others w ould hear him


.
,

agai n We m ay suppose t hat those who w ere w illi ng to d o


.

so m ay h ave retai ned a certai n traditional Mo no theis m which ,

had no doubt sadly decayed si nce the time o f P h e id ias ; b ut


w hic h P ro fessor Zeller asserts and proves to have bee n the

practical faith o f the best m e n in A the ns that is to say o f ,


the highest i ntellects and noblest lives all through that and
the succeedi ng age On this S Paul takes his place and lays
. .

his fou ndatio n H e has a belie f in one D ivi nity o r O eiov t o


.

T he i ty fu ll of id ol ma gi n

16
c s, r v. .
12 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

build on and d i gs dow n to that as a rock on it the perfec t


,

faith may be e d i e d H e has to clear a way the i m pedime nt s


.

o f G reek superstitio n o r D e is id aem on ia w hich rested as far


, , ,

as it w as a for m o f po sitive fai t h partly o n H omeric m yt h o ,

logy partly o n a comparatively har m less natural Pa ntheis m


, .


D e is id a m o n ia said T here is n o doubt a Zeus ; perhaps
,

H omer and H esiod are w ro ng about H im an d H e really is ,

j ust and no t u nj ust all po werful and not li m ited God and no t
,
-
,

u ngodl y But there are certai n perso na l bei ngs w ho are H is


.

sons or daughters o r parts o f H im and they are all about


, ,

y o u
. H e sho w s himsel f in thu n der light n i n g an d in rai n ; , ,

they c an take on themselves a hu ma n bod y and let you see ,

i t and feel it t oo They have all sorts o f likes and dislikes ;


.

they like the b lood o f b ulls and goats and i n ce nse ne , ,

flour and ho n ey and black s weet w i ne rich pepla and w h at


, , , ,

no t ; they like pretty much w hat yo u like They are in your .

i mage o r like you o nly much bigger and ha ndsomer Y o u


,
.

must give them w hat they w a n t o r it w ill be the worse for ,

you and they are eve ry where M ake their like nesses or
,
.

ico ns ; o f marb le or o f ivo ry and gold if you c an yo u ho nour



your tutelar D eity that is t o say w hat there is o f Zeus in ,


this city o f A the ns by k neeli ng or d anci ng or pouri ng , ,

libation be fore A the ne or A pollo or Theseus your ow n , , ,


n atio n al H eracles .

This is the most favourable vie w o f G reek worship and ,

t h e most moderate de m a nd o f D e is id ae m o n ia I t is no t .

fe tichis m she asks fo r : she o nly w a nts sy m b olis m o f t w o


ki nds sacricial and ico nic by blood o f victi m s an d b y the
,

grave n i m age Y o u are not to worship the mar b le or ivory


.
,

and gold but a god or hero s o n o f Zeu s t hrough an d b y its


, , ,

mea ns A nd perhaps a m ajority o f the b est and b est t aught


.

m e n in A the ns u nderstood this fro m age to age Th e re w e re , .

some in all ra nks wh o believe d in nothi ng b ut th e ir o w n craft


or dari ng A lc ib iades Cleo n an d C rit ias w ould no t care ,
,

m uch fo r the U nsee n Zeus or U nk now n God These w e re .

the eager s cholars o f the rhetorical sophists or trai ne rs fo r ,

prac t i c al li fe Ma ny more fell i nto fetichism and adored n ot


.
,

P he id ias s Zeus or A the ne s o much as rude a ncestral X oa n a


'

hideous Old wooden images w hich had o nce or a gai n b ee n


P A UL M AR S HIL L

5 . ON . 1 3

k no w n to fall o n their k nees or w i nk or cry or perspire or , , , ,

strike some b ody bli nd o r do good or evil in a ta ngible way , .

A nd the curious thi ng is t hat no t o nly N icias the timid , ,


w orthy D e is id mm o n the religious m an o f A the ns may
. ,

have w orshipped in this w ay but that the stro ng A then ia n ,

scou ndrel w as o fte n m uch i ncli ned to d o the sa m e H e .

w ould n o t ask P h e id ias to help h im to i magi native co n ception


o f Zeus in gl o ry armed w ith thu n der or o f A the ne in battle ,

w ith ae gis and spear : he w ould go to E u m olp id a: or C e ryc e s ,

or brotherhoods who possessed a ncestral secrets o f rites


w hich had po w er w ith the gods The really evil s u pe rs ti .

tions o f A the ns w ere mi nor mysteries and rites o f i nca ntatio n , ,

and back stairs approaches to deities w h o could be got at


-

and made to take the w orse cause O ne c an see that the .

worse a m an w as supposi ng h im no t to have attai n ed to


,

co nsiste nt A theis m and de n ial o f right w ro ng and j udgme n t , ,

w hich vie w s w ere no t yet form ulated the m ore he w ould

w an t to get i n v isi b le po w ers o n his side whe never it ,

s truck him that there might b e such thi ngs U nscrupulous .

A the n ia ns and the w hole populatio n of A the ns had their


, ,

superstitious side and o n t wo or three k no w n crises it proved


,

rui nous .I n short G reek w ays o f prayer and approach to


x
,

Go d d i ffered like our ow n Socrates w ould sta nd alo ne in .

sile nt prayer to the T he ion w ithout altar or i mage A nd .

there w as give n h im he said a D a mon or spiri tual guide , , ,

w h o w ould no t let him do w ro ng o r speak fo r evil and o n ,

w hose prohi b itio n he al ways w aited Socrates i ndeed desired .

and fe lt a ft e r G od an d looked up w ards desiri ng H im beyo nd


, ,

all thi ngs : and he had his re ward The worldly m an w ould .

as k fo r w orldly thi ngs and the u njust m an fo r worldly thi ngs

at any price H e could not pro bably go straight and ask Zeus
.

o f Ol ym pia to help hi m in w ro ng ; he would try so m e


idol w hich was w arra nted to have the Go d in it and w hose ,

priesthood k new the proper approaches and fees k new how


m uch re ward o f i n iquity the G ods w a nted that th ey migh t ,

favour his i niquit y Such beauty as the P he id ian sculpture s


.

A s in t h i beli f in N i ias g od f
e r e c

s o ort une : in h is o wn fatal hesi tati b
on a ou t

th e ec li pse at Sy ac us e rin the panic : of the H erm ae, and the execu tion of the

ge nerals of A rginu :
:e .
I4 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

possessed te ndi ng to call o ut pure awe and vague co nceptio ns


, ,

o f nobler existe nce must have bee n e ntirel y agai nst gross
,

superstition and i mmoral co nce ptio ns o f D eity We ca nnot .

say ho w far the pe rsecu t io n and death o f P h eid ias may have
bee n urged on by the fetichi s tic or family priesthoods ; but
he certai nly w as i nvolved in the gen eral accusations o f irre
ligio n which w ere directed agai nst th e frie nds o f Pericles ;
and every idea co nveyed by his w ork w e nt agai nst the pow er

and prots o f these corpor atio ns A ny G reek w ho w as near


.

realisi ng th e idea t hat there w as a Bei ng o f w hom the


Olympia n Zeus w as a sig n w ould be beyo nd the thought
,

o f b ribi ng hi m or coerci n g h im by mo ney or ceremo n ial .

A nd such practices w ere the w orst form o f D e is id ze m o nia .

N ow as Pro fessor Zeller has sho w n it is clear th at a large


, ,

n u m ber o f thought fu l m e n o f the Periclea n and later ages

had arrived at the thought o f o ne Supreme Fate or Zeus in ,

some se nse the Father o f gods and m e n in some sen se also ,

the J udge o f all the earth w ho w ould do ri ght Well said


,
.
,

S Paul to some such p e rso ns be fore him a fter 5 00 years


.
,

such a Father is ; and H e d well e th not in temples m ade w ith



ha nds and H e is n o t as yo u are ; s o have do ne w i t h your
a nthropomorphis m s and i mages o f H im But d w ell o n H im .

as Father and j ust Judge ; the n you w ill be able to go o n to


what I have to say about H is So n b ei ng alike our R edeemer
,

and our J udge the M an Who m H e hath ordai ned


, So m e .

w ere in fact a b le t o do so and clave to H im an d b elieved


, .

Such m e n had bee n prepared to receive the Christia n faith


b y their an tecede nt religio n or D e is id mm o n iaC A nd in v 30 .

above quoted the A postle com fo rts the m co ncer n i ng their


,

fathers: The times o f the ig nora nce o f Pericles and P he id ias ,

Socrates and P lato G o d w i n ked at saith Paul


, , .

The H o m eri c mythology and idolatry gre w naturally as ,

Pro fessor Max M iille r has sho wn from the early A rya n semi
,

pantheism w hich deied the po wers o f nature s aw G od in ,

clouds and heard H im in the w i nd


, Materialist or evil .

p antheism mea ns that there is no God e x c e pt c lou d s and ,

w i nd or nothi ng n earer H im tha n they


, But there w as .

c ertai nly a G reek spirit o f aw e ve neratio n delight and


, , ,

e njoyment o f nature w hich peopled w oods and strea m s


,
I 6 GR E E K AN D G OT H I C .

religio n t o have existed w ithout the collateral purposes ,

o f pesteri ng t h e bishops and clergy o f the A nglica n C hurch ,

he w ould have ob tai n ed far more atten tio n from a far less
ckle audie nce and w e should have bee n spared m uch gro
,

te s q u e i nvective N evertheless the chapter o n C lassical L a n d


.
,

scape in vol iii o f M od em P ainters p I 7 3 may be called a


, . .
, .
,

work o f u nique excelle n ce as a realisatio n o f G reek character ,

and thoughts o n N ature and ma n y pa rts o f A rat ra P en telic i

beari ng o n the sa m e subject are almost o f equal value M r . .

R uski n is huma n like most o f us : bei ng huma n he is some


, ,

ti mes right and someti m es w ro ng ; but these and other o f


his works w ill be w orthy o f care ful study for very ma ny
years to come .

I mea n the n to speak o f Greek art as the w ork o f huma n



creatures more li k e than u nlike to ourselves that is to say
o f T heists to whom the love and fear o f an u nk n o w n G o d
,

seemed possible : o f bei ngs capable and co nscious o f s in


that is to say wh o fell short by personal frailty o f a syste m
, ,

o f morality w h ich had a right to co m ma n d them : o f huma n

bei ngs i n cluded in the Scheme o f R edemptio n It is no use .


,

except fo r polemical purposes to co nsider them as ideally ,

im mora l or as ideally happy and u n co nscious o f virt ue


, .

T heir virtues are o ften extolled as agai nst the Christia n


sta ndard ; their vices are picturesquely set forth as if vice ,

i tsel f had bee n vi rtuous till Christ forbade it Whatever , .

alterations o r restrictio ns the Christia n Faith made in the


ge neral sta ndard o f heathen morality at the ti m e o f i ts rst
preachi ng it w ill not be den ied that S Paul s accou n t of that
,
.

ge neral standard is substa ntially co rrect fo r G reece ; no r ,

co nseque ntl y th at elevatio n and restrictio ns w ere much


,

n eeded . E ve n in the P he id ian age t wogreat social sources ,

o f dege neracy w ere O pe n Slavery w as u n iversal and w ome n


.
,

w itho u t respect The ex iste nce o f a large slave population


.
,

male and female must w ill and i nvariably doe s lead t o


, , , , .

habits o f viole n ce and cruelty and t o ge neral i mmorality and ,

i m purity o f li fe T he O riental seclusio n an d w a nt o f culture


.

u nder which m aide ns and mothers w ere kept in A the ns


destroyed all tenderness and respect o f family relatio n ;
alread y enda ngered b y ge neral loose ness o f li fe an d the ,
5 P A UL ON M AR S H I L L

. . :7

u niversal pre ference of educated m e n for the society o f the


ed ucated H e ta ra Wh e n a m an is brought up in dis respect
.

fo r his mother he w ill not be lo ng in tryi ng his stre ngth with


,

his father ; and the ge neratio n o f Maratho n and Salamis


could no t tra nsmit their patriotis m or their discipli ne to their
descen dan ts I n R ome supre m e devotio n to the state was
.
,

ha nded down w ith as regular i nherita nce as la nds or arms ;


beca u se all duties o f the household t o gods and ki ndred , ,

w ere e n forced o n m en and w ome n fro m their rst youth and ,

all lived u nder strict law from i nfa ncy} T he national cou se
q u e n c es o f social i mmoralit y are recog n ised in the histo ry
o f eve ry race o n earth ; and there is no reaso n for shutti ng

our eyes to the m in that of A the ns because A thens built ,

the P artheno n for a Maide n Wisdom be fore she herse lf be ,

came hopelessly i m pure and u nw ise T h e brighter side o f .

A the n ia n li fe w as to rejoice in beauty to seek true beauty as ,

sy m bolic o f the G ood t o be co ntent w ith N ature and one s

sel f ; to live in that bala nced Sophrosy ne by w hich every ,

m an k ne w w hat every part of him was t for and what he ,

himse lf w as t fo r But it made no allowance for fail ure or


.

ig nora nce and had no t heard of forgiveness o f s in A nd


, .

C hristia n sel f distrust res trai n t u nrest repe nta nce and hope
-
, , , ,

o f forgive ness sad as it all is nevertheless makes a li fe


, ,

better and happier to lead than that o f the A the nia n sel f
, ,

assertio n and sel f ce ntre : hau nted by the @s ie r 90vep6v or


-
'

in terror o f the E rinnye s .

T here is a note in the Master o f B allio l s editio n o f


5 P au l : E pis tle: (vol i i p 7 6 ed 5 9) w hich may be read


. . . .
, .

w ith adva n tage b y all w ho study G reek art more part ic u larly ,

if they are a w are h ow greatly we are ourselves i ndebted t o


it A t all eve nts its good has survived its evil and some
.
,

of its greatest achieveme nts m ay teach no b le lesso ns to


our ow n people But this is the e nd o f the drama o f sel f
.

assertio n and self regulatio n played out u nder the happiest


-

circu m stan ces in small states w ith a m ple elbo w room with
,
-
,

See M ahaffy s Soc ial Greece,



42 0, on R o man g rav itas ,
or ad p . herence to
a i i
barga n, and q uotat on on Greek sl er ness , from C icero pro C arina
\
ipp i Fid em
nu nquam i ta natio coluit
s .

18 GR E E K AN D GOT H I C .

un matched i ntellect in a c h osen cli m ate amidst g reat tria l


, , ,

m uch glo ry ever prese nt beauty


,
-

I f the i nner li fe had been presented t o us o f that peri od


w hich in political great ness and in art is the mo st brillia n t

epoch of human it y w e should have turned a way from t h e


,

si ght with loathi ng and detestation T h e greatest admirer o f .

old heathe n virtues the m an e ndowed w ith the n est se nsi

bilit ies fo r bea uty and form w ould feel at o nce that there is ,

a great gul f xe d between us and the m which no willi ngne s s

t o ma k e allowa nce for the di ffere nce o f ages and c ou n tri es

w ould e nable us to pass T here are vices which have e x


.

is t e d in moder n times t o a far greater exte nt tha n in a ncie n t

there are v i rt ues in a ncient ti m es whi ch have never bee n

exceeded ; but there are v i ces also which are not eve n

named amo ngst us I t i s a sad but use ful lesso n that th e


.
,

n oblest simplicity in art ma y go alo ng w ith

R ank corru pti on ruining all i hin


w t .

eith er is it u ntr ue t o say that th ere was a thread by wh i c h


N

they were li nked togethe r .

T h e expressio n Greek and G othic Sp i rit may be allow ed ,

and ma y be take n t o mea n the ideal or prevaili ng te nde n c y


o f e ffort in th e w orks o f ei th er race I f any ed ucated perso n .

w ere asked to disti nguish the Gree k spir i t o f creative art fro m
G othic he w ould probably say that o ne w as cheer fu l and eve n
, ,

the other mela ncholy and aspiri ng I f he had to explai n .

himsel f he w ou ld go o n to observe that the cheerful ness and


m elancholy were traceable to i nher i ted co nstitutio n and that ,

agai n to climate external co nditio ns and religion or habit o f


, , ,

c o ntemplati ng the spiritual w orld But he would u ndersta n d .

that architecture is a m atter in w hich externa l conditio ns


dictated varied necessities in a co m mon se nse way to Got h -

and G reek alik e ; s o that if the latter had bee n transported t o

For th e i
earl er, or i
H omer c age, the read er s hou ld refer to M r M ah atfy s
.

com

p ar so i
n b
etween H omer and H esiod , pp .
7 1 76 . I ts im p
hat it all ows
ortance is t
us no age of sent iment about Greece , and prec l ud es mod ern as piration to a Pagan
go ld en age-
. Sad c o ntrasts be tween ri ch and p oor, between th e l ife of a p i il g d
rv e e

c lass and th e hard strugg e o f l i


t he c tiz en-farm er ; boastfu l l y and so d id
c rue t r

d egrad at ion ; d ull contem t p for women, are common to H ellenic as to oth er
h is tory .
5 PA U L ON M AR S H IL L

. . :9

the C as s iterid es h e would certa inly have covered in his ,

hype thral te m ples and that too w ith roo fs high pitched , , ,

e no ugh to shoot o ff a w i n ter s s now A ll bu ilders are fo r


.

ever u nited in the purpose of getti ng houses to their mi nd


,

and needs and their methods and forms must va ry accord i ng


,

t o their m aterials I f this be true the history o f architectural


.
,

and other art is a part o f a st u dy o f me n s necessities spirits


and cu lture that is t o say an i n tegral part o f histo ry


, , .

A gai n if the arts are thus co nnected w ith the spirits o f m en


,

they w ill be depe nden t on their religio n T h e famil y w ill .

have its L ares its domestic altars not without ornament o f


, ,

pai nti ng and sculpture ; the commu nity w ill have its templ e
o r Teme nos ; the C hristia n E ccles i a w i ll have its church o r

asse m bly or meeti ng house o f the L ord s people Without -



.

prior re fere n ce to E gypt and A ssyria there is no doubt that ,

from the days o f P h e id ias to those o f the P rimitive C hurch ,

and from the n ce to the rst P isa n R e naissa nce art has bee n ,

specia lly connected w ith religio n G ra nti ng all the bea uties !

and meri ts o f E th nic art in the A ugusta n age there is no ,

doubt that it passed i nto the hands o f the C hristia n Church ,

and was by her tra nsmuted but prese rved from u tter oblivio n ,
.

A s for decade nce in her keepi ng G reek art w as decade nt ,

e nough long be fore the fourth ce n tury A D For the light and .


beauty and moderatio n and true C haris o f A the nia n art it ,

w as b y that time j ust as much a thi ng o f collectio ns and


m useums as it is now R ome had regularly led the M uses .

i nto captivity but they w ere cha nged and withered in foreign
,

air They had lost some o f the virt ues of their native land
.
,

w here i n deed their career had not bee n qu ite blameless But .

T he fo llowing lines from D Agincou rt, vol


, . ii pm
.
gh t have serve
.d fo r
3 ,
0 i
a motto for t his b ok p i o i . H e is S eak ng of mosa c Aft er some sente nces as to its
.

d urabili ty it eli gi ous c ha ac te


: s r it hi i i p r r: s s tor c al m ortanc e in c on equenc e : and ~

its ha i ng f ni hed th e t m od l of the E arly R enai anc e he goes on


v ur s rs e s s~ ,

Si l h i toire d e la eli gi on ec it d es a ts quelqu s er i ce la eli gion q i



s r r o r e s v s, r , u

ep and a si s l arts d e no mb ux b ienfai t le es t u til e pa ticulierem nt pour


'

r us ur es re s, ur r e

le mai nti d l ens t ad i ti ns et le c nservation d e l eu hi t i e


e eu r r o On est bi ntbt o r s o r . e

co n ai cu d u p
v n d e d e ( d ou
eu ag ) q e le h ommes ont em ploye s a
ur es vr es u s e

l em bellisse me t d es habi tati n pa ticulie es d e plu a tes palai et mme d es

n o s r r s s v s s,

m on ment d l
u s
gl i e p
e es qu e tou t a d i spa u a ec eux d e la u fa e d e la
eu r o r r r v s r c

I l n es t e te q e les m onum ents consac s leurs grand es affec ti ons i ces


'

te err . r s u re ,

i mpressions profond es communes toutes les peu ples ala religion


C 2
2o GR E E K AN D G OT H I C .

the R ome o f th e seco nd ce nt ury l i k e the R ome o f th e late r


,

R e naissance ope nl y dedicated art to pride and lux u ry ; and


,

the decadence bet wee n Per i cles and A ugustus is as marked as


that bet wee n A ugustus and C o nstanti ne wh en Christ i ani t y ,

w as rst i nvested w i th the po wer of the s tate Wh at H eathe n .

R ome did for art was to co ntri b ute her great constructive gi fts
of the rou n d ar c h an d va u lt a nd the
, per fect use of brick wor k
and though t he e ngi neer i ng side o f architecture was so greatl y

ad va nced in her ha nds sculpture lost i ts i nspiratio ns D emeter


,
.

and T hes eus in the E lg i n room are w ork of A the ns at a


ti me when A the ns retai ne d a perturbed belief in gods and
heroes and was t ry i ng to reali se sp i ritual nature by the e ye
, ,

and co nse q ue ntly they have m uch in commo n with the

h ighest forms o f Teuto nic ico nolatry T hey combi n e spir i tua l .

motive wi th natu rali st i c h andli ng they represent D ivi nit y in


,

ma n s image w i th ignora nt worship and te ntat i ve seeki ng T he



, , .

G ree k could o nl y th i nk o f t he Spiritual as the Supe rh u ma n


see i ng no fa i rer image o f Go d th a n m an and bei ng c o nstitu ,

t ionally i n cli ned t o go by w hat he s aw and to represe nt for ,

seei ng s sa k e

H allam has compared the G ree k and I tal i a n R epu b lics in a


w ell k nown pass age in the I talian C hapter o f his M idd le Ag es ,

and a special pa rallel might be dra wn o ut bet wee n A the ns in

the P he id ian age and Pisa from t h e ti m e o f N iccola to tha t


o f Orcag na . R estless act i v i ty and e nterprise war and com ,

merc e to the east ward e n mity o f small ki ndred states th e


, ,

li fe o f soldier c i tize ns ruli ng d e pe ndent cultivators o f i n feri o r


,

ra nk maritime dari ng and trust in the triremes victo ry and ,

outburst o f nati o nal triumph des i ri ng to adorn the city o f


their love and rst in it the temples o f their faith all this th e
,

G ree k and L ombard E truscan cities had in commo n


-
T he .

E truria n R e nai s sa nce returns to A the nia n st u d y o f nature ,

in m an and th e higher a nimals T he A the n ian ( taki ng h im


.

and his faith at the best) ma y have look ed through his i mages

to perso ni ed pow ers o f nature ; fro m them to perso nal


Bei ngs i n terested in hi m and h i s li fe accord i ng to righ t
rule o f N ature ; the nce to one great J ustice or Fate o f , ,

Ze us beyo n d Zeus . Thi s St Paul i mpl i es to the A theni ans


.

o f a late r and falle n day that the best amo ng th e i r fathers


,
ON M AR S HIL L

5 . P A UL . 21

had done T hey th emselves had now to accept a new


.

G ospel or R evelatio n o f the U nkn ow n G od fo r the m selves ,

and their children ; and the spiritual co nditio ns of i ts


ac c epta nce seem not ve ry di fferent in thei r case from
the di f culties and aids o f ou r o wn race in the ni netee nth
ce ntury .

But it is time to proceed to some brie f a c cou nt of the T hre e


A rts o f a ncie nt G reece from the P he id ian age d o w nwards , .

We c an go no farther back tha n the Parthe no n which is for , ,

our purpose the ce ntre o f all architecture and sculpture


, .

What Greece learned from E gypt is for other and more


learned works We are co ncer ned w ith the decade nce o f .

G reek art from its earl y climax w ith its tra ns fer to R oma n
,

ha nds ; and nally i nto the ha nds o f the Church ; to be by


her preserved for Go th i c stude nts I)
,
.

See Fergusson

s H istory f
o A rc hite ctu re ,
v ol . i .

G hic i
T h e w o rd ot h protes t Fo its d e ri ation
s, of c ou rse , u sed e re und er . r v

f om G ti
r G ti the t ad i ti nal mig ati ns of G pid a and E astern and
e c or e c, r o r o e ,

W e t n Goth &c the st hapters of J rnand es D e R hus Geti is are


s er s, .
, r c o : e c

su ff i nt
ic e b t th i b tance is found in Gibbon
: u e r su s .

I t seem s be t to ad d a list f refe ences h e e to b ooks or parts of book s generally


s o r r

ac es i b l e
c I f th e read er knows someth i ng of H ome
s
. H e rod ot s Th cyd id es r, u ,
u ,

th e T ag d i ans and Aristo phanes Plato and A ristotle so m c h the be tte


r e , ,
u r.

H e h ld read Ac ts x ii 1 634 in t h e rst i nstanc e


s ou v . .

T h Ag f
e P i l We W oLloyd E s q V ol i
er c esi c h x l i ii to th e end
. . .
, . . .
, . v . .

S atoc r a d th esS ati Ag n P r f Ze ll er


e C h i A nd E ay on D e elop
oc r c e. o . . . . ss v

m ent of M onoth ism among th e G reeks C ontempo a y R view 1 8 67 ( vol iv


e . r r e , . .

P 3 9)
R u sk in
Stones of Venice,
s vol. i . Introd . and eh . i
. vol. ii . eh. i ii. . R uskin

s

A ratro P entelic i, ec tures L iii . iv .


H istoire de l A rt par le s M onu ments Fergusson s

D Agm cou rt ( Seroux) . .

A rch itectu re, vols iv , . i . . and on Greece Stud the llustrat ons . y i i .

I ntrod uc ti on to C ou n t R io D e l Art C h rltien



.

See mann

s C otter and H eroen is a good small hand book of i
anc ent scul ture . p
C HA PT E R II .

T HE P AR T H E N ON .

T HE d i m e nt ary i dea or arra ng e me n t of every place of


ru

wo rs h i p is the same : a sacred spot for the Go d and a pl ac e ,

o f a ssembl ag e for his people be for e h im T h i s G re e k .

t emples have in commo n w ith R om a n and both w i th C hris ,

t i a n church es I n the rst place T em pl um is deri ved fro m


.
,

T eme nos and th at from r p m I t is an aug ural ter m ;


.
,

m ea ns a piece o f grou nd cut off and set ap art and does n ot ,

necessaril y impl y the existe n ce o f a buildi ng B ut to som e 2


.

p art o f s u ch i nclos u res a special sig n ica n ce will al w ay s

attach and co nve y to the w orshippers the idea of a special


,

Prese nce o f God T h e more spiritu al mi nded ma y feel th at


.
-

the wh ole world i s H is and th at H e is present everyw here ,

s ome such n ot i on is implied by t h e u n iversal i nst i nct o f

pra yer But soo ner or later some buildi ng arises in the
.

la c e o f H is Prese nce and if i t be of any size i t w ill hav e


p , ,

a specia ll y sacred place There will be a T eme nos and a .

N aos a Templ um and a C ella a H ol y and M ost H ol y


, ,

H ouse a Preci nct N ave C hoir and Sa n ctuary


, , It w ill , , .

be gi n s a small cella ; it ill re q u i re a porch t o ait


a w w in ; 3

Servi us ad E n I 446 . . .

Luogo aperto e d i Ii bera ved uta Facciolati C onteinpla i d ictu m est a templo . r ,

i e loco qui ab om ni parte aspic i potest


. .
,
Festus ce rto carmine ab augure .

nitus, notatus c ons ecratusque, &c .


, &c .

3 Greek p h lly
y wood en truc t res in the earlies t
tem les were w o or entirel s u

times P a an ia v 2 0 5 3 : t 3 !
. us also viii 1 0 2
s, T he ; o seem prope ly
.
-
, .
- . 1 r

to have been h oll w trees used a nic h es wherei n to p l ac th e i mage of god r


9
o ,
s e o *

here T he .bj ect of rou nd temples o memorial sh i nes of whi c h the m nu


su , r r , e

ment of L y icrates at A th ens is the ea ly and c entral ty pe and the P an th eon at


s r ,

R ome the g and est example eem better d eferred till we c ome to the s bj c t f
r ,
s s u e o

R oman A rt .
24 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

outer colum ns 3 5 feet hi gh 6 feet 2 i nches diameter at bas e


, , .

W ith i n the peri style thus form ed there are six mi nor colu m ns
in each fro nt form i ng a pro naos to the east and a posticus to
,

the w est T he house o r cella wi thi n was divided i nto t wo


.

u ne q ual cha m bers ; the Parthe no n or abode o f the v irgi n


goddess to the east and the opisthodomus ( used as a publi c
,

treasury) to the w est T he rst was 9 8 feet 6 i nches in .

le ngth the seco nd 44 feet and the y were 62 feet 6 i nche s


, ,

w ide. T he Parthe no n had a double tier o f i nn er colu m ns ,

perhaps C ori nthia n the lower o f w hich measured about 3 feet


,

6 i nch es at the base There were fort y large ( probabl y Ion i c)


.

c ol um ns in the O p isthodomus T h e great chry selepha nti ne .

A the ne stood in the eastern c hamber and w as 39 feet in ,

height .

The marble sculpture of the bu i ld i ng w as arra nged th us .

T h e metopes o r spaces in the frieze outside bet w een t he ,

trigl yphs w hi ch s eparated and framed the carvi ngs w ere ,

in high relie f s u i t ed to the ope n air lights ; and their subj ect
,
-

w as the battles o f the C e ntaurs and L apith ae and o f A th e ,

n ians and A m azo ns ; with th e deeds o f A the ne and h er


favourite heroes o n the east an d north sides
, The ou ter .

frieze o f the cella faci ng out w ards w as adorn ed in lo w


, ,

relief adapted to di ffused lights w ith an ideal o f a gra nd


, ,

Pa nathe nai c processio n It i s formed at the w est and .


,

proceeds towards the east ; the sacred peplus is bei ng pre


s e nted below the eastern pedime nt w i th other o fferi ngs ; ,

and the sacred feast is begu n A lo ng pomp o f maide ns .

beari ng o ff eri ngs o f b iga: and q uadrigae o f lyres utes and


, , , ,

v ictims occupies the southern frieze ; and th e n orth and part


,

o f the w est side are lled chiey by the e q uestria n r c


p o e s

sio n ; which is in motion and on its w ay east ward o n the lo ng ,

northern frieze and sti ll formi ng up its dista nt rear o n th e


,

w est. U nder the i nn er friezes there is a shallo w egg and


arrow stri ng co u rse and there are gu ttre belo w the triglyphs
,

o n the outer On the merits o f all the g u re sculpture


.
,

hu m an and a ni m al there is no use in dilati ng here I t c an


,
.

be see n in the British Museum and i t m ust be seen A ll ,


.

we c an say about it is that the whole forms a great u n ity ,

and does proceed as a processio n ; that the i ndividualities


THE P A R T H E N ON . 25

are those of the most beauti fu l yo u th s or mai den s in art ;


solem nly draped and adorn ed for the service o f the goddess
, ,

o n w hich all are be nt ; that the oxe n are g ra ndl y natural in

their slow pe nsive moveme nts and the horses ready to y ,

out o f their sk i ns T he y are s m aller tha n nature but t h ey


.

,

seem to show the t ype form o f some N i sae a n or Persia n breed -


,

in their small h oo fs ne nostrils broad fro ntals and specially, , ,

clea n at legs ; and they live through si new and muscle


, ,

bone te ndon and ve i n sho w i ng the same se nse o f circula


, , ,

tio n and full li fe below the surface as i s observa b le in the


huma n or heroi c sculptures .

The n for the great w orks o f the two ped i me nts The .

E aste rn m ust be co nsidered t o co nsist of especially A tti c


deities atte ndi ng on the birt h and presen tatio n to Olympus
,

o f the maide n A the ne The Western as certai nly represen ts .

the co ntest o f A thene and P oseido n fo r comma nd o f the



desti n ies o f A ttica We take Welcker s nom e nclature for th e
.

order in w hich the gures w ere arra nged in the former On .

t h e spectator s extreme le ft and right close u nder the pedi


me nt the horses of H el i os are j ust tossi ng the i r heads above


,

the sur face of the sea hal f reari ng as the y gallop u p th e ,

steep o f day T h ose of Sele ne are j ust s i nk i ng O ppos i te their


.
,

settli ng actio n given wi th stra nge graph i c po wer N ext t o .

t h e Su n rise i s the gure generall y k nown as T heseus N ext .



to h im were Welck er s T hallo and A uxo ( casts in British
M useum ) (Vis c ont i s Ceres and Prose rp i ne) the n Iri s or
,

, ,

Ore it hyia as Welck e r believes T he n with one or more now .

lost gures came the great ce ntral group utterly destroyed


, ,

and u nrecorded I ts restoratio n has exercised ma ny able


.

sculptors and criti cs There is the vase pa i nt ing theory


.
-

(Q u a rt re m e re de Q ui n cy s an d in part B rOn d s t e d s ) w h i ch
'

supposes a l i ttle M i nerva issui ng from the clove n head of


Zeus w ith V ulca n and the axe
, M ill i nge n i ncl i nes to th is .
,

b ut i t does not satis fy Welck er who reasonably th i nks it ,

u n likely that the desig ns o f ceramic pai n ti ngs c an have bo rne

O th ir h itting and G ree k horsemanship see some excellent remarks in


n e , ,

G n W hy te M e l ille s R id i g R e ll ti n
e .
-
v

C hapter on the U e of the B idle
n co ec o s. s r .

Welc ker call him C ecrop s Brond ted says C ephalus or D ionysus Colonel
s , s :

L ak V i conti and Ge hard agree in calli ng him H erac les As These was
e e, s , r . us

th e A t ti c H e c ules th is id ea seerm to agree wi th the common nomenclature


r , .
26 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

any relat i on to th os e of groups in marble Welck er and .

L ucas are for a full sized A the ne sta ndi ng by her father and
-
,

the former re fers to a pa inti ng in P h ilo s tratu s (I mag in ii . .

I laM t a 8oe yo va i w ith H eph aestus and the axe M r W at k iss


'

, . .

L loyd th i nk s w ith reason that A the ne must have stoo d in


the ce nt re o f her ow n pediment .

On th e spectator s right o f the ce nt ral group a Vi cto ry


and A res are supposed t o have stood the for m er bal an c i ng ,

Ore ithya o n the left .

The n follo ws the splendid group of three female gures ,

c alled the Fates by L u cas and the majority ; o r A gl au ro s ,

H erse and Pa ndrosos daughters o f Cecrops (Welc k er) ; o r


, ,

t h e H ours or the G races


,
o r Vesta C eres and Proserpi na , , ,

as C olo nel L eak e s ays U n der w hatever name these fully .


,

draped statues seem to us w ith ma ny persons t o give a m ore , ,

n oble and per fect i dea o f w oma nhood tha n any other in

existe nce ; excepti ng perhaps the Ve nus o f Milo alias the ,

Samia n H ere N o amou nt o f passio n suggested or express e d


.
,

pure or m ixed c an ever make such appeal to w hat we c on


,

sider the lo ftier feeli ngs o f art as these three headless r u i ns , .

They are best thought o f as Fates : fo r they have the cal m


o f etern ity and the charis o f some future peace whe n labou r
, ,

is all done and evil all u ndo ne The series e nds w ith t he
, .

down se t tli ng ho rses o f Sele ne ; one head in partic ular as


-

u nmatched in art as T heseus o r the T hree It is in i ts place .

in the E l gi n room .

A s t o the w estern pedime nt we k now somethi ng of i ts ,

ce ntral grou p from the draw i ngs o f Carrey for the Marquis
D e N oi ntel in 1 67 5 be fore the siege and explosio n o f 1 68 7
, .

Its order of s culptures from le ft t o right is thus give n b y


Welck er and M tiller .

l
I iss u s H ercu es l Dmt
e e er Vict ory At he ne C hario t o f Le uc othea T he
or and A res and and Amphitrite M li e c erta se ns
C ep his H e be Di y
on s us C hariot Pos eid on and Pe it ho
H Di
.

Persep hone ippo one C allir

or or or
C ecrops Pand ros os T h e tis Di ana
and Amphit rite Lat ona
A po o ll
( sti ll on Ag l
auros Ven u s
D io ne
te mp l e)
THE P A R T H E N ON . 27

A nd M ull er calls the last t wo g ures H alirrhoth i us and

E u ryt o .

Of th ese gures all that has es c aped utt er destruct i on is


,

briey catalogued by M r L u c a s in his accou nt of the .


,

Parth eno n p I 7 ,
A ll is in t he Br i tish M useum : that is
. .

to say the c hest and back of N eptu ne a fragme nt of the


, ,

breast and face o f A thene the torso of E rechtheus the , ,

Ilissu s and a part o f th e group of L ato na T he fragment of


, .

A the ne is determi ned by C arrey s draw i ng as i nd eed is t hat


o f N eptu ne T he t w o deities as it we re sta nd up to each


.

other for a mom en t as they turn awa y and mou nt their


,

chariots ; and Mr L u cas s res toration seems most happy in


.

the w ay in whi ch it ill u strates the radiating u nity of all the


other gures in th e pediment on the ce ntral group li k e stro ng ,

petals o f a double ower The yi ng d rapery of M i nerva as


.
,

combi ned w ith her gran d stature gives an idea like that in ,

H o m er o f limbs o f aether yet of t he immortal w eight u nder


,
x
,

w hich the chariot groa ned .

One more remark may be added from Mr L loyd th at .


,

havi ng the statues o n the grou nd in the British M useum is a


great adva ntage to us mode m s enjoyed o nl y by those of old ,

w ho had the entree o f P h e id ias s ergasterion in the brightest
days o f A thens for s o short a ti me be fore the forms we re
,

raised to their places in the pedi me nts T he w ork of th eir .

backs is see n now it was lost be fore and it is jus t as f ully


, ,

elaborated as the parts in s ig ht We now se e m uch o f the .

ex q uisite nis h o f th e parts w hich w ere be fore i nv i sible ; as


the laps of the recli n i ng Parca .

There is no sepa rati ng G ree k art from G reek rel i gion be ,

cause G reek liturgy or religious se rvice c o nsisted in nothi ng


but art A n A the nia n o f the Periclean age w ould neither
.

have u n derstood no r e ndured to be told that the Partheno n


pedimen ts mea n t nothi ng or had nothi ng to d o w ith h i m or
,

his li fe and death in A tt ic a or elsewhere T here is no doubt


, .

that the immediate and present glory and i nuence o f A the ns


w ere o ne great object o f all these w orks A the ns so ught her .

o w n glory but it was by mea n s o f sacrice t o A thene ; and


,

it is not probable that any A thenia n of those d ays thou ght


H am 8 29

. E .
28 GR E E K AN D GOT H I C .

lite rall y othi ng of Pall as his goddess Of c o urse we m u s t


n .

mak e an i nde ni te allowa nce for m i xed mot i ve as we h ave ,

t o d o ve ry freque ntly in esti m ati ng the amou nt of ge n u ine


devotion ma ni fest ed in G othic architect ure Pro fe ssor R us k i n .

s a ys somew here that the cit i ze ns o f C hartres and R o u e n b u i lt

high ch urch to wers agai nst each other in m uch the s am e


Spirit in w hich t wo E nglish to w ns w ould play a cric k et m at ch .

T h e s ame q uestio n recurs fo r G ree k o r G oth Was the .

former co nscio usl y deludi ng himsel f a fter all and spe ndi ng ,

his tale nts me ntal and metallic the spoil o f his v ictories and
, ,

the e nergies of his sou l on names by w hic h he m ea nt ,

nothi ng ? A nd if he mea nt a nythi ng by the names h e


wo rshipped w hat did he mea n ?
, A nd if he did no t quit e
k now what he mea nt how much importance did he attach ,

t o be i ng hi msel f w ell r egarded by T hat w hic h th ese na m es


darkl y expressed t o hi m ?

A certai n feeli ng o f awe and i nterest amou nt i ng t o ve n e ,

ratio n ma y be allo wed t o the


,
E lgi n fragments as we s ee
them A ny u ndergraduate who visits them has be fore h im
.

au tograph and holograph records by the right ha nd of P he id ias .

I t must cert ai nly have passed all over these sculptures thoug h ,

they may o f course have bee n blocked ou t for him by pupi ls ,

from his design or model A great fu ss w ould rightly be .


made about any autograph o f I E s c hylu s Sophocles or E u ri , ,

p i des ; an d these t o o are docume n ts o f history They o n c e .

o ccupied the easter n and w ester n pedi me n ts o f the Parthe n on

o f A the ns What is k now n o f their arra ngeme nt w ith others


.
,

now lost is deri ved fro m the draw i ngs made in 1 67 5 for the
,

M arquis de N oi nte l by an artist named C arrey Sketches , .


2

o f both are give n in Pro fessor Welcker s paper in the C lass ical

M us eu m vol ii p 367 and in M r L u c as s R emarks on the



. . . .
, ,

W tta l t
Mr . af 880 tai i t

s ti g gg
e c ures o t i n a t w k d n
1 c on n n eres n su es o s s o or o e

by nt m p a i
co e a th m
or r es a hai p a t f th f is p ibly by M y
e o re rc c rs o e r ez e oss ron.

W e aremp l l d by wa t f pa
co e t fe th ad t Q a t m e
n d o s ce o re e r e re er o u re re e

Q i y 9 w
2 m f m h i f m i G m i m lli

u nc O
s l
y p ia at k t a:l dor g uc n or o n on ree a er , o e n ,

a d t h wh l
n e bj t f h y l p ha ti n
o e su lp t ec o c r se e n e scu ure .

W l k ill t ati i d i d f m St a t A tiq of Ath ( C ti ati


e c er s

us r on s er ve ro u r s

n . ens on nu o n,

vol i. h
v. w hi h
c . tain a a at py f C a y d w i g f th
c con s n cc ur e co o rre

s ra n ,
ur er

imp d i th B iti h M l i pl m d l f th P th

rove n m e r L a s useu ,
vo . v . . 20 . uc s s o e o e ar enon

in the E lgin R oom s hould be stu d ed w t i i h hi s work .


T H E P A R T H E N ON . 29

P arthenon ( L o n do n , literat u re o f the subject is T he


su m med u p w ith full re ferences in Smith s D ictionary of
, ,

A ntiq u ities b ut those who w i ll read Welcker L ucas and M r


, , , .

W W L loyd s seco nd volume will lear n all about these w orks


. .
,

o f art w hich c an be k now n t o stude nts o f history o nly To .

k no w them really one must dra w them A nd without a ffecta .

tio n o n this a wk ward po i nt o f tech nical sk ill we may appeal ,

to ca re ful spectators in the E lgi n R oom a li mited au d ience , ,

and ask them t o look at the risi ng or si nki ng horses heads


alo ne or else at a si ngle arm or li m b I t is poss ib le t o see how


,
.

the folds o f the d rapery depend o n the heroic m ould b elow ,

and h o w the mighty m uscles suggest by cu rve and texture all , ,

the glo w o f athletic li fe o f stro ng circulatio n in the hard esh


, ,

an d ful ness o f health sho w n through the bathed and a noi nted

ski n We thi nk that a draughtsma n w i ll assert w ith c on


.

dence and that ge nerally speaki ng non draughtsme n wi l l have


, , ,
-

to accept as a fact the special and u ne q ua lled life o f thes e


,

statues I t may b e expressed w ith re fere n ce to the T hes eus


.
,

and I lys s u s that the y are stro nger do wn the sp i ne tha n other
,

male sculpture and that there is an evi de nt u nity of muscu lar


,

actio n in them from head t o foo t I n the group of the Fates .

( or B right n ess D e w and A ll


, d e w ) t h e c h aris
, o r grace o f -
,

pose and repose the u nity of rest pas si ng i n to rhythmic action


, ,

all appears to us di ff ere n t from and s u per i or to that o f other

female forms I t seems that in these forms we kn ow what


.

noble G reek wome n o f high character were lik e as Praxiteles


,

a fterw ards gave the world assurance of the he te ra in all her


varied characte rs L astly there appears to have been a u nit y
.
,

o f actio n in all t h e g ures in each pedime n t certai nly otherw ise ,

u nexamp led o n such a scal e in whi c h the gures ra d iate and u n ,

fold like petals from th e c e ntral group and which adds greatly ,

t o the pervadi ng sense o f li fe and help s t o make this marble ,

breathe and live beyo nd other marbl e M r L u c as s model . .


calls espec i al attentio n to th is I t is at once recognised in the .

w estern ped i me nt w here the V shape or i nverted tri angle


,
-

bet ween A the ne and Poseido n is its keynote H is restoration .

o f the eastern sculpture does not ig n ore this rh yth m ic u n ity o f

act i on as p erhaps C ocke rell s G erhard s and ot hers d othe i r


, ,

A s Gorge at pa ta
S r , or E lpinice at Athens .
3 o GR E E K A N D GO T H I C .

work seems less in accord with the spr i ngi ng l i mbs and o wing
d rape ries that remai n I t looks rath er perpe ndicular and
.

s ometimes cro w ded A ll the old gures have per fect elbo w
.

roo m and are as free as if the m arble pedi m e nt w ere the bl u e


,

e m pyrea n .

T he tech nical merits o f these sculptures w ill ha rdly be


disp u ted A t prese nt there is real and practical reas o n fo r
.

co nsideri ng their religious or spiritual im port T h e question .

o f their beari ng on G ree k religio n co ncer ns us greatly Ma ny .


,

we tru st still hold the C hristia n faith implicitl y


, But it i s an .

everyday necessit y for those o f us who are e ngaged in the


vital co ntroversies o f the time to give accou nt of how we ,

c ame by it and by w hat temporal mea ns it w as ha nded do wn


,

to us . A t the rst step we nd that w e o w e the actua l


w ritten w ord and a very large proportio n o f tradit i o nal and
,

p a tristic literature t o the la n gu


, age a n d the logi c o f A the n s ,

as i nstrume ntal o r s ine quci non causes The w ord o f God is .

t reas ure give n from th e se earthe n vessels t o us wh o are o f


other earth and far from depreci ati ng ourselves w e may o n , ,

the contrary co ngratulate ourselves o n certa i n resembla nces


,

t o the k ee n and an xiously i nq uiri n g spirits o f earlier days


-
.

T h e Word said Philo is t wo fold that which sets in ord e r


, , ,

w ithi n and that w hic h sets forth to others w ithout


, T he one .

is reaso ni ng the other la ngu age


, Ou r faith co m es t o u s .

through this i nterpreter race w ho excelled so in word i nward


-
, ,

and o u twar d We u se the i r la nguage for m s and methods o f


.
, ,

t hought eve ry day We reaso n with the ir syllogis m w e fall


.

i nto and out o f the fallacies they used exposed and analyse d ; , ,

w e are guided in pri nciple by the history of their glory and


t heir shame their mental and moral phi losoph y still helps us
to live in the spirit o f th e full revelatio n o f Go d w h ich is o u r

p r ivilege ; an d above all , the sple n dour o f their


, g reat arts
of poet ry and sculpture has so comm an ded the spirits o f all

educated C hristia ns and heathe n that all have agreed in ,

protable homage and fruit ful admi rati on Still it has no t .


,

b ee n settled to w hat provi nce o f the soul this admiratio n be


longs I s it dependent on voluptuous b eauty ? T he higher
.

A the nian sculpture possesses no beauty to w hich that title


A67 0: s
p o
o opucbs eal
r I VBI J Os r os .
3 2 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

great A galm ata o f gold and ivo ry may follo w ; but a fe w


more words may be said o n the comparative e ffect o f bui ld
i ngs in their decay and o f ho w T ime which has deprived
, ,

them o f thei r sculpture supplies an e ffect and deep se nti me n t


,

o f his o wn w hich makes us forget the wa nt o f it or that it


, ,

o nce w as there We have all o f us see n G othic rui ns


.
,

and passed u nder their spell o f so ft regret ; if travel w e re


w o rth nothi ng else it would be i nvaluable if it o n ly ga v e
,

us a notion o f the rui ns o f an elder Past I t would ad d .

a nother trial to us who hold th e Christia n Faith if all its ,

churches were in rui ns ; because it would sho w us th at t h e


w orld had altogether forsake n us Still those rui ns w ould be .

i mpo rta nt histori cal mo n uments ; and have a pathos fo r a


Pagan or A g nostic ge neratio n in possession o f their e ndo w
me nts w hich would probably be t he deepest feel i ng o f w hi c h
,

it w ou ld be capable Such a feeli n g we all experie nce at .

,

Fu m es s o r Bol to n or Fou ntai ns and we naturally thi nk it
,

peculiar to Gothic rui ns because subtle associatio ns o f o u r ,

o wn lan d mi ngle w ith it T here the w allowe rs smell s we et


.
,

and the foxglove clusters dappled bells and th e sho rt tur f is ,

full o f thy m e or violets such as lea n over our o w n shephe rd


,

streams Gothic rui n is easier t o appreciate tha n Gree k : it


.

takes both study and travel and perhaps a little a rtist i c ,

trai ni ng t o apprec iate the e ffect o f one of the rui ns of all


,

Ti me H e bri ngs low the cloud capt to wers and gorgeous


.
-

palaces but there is a co nfused awe about those which ha ve


made the lo ngest sta nd : and w he n like the Parth eno n they
are central buildi ngs o f the world representi ng wide civilisa ,

tions and the great deeds and su fferi ngs o f ma ny races that
, ,

feeli ng is redoubled T he glorious sculpture and colour the


.
,

frieze o f A the n ia n k n ighthood beauty and sacrice the ivory , , ,

an d gold o f the to weri ng A gal m a are hardly missed as o ne ,

sits a stra nger in place and time among the marble blocks
, ,

w hich lo ng deed time no t in vai n o n ly to be shattered by ,

brute rage o f war A ll the i mmeasurable loss matters no t


.

the great la ndscape w ith its world w ide associations the ri ch -


,

all embraci ng light the te nde r colours o f t wo thousand years


-
,

are enough for us Sculpture we thi nk is necessary to o u r


.

w ild Gothic not here in the desolated ce ntre o f all sculptu re


, , ,
TH E P A R T H E N ON .
33

no t the temple wh ere all w as emblem and i mage from the


in ,

A gal ma to the corners o f her pedestal We miss the w all .

ow e r sce nt and the tall foxglove ; b ut h ere gro ws the so ft


,


aca nthus gi ft o f the dust o f G reece itsel f the symbol o f
,
!
,

i mmortality risi ng fro m decay amo ng the potsherds o f the


,

earth : type o f forgotten glo ry w hich i s not lost be fore G od ;


pledge o f St Paul s h e pe o f forgiveness and yet greater
.

,


glory fo r the fathers whose ignorance H e wi nked at Y et .

shall ye be like to t h e w i ngs o f a dove that is co vered ,

w ith silver w i ngs and w i th feathers l ike g old



.
,

Stones (
y Venice, i p
. . 2 6.
C H A PT E R III .

T HE E AR LY DE C AD E N C E .

P R OF E SSO R R U SK I N S m nemo n ic o f Gre ek art w ith a fe w


da tes and remarks may be su f cie nt t o bri ng us to ou r t ru e


,

poi nt o f depa rture w hich is th e C hristia n era A t that d at e


,
.
,

G reek sculpture and pai nt i ng may be co nsidered as naturali s e d


at R ome and applied w ith i mperfect success but the great e st
, , ,

magni ce nce to the decoratio n o f a ne w and most po w e r fu l


,

style in architecture .

The m ne m o nic divides the ni n e ce nturies B C as follow s . .

A A c h ai art 9 th 8 th and 7 th c ent i


. r c . , , u r es .

B . B es t 6th , 5 th , and 4t h
C . C orru pt 3 d , 2 nd , and t s t
r

T he best o r per fectly ce ntral w ork is prod uced in the ce n tral


age the fth ce ntury and may best be remembered by t h e
, ,

dates of the great battles o f the P ersia n i nvasion 490 8 0


79
66 ; as the preemi n e n ce o f A ttic art begi n s w ith t h e

employme nt o f P he id ias in the triu m phal reco nst ruction o f


A the ns . The archaic period i s o ne o f steady progress t he ,

corrupt centuries o f steady decli ne The three coi ns at p . .

1 1 2 o f A ratro P entelic i are highly graph i c examples o f


,

characteristics o f the three periods ; and the chapter itsel f


deserves care ful and repeated study A nd w e must here begi n .

t o recom me n d a list o f actual sculptures models an d at , ,

pictures o r photographs for perusal I t is thought better o n .

th e w hole t o give re fere nces o nly as the results o f w oodcu t ,

are almost al ways disappoi nti ng in poi nt o f accuracy and ,

good autotype and li ne e ngravi ng are too costly fo r thi s


book I t is far better that a stude nt should take it w ith
.
TH E E AR L Y D E CAD E N C E .
35

h im to t he British M useu m and there take no more notice


o f it tha n by obeyi ng the i nj u nctio n to compare the casts
,

o f the IE gine tan marbles in the ga llery next the E lgi n


r o o m w ith the marbles o f that name and place H e w ill
,
.


s e e the di ffere nce bet w ee n archaic and best bet wee n ,

progress and culmi natio n I t is not too much to say that .

e very you ng m an w h o is readi ng a ncie nt history ought to

d o t h is But those w ho mea n t o bri ng arch e ology to bear


.

o n t he study o f history should go farther ; and make pro

g ress e n ough in actual dra w i n g t o be able to dra w a


statue at least w ith tolerable correctness as to scale and
, ,

a nato m y They w ill have to argue about form dra w i ng


.
, ,

and expressio n and t o j udge o f the dates o f w orks by their

character that is to say by their dra w i ng and expressio n


,
.

A nd it w ill be year by year better u nderstood that form is ,

no t m astered by eye and brai n u nless it has bee n follow ed

b y eye and ha nd ; and that it is no use talki ng about d ra w


ing u n less you c an dra w T he critic ought t o have at least .

hal f the k no w ledge o f the pupil teacher I t is certai n fro m -


.

the exp e rie nce o f teachers that ed ucated people acquire ,

graphic skill w ith peculiar facility w he never they take pai ns ,

about it o n a system and this they w ill nd it necessary to


do soo ner or later .

H o wever the great A galma o f the G od o r G oddess w as


,

o f course the ce n tral object o f a temple It stood fo r and .

e x pressed his P rese nce in his ch ose n place ; and all the
other decoratio n o f the buildi ng w as expressive o f his deal
i ngs w ith m e n and o f their se nse o f his glory
, I n these .

colos s al images there w as a co ncess i o n to great ness o r bigness


o f scale w hich w as a fte rwards repeated in the vast mo s ai c s
,

or Byzanti ne apses and the comparative small ness o f i nferior


deities and huma n creatures is ag ai n and aga i n im itated in
,

Ve netia n sepulchres But every gure in the Parthe no n w as


.

dedi cated to the w orship or the glo ry o f A the ne ; and such


dedicatio n u nq uestio nably gave a lofti ness of aim to the w ork ,

S St
ee of V n i
on esol iii p 7 8
e T om b o f
c e, vD ge Gi o ann.i D o.l no A D. . o v , . .
,

r3 5 6 . C h i st nth ned w ith two angel half i e the D ge and D ogares a


r e ro s, -s z : o s

k n eling be f
e H im ab t g i
o re f the angel
,
Lo d Li nd say e fers th is t th e
ou s ze o s . r r o

sm all tat
er s b n i h and by ome of th g eat C hrys l phantin
ues , or e n as V i ct
s y e r e e es or ,

b y th e P he id ian Ze f Olym pi a us o .

D 2
36 GR E E K A N D GO T H I C .

w hich n obod y doubts to have been connected with the l o fty


ideal of that Goddess most pure and a wful I t w as a d e .

cadence ln aim w he n a mo re eq uivo cal deity was re p re


sented and honoured w ith equal skill The G reek decade nc e .

is not in tech nical po w er o r science for the fou rth c e n t u ry , ,

at least Those w ho co nsider great art to consist chie y in


.

re neme nt in tech ni q ue w ill not allow that th i s was decay at


,

all T hose who thi nk it co nsists chiey in po w erful e x e c u


.

t io n o f lo ft y ideas wi ll make this co ncess i o n Whatever t h e .

Praxitelea n cha nge was i t w as prepared fo r by the rapid d e


,

cli ne in faith o r po w er o f belie f in the i mage The i m a g e


, .

became m ore and more a fetiche to the vu lgar and a pha nto m
to the w ise I t could no t satis fy o r co nvi nce or a ns w er t he
.
,

hard questio ns o f philosophy or o f li fe The ivo ry Zeus st o o d .

fo r all and i t w as nothi ng at all except the T hought o f th e ,

m urdered P h e id ias and w here he was it could not tell , .

The pleasa nter forms o f nature worship appealed at o n ce -

to re al and u n iversal passions and sti m ulated a w i de r ,

audie n ce by m ea ns o f a di ffere nt ra nge o f artistic subj ect


, .

T he O ld u n derstood Mo no t heis m w ith its xed sta nd ard o f ,

right and w rong its E ume nides and its ulti mate j udgm e n t
, ,

fell out o f me m ory The old cou ntry worship o f m a n s o w n '

n o t io n o f nature took its place and there n ever w as a truer bit

o f cy n icis m tha n the remark in L otha ir that nature w orshi -


p ,

al ways e nds in an orgie A phrodite bega n w ith P raxiteles and


.
,

the gen eratio n fo r whom he w rought t o prevail over A the ne , ,

and t o bri ng in a reti n ue o f her o w n w h o w ere pre ferred t o ,

amazo ns and heroic youths ; or to the for m s o f solem n ly


draped so ns and daughters o f A the ns in their highest and ,

purest mood o f adoratio n T h e D io nysia w ere not so m uc h


.

in h armo n y w ith lo fty sculpture as the P anat h e ne a ; si mpl y


bec a use A the ns dru nk w as no t so purely or te nderly e stheti c
as A the ns sober N o doubt the D io nysiac theatre and it s
.
,

statuesq ue groupi ngs w ere co nnected w ith sculpture ; bu t


,

the E u ri pidea n groups were no t quite like the old I E s c hyle an ,

and sculptural form w as m ore ideal tha n theatrical gestu re .

Besides the P anathene a did not cel ebrate t h ree days o f U n


,

bu ngings and
Pitchers and Pots A phro d ite w as n o t .

mO I y K6 and e
o '
l
u u,
p
the t h e d ay of th D i ny i a
,
o r e s e o s .
THE E A R L Y D E CA D E N C E .
37

alien to io nysus ; an d P rax i teles i s her great m in i ster as


D ,

P he id ias o f A the ne .

I t see m s that the agnostic o r a ntire ligious views o f art


w hich are curre nt and are asserted to be preva len t at the
,

present day necessari ly in o u r view must degrade it sup


, , , ,

posi ng degradat io n to be a real and possible thi ng This .

is not in fact the case if there be no st an dard o f morality


, , ,

extern al t o ma n s j udgment ; for if m an be the m easure o f


all thi ngs then o ne ma n s j udg m e nt o f wh at degradation


,

may m ea n is as good as a nother s i e as w orth less By

,
. . .

w hatever n ame m e n call themselves or their view s they ,

ge nerally come sooner o r later to see w hat they reall y m ea n .

O u r agn ostics begi n to ack no wledge that k no w i ng nothi ng ,

o f the Ch ristia n s G o d they sta nd illogicall y o n C hristia n


m orality and they try to secrete m oral systems o f the ir ow n ,

w h ich are no doubt b eauti ful but possess n o authority w hat ,

ever except the author s or authoress s and perhaps the


'
, ,

sa nctio n o f the editor of a R eview It seems admitted on all .

ha n ds that if Gree k religio n was all w ro ng and false its art


, ,

i nspiratio ns w e re false ; that is to say w ere like idols nothi ng , ,

at all I f it was all bad the great thoughts and works wh ich
.
,

spru ng from it an d for a ge neratio n w ere e ntirely devoted


, ,

to it m ust have bee n altogether false and h ad also


, It , .

follo w s also that if G reek Pa ntheism or N ature w orship w as


,
-

an orga n izatio n or a decorative system o f gross se nsuality ,

and nothi ng else at any time G ree k art mi nistered t o


se nsuality and to that o nly o r to beauty as a mea ns to
, ,

that e nd This is the severest view on the religious side


. .

I t agrees fully w ith the atheistic as to the character of ,

G reek art on ly that it protests agai nst its assumed se nsuality


,

as si nful w hich the other e x treme does not Where these


, .

vie ws see m to fail is in their disregard o f the c hro nology o f


art ; and o f the parallel decade nce in aim hope and aspi , ,

ratio n w hich A the nia n sculpture and history seems t o us to


,

di s play T h e fact is t hat the relig i ous and irreligious public


.
,

in t his cou ntry as else w here live in about e q ual i natte ntio n
, ,

to actual relics or trust worthy records o f all gl y pt ic art ; and


that people have not quite mastered the fact that there are
statues and statues and that the dates of those we po ssess ,
3 s GR E E K A N D GOT H I C .

ra nge over more tha n 800 years I t is no t reali se d t h at .

duri ng that time m e n o f di ffere n t morals produced wo rk o f


di ffere nt cha racter One c an be e nth us i astic o r argu me n t a
.

tive about any w ork o f art ; and any statue will do fo r


polemical purpo ses no w j ust as in older (and eq u all y
,

artistic) days any T orso from Zeus to Sile n us wo u ld d o t o


, , ,

throw on the heads o f o ne s advers aries in siege or on fall


.

Cou nt R io as a critic has lo ng bee n cashiered for C h ri s


, ,

t ian ity nevertheless every draughtsma n o r compete nt pers on


,

w ill tell you that he is per fectly right in w hat he s ays abou t
H eathe n decade nce ; if the expressio n and motive as w e ll , ,

as tech ni q ue of the E lgi n marbles are to b e take n i nto acco u nt


, .

They are o f gods and heroes A the ne and the A mazo ns and , ,

the ha nds which w rought them w ere h e roic as w ell as artisti c .

T h e Praxitelea n age lea ned to wards A phrodites and athlete s ,

and its w or k w as purely artistic in the highest degree O ne o r .

t wo statues or fragme nts ye t remai n w hich seem t o poi n t t o ,

a pe riod o f tra ns i tio n in feeli ng or executio n ; and the bes t


,

k no wn o f these may be said to be the Vatica n T orso and


the Samian H ere or Ve n us o f M elos T he latter may yet be .

said t o sta nd as a type o f pure and per fect w oma nh oo d ,

huma n and somethi ng more ; w oma n without toke n o f s in ,

an d as o ne m ade a little lo wer tha n the a ngels .

We m ust ba nish all symbolic stat u es and pe rs on i c at io n s as ,

G laucus the sea god o r Trito n and the A rcadia n P an t o t h e


-
, ,

archaic departmen ts as deities or to the post A lexa n dri n e ,


-

decade n ce if merely a rtistic gure s


, So also i ncom plet e .

forms like the H erm e H o wever they m ay have bee n


.

i mi tated or revive d in later sculpt u re they have nothi n g t o ,

do w ith us now far less tha n the z E gine tan m arbles w hi c h ,

are next t o our rst period of departure and w hich should b e ,

compared w ith the E lgi n marb les o n the archaic side Th e , .

origi nal s are at M u nich but there are good casts in t h e


,

B ritish M useum and elsewhere T h e s evere co nve ntio na l .

arra ngeme nt o f hair and the stereotyped s m ile o f a n cien t


,

G reek art are preserved though the gures represe n t th e ,

( E ac id e in e rce co n ict ( Se e A r a tro p . A nd t h i s , .

is perhaps the latest G reek exa m ple in our poss es s io n o f t h e


, ,

hieratic or symbolic style o f dedicated art which d e s ire d n o t


4o GR E E K A ND G OT H I C .

that large nu mber o f literary person s who q uote Goe t h e


w ith ou t the c o ntext should remember t hat his remark a bo u t ,

miraculous p i ctures bei ng ge nerally b ad w orks o f art ap p li e s


t o H elle n ic i mage worship q uite as m uch as t o Chri s tia n
- .

T here is no doubt that athletic sculpture came do wn fro m


archaic times w ith an ho nourable naturalism o f its o wn o r ,

that it was one o f the orig inal sources o f portra i t Scu lpt u re .

Myron o f E leuthere and Polycleitus o f A rgos both excel le d


in it and in close and brillia n t study o f n ature
,
T he la tte r .

w as thought to have pleas ed the people best ; the for m e r



H e re m e n said ; b ut P he id ias

w rought o ut ,
revealed
Zeus This form ula o f disti ncti on is q uoted in A rat ra
.

P entelici ( p 3 5 ) from L ucia n and there c an be no bette r


.
,
.

P olycleitus is supposed to have written o n sculpture ; and t o


have illustrated his book by the re no wned D o ry phoru s o r
Spearma n an athletic model o f w hich two probable co p i es
,

w ill be fou nd in the British M useum I t remi nds o ne o f .

L eo nardo s Trattato or A lbert D iire r s Proportion s o f t he


'

H uma n Figure Polycleitus worked chiey in bro nze an d


. ,

his w orks have b ee n m e lted i nto oboli to pay mercena ri es ,

i nstead o f b ei ng b urnt i nto li m e to b uild fo rtresses .

A steady popular pre fere nce fo r the athletic o r c o m


m o nly naturalist style marks the perio d o f ti me w h ich e nd e d
-
,

an d succeeded the Pelopo nnesia n War A the ns and h e r .

citi ze ns were cha nged i ndeed from thei r rejoici ng fa ith in


Pallas their Goddess of Victory : they had falle n from h e r
,

and bee n forsake n and could look fo r heroic beauty no more


, .

I t was ti me for Praxiteles ; and no dou b t like E uripides h e , , ,

w as better tha n his ti m e A t all eve n ts if A the ns coul d


.
,

no t rei gn over G reece it saved her from m a ny an a fte r


,

destructio n to be ce ntral acade m y and m useu m o f G reece ;


and in m aki ng her that her citize n s did th eir b est fo r her
, .

E u p h ranor and L ysippus o f Sicyo n co nnect the school o f


Polycleitus w ith the R hodia n sculptors at or a fter th e ,

A lexa ndri ne epoch L ys ipp u s s choice o f athleti c su bj ects



.

did hi m and his art no disho nour But the old view o f t h e .

games as sacred rites o n w hich the gods looked heed ful ly


, ,

w as far out o f date by his t i m e A ll sculp t ure alike h ad .

b ee n s acred to t h e service o f the gods and a part o f t h e ,


TH E E AR L Y D E C A D E N C E .
4 1

decoratio n o f thei r d welli ngs T he earl i er d vdp ia vr ee or


.
,

statues o f athletes were not matter of private o ste ntation ;


,

they w ere dedicated in temples and thought o f as e ig ies ,

of m e n w hom the gods had fa voured who had w o n in ,

ga m es w here N eptu ne it was whispered had o nce bee n


, , ,

s e e n in b odi ly for m The w re stlers toiled and strai ned in


.

h o nour o f thei r gods ; the pa n cratiast hit straight in pio u s ,


d u ty to Zeus ; an d w he n accide nts happe ned as they c on ,

t in u ally did there w as sorro w fo r the su fferers and also for


,

the people : the gods had sho wn displeas ure at their games .

A ll this had d ied out o f mi nd by the e nd o f the fth ce ntury .

L y s ippus see m s t o have m ade as few attempts at the supe r


,

hu m a n as he co u ld help and t o have treated sacred subjects


,

j ust as R u b e ns and Va ndyck did that is t o say as w ell as he ,

could fo r t he sake o f his art and his patro n not thi nki ng there ,

w as m ore in i t tha n in any other form o f good w ork m a nship .

A lexanar ine Ag e to R oma n T ransf erence



.

The school o f L ysippus or o f Polycleitus w as tra ns fe rred


, ,

to R hodes at the e nd o f the A lexandri ne epoch and sho wed ,

w o n der ful vitality in n aturalist o r athletic represe ntatio n It .

is best to speak o f its greater work s only ; more particularly


as th e y are the most commo nly k now n of all statues in
E ngl an d T heir date and authorship is in almost all cases
.

di s puted ; nevertheless they may be take n as represe ntative


o f t h e best e ff orts o f a very w ell i ns tru cted an d taste ful school
-

o f eclectic sculpture A s t o the i n ferior sculpture o f G reek


.

dec ade n ce w e are not particularly co ncerned w ith it as it


, ,

s e parates itsel f to co nti n ually i ncreasi ng dista n ce from the

u nco nscious spirituality o f the P h e id ian w ork and is as far ,

fro m it nally as from the rude C hristia n e fforts o f th e


, ,

rst or o f t h e thi rteenth ce ntury T he earl y Ch urch k new .

n othi ng o f the A rts except that they w ere b o u n d to the


,

service o f idolatry and immoralit y Sh e bega n with humble . ,

almost beautiless symbolisms though she o ft e n borrowed


,

for m s o f do m estic decoratio n whe n free from idolatrous ,

m ea n i ng and made them sacred emblems o f her o wn


,
.

T he w orks and names ge nerally co nnected w ith this third


P i nd ar OI ii 2 7 , . v . .
4 2 GR E E K A ND G OT H I C .

period are w ell k no wn T he warrior o f A gas ias called th e .


,

Fighti ng Gladiator is probably the noblest ; and in t h e ,

O pi nio n of ma ny critics the D yi ng G ladiator or G aul ranks , ,

w ith it Both seem be yo nd the ra nge o f R oman or G re c o


.

R oma n skill eve n in the A ugustan age T h e L aocoo n is


, .

also re ferred t o this period and attributed to A ges an d er , ,

A pollodorus and A th e nd oru s o f R hodes , C asts o f t h e se .


2

works belo ng to every m useum T hey are freque n tly a e c o m .

p an ie d b y a n other male statue some w hat decie n t in li fe b u t , ,

o f yet greater purity and beauty o f form th e origi nal o f w h ich ,

i s still in the L o u vre I t is called the N ude Germa n i c u s .


,

and has bee n supposed to represe n t H erm e s pleadi ng and ,

t o be o f R oma n subject or origi n H o w ever the na m e o f .


,

KA E O M E N E C w h i ch is e ngraved on it see m s to re fer i t to


, ,

the you nger sculptor o f that name w ho ourished at A the ns


-

, ,

w ith G lyc on an d others shortly b e fore the destr u ctio n o f ,

Cori nth by M u m m iu s Glyc o n is the reputed author o f t h e .

Farnese H ercules and the elder C le o m e nes of the Ve nu s d e ,

M edici a so m ew hat u nsatis factory copy o f that o f C nid us by


,

Praxiteles to w hich it sta nds in the same relatio n as th e


A ntiope o f Corregg io to the Ve n u s o f Titia n The o n e .

represen ts b eauty for its o wn sake ; the other beauty fo r ,

the sake o f grosser associations .

These statues w ith the A pollo Belvedere and others abov e , ,

m e ntio ned o f the P rax ite lian epoch form the moder n E ng lis h
, ,

ideal o f sculpture ; and it is some w hat to be regretted tha t


a cou ntry w hich possesses full th ree fourths o f the existi ng -

relics o f the Parthe no n scu lptures should su ffer the pop u la r ,

atte ntio n to b e w ithdraw n fro m th e m I t is i mpossi b le t o .

H e is id d a a Ga l of th ti me of E m n f I gam
co n s ere s wh o u e u e es o

er us,

ov re c am th G alati an C l t i i mm i g ant
e e f A ia M i n - e c r s o s or .

I t i in d i p t wh th
3
s th l pt of th La n had ad th z d b k
s u e e er e sc u or e o c oo re e u oo

o f t he E Id o V i gil h ad
l C en th e g
,
p o f the La n I t i a typ ic al
r r se ro u o c oo . s

wo k ( at l ea t a t it
r nt al g
s ) in e
s p e t
o o f ac ad e m i k ill
s ce n d xe u
r u re r s c c s , re e e c

t i n and d g ad e d m t i
o ,
and e xp
e r i n Se man ay ( Gett a d H n
o ve re s s o . e s s er n eroe ,

p 348 ) that th i gh t a m has b en w ngly est ed and h ld t b t gg ling


. e r r e ro r or , s ou no e s ru

w i th th nak b t g a ping the bac k f th h ead in ag ny


e s e, u r s Th i W th th pen o e o . s, i e o

m th ee m t I I Y L ing hy p th si th at the h e i o ly ighi ng and



ou s IO es : s o e s, ro s n s
'

, s o ( C s
,

n t
o oc i f ati n
v
g B t t
er h at g at c i t i . m a k un th l at i ns f pai n t i nre
g r c s

re r s o e re o o

and poet y a e th l
r al abl e
r n th at a c
n on e t D i co
e d 1 5 06 nea t he
ess v u o c o un . s v e re , r

B ath f Ti t
s o and n w in th V at ican
us , o e .
THE E AR L Y D E CAD E N C E .
43

hope fo r success in any expostulatio n w ith the public taste


fo r sculpture chiey b ecause n o such really publ ic or popular
,

taste exists N evertheless the lgi n marbles that is to


. E ,

say the metopes o f th e Parthe no n the frieze o f i ts cella and


, , ,

various colossal gures from its pedi me nts are in the British ,

M useum With th em are the marble relie fs of the temple


.

N ike A pt e ros later tha n P h e id ias but full o f the spirit o f h is


, ,

s chool . Further t here are good casts from the external and
,

i nternal sculpture o f th e T emple of Theseus and nally the


re m ai n i ng origi nals o f the P higalean marbles in pa rt repeti ,

t io ns o f the w orks o f the A ttic temples though by you nger ,

ha nds I f these models be no t su f c ie nt to gu ide the studies


.

o f a great school o f glyptic art no others ever c an create o ne ,

in E ngla n d But cli mate and associations must for ever tell
.

heavily agai nst o ne The physical and moral atmosphere o f


.

R ome and Flore n ce are full o f the arts of the past and till both ,

c ities are nally and completely vulgarised hich good ork


( w w
is proceedi ng w ith great rapidity) it w ill be eas i er to most
m e n to w ork at pai nti ng or sculpture in either tha n in L o ndo n ,

or in E nglan d H ar m less pleas ures of eye and ear the sight


.
,

o f mou n tai ns an d falli ng w aters the si mple and si ncere ,

delights o f su nset and s u nrise over sky u npolluted and la nd


u nd e le d the co m pany o f m en devoted honourabl y and
avo w edly to art n ot ashamed o f thei r w ork ; th e da ily sight
,

o f great relics o f the past w hich really prove the possibility ,

o f history and the reality o f a n cie n t days th ese aids or ,

m os t o f them are n ecessary to th e historical a rtist s li fe


'

, ,

u nle s s he be i ndeed o f the so ns o f giants A nd those w ho .


,

l ike Blake T ur ner or H olman H u nt prevail agai nst all


, , ,

o ppositio n an d over all di f cult y su ffer neve rtheless in their ,

vi c tory and produce not w hat they wo u ld have do ne but


, ,

w hat their fate per m its them .

The w orks o f P h e id ias are in L ondo n how ever and it is , ,

b etter fo r the stude nt to labour at them daily than to w a nd e r


from athlete to Fau n and from N ymph to A phrod ite o r , ,

ru n through m iles o f seco n d rate sculpture I t is not that -


.

the later w orks are no t most beauti ful ; but he w ill learn
m ost by goi ng to the ach i eveme nts o f the gre at master ,

w ithout w hom they would no t have bee n what they are .


44 GR E E K A ND GOT H I C

We cannot de ne Purit y here : we c a nno t tell the p u bli c


what we mean b y Breadth : nobod y i s agreed as to t h e
m ea n i ng o f the w ord L ife A ctio n H armo ny R e p os e .
, , .

Si ncerity ep vdp ca xdp t s are simple ideas and u nd e n


, , , ,

able .Superiority in respect o f some o f these q ual i ties d is


t ing uish es th e P h e id ian sculpt u re fro m o ther w orks ; but fu l l
u ndersta nd i ng or appreciat i o n o f them c an hardl y be le arnt

w ithout accurate dra w i ng w hich w e ear nestl y comme nd t o ,

our readers Fo r the draughtsman success ful or u nsucces s fu l


. , .

at least sees a statue full y and thoroughly and to a de gree ,

o f w h ich t h e u npractical critic never has o r c an have an


y
i dea till h e h imsel f becomes a drau g htsma n
, .

The w onder ful vital it y and fert ility o f all the G reek school s
o f art w il l be n oticed herea fter in ou r chapter o n R o m e .

Pro fessor Maha ffy says i t is a fact w h i ch he thi nk s will n eve r


be expla i ned ; b ut his ow n accou nt o f the leisure o f G re e k
li fe seems to t h ro w m uch light o n it H o wever R oma n art .
,

is an e x press i o n w hich c an o nly be us e d u nder protest and ,

w ith expla nat i o n si nce eve n do w n to the middle ages R o m e


was rather the p atro ness and great ce ntral galler y o f I t aly ,

tha n the seat o f an act ual and livi ng sch ool o f art ; and
eve n now her attractio ns to the artist are chie y histori ca l
and social ; though o ne must add those o f cheap pleasa nt ,

livi ng freedom or laxity o f co nduct appreciati ng society


, , ,

freq ue nc y o f patro ns and the easy w ay t o w hat i s calle d an


,

E uropea n reputatio n .

But the vitality o f G ree k art is the livi ng pri nciple o f all
art I t m ea ns in fact delighted study o f the w ork o f god s
.
, ,

k no wn o r u nk nown I n spite o f se nsuous frailt ies someti m es


.
,

more in the eye o f the gazer tha n in the m i nd o f the sculptor ,

the G reek was capab le o f seei ng fair form and colour w it h


delight fo r many a ce ntury o f natio nal depe nde nce or servi
tude T he R oma n was too great a pl u n derer to be a w ork
.

man or scholar I t was easier to imp o rt sculpture and


.

pai nti ngs than to learn to produce them o nesel f Very m u ch .

the same phenomeno n is observable in the practical A m erican


v i e w o f literature w hich c an hardly get re m u nerated in N e w
,

Y ork b ecause it is obta i nabl e b y every m ail from L o ndo n o n


,

gratuitous terms .
THE E AR L Y D E CA D E N C E .
45

O ne further expla natio n or j usticatio n may e nd thes e


remarks o n epochs o f Greek sculpt u re I t was necessary to .

call atte ntio n to the religious origi n and motives o f all early
G ree k sculpture because t he impress i o n has bee n spread
,

abroad that it is essent i ally i mmoral and a nti t h eistic B u t -


.

though from the earliest days to the prese nt A rt has m i n istered


t o R eligio n there is no doubt that modern t i mes have sepa
,

rated them o r that A rt has falle n from her reasonable se rvice


, .

The Chri s tia n Fa i th can i ndeed d o without her ; and no doubt


ma ny good Christia ns thi n k it ou gh t t o be so Purita n .

rel igio n is per fectl y u nq uestio nab le and where it pred o m i ,

n ates the highest w ork o f art certai nl y never appears What .

w e assert is that in a n cie n t G reece and elsewhere me n s


, ,

aspiratio ns co ncerni ng their gods i nsp i red their highest


atte m pts in art : that i nsti ncts methods and tradition s o f , ,

architecture sculpture and pai nti ng pas se d from G reece


, , ,

t h rough R ome and Byza ntium to the C hr i stia n C hurch : that ,

Chri s ti an m e n for ma ny centuries have cared greatly for


art istic ex press i o n or sy mbolism o f spiritual thi ngs ; that
m a ny o f the greatest w ork s o f Italy and t h e N o rt h have bee n
produced accordi ngly : that such prod uct i on will al ways be
attempted till the spiritual aspi ratio ns o f a race are e x t inc t :

an d that then A rt w i ll fa ll back on m ateria l o r se nsual

i m pulses and so peri sh o r su s tai n a cha nge w hich w i ll


, ,

re nder her in our v i e w a bad thi ng and not a good o ne


, , .

Fu rther w e w ish to i llustrate the connect i o n o f G reek and


,

Gothic art not o nl y b y historical success i o n o r i nheri t a nce ,

o f m odels and tech n i q ue but by the g reat pri ncip le o f study


,

fro m nature and faith ful ness to co n crete Beauty as fou n d


,

and o b served in all thi ngs in their places in G od s creatio n



.

A s the Books o f H is Wi ll fo r us have come to us throug h


G reek la nguage o f l etters s o the study o f H is Book o f ,

N ature has bee n delivered t o us th rough G reek la nguage o f


symbol For the G ree k havi ng o nly th e boo k o f N ature
.
,

ope n to h im read therei n so faith full y that in m a n y respects


, ,

he is still apt t o teach the C hrist i a n a rt i st to stud y N ature


a fter h im .
C H A PT E R IV .

P A I N TI NG .

T HE begi nni ng o f A ratra P entelic i contai ns o ne o f t h e


best classicatio ns o f the three arts w ith w hich I am
acq uai nted as far as that c an be do ne by givi ng the b road e s t
,

yet most accurate accou nt o f w hat w e reall y mea n by th e


w ords architecture sculpture and pai nti ng
,
We have si m p ly
,
.


three d ivisio ns o f art o ne that o f givi ng colours t o substa n c e ;
,

a nother that o f givi ng form t o substa nce w ithout q u estio n o f


, ,

resista nce to force the third that o f givi ng such form o r p o s i


,

t io n t o substa n ce as w ill make it best capable o f such resi s t


a nce T h ere is pai nti ng o n canvas and o n chi na and o n ho u s e
.
, ,

w alls ; there is sculpture o f carvi ng and hammeri ng an d , ,

chiselli ng and casti ng ; there is architecture o r buildi ng u p o f


,

palaces ploughshares b ig and litt le gu ns and the lo fty rhy m e


, , ,

the latter to resist criticism and Time Milto n s use o f t h e .


w ord build sho ws h ow he exte nded its ra nge over all proces s e s
o f co n structio n or eve n compositio n ; and I have heard h is
,

m ute and i nglorious cou ntryme n talk excusably o f b uil d i ng

a puddi ng or a pair o f boots The n w he never you redu c e a


.
,

shapeless m ass o f matter to a shape that is sculpture w he n ,

ever you d is po sc co lours in per m a ne nt relatio n o n or in a


solid substa nce you are pai nti ng and m uch m ore t o th e sa m e
,

,

excelle nt pu rpose : particularly the tw o i m porta nt o b serva


tio ns ( 1 ) that ge nerally speaki ng pai nti ng and sculptu re
, ,

are imitative and archit e cture m erely use ful ; and ( 2 ) th at


sculpture and pai nti ng as imitative operatio ns for m in p art
, ,
.

G la tape t y ss or s r .
4 s GR E E K A ND G OT H I C .

a fter wards rub ri ca or red ochre were the materi als T h e re ,


-
,
.

are four a ncie nt mo nochromes in the M useo Borb o n ic o


at N aples gured in L e A nt ich ita d E rcolano v o l i

. .
, , ,

plates 1 2 3 4 , , , .

So begi ns a native sch oo l o f art in G reece or a nyw h e r e ,

else ; but as o ne race learns from a nother and tak es p o s ,

session o f previous discovery as a matter o f cou rs e such p ro ,

gress is not o fte n traceable from the begi nni ng T h e G re e k s .

no doubt lea rnt somethi ng o f n e sur face bas relie f fr o m -

E gypt ; and w ith it much use o f colour o n sculptu re an d ,

o n the at T hey certai n l y ti nted or brought colour i nt o bas


.
, ,

relie fs and stat u es T hey ti nted the Pa nathe naic pro c e ss io n.

in the Parthe no n that w as or at its height it told as p ai n ti ng , ,

acce nted b y projectio n or sculpture A fte rwards they m ad e .

beauti ful little coloured statuettes at T a nagra and else w h e re ; ,

t hat w as sculpture acce n ted by pai nti ng The thi ng w as t o .

get relie f or proj ectio n i nto pai nti ng o n the at in d iff ere nt ,

colours I t w as easy to step fro m mo nochrome to at p o l y


.

chrome and the fu rther steps o f co m bi ni ng varied colo u r w i th


light and shade o f getti ng the right light and s hade in e ac h
hue and the re ected lights w hich vary both shade and c ol o u r
, ,

are the propert y o f t he H elle n ic rac e O utli ne in polyc h ro m e .

w ithout much light and shade th e y had e ndless an d v e ry ,

n o b le e x amples o f in E gypt Such i nstructio n ma y h av e


, .

bee n co nveyed throu gh the I o nia n and Caria n a u x ilia rie s o f


P s am m e t ic h u s early in the sixth ce ntu ry D C
, But X o an a . .

or archaic i m ages o f the gods must have bee n pai nted l o n g


be fore and the great co m bi natio ns o f the e e c t o f sculpt u re
'

an d at pai nti ng w hich g o to make a gra nd historical pai n ti n g ,

see m to begi n fro m the wo rks o f Polygnotus .

With him pai nti ng w as adva nced to the serv ice o f the g o ds ,

and to the w ork o f n atio nal record and comme m oratio n k ept ,

al wa ys in the temples o f the gods H e pai nted the tal e o f .

Troy in the L esche or public portico o f D elphi ; pe o ple ,

thought his draperies beauti ful ; and his Cassa ndra bl ushed
del ight fully} H e also pai nted in the Te m ple o f Theseu s at
l

For the Le h at D el phi th e e i a m st int ti ng a t i l


sc e , r s o e res r c e, w t i h ill u ~ t rat io ns

wort he ve n m t han e b al d c i pt i on b y th
o re d it
v r f th C l es r , e e or o e ass ical d im m ers.

Vol i ,
. . Pa ke r r, 185 1 .
P AIN T I N G .
49

A the ns , took his share in the pa nel pai nti ngs agai nst th e
an d

lo ng wall o f the Stoa Pe cil o or Pai nted Colo nnade in the , ,

sa m e city ; also at Plate a and T hespie H e an d M ic on ma y .

have worked w ith P ane nu s on the re no wned Battle o f


Marathon in the P e c ile .

A nd as w e have be fore i ndulged in compari sons betw ee n the


G reek cities o f the Peloponnesia n War and the M u nicipia o f
N orthern I tal y in their C h ristian medi e val form and p e riod
,
-
,

and so far brought G reek and G oth or N o rth m an together ,

w e m ay go o n to atte m pt some ki nd o f parallelism be t wee n


the Campo Sa nto o f Pisa and the P e c ile o f A thens T hey .

have like ness e nough as galle ries of great works o f nati ve


pai nters and Polygnotus M ic on and P ane nus may sta nd over
, , ,

agai nst Giotto Orcagna and Benozzo Goz z oli By what we


, ,
.

k now o f their execution P ol ygnotus in his latest time must , , ,

have been somethi ng like Orcagna more like G iotto in his ,

earliest H e was o f the old H ome ri c type o f an cient pa inti ng


.
,

as m en said in Pli ny s time and pai nted wi th sacred o r his

t o rical motive or no t at all H e represents as Mr Wom u m


, .
, .

says the essential s tyle of pai nti ng : his s ubj ect s are gods and
,
'

heroes li ke P heid ias s he rep res ents the rs t of M r Wom um s


,

.

three e ras o f G reek pai nti ng th ose o f developm ent o f estab , ,

,

lis h m e n t and o f re ne m e nt sa y B C 600 400 340 . . .

The sketches o f P rogres s and D ecadence in E pochs of


P aint ing coi ncide full y w i th Pro fe ss or R usk i n s v i ews e x

,

pres sed in A ratra P entelic i and e lsewh ere Greek and Gothic .

art have both ali k e their peri ods of spiritual and lo fty aim of ,

n aturalism and realism and o f lost ai m and materi alism ,


.

D isti nctio ns bet wee n religious and moral art and art de ,

scriba b le by the co rrespondi ng negatives are no moder n ,

pietis m but as old as the critics of P he id ias and his succes


,

sors Polygnotus is the pai nter of morals or character axyaOcis



.
,

H e may have b ee n neare r the ce ntral school o f


Flore nce in his po wer o f draw ing and I believe Mr W o m u m , .

sa ys he is related to the Alexandri ne artists as Bott ic ell i to


the C aracci at Bologna P ane nu s the nephe w o f P he id ias .
, ,

For the C nidians, he pai nt s in the Le chs e the fall of Troy , the p reparat ons i
for return, and the vis it of Ul ysses to the Shad es .


i
Ar s totle, P o et . vi .
5 0 GR E E K A N D GOT H I C .

i s compared to H olbei n fo r kee nness o f observat i o n and


record B ut as i t is certa i n that Polyg notus compo s e d h is
.

pictures w ithout perspective or elaborate or natural g ro u p i ng


,

o nly in parallel li nes the nearer at bottom and t h e m o re


, ,

dista nt at top I sho uld thi nk it better to compare h is w o rk


,

w i t h those I talia n pictures which still displa y so m e c o n


s id e rable archaism M uch is said a bout the archi tec t u ral
.

bala nce o f his compositio ns w ith equal numbers o n e ac h


,

s ide ; perha p s with like ness or a nalogy to the w o rk s o f


G iotto at A ssisi The great work o f the P e c ile w as c e rt ain ly
.

the Battle o f Maratho n ; a rather curious i nsta nce o f a p e rfe c tly


historical combat w ith ma ny mythic episodes o f it s o w n ,

believed b y co ntemporaries and actors in the very ev e nt .

T h e hero E c he t lus had appeared quelli ng the Pe rsia n r an ks


,

w ith his ploughshare a hostile shado w had bee n a m o ng the


A t he nia ns all covered w ith its shado w y beard slayi ng and
, ,

striki ng bli nd ; and E p iz e lu s o f A thens who saw it fel l h is ,

right hand m an never s aw on earth agai n


-
, P an h ad .

appeared to Phidippides the ru nn er P h oeb u s A poll o h ad


.

de fended his own D elphi in perso n and se nt stor m and ,

earthquake rui n an d m ad ness o n the Mede D emarat u s the


, , .

Sparta n had told o f his vision in the T h rias ian plai n h ow the ,

w o nted revel o f D io nysus we nt fro m A the ns to E leusis at its


time though A the ns was in ashes and E le u sis and all the
,

la nd u nder the Persian spoiler N either m an no r woma n w as


.

le ft to w ait upo n the god but the dust cloud o f his pro c es -

sio n set fo rward all the same w ith the cry o f the m ysti c
,

I acchus ; and turn ed as ide to brood a bove the m a s t s of



Salamis . A ll this was cert ai nl y believed by m e n w ho h ad
fought at Salamis ; that is to say they repeated the t a le to ,

each other and it seemed likely e nou gh no t a thi ng t o be


, ,

questio ned bu t cheerfully accepted by m e n employe d in


, ,

maki ng history i nstead o f a nalysi ng it and in doi ng g reat ,

deeds rather tha n i nvestigati ng their ow n me ntal operatio ns .

Such belie f was a part o f their triumph Go d had cert a i nl y .


,

and beyo nd all ma nner o f doubt bee n w ith A the ns ; an d no,

A the nia n could fo r the li fe o f him see any absurdit y in h is


havi ng been prese nt in the shape o f E c hetlu s or u nd e r the
veil o f a cloud o f dust .
P A IN T I N G .
5 :

The R oma ns o t the earliest R epublic in the same c en ,

tu ry w ere scarcely in fact idolaters and had not s o


, , , ,

ready or varied a belie f as the G reeks in the local mytho


logy o f w oods and rivers But they had heard th eir .

Sylva n cry from the w ood that R ome had w on by a si ngle


death and were glad t o thi nk the t w i n so ns o f L eda had
,

fough t be fore the ra nks o f R o m e at R egillus T heirs was .

n o t the faith o f ho n est doubt no w so much pre ferred b ut o f ,

ho nest occupatio n in other w ork tha n doubt O ne cannot .

de n y the coge ncy o f L ord Macaulay s parallel of the appear

a nce o f St James o n a gra y horse at the head o f the a rra y o f


.

Cortez and he re m ark s that the age in w hich that ( lie I am ,

a fraid is his expressio n) was pri nted was one o f pri nti ng
,

,

pre sses libraries u niversities scholars logicians j urists and


, , , , , ,

statesme n But w orthy Bem al D iaz he says wh o w rote
.
, ,

an accou n t o f the expeditio n believed in the appearan ce ,

agai nst his ow n se nses H e sa ys that he w as in the battle .


,

an d that he s aw a gray horse w ith a m an o n his back but


that the m an w as to his thi nki ng Fra ncesco d e Morla and
, , ,

n o t Sa n tiago N evertheless Be m al add s it may be that


.
, ,

the perso n on the gray horse was the glorious apostle Sai nt
J ames and that I si n ner that I am was u nw orth y to see
, , ,

him .

Be m al D iaz probabl y kne w o f a ch urch orga nisation
called the I nquisitio n and its c e nsorship o f sceptical historia ns
,

but in his ti m e such a narrat ive seriousl y related in pri nt no t ,

by h im in the rst i nsta n ce but b y a chaplai n o f Cortez seems , ,

to have had an element o f falsehood or o f reckless ness o f truth , ,

about it w hich ca nnot be imputed to either Greek or R oma n


,

w arriors H eathe n miracles w ere no t in fact made evidences


.
, ,

o f religio n or applied to prove dogma ; they were though t


,

rather li kely thi ngs but they followed from the G ree k pan
,

theism o f nature I f there were divi ne bei ngs all about they
.
,

w ould probably do superhuman thi ng s ; and people w ho s aw


them would w o nder i e call what they saw miraculous or , . .

w o n der ful Bernal D iaz was in error or illogical in believi ng


.
, ,

in an a nthropomorphic po ssibility o f sai n ts retur ned to the


bo dy ; but if such bei ngs are allowed to exist and come on earth ,

V arro, M
0 St Augustine, D e C ir) D ei, iv
. . . c .

In L ays f
o A nc ient R ome, 8 9, ed 1 84 7 p . . .

E 2
5 2 GR E E K A ND GO T H I C .

there is no wo nder at their bestridi ng g ray horses and deali n g


dry blows .

We are not told what Cortez thought o f the appeara nc e


o f Sa ntiago nor if Peri cles said a nythi ng about the pha ntoms
,

o f Maratho n o r Sala m is H e pro b ably quoted H omer and


.
,

reected how P eisistratus had brought the beauti fu l and


giga ntic Phya w ith him dressed and armed like A thene o n ,

o ne o f h i s re e ntra nces i n to the A cropolis But it w as as


-
.

natural to those who believed o r delighted in imagi n i ng ,

these w o nde rs to rep resent t hem in the temples as to fth


, ,

ce ntury Christ i a ns to do the early Old T estament mosaics


o f Sa nta Mar ia Maggiore at R ome o r o f S Vitale at , .

R ave nna in the next cen tury H istory repeats itsel f because .
,

the same great human impulses are pri nciples o f action in all
ages H istory never repeats itsel f w i th out cha nge for those
.
,

pri nciples work o n di fferent m e n and u nder d ie rent circum


'

sta nces Wh at the E gyptia n pai n ters did the Greek o f


.
,

A the ns and the Greek o f Byza nti um and the R oma n o f


the a ge of A laric and the L ombard o f the age o f D a nte all
d id a fter their fashio n They w rote upo n their walls th e
, .

thi ngs they thought best w orth telli ng in the stro ngest nar ,

rat ive la nguage they k n ew in sharp for m and pure colour


, .

E gyptia n work had go ne be fore o n the same roa d I t had .

been chie y record o f co nq uest in h as relie f w ith col o ur o r ,


-

w ithout and in colour relieved or u nrelieved


, It had repre .

se nted its gods as prese nt amo ng the labou rs and the stri fe o f
m en . Still i ts o nl y o bject had been pure record ; it was not
al ways in sw i ft progress of skill beauty and i nterest li k e the , , ,

G reek ; i t had no t the emotio nal attempt at be auty in reli


g io u s expressio n w hich the Christia ns made fo r ce n turies an d ,

at las t with such great results a fter they had lea rnt the lesso ns ,

o f earlier ages I t had its own subli mity and beauty but was
.
,

s te m l li mited by co n ve ntio nal aim and rule It n ever


y .

sought artistic beauty fo r its o w n sake A ll E gy ptian


pictures says M r Wom u m
,

appear to be si mple records
.
, ,

social superstitious o r political E gypt ia n pa inti ng was more


, ,


a symbolic w riti ng tha n a liberal art in a word a coloured ,

hieroglyph Perhaps t h e traditio nal pictures of j udgme nt and


.
,

'
H dt . r
. 60 .
P AI N T I N G .
53

t he sy mbolic (not really represe nted ) prese nce o f their gods


may be considered w ork o f high er aim but at all events the

s tan dard o f tech n i q ue was u n fairly and hopelessl y k ept dow n .

See Pli ny s H is t N at xxxv 5 1 5 See also R a w li nso n s



-
. . . .

H erod otus vol ii p 2 9 2 t o t he follo w i ng e ec t :


'

, . . . Pai nters
,

and sculpto rs w ere forbidden to i ntrod u ce any cha nge or i n no

vation whatever i nto the practice of their respective arts or in ,

any way to ad d to them T he practice o f E gyptia n artists .

was thu s u ni form from ge neratio n to ge neratio n We learn .

also fro m Syne s iu s that it was co ns i dered a n ecessary system

t h at pai nti ng and sculpture shou ld n ot be practised by i llite


rate p e opl e lest they s hould attempt a nythi ng co nt ra ry to the
,

es tabli sh ed order of sac red thi ngs amo ng w hi c h the re presen ,



tat ions o f the gods w ere c ertai nl y o f the rst i mporta n ce .

H owe ver as various an imal s were specially symbolic o f deity


, ,

i t may be s upposed that great skill and force o f character


wo u ld be attai ne d in th e outli ne dra w i ng o f s u ch creatures ; -

s i nce pra ct ically nothi ng more tha n outli ne w as allow ed

an d ac co rdi ngl y E gyp tia n outli ne is o ften po w erful in the



e x tre me A m an w ould be li k ely to draw a haw k or
,

an ib is w ell wh o believed that Go d w as in the ha w k or


,

th e ibi s .

H ow s trange i t se ems that both in pai nti ng and sculpture


the wo rk o f E gy pt sho u ld remai n in greater per fect io n at s o
far greate r an age tha n that o f G reece I t was a tech nical .

nece ss i ty t hat the imperi shable gra nites and porphyries (as

we shall se e hereafter) should be cut i nto co nve ntio nal an d


c h ange les s and t here fore almost imperishable forms ; and

they re ma in in u nq uestioned order while the marble of ,

Ph i d ias is in piteous fragme nts and t he work of Polygnotus ,

is l ost and c o njecturally compared to that o f all Flore nti nes


,

from C i m ab u e to San dro Botticelli .

A t all e ven t s about B C 400 and partly it ma y be w ith


, . .
, , ,

P ane n us a tim e of more sculpturesque pow er in pai n ti ng


,
.

began with more vigorous proj ectio n b y mea ns o f greater


,

re ne me nt o f ligh t and shade I pre fer to speak o f re ne .

ment rat her tha n force in G ree k C hiaroscuro because w e ,

Wom um , p
39, and ersonal ob servation of
. p bi rd s in the H eliopo litan ik
obel s

and in the D esert of Sinai, at ad y M agh arah W .


54 GR E E K A ND G OT H I C .

mode m s associate the idea o f force in li ght and shade w it h


a R embrandtesq ue style totall y alien from all G ree k pri n ciples
o f temple decoratio n
- But tow ards th e end o f the fth
.

century B C correct and vi g orous draw i ng s eems to have


. .

ta ken the place o f that atness and low relie f w hich had
hitherto existed in deco rative pai nti ng I t must be remem .

bered that at this time all pai n ti ng w as deco rative adapted to ,

special and pre ordai ned places in public bu ildi ngs and w hich
-
,

the architecture reall y determi ned ; and that power o f s hade


a nd projectio n o f form may have bee n sacriced to decorative

purpose G reat pictu res w ere all public property adapted to


.
,

great buildi ngs T h e remark made above as to shallow bas


.
,

relie f bei ng suitable to i n door or d iu s ed li ghts may apply to


powe rful c hi aroscuro in pai nti ng C ertai nl y no early Gree k.

pai nte r w ould have thought o f deceptive action or ultra ,

n aturalism to impose on the se nses in the decoratio ns o f a ,

t emple. The ti m e for buryi ng i mportant w orks in pri vate


galleries had not arrived nor had the pro fessed collector made
,

h is portentous appeara n ce betw ee n P e ire u s and Mars H ill .

A nd as pict ures were valued n ot o nl y in relat i o n t o their


subjects (though from the cho ic e o f gra nd mot i ves one can
, ,

see that w e nt rst ) but viewed also primaril y as pieces o f


,

colour decoratio n subordi nate to ge neral e ec t o f colour it is


'

-
, ,

probable that their hues w ere kept al ways light in to ne o r at ,

l east o n a very eve n scale o f light and shade Pol ygn ot u s and .

P ane n u s appear to have made no attempts at illusion or


at projecti ng their gures ou t o f their frames rightly pre ,

ferri ng that thei r pict u res should loo k like pi ct u res and th ei r ,

heroes co nti nue in their proper places o n the walls .

A pollodoru s o f A the ns ( born about 460) was accord i ng t o ,

Plutarch the i nve ntor of to ne or the rst great master o f


, ,

light and shade wh o observed and recorded reected lights ,

and also th e reectio ns o f colour w hich they i n volve si nce ,

light al wa ys partakes in some slight d egree o f th e hues o f the


obj ect fro m which it is retur ned Previous pai nters had .

gradated simply b y d imi nishi ng light o r addi ng shade ;


A pollodorus cha nged and gradated the colour also with
the shadow H e nce his shado ws had a truth an d pow er
.

o f represe n tatio n which as Philemo n H olla nd s P liny says

, ,
5 6 GR E E K A N D GOT H I C .

subj ect . H e avoided says the i nge nious dialog is t such , ,

vul gar or hackneyed subjects as gods heroes or battles , , ,

and al ways selected somethi ng new and u nattempted ;


then follow s a descr ipt i o n o f th e far fa m ed C entau res s o f -
,

wh i ch he s aw a copy at A the ns the origi nal havi ng bee n lost ,

at sea o n its way to R ome whither it had been se nt by ,

Sulla . T he li ne which Zeuxis and A pollodorus w ere ac cus


to med t o w r i te upo n th e ir pictures ma y apply fairly to
both ; as t o ma ny g reat m e n and their critics in after
'

days
m p a erai rt : p athos i
; ; p
u a er ar .

P arrh as iu s is said to have bee n Ze u x is s equal or in some

se nse his superior H is great po wer o f li ne is specially d welt


.

o n and there is much co nce rn ing his delicacy o f es h ti n t and


,
-

nish A s he pai nted pictures o f a somewhat abomi nable


.

description one in part icu lar which a fterwards ado rned the
, ,

bedcha m ber o f T iberi us his w orks may be thought to have ,

preceded those o f Zeuxis in the favour of that emperor and his


contempo raries for that reaso n ,
.

T im anth e s s name w ill probably be fo r ever remembered


by his i nge nuity or i ngen uous ness in veili ng his A gamem non
, ,


in the Sacrifice of Iphige nia The a ncie nts says M r .
,

Worn u m have all given the i n cident their u nq ualied ap



,

probatio n but its propriety has bee n questio ned b y several


,

mode rn critics especially by Falco net and Sir Joshua R e y


,

ne ld s
. Fuseli how ever in an elabo rate and excelle nt critique
, ,

has probabl y settled the matter in favour o f the pai nter .


For ever we t rust for th e sak e of all parties


, ,
.

E up o m pus of Sicyo n is the last very disti ngu i shed pai nter
o f this period Fro m Pli ny s a necdote o f him a po we rful
.
,

i ndividuality and open eye fo r natural character and bea u ty


seem to have been his stro ng poi n ts and his po w ers ex ten ded ,

over sculpture as w ell as pai nti ng H e is said to have .

told the you ng L ysippus who asked him w hom he should ,

choose as his model to loo k abroad o n th e crowd h e saw,

about them and mak e nature his model not an art i st


, , .

The very same advice has been give n or follo wed by good
artists through all the i nterveni ng time and may be summ ed ,
P AI N T I N G .
57

up in the Slad e Pro fessor s adv i ce in T he T wo P aths

not o n ly t o cop y R a fae l but t o study N ature as R a fael ,

studied her .

T he names o f A pelles P amphilus o f A mphipolis Protogen es


, , ,

N ico m ac h u s and A ristides P aus ias o f Sicy on N ici as o f A th e ns


, , , ,

E uph ranes A t henion and T heo n are ch ie f in the A lexa ndri ne


, , ,

p e riod o f pain ti ng (say 34 0 w hich correspo n ds w ith ,

strict a nal ogy o f motive and obj ect to the seventee nth ,

ce nt u ry sch ools of the I tali an R e naissa nce It seems as if .

the bes t peri od s o f the Florentine R oman sc h ool s tood in


t he same rela tio n to the Bolognese and late Ve net i a n ( a fter
Vero nese) as A pollodorus or perhaps Zeu x is to A pell es , , ,

t hou gh th e latter probably po ssessed m u ch o f the pow er o f


Vero nese It is si ng ular th at we should have t estimo ny
.

so decided as A ristotle s ( Poet



vi supra) on P olygnot us s

. .
,

po wer of ch aracter and g ra ti fyi ng to nd so great a ,

thi nker thus givi ng ev i de nce in favour o f high thought A t .

all eve nts the d evelopment o f decay o f Greek pai nt i ng as


, ,

o f scu lptu re is pa ralle l w ith the progress good or evil of


, , ,

G ree k character Begi nni ng w ith aspi ratio n and great ach i eve
.

me nt it e nds w i th i ngen uit y the endless m ul tipl i cation of


, ,

ordi nary work s and the production o f ve ry e x traord i nary o nes


, .

H aving d i ctated not arts o nly but law t o R o me the G ree k ,

bec omes her pedagogue scholi ast art istic m in i ster of luxury , , ,

and worse Y e t fo r all that while art e x ists he is its master


.
, , ,

and in pro c ess o f time G ree k han ds in their extreme o f ,

wea kness w ere o nce more stre ngthe ne d by the Christia n


,

Fa i th to show T euto nic students the way the i r u ntrai ned


,

strengt h c ould not tread ; to the a ncie nt study o f Beau ty in


natu re to th e g lory o f the L ord o f nature
,
.

T he d i smal t itl e of wrap ro ypdcpoe seems to have bee n earned i

by P arrhas iu s rst of the great pa i nters but it was applied


, ,

a lso to A ristides Pa u sa nias and others That this k i nd o f


, , .

pa inting should have been a regular bra nch o f art is no t to be


wo nd e re d at in the Ptolem e a n period or that o f the R oma n
co nq u es t of C ori nth ; but the frequ en t pract i ce o f such
work and that by great m e n show s an exact parallel i sm o f
, ,

dec l ine betwee n th e Greek and modern schools T he falli ng .

off is not at rst in tech nicalities they rath er adva nc e for ,

W o m um , p . 1 09 .
5 8 GR E E K A N D GOT H I C .

t he y monopolise the attent io n of th e a rt ist i t is the spir i t o f


art which departs M en ca nnot long be creative or poetic
.

about bodily passio n because it o nly re peats i tsel f and palls


, ,

by law of nature The i nspiration o f art is the spri ng o f


.

art and soo ner or later m en o f honour and spirit ual feeli ng
,

beco m e aware that art is purs u ing the worthl ess T hey the n .

declare art itsel f w orthless Such was th e P u rita n fee li ng .


,

w hi c h rst displayed itsel f amo ng ourselves o n a gra nd scale


whe n C rom w ell dispersed the collectio ns o f Charles I I t had .

appeared be fore in Ital y in Savo narola s holoc austs o f va nities


,

at Flore nce when many pictures were co nsumed as w e are


, ,

i nformed and probably few much regretted Similar causes


, .
,

physical and spir i tual produce similar e e c ts in di fferent ages


'

and places The n ames o f A pelles and Protogenes how ever


.
, ,

are not i ncluded in the dreary list o f pai nters o f shame Both .

doubtless represented the n ude but they may have prevailed ,

over its temptations and da ngers b y glow o f colour as ,

G iorgion e ; or b y force o f overmasteri ng and re n i ng beauty ,

like T itia n ; or may have risen above the m in a chariot o f


re like T intore t They are not named as m en who gave
, .

place to the devil in lo w or foul i ntent Pli ny makes A pelles .

his represe ntative pai n ter The xdp t c o r grace o f his works
.
, ,

seem s to imply perfect e x ecut io n and exact eve nness o f nish


as w ell as skill in w ork i ng out detail ; and he k new w he n to

leave o ff For A pelles beholdi ng w istly upo n a time
.
, ,


says Phile m o n H olla nd fo r Pli ny a peece o f w ork o f P ro ,

toge nes his doi ng w herei n hee s aw there w as i n nite pai n es


,

taken admiri ng also the exceedi ng c u rios it ie o f the m an in


,

each poi nt beyo nd all measure hee co nfessed and said That , ,

Protogenes in eve ry thi ng els had do ne as well as he h im se lfe


could have do ne yea and better too But in o ne thi ng he
, , .

surpa ssed Protoge nes fo r that he [ P ] could not skill o f layi ng


, .

w ork e out o f his ha nd whe n it was n i shed w ell yno u gh


, a
memorable admo nitio n teachi ng us all T hat double dilige nce
, ,


and overmuch c u rios it ie doth hurt otherw hiles .

The anecdote o f the contest o f li nes bet w ee n A pelles and



Protogenes remi nds us o f R a fael s prese nt to D iire r sho w

ing his ha nd and o f the latter s display o f his sk i ll in



draw i ng a lock o f hair fo r Belli ni o r indeed o f G iotto s
O (a circl e draw n w ith the brush to sho w his s k ill )
. T h at .
P AIN T I N G .
59

of the grapes cu rtai n o f Protoge nes pa i nti ng o f the


and ,

foam an d o f the cobbler w hose advi ce A pelles follow ed o n


,

shoes bu t rej ected o n legs w ith the Gree k eq uivalent o f the


, ,

proverbi al N e s ntor ultra crepidam are not very i mporta n t


, ,

a rt istic trad itio ns but A pelles purch ase of Protogenes neg

le c ted works for fty talents to show the R h od i a ns t he high ,

value he attach ed to his rival s pictu res places his character in

the happiest li ght H is great succes s in portrai t and the fact


.

o f h is bei ng A le x a nder s favourite have perhaps co ntributed


in so me de g ree to his pri macy among pai nters but our list o f
Gre e k work men need be carried no furt h er We have said .

so methi ng o f t he rst rise and fall of art in sculpture and ,

pai nti ng : at rst in a certai n reaso nable subordi natio n to


architecture : th en i ndepe ndently o f it T h e progress o f .

architecture from beauty to power is best seen in R ome ;


, ,

as R oman additio ns and modicatio ns had so much to do

w i th it . Th e fall of R ome t ra ns fers th e seeds and germs


of art to the keepi ng o f th e Christia n C h urch fo r the be net

o f t he T e u toni c races A few further notes o f resembla n ce


.

betw een the spir i t and conseque nt pro gress of Greek and L om ,

bard or N orth e rn art may be added here and may perhaps


, ,

be fou nd suggestive as to compariso n of li fe and habits ,

be tween the great artistic periods and races and o u r own .

I n the rst place every buildi n g erected fo r bea u ty or fo r


,

solem n pu rpose o r publi c assemblage was conside red


,
-
,

inco m plete b y Gree k or L ombard N orma n and Germa n


, , , ,

u nl es s i t w ere adorned and adorned all over w i th sculptures


, ,

and pai n ti ng sui table to its architecture and desig ned in ,

accorda nce w ith that and there fore with the purpose of the
,

buildi ng I t is the custom to set G reek agai nst Gothic and


.
,

split the a rchitectu ral pro fessio n i nto two opposed ca m ps ,

neith e r o f w hom are presu med able t o u ndersta n d the other .

Gree k may be right and Gothic m ay be right but they ca nnot


, ,

be right together in the same place Ou r own notion is tha t .

they m a y be ri ght at the same ti m e but no t in the same place ,

or c li mate or eve n material : that G reek c an hardly ever be


,

right in E ngla n d a la nd o f freeston e bricks and co nstan t


, , ,

rain and that Got h ic never c an be t for Greece where there


, ,

is u nli mited marble an d su n shi ne But i t h as come about .

fro m the popular determi natio n that Gree k and Gothic shall
6o GR E E K A N D GOT H I C .

n ever have the same beauties th a t the beaut y of the Parth enon
,

is popularl y be li eved to have co nsisted wholl y in i ts propor


t i ons Its vast n umber o f statues h as relie fs and pai nti ngs
.
,
-
, ,

are almost ignored T o the m i nd o f P heid ias as to that o f


.
,

P i sa ni or G iotto i t seemed desirable to have a good buildi ng


,

rst o f ne materi al and such mas ses and proport ion s as


, ,

the sp i rit o f wisdom w i thi n th e m ordered ; and then t o orna


ment it all over i ns i de and outside w ith s u ch h istoric or
, ,

sy mbolical forms and colours as should ma k e the buildi ng


s pea k fo r i tsel f about its i nte ntio n and th e d wellers in it and , ,

the w ork to be done in it and h ow it came i nto existe nce


, .

The superi ori ty of the Greek consisted in that po we rful hold


o f the pr evaili ng and g uidi ng li nes and broad masses which

e nabled h im i nvar i ably to k eep his ornament in the proper


place and qua ntity ; and this seems to have been founded
on co ngenita l and subtle perfectio ns o f ey e o rga nisa -

tio n w hich were h is gi ft I t was also derived from the


.

conti nual cult i vat i on o f his tech nical jud g ment by obse rva
tio n o f nature ; espec i all y of the highest and g ra ndest objects
in nature th e clouds the seas the mou nta i ns th e ox dog
, , , , ,

and horse .A nd ch i e y every Gree k kne w the poi nts of the


, ,

m an who is lord of all here and somet i m e s seems a little


, ,

lower tha n t h e a ngels to us ; as to Gree k s h e seemed but j ust


below his dead fathers now heroes or the neare r elemental
, ,

po wers But th ou gh their developments are s o various still


.
,

the art s o f t h e best H ellenes and the best barbaria ns i nvolve


, ,

their g reatest resembla nces T h e wonder i s t h at m en s o far


.

divided in all material and spir itual circumsta nces should


have worked on the sam e pri n ciples and with such si milar ,

results Goth and Gree k e q ually sou gh t th e glory o f Go d


.

and the dead w ho w ere w i t h him ; c olour and marble had

th e sam e q ual i ties t o both t o both a r ig ht a ngle con ,

tained ni net y de g rees The C hri stia n fa i th as illustrated at


.
,

Pisa in the C ampo San to is connected wi th th e history o f


,

an E astern race far removed fro m L ombards o r N ort h

m e n ; that hi story is all importa nt to C hri st i a ns and it is


-
,

duly pai nted by Be nozzo Goz z oli ; and on t he other side


O rcagna se ts fort h hopes and terrors a fter deat h H avi ng no .

de n ite i nformat i o n beyon d death th e old G ree k lled h i s ,

sac red places wit h historic pictures o f death s most ho nourable


P AIN TIN G . 61

and blessed as m en had met them at Maratho n and if


,

the P e c ile had taught A th e ns nothi ng else i t would still ,



have repeated in her children s ears the stern L i ndsay s apos

trophe L ord what stout hearts m e n may bear : God se nd


,

me and mi ne as brave an e ndi ng .

D ice arc h u s w as a highly compete nt pe rs on abou t the time


o f A ristotle and he w rote a boo k called the L if e o
, f Gr eece ,

in w hich he gives an accou nt o f the history geography and , ,

moral co ndition o f the various states H e says o f A the ns .

that the rst i mpressio n the city made o n stra ngers who en
t e red her for the rs t t i me was simply bad and d isagreeable ,

and th at they o fte n thought there was some mistake and ,

A thens could not be A th e ns A fterwards the y fou nd out that .


,

it was all right and that A th e ns was w hat they had expected
,

in beauty in ce rta i n w ell chose n and appoi nted places The -


.

streets we re extremely narrow and seldom paved and very , ,

ill kept the re was no sanitary system or water supply as in ,

R om e the private houses commo nly prese nted a mere curtai n


w all t o the road bei ng built o f cla y or bricks whit ewashed
, ,


over . I n early times says Becker ( C haricles T he Grec ian
,


H ouse p , w hen a private citize n passed most o f his
.

t i me ami d the gra ndeur o f the public edi ces his own abode ,

w as simple e nough A thenia n residences at the ti m e o f the


.

Pelopo nnes ia n War were certai nly n either large nor stately
stru ct ures A ccordi ng to T h u c yd ii 1 4 the A thenia ns pre
. . .
,

ferred livi ng on their estates in the cou ntry to residi ng in


t he c i ty and he nce t h e cou n try houses were eve n superior to
,

those in the tow n It was not till the M acedonia n e ra w hen


.

,

public spi ri t had gradually decayed an d private perso ns not , ,

sat is ed
w ith p art ic i
p at ing in the g rand e u r of the s ta te ,

b ecam e desirous o f emulati ng it at home th at th e privat e ,

buildi ngs became more sumptuous and mag nicen t w hile ,



pu blic structures were proportio nably neglected .

T he w ords o f H orace as to the w o rthies o f a ncie nt R ome


applied e q ually to those o f A thens in her great time ,

I socr Areop
. . 20, p . 203 : Kan t ian: x. s oM rreAeov fpas .

i as ol as r r 81 11400 w olxobounp dr wr
p
D e mos th Olynlh , 6 ( m o: 3 3 r d: ia
.
3 . .

reu n ions rial xr rreaxcm ufyor 8a? 83 r d riis a dh eres lAdrr o .

1 3 r od-ra y niftrrrai A so in A ris tocr


. l
689, w ere he sa s that mon and
. p . h y Ci
i
P er cles wou ld have been aston s ed at the u xur of h is own d ay ih l y .
62 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

illis ce nsus erat brevis C o m mu ne ma gn um


P riv at u s It
, .

is pai nful to d well o n in our own day the public spirit the
, , ,

social desire o f ho nour and beauty and the ab sol ute civic ,

brotherhood which m ust have been felt for the time by the , ,

m e n wh o pla nn ed or w h o paid for and e njoyed the great


public works o f a ncie nt A thens T hey w ere not patro ns
.

o f art but true lovers o f it


,
They did not thi n k it desirable
.

t o live apart in palaces but to sh are as frie n ds the sple n dour


, , ,

and glory o f th eir ow n state as they partook o f the air and

su nshi ne o f the A cropolis A s friends the y walked in the


.

prese nce of their gods T hey had no great private galleries


.

to be mausolea for great pictures I t is tr ue that w hen they .


,

b ega n t o build rich houses for the m selves they u nderstood ,

that they w ould be u ni nteresti ng w ithout sculpture and ,

decorated them accordi ngly but in their best ti m e they see m


to have been co nte n t if the works o f their chie f sculptors and
pai nters w ere al ways visible for all and a co m mo n delight ,

to all in te m ples and public places T heirs was the artist s


.
,

view of art ours is that o f the collector and the dealer


, ,

regardi ng no t the picture but its price ,


.

The domestic habits o n which we co ngratulate o urselve s are


in part the necessa ry result o f hard clim ate an d hard w ork ,

and are doubtless no subject o f blame or complai n t But the .

w ord domestic i nvolves the idea o f eco n omy or care fu l and ,

somewhat frugal arra ngements T he expressio n domestic .

luxury appears to be a co ntradiction in terms and the state of ,

thi ngs to which it applies seems disastrous at least t o the ,

scie nces o f imagi natio n Private luxury appears to tra ns fer the
.

i nterest o f li fe and art t o small thi ngs not shared w ith others ; ,

t o selsh pleasure and low aim It was o f course eas ier in t he


.

climate o f A th ens w hen books were not or were few and li fe


, , ,

w as tra nsacted v iz/d ooce and face to face for a m an to pass


, ,

day a fter day in e njoymen t o f the highest pleasure s o f sight


in the public b uildi ngs w here he met and faced frie nds and
,

oppo ne nts .T here the great nat i o nal collectio n o f the


,

greatest w orks o f beau ty ever k nown w as conti n uall y be fore


the eyes o f the whole race ; and there existed accordi ngly
a natio nal sta ndard or j ud g me nt about beauty as a real thi ng ,

attai nable o n certai n pri nciples if you were faith ful t o th e m .


64 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

A nd here it ma y be i nquired in a speculative manner , ,

what sum might be rais ed yearl y for churches and hospitals


if all able bodied p e rs o ns gave up o ne w i ne o nly as cha m
-
,

p agne and collected the appro x imate expenses of that liquid


,

onl y or would literall y give th ei r champa gne to the c on


,

vales c e n t w ards ?

Ma ny w orth y scholars tell us we hav e m uch to learn from


the spearme n o f Ma ratho n and oarsmen of Salam i s Few of .

us are likely t o dispute the fact for a mome nt C ould they .

fu rther tell us how w e are t o take it to heart Or is th e dismal


reection true that the darker lesso ns of h istory are n ever
t a k e n to hea rt th at the decadent nation ca nnot face or t race
the ca uses o f de c a y like its own in other times and that ,

similar deg radation m ust fo r ever follo w on si m ilar temptatio ns ,

cy cle by cycle and race a fter race ? So i ndeed i t seems an d


, ,

a mou m fu l prospect seems to l i e be fore us t o stude nts of ,

art history or reli gi o n But in all ages and everywhere


, ,
.
, ,

C hristia ns be yo nd others have q uoted Solo n s max i m in


, ,

th e i r hearts and loo k ed in the i r own sense to dea th before


, ,

w hich no man c an be cou nted happ y For man is a w orld .

in himsel f ; and though he be like Jeremiah or Phoc i o n or , ,

Savo narola alo ne and hated amo ng the crumbl i ng g lory of


,

his people yet h is li fe the li fe of the soul may be give n him


, , ,

for a prey I n no place o r time is the Faith false o r love or


.
,

honour over or God s h a nd shorte ned or H is serva nt and


, ,

o ur si s ter the D eath of the Body delayed for ever fro m


, ,

T h ereafter as it may be

her o ffic e . .

I t seems made out thus far that the spir i tual mot i ves and
, ,

u ses o f G reek art in its bes t days are closel y a nalogo us t o its

ded i c at ed fun ct i ons in th e earl y R ena i ssance and th at th ere ,

is a pa rallel decl i ne fro m such fu nctio ns A lso i t is clear .

t hat a tech nical art d i scipleship o f Goth to G ree k was os


-

tablis hed by N iccol a Pisa no and has co nti nued ev er s i nc e


, .

But in R om an and C hri stian a rchi tecture and ornament th e ,

actual steps o f trans i t i on ma y be traced by w h i ch the Greek ,

temple wi th its graphi c orname nt passed i nto the R o m a n


b as ilica and the Goth i c cathedral wi th the i rs and to R o me ,

we have recourse accord i ngly .


P A RT I L R OM A N .

C H A PT E R I .

GR E E K AR T AT R OM E .

T H E tr n a s fere nce o f the arts fro m G reece to R ome is a


s ubject o n wh ich ma ny boo k s might be w ritte n but it c an , .

o nl y be treated here in its co n nectio n w ith mode rn history

and w it h o u rselves Fo r R o m e no t o nly rece i ved both the


.

c o nstru ct i ve and decorative scie n ces but preserved and tra n s


,

m itt ed th em in turn to the T euto nic races ; so that o u r o wn


art i n st ru ctio n an d no small share o f its i nspiratio n i s derived
, ,

fro m A the ns and every stude nt m ust begi n w ith her grea t
,

e x e m plari a and as H orace says o f the sister art o f poetry


, , ,

w or k at th em n ight an d day s o as n ever t o forget t hem or


,

their sp i rit T he y are t h e sacred docume nts o f the modern


.

artist cra fts ma n o r worker in beaut y


, , .

T h e e ort a fter beauty makes the d ie re nc e betwee n a


' '

craft and an art o r bet ween a m erely tech ni c art and a ne


,

art. T h is disti nctio n is virtually the same as that bet wee n t h e


co nst ruct ive and decorative sides o f arch itectu re ; and it is set

fo rth in theory by P ro fessor R uski n in w ords already quoted


, .

I t t urns on the use we like to make o f the word beauty and ,

m ay be th warted and made n u g atory if we please I nge nuit y .

o r co m plicat i o n or simplicit y o f co n triva n ce may be called

beauti fu l and has bee n disti nguished as D e dal b eauty or


, ,

e x ce ll e n ce o f cra ft or co nstructio n I n architec tu re t he


.
,

F
66 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

beauties of co nstructive ge n ius are so closely co nnected w ith


the decoratio ns o f the co nstructio n that it is no t advisable ,

fo r popular hi s toria ns o f art to attempt to w ork out elaborate


disti nctio ns These thi ngs are al ways j oi ned together in the
.

great exa m ples o f the w orld and need not be put asu n der if , ,

they could be The metopes o f the P artheno n are extre m ely


.

bea uti ful decoratio n but the co nstruction o f the temple deter
,

mi nes their size n umber and dista nce from each other and
, , ,

all is right T h e very w ord architecture as used by M r


.
,
.

Fergusso n in his history o f the scie n ce v ol i I ntrod p 1 3


, ,
. . .
, .
,

an d w oodcut ii co nnects the ideas o f co nstructive and


.
,

decorative beauty in a practicall y i ndissol uble w ay M ere .

buildi ng is bad buildi ng ; the thought w hi ch should be


applied to give ad ditio nal stre ngth to the m ost prosaic and
co m m o nplace b uildi ng w ould greatly i m prove its appea ra nce ,

as his ill ustratio n sho w s at a few gla nces by progressive ,

steps The sa m e thi ng is proved w ith elaborate yet si m ple


.
,

beauty o f la ng ua g e and illustratio n in vol i o f the Stones , . .

of Ven ice w hich is to b e recomme nd e d especially t o all


,

students o f art chie y because nearl y all masters thereo f


,

k now it already Stre ngth o f co nstructio n that is t o say


.
,

the ut m ost degree o f stre ngth attai nable w ith the materials ,

a m ou nts to beauty in buildi ngs as in the limbs and frames ,

o f m en .G e nui ne m aterials o f sta n dard good ness a w ell ,

u nderstood purpose and ho nest i nge n uit y in worki ng si ncerel y


,

fo r it superi nduce a certai n high d e gree o f beauty be fore


,

decoration proper b egi ns and practically speaki ng in archi , ,

tecture they prepare the way and deter m i n e the place & c o f , .
,

the decoratio n I f architecture the n be buildi ng plus beauty


.
,

all good buildi ng is a rchitectural .

N evertheless it is both true and highly co nve n ie n t fo r


us t o assert that as R ome hersel f developed the chie f
,

beauties o f Co nstructio n fo r moder n ti m es so all decoration ,

best w orth havi ng either comes to us from G reece o r has ,

been developed by study o f nature o n H ellen ic (o r h uma n)


pri nciple s What and how m uch G reece learn ed from E gypt
.

is no t our a ffair at prese nt ; we have got all through G ree ce


or fro m her and architectu re in ma ny respects and sculpture
, ,

and pai n ti ng almost e ntirely seem to have bee n develope d ,


GR E E K A R T A T R OM E . 67

from the rudime nt by G reek m i n ds and ha nds Ou r previous .

chapters have brough t us t o a poi nt in the parallel decade nce


o f G ree k morals or ma nhood and G ree k skill and po wer , ,

w hich may be called a poi nt o f fracture or crash T h e strai n .

o f R oma n w ar is put o n G reece and she gives way : yet ,

charms her fell co nq ueror and obtai ns a w orld w ide in ,


-

u e n ce in excha nge fo r her libe ty I t is true that the


r .

con quest o f G reece by R o m e does not o f itsel f prove the


degeneracy o f Greece from the time o f P ericles but no
o n e de nies that de g e n eracy a fter all ; and if the m e n o f

C yn o sc e phale had bee n the m e n o f Salam is the course o f ,

history would have been very di fferent A vast q ua ntity o f .

those doc ume nts carved pai nted and w ritte n w hich had , , ,

re s ulte d from and bee n t h e cro w n o f G reek civilisatio n w ere ,

t rans ferred w ith vast results to R ome in the ti m e o f


, ,

( E m ilius Pau lus, and M u m m iu s ;


, and that tra ns fere n ce
c o nti nued o fte n amou nti ng to systematic plu nder
, .

A s h as bee n so o ften observed there was at R o m e , ,

t hrou ghout the period o f the G ree k w ars a native or ,


a

E t ru sca n school o f art that is to say o f the three arts ; an d


,

as far as pai nti ng and sculpture w ere co n cern ed it came t o

an e nd t o s peak as br i e y as possible u n der the e e c t s o f


'

, ,

G ree k competition T h e fe w native artists w ere overpow ered


.

by the vas t n umber o f impo rted models o f great merit ; the


g reat p atro ns an d cultured ge nerals li ke all the IE m ilian ,

family we re all o n the s i de o f the stranger and e ncouraged


, ,

t heir cou ntry me n to follo w G reek examples : the R oma n


E t ruscan natu ralism o f w hich one great typical exa m ple
,

yet remai ns could be pursued no lo nger Works of great


,
.

m erit certai nl y existed and m ay have co nti nued to be p ro,

d u ced in E tru ria I thi n k Sir C E astlake some where tells


. .

u s that E trusca n bro nzes w ere m uch valued eve n in A the n s

d uring th e A ugus ta n age But their type is the group o f .

the C apitoli ne Wol f and T w i ns belo ngi ng to the period o f ,

the Se co nd Pu n ic War It is o ne o f the m ost a ncie nt and .

See L id d ell s H istory q/ R ome, vo l



1 15 . i p . . .

Say from 2 1 4 to 1 46 B C , C ynos ce phalie , 1 9 7 .M ete lus and


. um m as . l M i
i
t r umphed for o r nt C i h
not long afte r Sc o for the d es truc t o n of art age i pi i C h .

y i i
P ol b us came from th e ru ns of the A fr c an c t to the ru ns o f th e I st m us i iy i h .

F 2
68 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

mo m entously i nteresti ng w orks in the city T he re see m


-
.

t o have bee n t wo bro n ze she w olves and tw i n s : o ne m en -


,

t ione d by D io nysi us at the T e m ple o f R o m ulus ; the othe r


by C icero as gilded and struck by light ni ng
,
T h e e xist .

ing group evide ntly has u ndergo n e both trials there are ,

m arks o f light n i ng about the hi n d le g s an d i ndicatio ns o f ,

gildi ng Virgil certai nly s aw the same w ol f if not the same


.
,

t w i ns It is a po werful and noble g roup ; the heavy jaws


.

and m asti ff jo w ls are gra nd natural and ideally car n ivorous , ,

the look o f com fort and maternal happi ness in th e face is


still more remarka b le and the great stre ngth of the li mbs , ,

w ith their loose jo inted expressio n suggestive o f t h e lo ng -


,

lupi ne gallop ma k e it a w ork o f the high N atural I deal


,
.

T h e co nve nt i onal curls o f hair on the n eck and shoulders


remi nd o ne much o f G ree k archa i c sculpture as in the A pollo ,

o f Thera and the various examples give n in A ratra P e n telic i ;


,

but this group con fessedly belo ngs to E truria n R ome .

H ow ever all the i nve ntive pow er o f R ome was called o ff


,

t o the e ngi neeri ng side o f architecture all over the w orld .

T heir patro nage w ithdre w art fu rther t h a n ever from its


early G reek study o f N ature in all her forms and it gradually
lost li fe though portraiture lo ng susta ined it T ech n ically
, .


speaki ng w ith G re co R o m a n or C lassical A rt s o call ed
,
- -

begi ns a fatal severa nce o f decoratio n from co nst ru ction ,

lame nted by Mr Freema n Pro fessor R us k i n M r Fergusso n .


, , .
,

and last w ith great vigou r by Pro fessor Poy nter 3


, It i s , .

in full e e c t as the latter observes at the prese nt time ; we


'

, ,

follow the R oma ns w ith no more i ntellige n ce tha n t hey


follo wed the G reeks an d plaster o u r architecture w it h incon ,

ru o us or n ame nt to the destructio n o f its real e ffect w he


g n ,

very o fte n it is by no m ea ns bad in i tsel f But the rst and .

M ay H and b h ( R ome th C apitol ) and Si J H bhouse s note to


urr

s oo e ,
r . o

C h ild e H a ld ( Ap pend ix t Canto i N xx ) te ll


ro all that is k nown o v. o. v . us

b
a ou t it .

I n his p oe m D e iii 8
C onsu lat es, H e too lib ii . . ; D e ii
D iv . 20 I n C at . . .

w a truc k by li gh tn i ng R m l u
s s wh u i ty ; the gild ed R mulus
,
o u s, o b il t thi
u s o r c o ,

w h m ye remembe r t
o h a e bee n ( p lac d ) in th e Capi t l a small and su ck li ng
o v e o ,

c h l d y t p lli ng at th w l f dd
i , e u

T h e statue f Natta as w ll as the
e o

s u er .

o , e

i mag of god s and the f ms of R om l and R e mus wi th th e wild beast their


es or u us ,

n e f ll l igh tni ng st i k e n
u rs , e C py at S th Ken ington-
rc .

o ou s .

T im
3 O t be 1 6 1 8 7 6 ; S cial S i enc A oc i ation R port
es , c o r , o c e ss e .
GR E E K A R T AT R OM E . 69

c h i e f reason th at th e R oma ns had no sculpture o f their ow n


i s that they we re n ever stude nts or worshippers of the G raven
I ma ge For good and evil they were never such idolaters as
.
,

the G reeks Wi th a nc i e nt A the ns art w as dedicated t o the


.

glory of God in s ome se nse ; and at R ome it had no such


sanction or i n spi rat i o n .

What stra nge questio ns drearil y recur to us about pro



g ress in anythi ng in huma n happi ness or lea rn i ng or any ,

o f the w a ys o f m e n ! A rt an d civilisatio n are migratory ,

and their ad vance i s local and shi fti ng so m etimes illusory ,


.

One ra th er importa nt meditatio n w ill certai nly occur to any


s pe cula tive perso n w ho visits the E lgi n G allery at the British

M u se um . H e w ill wo nder w hat is mea nt by the progress


o f the h uma n race h ow far and in w hat se nse any col
le c t ive adva n ce c an be made b y ma n ki n d to wards w hat he
w i l l co nsider the g reater goods o f li fe I f e nj oyme nt o f pure
.

bea ut y be any good at all the w orld has receded si n ce th e


,

fth c e n tu ry B C . . T hose wh o made and delighted in these


, ,

g re a t d o cu m e n ts o f hu ma n ity w ere ve ry m uch better o ff tha n

t h o se wh o never g o near them The history o f art is by no


.

m e ans a re c ord o f progress I f it were so the study o f


.
,

G ree k model s w ould be simple a ntiquaria n is m chiey use ful ,

t o th e hi s toria n as a mere register o f na m es and dates But .

t h e great work s o f the fth ce ntu ry B C are still our models . .


,

an d th e pri n ciples and rules o f moder n schools sta n d o n

g e n e r ali satio n s f rom them P h e


. id ias is in the same se n se a

living au th o rity as Faraday The Partheno n as a buildi ng


.
,

in its pla ce and fo r its origi nal purposes is the ce ntral build ,

ing o f the wo rld .T here is no male statue in the w orld


e q u al t o th e T heseus an d the I lys s u s or t he fragme ntary ,

T o rs o ; th e re is no gra n deur o f female form like H erse and


D roso s no combi natio n o f nobili t y and loveli ness like the
,

Ve nu s o f M ilo . A s far as progress of art goes it has ,

not h i ng t o d o w ith time P h e id ias ca rved the Theseus and


.
,

all th e rest o f the ages have k nocked o its nose T wo


'

tho usan d yea rs o f progressive civi lisatio n have reduced the


N ep t u ne and A the ne in w ho m the eye adori ng G reeks de
,
-

sire d t o se e th eir U nk no w n Stre ngt h and Wisdom to lime ,

d us t whi c h may now be occupied in the same h umble ca reer


7 o GR E E K A N D G OT H I C

of use fu l ness as the clay o f i m perial C e sar Onl y the yi ng .

drapery o f the goddess as it yet sw i n gs w ith her tri umpha n t ,

step re m ai ns to recall to the pai nter scholar the idea o f h e r


,
-

li mbs o f e ther yet o f her w eight o f di vi ne m ight u nder


, ,

w hich the chariot g roa n ed O nly the m e m orable care and


.

pu b lic spirit o f a forgotten Fre nch noblema n and d raughts


m an give u s evide n ce o f h ow the frag m e nts in our possessio n
w ere arra nged in the temple pedime nts T o this day every .

perso n w ho has learnt to dra w or eve n really t o kn ow w hat ,

a m an or a w o m a n or a horse is like m ust stand rebu k ed as , ,

i t w ere before the aw ful u ncon scious and path eti c bea u ty o f
,

the P he id ian relics ; and progress c an be m ade o n such


w orks o n ly by a co m i ng race as yet u na nn ou nced .

But w hatever w e m ay thi nk o f a sculpture o f the futu re it ,

i s pretty clear that sculpture was little more to the R oma ns


tha n it i s t o us M u m m iu s cared no more about it tha n .

N elso n and plu ndered it like Soult : tri umphs and trophies
,

w ere all he thought o f at or a fter the taki n g o f Cori nth : he


and his cou ntry m e n see m t o have had little or no religious

associatio n w ith the arts It is n ecessa ry t o consi d er the .

re m arkable state m e nt o f P lutarch that the R o m a ns be fore the , ,

ti m e o f the rst T arqui n had no i m ages o f their gods ; and ,

that o f P li ny that all s u ch o bjects w ere m ade by E trusca n


,

artists for lo ng a fter that period


They are highly proba b le .
,

si nce the true or earlier L ati n religio n was u n doubtedly


sepulchral and domestic a w orship o f the hearth re and the ,
-

L ares or departed sires w h o had successivel y bee n its priests


, .

The nature o f this a ncestral w orship its disti nctio ns from the ,

more natio n al or cos m opolite services o f the temples and the ,

tra nsitio ns by w hich o ne passed i nto the other are amply


described i M de Coula nge s C ite A ntiqzce Its relation
n 3 . .

See H orn 1 1 E . .

. 8 29 .

H is t N . at . xxx v i . 16 ; xxx .
45 .

3 T ans lat d by th
r e e R ev . T C Ba k
. f C h i t C h urc h O xf rd
. L nd n
r e r, o rs , o . o o :

Park er 33 7
, St ran d
, For u r s s
. e ee u P l ta c h tatem nt s in N m 8 8 (and e 1 p 2 5 8
v r

. . . .

Ke lsk e ), 3v ixar bv BBomjxor ra r x puarors ( r em vdovs p ly olxoSOp odp erm, 1 W



.

( unappov n ow ap evo: Bi er lt ow om

le m A lex Stromata I xv o re . C p C . . . . .

'
ypa n r dv 0 67 6 n A aa r l
r v s lBos 06 0 7
1 , an d the w e l-k no wn and an r
g rotes t t o th e l yp
s am e p p u r o se in T lli an D I d lat ia
e rt u , e o r . D ionysi us H alic am assus g i ves a
c ontrar ya c c o u nt o f a w hi p i n tituted b y R
o rs s om u lus ( A n tiq R om
. 1 8, . ii . p . 2 72 ,
R eis k e ) w i th !ad vent iGphaet s , nopcpd s
. rr

atrriniv x . a d oxa. B ut h is s tate ments
7 2 GR E EK AN D G OT H I C .

thought ve n ial and be auti ful had it adva nced towards sp i ri tual
,

co nceptio n o f the Perso nal U nity i nstead o f dyi ng a w ay i n to,

ge neral disbelie f o f God s presence a nyw here But fo r a time



.

he s aw these fair fa ncies w ithi n his head ; and w hat h is i nner


eye s aw his ha nd could and w ould set forth and he nce fo r
, ,

good and evil he has al ways been the i mag e or symbol ma k er


,
-

o f the w orld We hear that the R oma n po nti ffs i nterfered


.

t o protect the shri nes and statues o f G reek gods for a time
but the R oman had no real reverenc e fo r either H ome .

w orship and lay priesth ood seem to have bee n yet st ro ng in


-

the R epublic o f R ome in the second ce ntury B C T hey w ere . .

stre ngth t o the State because they sa nctio ned an i rrefra gable
,

and searchi ng discipli ne based o n t h e highest natural i nsti n cts


, ,

and t h us taught all m e n to obey and comma n d But they .

see m to have resulted in a ki nd o f cy n ical p urita n is m in


ho nest M u m m iu s and other co nsuls What w ere these i m ages .
,

ag almata thi ngs fo r the delight or rej o ici ng o f gods and m e n


,

T he gods might like them quite as w ell in the Forum or Mars ,

w ithout the w all as o n Mars H ill at A the ns : there w as no


doubt who had got the best w ar god o f the two Vic trir -
.

m u m D z zs placu it an d the breathi ng sto nes and ma ny


coloured tablets b elo nged to co nquered gods a fter all So .

they adorned the great triumphs of m a ny a mile ; and it is


strictly accurate to say that in co nseque nce the o nly idea s o f
, ,

architectural orname nt wh ich a R o m a n ever had o f his own ,

mi nd w ere co nnected w ith the tri umph and the trophy H e


, .

h
w ould carve what e had see n the captive shield and spear , ,

and coat o f mail h u ng idly o n the w all or his long les o f ,

doomed priso ners led b y the discipli ned ban ditti o f the earth .

A nd the best builders o f the later ages o rn ame nted their


tri umphal arches in the same w ay w ith pl u ndered bas relie fs -

and u nco nnected fragme nts o f d ecoratio n stole n in idea if not ,

bodily M u m m ius w as shocked and alarmed in a fter days


.
,

to nd he had really do ne the gods an i nj ury by pl u nderi ng


their temples and dedicated a bro nze Jupiter in the A ltis o f
,

O ly m p ia by w ay o f s in o ffering But in the rst i nsta nce he


-
.
t

must have thou ght of such a pop u latio n of deities much as


C rom well thought o f a hag i ology o f sai n ts o n a rood scree n -
.

P ausania E h a I n c 24
s,
'

c . . . v. . .
GR E E K A R T A T R OM E .
73

T hey had not done m uch good to their w orsh i ppe rs in fact ,

C o rinthia n men and w ome n and their captive d e i ties w ere , ,

m utually discreditable T he soldier cared fo r neither He . .

s aw a g reat deal of g race ful i m morality and h i s race as yet ,

respected their w ives and the household altar T here w ere .

nymphs and a t hletes but those muscles had no t done m uch


in the da y o f battle and those ny mphs w ere not li k e mothers
,

o f the brave .

N on his j uventu s orta


parentibus

I nfec i aequ or sangu i ne P n i


u co

Sed ru s ticoru m m ascula m ilitum


P roles , Sabe l lis d oc ta ligonibus
V ersare glebas, c t sev era
M i
atr s ad arb tr um recisos i i
P ortare fustes

So he let his legionaries play out their game o f dice o n the


D i o ny s i us o f A rist ides it bei ng on pa n el and as good a board
, ,

as a n other . H e told his ship m e n they w ould have to nd


n e w A pollos if the o ld o nes w ere lost over b oard ; and bur nt

the Gree k L upanar t o the glory o f the origi nal L upa She ,

w ol f o f R o m e R oma ns used art fo r pride and pleasure o n l y


.
,

and their be st employ m e nt o f it was in portraiture o f those

w hom the y loved Perhaps it is s o w ith ourselves ; but we


.

have no small share besides o f the H elle nic love o f external


, ,

n a tu re. G reeks may h ave e njoyed her m ore domestic aspects


and o u r o wn taste m ay be more i ncli n ed to the mou ntai n

g l oom or glory But still w e have deep i nterest like them


.
, ,

in th e be auty o f nature It is co n nected in ou r mi nds w ith.

what we call the H a n d and Mi nd o f G od ; w it h the Creative


Power ; and the R easo n which formed thi ngs w ith relation to ,

ma n s li fe o n earth and made th i ngs beauti ful fo r a sign to


,

m an of H imsel f O u r pursuit o f art the n has a sacred ness


.
,

involve s a hope and aspiratio n o f w hich R ome k n e w nothi ng , .

H ow ev er an a n cestral religio n like hers gives a gen ui ne if


, ,

a lo we r directio n t o art because it calls fo r represe ntatio n o f


, ,

h u m a n a nce st ry rather tha n fo r pe rs o ni c at io ns o f deity


,

thro u g h huma n beauty But a religio n o f the eagles is on l y


.


favou rabl e t o the collectio n o f w ork s o f art and by no ,

means t o th e i r productio n or i ndeed preservatio n T he , .

R o mans co ll e cted but did not m uch care fo r t h em


, A .
74 GR E E K A N D GO THIC .

historical eye w il l note the c u rious resembla nce t here is


bet wee n wa nt o f taste in a ncie nt R ome and in m odern
E ngl an d I n both it see m s co nnected w ith ge nui n e and
.

excusa b le suspicio ns But the accum ulatio n o f suc h thi ngs


.

in a vast predatory metropolis has o ft e n led to their d e s t ru c


tio n and the plu nder o f R o m e was mostly destroyed w ith
,

R ome P ro fessor F W N ew ma n has sho wn h ow all the


. . .

civi lisatio n and k no w ledge o f t h e earl ier w orld w as c o nc e n


t rate d in N i n eveh b y m ea ns o f merciless co n quest and as a , ,

co nseque nce destroyed by the hatred o f the surrou n di n g


,

populatio ns w hich fell o n the sculptured records o f their


,

co nquerors w it h a ve nge ful zeal o f obliteratio n w he n their ,

o wn da y ca m e M r Parker g ives us so m e accou nt ( in an


. .

appe nd ix by the late M r J H ema ns ) o f the rece nt d is in . .


t e rm e nt o f sculpture accide ntall y prese rved u n der heaps o f


R oma n rui n ; but fo r ce n turies the real desti n y o f great
statues seemed to b e either burn i ng to li me by G oths or ,

bei ng thrown fro m battleme nts on the heads o f Goths A ll .


2

seemed to perish w ith the E ternal City except certai n i n de ,

s t ru c t ible secrets an d achieveme nts o f for m and colour w hich ,

died do wn to their roots in I taly j ust survived in Co nsta n ,

t ino p le revived fo r a fe w years w ith Theodoric were adopted


, , ,

in stra nge w ays b y Western m o nks ev e n to I rela nd an d


, ,

E ngla nd an d nally rose i n to sudde n but long en duri ng


,
-

splendour with the Tusca n L ombards .

T h e great co nstructive gi fts o f R ome to arch itecture and ,


the i n ue nc e o f the gra ndeur o f her rui n s o n such Goths
as Bru nelleschi and M ichael A ngelo c o nnect t hat bran ch o f ,

art w it h the R enaissa nce o f the ftee nth and sixtee nth c en
t urie s . They too are characterised by the separation o f
, ,

sculpture from architecture the abolitio n o f i ntelligent o m ,

me nt and se nseless w orship o f mere scale and u n mea n i ng


,

luxury w hich mark the digression o f R oma n architecture


,

from G reek But N iccola P is ano s adoptio n o f A ttic models


.

co nnected G reek sculpture w ith the Italia n and all other


Gothic G reek pai nti ng and sculpture m ai n tai ned an exist
.

ence all alo ng though at last b y germ and seed alo ne O ne


, .

A n tiqu it ies O
f R om e, vo l . iii .

3
W e are to be c o ngratu ated l on the atel ly d i
-
sc o ve red H erm es .
GREEK A R T A T R OM E .
75

bra nch at least was al ways ali v e up to the P isa n R e naissa nce , .

Sc u lpture fai nts and dies by the seve nth ce n tu ry then m osaic
takes its place ; that too si nks in I taly but m ai ntai n s an ex ,

is te nc e in Co nsta nti nople ; an d mea n w hile mi n iature has n ever


failed in the m o n asteries and sculpture begi ns a stra nge ,

barbaric revival in L o m b ardy But in the fee b lest period o f .

the Gree k race their religious art agai n comma nds revere nt
atte ntio n from w hatever re m na n t o f m a nki nd may be capable
,

o f revere n ce at this day w he n ignora nce w rites for ig n ora n ce


, ,

and Muggi n s i s the m easure o f all thi ngs C hristia n w riters .

as w ell as a nti Christia n have their reaso ns fo r compari ng the


-

w ork o f early A ttica do ne w it h vague spiritual purpose w ith


, ,

the rst religious e fforts o f N e o G reek mo nks to w ho m the -


,

Christian faith alo ne gave some fai nt po wer in w eak ness .

T h is is co mmo n to both that b oth w ere do ne to a G o d u n , ,

k nown or revealed One w as to decrease w ith its perishi ng


.

fait h the other to gro w fo r ever w ith the i m peri s hable


, H ow .

ever R oma n decorative art must m ea n pai nti ng or sculpture


,

do ne by Greeks or in G reek schools for R oma n patro ns ;


w hile in R o m a n architecture w e co m e to great natio nal m odi
c at io ns and additio ns in the scie n ce o f b uildi ng w hich begi n ,

the transitio n fro m the h orizo ntal li n es o f the P art he n o n to the


vertical aspiratio ns o f G othic architecture I t ca nnot be

.

said that R ome rst de based G reek pai nti ng fo r the rhypo
graphs and pornographs had do ne it su f cie ntly w ithout her ,

throughout G reece and A sia But she carried co nstructive .

scie nce to a he i ght o f gra ndeur w hich forced her architecture


on all her subject or imitative n atio ns and nall y o n her ,

conque rors A the ns could not have b uilt a P arthe no n w ithout


.

Pentelicus near at ha nd ; b ut the om n iprese n t brick work o f


the E mpire the dome and arch the road and aqueduct the
, , ,

cloa cae and sepulchres the w alls an d tow ers o f de fe nce all
,

these com m a n ded the atte ntio n o f su bjects and stra ngers
e ver yw here and w hether they w ould or no t dictated w ays
, , ,

o f civi lised li fe as w ell as o f scie n tic co nstru ctio n T he y .

mi nistered to the sple ndour an d there fore to the i n ue n ce o f , ,

R ome and became as i t w ere her ro b e o f state be fore he r


, , ,

p e ople ; but they i n structed the m as w ell S ueto n i us accou nt .

of the baths bas ilic a and porticos o f Britai n is a stoc k


c
, ,
7 6 GR E E K AN D GO THIC .

example o f th e exte nt to which the me c ha nics o f arch i tectu re


w ere taught and lear ned and the histo ry o f medi e val b u ild
ing beg i ns and al most c o n ti n ues an d e n ds in the lesso n s o f
, ,

R ome T he y are rst lear nt from G reece they are stud ied
.

apart by Christia n and N orthern pupils w ho adopt and retai n , ,

forget o r mod i fy accordi ng t o the n eeds o f their climate their


, ,

o w n cha ngi ng humour or fa n c y and the co nst ructive hab i ts ,

lear nt from w oode n architecture .

T he ins ign i c anc e o f R oma n temples d uri ng the R epu bl ic ,

as compared w ith secular buildi ngs is dul y noted b y M r , ,

Fergu sso n in the H is tory of A rC / utectu re T h e o nl y temple


'

which remai ns at all w orthy o f such a capital is t h e Pa n theo n


and the Pa n theo n is the g reatest example in the w orld o f the

rou n d type o f buildi n g derived as a co n structio n from a n ci e n t

E tru ria but ge nerall y o rname nted ( accordi ng t o R oma n


,

habit) w i th a G ree k peristy le I n spite o f their u nli ke ness it .


,

m ay be co nnected in our mi nds w ith the T emples o f V e sta ,

by the T iber and at T ivoli , T he Pa n theo n is in fact th e .


, ,

rou n d temple vaulted over fo r w ar m th and w i th its col um n s


, ,

i nclosed w ith a w all m ore R omano Th ere c an be no dou bt


, .

th at the small circular p eristyle is the rudi me nt o f the great


dome as the A ttic ob lo ng peristyle is o f the R oma n and now
, ,

o f the Christia n basilica T h e rou nd heathe n temple i t w ill


.
,

be remembered from L ord L i ndsay an d M ess rs Fergusso n .

o r Freema n is represented in C hristian build i ng by the


,

c ircular baptisteries o f Ital y as at Pisa and those o f St Joh n , ,


.

at Flore nce and R ave nna .

But it i s time to attempt a short sketch o f w hat R o me


really did tra nsmit from G reece t o the Church o f Christ in

architecture .

T h e greatest G ree k models were all temples and the needs ,

o f th e temple w ere u n li k e those o f a place o f secular bus i ness ,

h ow ever di g ni ed and mome ntous


T he cella o f a G ree k .

s hri ne was si mpl y the spec i al place o f the god s prese n ce It


.

m ig ht be a h ollow tree o r narrow cavern and i ts size w as im


m aterial I t was a shri ne or s ekos o nl y N or was it absolutel y
. .

Page 305 vol i and ed 1 8 74 E ven


, . .
, . . th e Pantheon may ave bee n a h
bath and the rou nd tem ple at Tivoli may have been i
d ed cated t o H ercules and
not V es t a . i p . . 297 .
GR E E K A R T A T R OM E .
77

n eces sa ry to provide accommodat i o n fo r large cro w ds o f


w o rshippers as the great meeti ngs in ho nour o f the gods w ere
,

held as feas ts c hiey in the D io nysiac theatres o r the A lt i s


groves or racecourses o f Cori nth and E lis T he R oma ns .

borrow ed the idea o f the c i rcular or oblo ng peristyle w ith its ,

outer teme nos or templu m and i nner sa nctua ry or cella bu t


they almost i nvariabl y added to the size o f the l atter I ndeed .
,

the idea o f the most hol y place (someti mes represe nted by a
special r i te and an altar) a sa nctuary or cha ncel for
,

special m i nist ry and a larger space a fterwards called navi s , ,

for ordi na ry w orshippers ru ns w ith various nome nclature


, , ,

through all huma n ritual T he leadi ng features by w hich we


.

c an describe the tra n sitio n from G reek to R oma n and there ,

fore to Christia n b uildi ng (speaki ng in ge neral ter m s ) may be


t hes e w h i ch follo w I ) the appeara n ce and modicatio n o f

t h e basilica ; ( 2 ) the i ntroductio n o f the arch and vault and ,

conseq uent breaki ng u p o f the horizo ntal architecture ; (3 )


-

the cha nge descr i bed b y Mr Fergusso n as the tra ns fer o f the .

chie f e ffect o f the build i ng from the outside to the i nside fro m ,

th e G ree k peristy lar i mpressio n to th at o f a Christia n i nterior .

L et us rst say a fe w w ords o n the cha nge from the three


t ru e G reek orders to the ve L ati n The D oric fared ill in .

R oma n ha nds the Io nic w orse nothi ng more could be do ne


,

in e i ther form and it was o nly le ft to degrade both by base


,

uses and over orid orname nt But the Cori nthia n order had
-
.

no t in the seco nd ce ntu ry D C


,
been w orked o u t as a sty le
. .
, ,

o r treated w ith all the rich n ess an d sple n dour it w as w ell

capable o f beari ng ; and this was certai nl y added to it at


R ome w ith very co nsiderable success A n excelle nt w oodcut .

o f a cap i tal and e n tablature from the Temple o f J upiter Stator

in Fer gu sso n (vol i p 300) w ill illustrate and co nr m the


. . .

author s re m ar k that thou gh nothi ng c an surpass the elega nce


'

and g race w i th w hich the G reeks ador ned the Cori nthia n

order the new capital never ac q uired w ith them that ful ness
,

an d stre ngth s o re q uisite to re nder it an appropriate arch i



t e c t u ral o rname n t . H e further adds that this was probably
do ne b y G reek art i sts actin g u nder directio n We are happy .

to be able t o q uote M r Fe rg u s s o n s author i ty fo r t h e decay



:
.

I llustrated to oc ula d em n trati on in the [ J ittery f A /Wm "


r o s o rc .
7 8 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

of the
ori c order as applied t o secular uses a fter its re
D ,

ligio u s employme n t in the P arthe no n fo r example We are , .

co nti nually told that art has nothi ng to d o with religio n o r


morality mea n i ng that modern artists perso nally decli ne the
,

co nnectio n Ve ry w ell this is our great architect s observa


'


tio n o n the i n n ite i nferiority o f the R oma n secular D oric
t o the G reek mo n ume ntal or religious I t w ould be most
u n fair to i nstitute a co m pariso n bet wee n a mere utilitaria n

prop used o nly in ci vil b uildi ngs (no R oma n D oric temple
is in existe n ce) and an order w hich the most re n ed artists
,

in the w orld spe nt all their i nge n uity in re nderi ng the most
per fect because it w as devoted to th e highest reli gious
,

purpose Co m pare his other observatio ns o n the gra ndeur


.

obtai ned by the red u nda nce o f stre ngth and sple ndid stabili ty
in the P a rthe no n The fact is that that buildi ng was erected
.
,

in a spirit o f rej oici ng s acri ce o f all that w as noblest in


A the n s to the patro n goddess w ho had gloried A the ns and
-

that in very truth the spirit o f sel f dedi catio n or discipli n e -

w as u n ited w ith the fullest G reek se nse o f beauty in its


builders There c an be no doubt that dedicat i o n o f o ne s
.

richest property and highest me ntal e o rt to the service o f


'

G o d u nk n o w n and felt a fter is o f the n at ure o f sel f s ac ri c e


, ,
-
,

asceticism or discipli ne The rudime nt o f this H ebraic and


,
.

u n H elle n ic virtue is ce rtai nly fou nd in the sacred buildi ngs


-

o f the P a rthe n o n ; and it is precisely through thei r spi rit o f

sacrice that they excel all others in H elle nic beauty I cti n us .

and P h e id ias w ould have said they sought fo r beauty but if


dialectic had bee n in full actio n in their time they m ight ,

have bee n led to say in whatever G reek seemed ade q uate


, ,

that they w ere se eki ng a beauty above m an and that all ,

ma n s possessio ns and pow ers would be cheap in c ompari son


w ith it This is the k ey note o f Christ i an sel f s ac ri c e if not


.
- -
,

o f mo nastic severity ; both w hich as has been conti nually ,

observed are neither H ebraic n o r Christia n in their origi n


, ,

but simply hu ma n .

There is little t o be said of the composite order except ,

that it displays the R oma n fault of u n i ntellige nt combi na


tio n and vai n atte m pt to u nite the beauties o f two d i fferent
s tyles A t b est it resembles an I o nic capital gro w i ng out o f a
.
,
8o GR E E K A N D GO T H I C .

from the G reek or R o ma n colo nnade The mole or mau so le um .

o f H adri a n wi th its ma gn ice nt base and attic and order of


, ,

lo fty colu m ns above was the legiti mate pare nt of the p i llared
,

do m es w hich succeeded it from Pisa to S Paul s ; and the


, .

oblo ng sq uare arcade is the rudime nt o f the basili c a The


-
.

earliest or G reek basilica and some o f those rs t e rected in


,

R o m e w ere in fact colo nnades and no more


, T his s ubject .

req uires separate treatment ; but here we may repeat that ,

the w alled in and covered basil i ca is R oma n rather tha n


-

G reek si n ce R oma n cli mate required more protectio n


, Fu r .

ther the Christia n Church not o nly occupied or reproduced


,

the b asilicae but origi nated for hersel f that typ e of her
,

humiliat i o n as o f her hope the four fold or cruci form basilica


,

w ith its central dome I t is the rst i nsta nce o f C hri stia n
.

ideal i nterpos i ng w ith po wer o n architecture and i nstituti ng a ,

symbolic structure o f its ow n The basilica and the sepulch ral .

chapel ( mortuary o r com memorative subterra nean or palat i al ) ,

w ill ulti m ately be fou nd to be the rudi ments of all C hristia n


churches .

I t is probab le that the earliest Church in R ome accustomed ,

to wo rship in the cu b icula which held the remai ns o f her


marty rs an d o w ni ng so ma ny and so te nder associatio ns wi th
,

the cemetery i nteriors w ould give greater atte ntio n t o,

decorati ng the i nteriors o f her buildi ngs tha n t o the exte rnal
s ple ndour o f the A ttic peristyle So at all eve nts i t w as .
, , .

Cli mate and the n ecessities of Christia n ritual w or k ed to


gether and drew atte nt i o n to the i nn er decoratio n o f a
,

b uildi ng The C hurch s worship had bee n in s o ma ny cas es


.

subterra nea n w he n her buildi ngs had no outs i de at all that


, ,

all m e n s thoughts w ere give n to i ndoor sple ndours excepti ng ,

w he n some soari ng dome was raised to typi fy the va ult o f


heave n w hither they w ere all summo ned A nd it seems that .

the free use o f m osaic fo r m ural orname nt is also co nnected


w ith the catacomb chapels and arcosol i a The Fossor archi .
-

t e c t s had no exter nal light a nd no mea ns o f us i ng tra nspare nt


,

colours transmitted through stai ned glass A ll th e ir light .

w as i nter nal and arti cia l and they w ere led ac c ord i ngly to
,

c over their walls w ith a med iu m w h ich n o t o nly reected

li ght and eco nom i sed lamps and torches but w hi c h p o ss essed
, ,
GR E E K A R T A T R OM E . 81

su p re m e beau ty of colour e ffec t havi ng no b rilliant wi ndows


,

t o compet e w ith it T h e co ntest bet ween w i n dows and


.

m osaic or p ai nti ng is a vexed and d isturbi ng q uestio n with


, ,

o ur own arch itects and p ai nters A ll we have to say about it


.

is t hat it never c an be rightly solved b y ex aggerati ng colou r


,

on our w alls t o co nt e nd w ith t hat o f our w i nd ow s but that ,

t he op aq ue or t ra nspare nt pictu res must o ne or other ta k e t he


, ,

lead . The co nditions o f arc hitecture m ust decide and as the ,

N orth e rn or Germ an G othic employs larger spaces o f glas s ,

they m ust generall y be i nsi s ted o n in th at sty le in pre fere nc e ,

t o t h e w alls .

There is no doubt as to the ant iquity o f the arch poi nted ,

or ro u nd the former shape origi nate s in the gable and is


.
,

e xem p lied b y every chil d as he b egi ns his house o f cards .


I t is al so t h e most natural form for hori zo ntal vault ings ,

b uilt or le ft in a w all ; the true o r radiat i ng arc h built of ,

w edge shaped block s bei ng naturally adapted t o the c i rcular


-
,

s h ape The R oma ns never used any oth e r form and the
.
,

C loac a Maxi ma co ns i sts o f three arches o f this co nstructio n ,

o ne w ithi n a nother Great co nstructio ns like the vaults o f


.

M yce nae and Ti ry ns hew n as it were o u t o f the sol id sub


,

s t an ce o f th e w all and support e d as part o f it and no t as


, ,

w edge li k e block s b y their o w n coherence have n othi ng to d o


-
,

w i th the t ra nsition o f the true arch fro m R oma n to G othic .

A nd there w as t his special t ness in the radiati ng arc h for


C hristia n and N orthern G othic w ork that it le nt itsel f in
,

p art ic ular t o architecture o f domestic character and the mi no r

m ateri als Baths and cloaca: could no t and needed not all be
.

c arried o ut in t he P e ntelic mar b le w hich A ttic temples had at

h a nd . T h e utilitaria n buildi ngs o f R ome are made ad m irable


and impress i ve b y scale and skill in rough material and in ,

th em we p ass in some degree from t he i m pressio ns o f beauty


i nto th ose o f discipli ned and proportio ned force T h e P an .

t h eon as c ombi n i ng both in the highe s t degree m ust be for


, ,

e ver c o nsi d e red to hold t h e s ame positio n in L ati n and


d er i vati v e architecture as the P arthe no n in pure G reek But .

less c ost ly materials had to b e used o n a great scale through


ou t th e E mpire The m agn i tude o f R o m a n b u ild i ngs was
.

1 4 feet d i am ter ins i d e


e .

( 7.
82 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

n ecessa ry to th e grea tness o f R ome and her citizens not o nly ,

used the traverti ne o f their own hills but appl i ed themselves ,

vigorousl y to brickmaki ng B rick edices w ere s o common .

in R ome up t o the A ugu sta n age as t o give occasio n t o the ,

E mperor s boast that he ( or more properly V ipsan iu s A grippa)


had fou nd R ome o f brick (lateritzam ) and le ft her o f m arble


'

or rather en crusted with it It was not necessa ry to mould


, , .


blocks fo r the radiati ng arches The thi n w ell burn t tetra .
-

doron o r p e ntad oro n tile answ ered every purpose could ,

be w orked in a nyho w or be ma nu factured a ny where and , ,

w ith its fresh ceme nt o f lime bur nt on the da y of usi ng was ,

almost i mperishable The arch says Fergusso n w as n ever .


, ,

properly u nderstood till the R oman tiles w ere used fo r it .

A s w ith Babylo nia n brick s o f m ore dista nt time they w ere ,

d ul y dated w ith time and place maker s name and co nsul


, ,

ate and are o fte n important chro nological eviden ce


, T he .

2 2 nd L egio n has bee n traced through great part o f G erma ny

b y brick s w hi ch bear i ts na m e Bricks of the 6t h and 9t h .


L egio ns are fou nd at Y ork and dates thus obta ined h ave

,

been fou nd o f great val ue in determi ning the period o f


Christia n sepulchral cha m bers as in the cemete ry o f S ,
.

D omitilla w hich co ntai ns dated til es o f H ad ria n s reign


'
.
,

M r P arker s photographs o f the H ouse of P u de ns contai n



.

excelle nt specime ns of rst and seco nd cen tury brick or tile


w ork and illustrate its excelle n t applicatio n to radiati ng
,

arches The use o f less splendid materials seems in time t o


.

have w orked both w ays and mi nistered to pri de of science ,

instead o f pride o f state M r Street has explai ned in a . .


,

manner equally i nteresti ng and co nvi nci ng how the progress ,

o f architectural skill in b u ildi ng vast structures w it h b ricks


,

o r sto nes o f s m all size no larger tha n a m an could carry , ,

grad u ally e ngrossed atte ntio n so that m en began to vie with ,

each o ther in w o nder worki ng i nge nuities o f co nstructio n and


-
,

to thi nk less o f scu lpture and pai nti ng or expres sio n of ,

sole m n or i nve ntive thought .

I t is in R ome as has bee n said that the y et e ndur i ng types


, ,
-

o f a ncie n t arc h itecture become secul ar rather tha n ded i cated .

E W iene r D e Legi one R xxii D an m tad t 1 8 30 pp 1 06


.
, 37 . .
, , . .

3
See Wellbelo ved s
E ara mm .
GREEK AR T A T R OM E . 83

I n th e t otal absence o f any remai ns o f a Grec i a n house it is ,

e xt re mel y di fficu lt t o reco nstruct o ne from Vitruvi us hasty


a c cou nt of them in his o wn day which i s co ntradicted by ,

othe r weighty authorities eve n in such a m atter as the relative ,

p o s i t i o n s o f the A n dro n i t i s o r m e n s an d the G yn a c o n it is


, ,

or w ome n s apartme nts Which w ere placed in front or



.
,

w he th er in a fter times there w ere or w ere not t wo s eparate


-

entranc es in the same fro nt is duly discussed in Beck er s


C h aric les ( E xcursus on the G reek H ouse) T he streets .

o f Pompei i and H ercula neu m are o f course our great s o urce

of i nformatio n ; and as these cities were more G ree k tha n

R oma n no more i nstruct i ve examples could have bee n pre


,

s erv e d to u s Their co nstructio n c an hardly co nnect the m


.

w ith Chri s tia n work o f later days excepti ng through o ne ,

re v a i li ng feature a n d that a specially G reek o n t h e


p , e

bl ankness o f their house fro nts Their i nternal orn amen t -


.

m us t be c o nsidered u nder the heads o f Gra c o R oma n -

scu lpt ure and picture Be it ob served in passi ng that it .


,

is m uch to be regretted that our ow n popular op ini on o f


an cien t art es pecially o f pai nti ng should be fou nded o n the
, ,

v ol u ptuou s pretti nesses of the w alls o f P ompeii I n E ngland .


,

t h i s m us t ha ve c o n tributed greatly t o t h e natio nal susp i cio n


of th e graphic a rts as o nl y ve h icles o f se nsuality the more , ,

beauti fu l the more subtle and there fore the w orse Cities, .

or lad i e s o f pleas ure are alike u nt to be typical speci m e n s

of t heir g en us .

H ow ever the bald street fro ntages o f A thens where in


, , ,

h er best day s m en gave all their sple ndour t o the gloriou s


,

te m ples and theatres in w hich they met as true citize ns were



,

c e rt ainl y repeated in the cities o f Mag na G ra cia and very ,

p r o b a bl y in R ome u n less they w ere


,
2
varied b y shops in the ,

lo w e r oo rs o f some block s or ins u lar N ow Christia ns w ere .


,

fo r th e rst t w o cen turies accustomed to meet fo r prayer and


s ac rame n ts in private houses and m ust have bee n w ell used ,

t o th eir bla nk exterior A nd this added t o their early .


,

I huc ii 1 4 65 Stat G a m p 8 D e h no m ust alway


' '
. . D ic a archu
, . s, . r , . . u o ur s

be gi en th e Ath en ian in parti cul ar f


v spe nd ing thei w eal th n p bli pl nd , or s r o u c s e o ur

rath er than pri vate lux ry t ntati n Th y certainly cont a t y fa u ably


u or os e o . e r s ver vo r

with oursel es in th i e p c t
v s r s e .

See D yer s P amper},



p . 8 .
84 GR E E K AN D G OT H I C .

associ at i o ns o f E astern streets close latticed and featureles s ,


-
,

may have co ntributed to the great R oma no Christia n m od i -

catio n o f the temple i n to the basilica and C hristia n church .

A ll their decoratio n was w ithi n The typical example o f .

this progress is in the great hall o f D iocletia n s palace at

Spalat ro This buildi ng is tra nsitio nal and there fore full o f
.
x
,

w ro ng co m bi natio ns as pillars w ith nothi ng to support or , ,

set o n each other or on co nsoles N evertheless it possesses


, .
,

true gran de u r and the aisle pillars o f its great hall w i th the ir
, ,

be nt u p entablat ure may make ame nds fo r the great arch at


-
,

the e nd which is magn ice nt if w ro ng


, , .

It was in fact the te nde ncy o f R oma n b uildi ng w hich


, ,

made the Christia n Church as P ro fessor R uski n w rites , ,


c


seize upo n the arch as her ow n decorate and delight in it , .

I t might be thought that H ebrew G reek and Syria n feeli ng , ,

w ould have adhered m ore closely to the sha ft and horizo ntal
frieze and i ndeed the great church o f Bethlehem is disti n
, ,

g u is h e d from ma n y others by its lo n g co n ti n uo u s li n tel


e nta b lature 3 A nd here at le ngth w e reach w hat are po pu
.
, ,

larly supposed to be the opposi ng a s th e t ic pri nciples o f

G reek and Goth ic that the former is horizo ntal and earth
,


bou nd the latter vertical and aspiri ng
, There is no doubt .

that the u s e o f the arch b reaki ng up the level e ntablature , ,

did give upw ard directio n t o the eyes and thoughts o f


w orshippers in the earliest basilica A nd in d ue time t he .

N orther n races d wellers in the shade o f pi ne w oods brough t


,
-
,

their associatio ns o f forest aisles and cl ustered col um ns i nto


the L o m b ard w ork o f N o rthern Italy which bec ame true ,
.

or vertical Gothic on this side the A lps The vertical tra n .

s itio u dou b tless bega n w ith the R oma n arch wh i ch the ,

Church accepted as she fou nd it in the basilica she built or ,

occupied at the e nd o f the persecutio ns But as certai nl y


, . .

the Christia n imagi natio n did early and delightedly a ttach


itsel f to the do m e and rou nd vault Their great ci rcu lar or .

s pi ral perspectives swept the eye up wards as surely and


m uch more naturally tha n perpe ndicular l i nes T he i dea .

See D Aginc ou rt, A rc/riiertu rc , pl



. III . te xt, v ol. i p . . to .

9
Stone: of Ven ice, v o l 14 . i p . . .

3
Lo rd L
i nd s a s I/ I i lur
y
'

y qf C h i s/id
'

A ri, i .
p . 2 3.
GR E E K A R T A T R OM E . 85

of as pirat i o n or heave n seeki ng as the i nte nded character i stic


-

o f m e d ia val G othic is harmless and may be allo w ed but , ,

reall y depe nds o n the ocular la w s o f spri ngi ng curve rather ,

th an on perpe ndicularit y I t is no t sheer height straight .

u p wards whi c h gives this i m pressio n it is the soari ng curves ,

o f arches an d vaults in perspective and t he earliest an d

l oftiest ideas o f this ki nd have b een gi ven by the Orie ntal



d ome and cupola Soari ng . li nes in fact mea n li nes , ,

w hich mou nt like an eagle : and eagles do no t in fact y , ,

straight at the ze nith but s weep up ward in vast spirals N o r


, .

d oes the true Gothic i nterior depe nd o n perpe ndicular li ne s ,

bu t o n pe rspe ctives o f piers and arches o n curves radiati ng ,

from cl ustered pillars and o n the co nseque nt appeara nc e o f


,

li fe and growth aw ay i nto the vaulted roo f There is u m .

q uestio nably a suggestio n o f I n n ity and the vast Beyo nd


in all spri ng i ng or projectile cu rves : and even the semi
c i rcl e s o f th e rou nd arch though mecha n ical and li feless
,

cu rves when se en in an elevatio n draw i ng have full e ffect ,

o f li fe and v ig our whe n see n in the perspectives o f an actual

c olo nnade .H eight o f course tells w ith great force and the ,

e ffect o f the successive pairs o f curves which form lo fty

arch e s is perhaps best expressed in a si ng le w ord o f Ca no n


, ,

K i ngsley s uprushi ng piers A n d as the cu rve o f the

.
,

rou nd arch b egi ns at the top o f the s ha ft it retai ns the idea ,

o f orga n ic grow th fro m a s tem like a palm t ree g ro wth o f ,


-

im mo rtal vegetatio n i nterlaci ng its bra n ches in cross vaults


,
-
,

re ne w i ng its youth w ith every pier or colum n till the w hole

a isle is li k e an ave n ue in the gard e n o f t h e L ord Those .

w ho hav e o fte n w al k ed in palm groves w ill have little d if -

c u lty in seei n g an a nalogy b et w ee n thei r b ra nch e s and the

rou nd v aulti ng which is parallel to that bet w ee n the G othic


,

aisle and the ave nues o f the N orthern forest So that the 2
.

c ircu lar arch leadi ng o n gradually (by its intersectio ns or


,

o the rwise ) to the poi nted o ne may w ell express the rst ,

inbrea k o f C hristia n hope re al yet u n realised upo n the level


, ,

lines o f A the nia n s tre ngth co n te nt e d beauty and thought , ,

bou nded by the far and low horizo n .

See Salm ia, by Sir H y . D av .

p
T he alm is t hus archi tec turally us ed in a ~
arc o ph agus . D alian } vol i tav . . . 22 .
86 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

But there w as i ndee d a natural and deep feeli ng in pri mi a

tive da ys agai nst the pure G reek forms and their associatio ns ,

w hich never c an b e forgotte n The most cursory reader o f .

Te rtullia n D e I dolatria w ill apprehend the dread and


"
, ,

dea nce of idolat ry w hich it represe nts and w hich seems to ,

have bee n almost u niversal in th e Church The G ree k temple .

w as b uilt for its i nd weller and had its agalma the god s

, ,

image so named as a thi ng o f beauty and delight : and this


,

w as emphatically t o be the j oy o f G ree k s no lo nger for


ever Whatever high sy mbolis m o f the One God may have
.

q ualied the image w orship o f P heid ias and his ge neratio n


-
,

that race was go ne and blank supe rstition or bla nk denial


,

had take n its place The temple and all its beauties o f
.

li ne and colour propo rtion sculpture pai nt i ng pa ans and


, , , , ,

i ncense seemed a place of sacrice to devil s where in


,
,

plai n fact the Pagan vi c es o f desire and cruelty w ere fully


,

sanctio ned Be fore its altars had stood shiveri ng L apsi


. ,

drive n by fear or actual stress of torme nt to spri nkle on


the P aga n ame the i nce nse w hich they believed was e nd
less rui n to their souls The colum ned fronts and pedi
.

me nts the open pe risty les and fou nta ins of l ust ratio n all
, ,

remi nded men of the co nti nua nce o f b lood y sacrice w hich ,

Christ had brought t o an end T he ag al m a was w ithi n .


,

it had often looked on impassively at the tortu res o f th e


N azarene A ll the dee ds and ho nours o f th e false go d w e re
.

c arven o r grave n arou nd and glorious or shame ful they


, , ,

w ere a part o f the buildi ng al w ays A ll the state and .

beauty o f the G ree k temple was b ou nd to the pol yt heistic


system ; and w e nd in co nseq ue nce that but few temples ,

comparatively speaki ng w ere turn ed to the p urposes of


,

Christian worship Basilica or large halls w ere occu pied


.
, ,

b e fore and a fter the Peace o f the Church ; and the us ual
domestic orname nt of such rooms in the large houses o f the
richer converts (as in th e palace o f P udens) gave no offence
to the assembled c o ngregatio ns They came i n deed to give . . ,

sy m bolic mea ni ngs o f their own to favou rite G ent ile subjects ,

as vi nes and shepherds and to co nstruct a system o f pi c ture


teachi ng fo r themselves which grad uall y exte nded to h istoric
,

i llustratio n o f H oly Scripture .


88 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

rema i ning w alls have j ust been exami ned a ne w and placed ,

o n faith ful record fo r eve r in photograph by the care of ,

M r J H P a rker
. . . .

The ancient w alls ce rtai nl y o f the rst or second century , ,

are stil l part o f the prese nt church of S P u d e nt iana w hich .


,

w as in fact the basilica or great hall o f P udens palace and


'

, , ,

y et retai ns these portio ns o f its origi nal structure behi n d the


altar Mr P arker s photographs have their usual i nterest
. .

here as documents beyo nd dispute and the pictures o f the


, ,

brick arches are specially valuable as givi ng the reader a ,

c lear idea at o ne gla n ce o f w ha t the t rue rs t ce ntury brick -

w ork or rather tilew or k o f R ome really was


,
There are , .

t ype s o f the radiati ng arch w hich fully bear ou t Mr Fer , .

observatio s o n it ; the thi nness o f the tiles an d


'

us s on s n
g
excelle nce o f the ceme nt re n der key sto nes u nnecessary and ,

bi n d the w hole w all together in one i mpe rishable mass .

P assi ng over the lege ndary but by no m ea ns impro bable ,

accou nt o f the family o f P udens and his connectio n w ith



,

Britai n by marriage w ith G lad ys or Claud ia dau ghter of , ,

Claudius C o s id u bnu s o f Britai n po ssibly Claudia in 2 Tim , .

iv w e may fairly ta k e M r P arker s sketch o f the


. .

"
arc ha olog ic al case fo r the house o f P ude ns !
A nastasi us gives the li fe o f P i us I as Bishop o f R ome .
,

A D
. 1 54 . 1 62 P ius was accordi ng to traditio n the grand
.
, ,

s o n o f P ude ns the frie nd o f St Paul H e made the Therm a


, . .

o f N ovat u s in the P atr icia n Street i n to a church to his sister ,

S P o te nt iana or P u d e ntiana the martyr (d od icav it eccles iam


.

T /zermas N ovat i in v ico P atric io) This may remi n d us of .

the consecratio n o f the P a ntheo n in the time of P hocas ; but


these ba ths of N o vatu s are ide ntied w ith the baths o f
Timotheus (a member o f the P ude ns family) where S J usti n , .

M arty r had lived t ill w ith in a short time o f his d eath 5 N o .

P hotograph s 1 7 8 1 7 34 I 7 3 5 , , .

See Sm ith s D i ti na y of ti B ibl P d en


'
c o r re e, r. v .
. u s.

This i ce tainly c n m ed by M art ial in E pig li b i


3 s r 29 ;
o 8
4 ; v i r8
5 ; , . . . v . .

77

A d R fu m
. d e N u ptii P d enti et Claudia per g i na
u C laudia s u s e r .

ca r l is cu m sit R na B ritanni
u e E d i ta xi and i 1 3
u C laud ia R ufe m eo s.

. v. .
, ,

n bit p ere i
u
g na P d e n ti &c r u , .

Lec t e to the R oyal A cha ological I n ti tu te J ne 2 1 8 7 1 A lso in M


ur r s , u , . r.

H emans M on u ment:

o f A ncien t R ome .

5 S . P N J ustini P hil
. .
, . et M art yri, O p era. E d B ened P ar
. . . r7 42 , fol . p .
386 .
GREEK AR T A T R OM E . 89

p o lem i cal issue depe nds o n this matter and it seems u n ,

reaso n able t o dispute every fact about R om an martyrs o n ly

be c ause th ey su ff ered at R ome These b aths may very w ell .

h ave been a part o f the large area o f the D o m us belo ngi ng


t o Pud e ns in the rst ce ntu ry w hich w as pro b ably co nverted
into an ins ula or block o f smaller houses in the course o f the
, ,

n ext h u n dred an d fty years ; so as to be most popularly

k n own b y its bath s But the more i mportant pa rt o f the


.

e vide nce the best co n rmed by M r P arker s perso nal

, .

inspectio n and care ful photograph y is the follo w i ng : ,


T h e arc ha olog ic al evide nce is stro ngl y in favour o f the
t ru t h o f th ese traditio n s the exist i ng remai ns o f some great
palac e of the rst century w ith alteratio ns o f the seco nd are
, ,

v ery d i sti n ct. It was built agai nst the southern cli ff o f the
V i mi nal H ill . The cellars u nder the houses in the Via de
S P u d ent iana ( origi nall y called the Vicus P at ric iu s ) co nsist
.

o f a se ri es o f lo ng na rrow vaulted ch amb ers the arches o f


, ,

w hich are built of the ne brick w ork o f the rst ce ntury .

T he subterra nea n chu rch is formed out o f these lo ng narrow ,

v aults w ith arches pierced through the w alls and w ith clere
, ,

s tory windo ws made over them These w i ndo ws must have


.

O pe ned into an area and so w ere j ust b elow the level of the
,

g rou n d
,
a n d t h ere fore o u t o f sight T Ice w hole arrang ement
.

was ad m irably calcu lated to avoid obs ervation in t imes of per


secu t ion . But the persecutio ns usually lasted but a fe w mo nth s
o nl y : at other times the Christians w ere treated like other
c iti z e ns and govern ed by the same law s
, They could and .

did assemble in each other s houses at ordi nary ti m es : usuall y


as their n um b ers i ncreased in t he basilica or great hall the


, , ,

largest room in the house This was evide ntly the case in the
.

h ouse o f Pudens as the pres ent church o f St P u d e nt iana sta nds


, .

in the origi nal hall o f the palace ; and the outer w all o f it c an
be se en beh ind the altar w ith the large hal l w i ndo w s in it o f
,

the rs t ce ntury lled up w ith b rick w ork o f the seco nd so


, ,

nearly res embli ng the origi nal co nstructio n that it is n o t easy

at o n ce to d isti nguish them The origi nal w all and arches o f


.

the h all wi ndo w s agree per fectly w ith the arches in the cellars

and t he s ubterra n ea n ch u rch .

H ot air ues are also fou nd cut in the w all o f the rst
-
9 0 GREEK AN D GO THIC
century ; w hich co nnects all w ith the Therm a . T he n ame
Titulus P u d e nt is is applied to the pla c e by A nast asius z

T it u lu m P u d entis , ie
. . e c c les iam Sanc tia P o tent iana
m

P u d e nt iana ) in ru in is i nov ite r re parav it
( p os t a .

As we have said there is no reaso n why any pa rty should


,

w ish to dispute the authe n ti city o f this traditio nal histo ry o f


existi ng remai ns T h e vaults and especially their material
.
, ,

are docu me ntary evide n ce ; let it not b e said that the brick

w ork like that q uoted in evide nce by J ack C ade is not


, ,

disti nguishable from other w orks in the same material for ,

it is u n mistakab ly rst and seco nd ce ntury Mr P arker s -


. .

examples e nable any perso n to disti nguish at e nce between


the bricks o f earlier and later ages and these are certai nly ,

o f the earliest and take n w ith the traditio n the y are a most
, ,

i mporta nt feature in early Church history and illustrate the ,

quiet growt h o f Chri stian li fe in R ome givi ng us w hat is so ,

much w a nted a sense o f its progress in peace ful times w hen


, ,

the Faith all u nnoticed gre w mightily and prevailed and ,

w he n the pri ncipal feature noticed in the demea nour and


li fe o f its pro fessors w as h ow greatly they loved o ne a nother .

Such times are go ne : yet in all o u r compla i nts o f each other s


frow ard ness and lame nts over u navoidable schism s we may ,

co nsider that a certai n u nde ned peace and desire o f pea c e ,

w hich is love i s possible and exists eve n no w in the in ter


, ,

m issions o f a nx i ous d isputatio n and burni ng ques ti ons as ,

i t did in the persecuted Church ; which could not qua rrel


w i thi n itsel f because it w as threate n ed from w ithout w ith
,

mocki ng and s courgi ng re and lio ns T hrough all this


,
.
,

these me n s love for each other in their L ord m ade li fe
en durable and death a victory .

R oma n portrait sculpture must have begu n w i th the


-

I magi nes o f departed a ncestors ; and this in i tsel f w ould


have much to do w ith i ts i nferiority because i t too k sculpture ,

out o f the temples and prevented its bei ng as in G reece a


, , ,

n ecessary additio n to architecture N evertheless the house .


,

hold faith and service o f R ome to the dead priests o f the


H earth re w as a ge n ui ne thi ng in early ti mes and so w ere
-
,

the L ares Virgil sho ws his respect fo r it by maki ng E neas


.

xl ii 343 H ad i an I A D 7 7 2 7 9 5
v . . r . . . .
9 2 GREEK AN D GO THIC .

h eadi ng this chapter to connect the w ord R ome with the


of

w ord A rt because fo r a series o f ages a large proportio n o f


,

th e best w ork s o f art have al w ays b ee n kept in R o m e o fte n ,

destroyed w ith her destructio ns But strictly speaki ng .


, ,

R ome had no i nve ntive share in Fi ne A rt H e r arts w ere .

exactly as Virgil described them those o f crushi ng and exter ,

m inat ing w ar fare co nquest and prolo nged milita ry occup a


, ,

tio n T o spare the sub m issive that is to say to leave those


.
,

people in possession o f their lives who cared to retai n the m


w he n everythi ng else w as take n aw a y ; and to extermi nate
the proud that is to say all who clu ng to their i ndepe ndence
,

to tear and break in pieces w ith teeth and talo ns o f iron ,

was the u nvaried custom o f th e R epublic and E m pire The .

great R oma n m odications and discove ries in art are due to


the E trusca n eleme nt in R ome as the polygo nal road ways , ,

the arch and vault ; though d o ubt less th e use o f bricks (i e


'

. .

broad at tiles) was a great R oma n i mprov eme nt in the


rou nd arch Still R ome laid ha nds on the arts as o n every
.

thi ng else and spread them over E urope w ith e n dless


,

repetitio n and m ultiplicatio n She gav e m e n m uch fo r their


.

liberty and they co nti n ued t o lead a li fe as n early as possi ble


,

sim ilar to the habits and customs o f their i ndepe nde n ce A nd .

w ithout adopti ng any opti m ist or laudatory vie w o f R oma n


rule still less (for it is impossi b le) o f R oma n conq uest one
, ,

ca nnot but see that submissive allies w ere treated at least


w ell e nough t o make them i nto secure bases fo r more
adva nced operatio n s o f co nquest : that war was forbidde n
and the Pax R oma n a mai ntai ned throughout the w hole
I m perium Whe n nature had covered the ghastly tracks of
.

the legions and the bo nes o f slai n freeme n had returned to


,

t heir dust fresh ge n eratio ns gre w up in subj ectio n and u nder


, ,

an iro n order w hich gave full security and allo w ed eve n ,

happi ness in its way It w as slo wly and surely e nervati ng


.

and demoralisi ng but did no t prohibit the domestic v irtues ;


,

and C hristia n m orality held its o wn u nder it I ndeed we .

cannot say that the A the ns o f D emosthe nes or the E gypt ,

o f P tole m y or the A sia o f A n tiochus


, or the Tare ntum o f ,

Pyrrhus s day could have gone o n for ever or that either
, ,

w ould have bee n (as a body politic or natio n) a spe cially , ,


GR EE K A R T AT R OM E .
93

a d mi rable e x ample to races to co m e We are apt to a rgue .

in view o f the cal am ities o f war and the feroc i ty o f R oman


devastat i o n as if all men slai n w ith pil um and broadsword
,

w ou ld have be e n i mmortal w ithout them or at leas t have ,

d i ed l u x uriously in bed and enj oyed respectable crematio n .

I t is u seless t o compare the facts o f history w ith any ideal


o rder o f thi ngs T o the e nd o f t ime ma nk i nd m ust loo k
.
,

s h u dderi ng o n records or evidences o f death and all the


e vi l w or k w hich culmi nates in it o fte n in u ncertai nty w hose ,

fate has bee n t he worse that of the slai n or of the slayer , .

Before her b ou ndari es had reached their full exte nt R om e


had begu n to tear out her o wn e ntrails T he massacres o f .

T h rasym e ne an d C a nna w ere never repaired ; but w ere


re newe d b y th e s oc i al w ars u ntil the desolatio n o f I tal y ,

promised in vision to t h e implacable enemy was full y ac ,


c om p lished by the I mper i al city hersel f fo r h ersel f T he , .

A u gusta n age had its v illas o f degradi ng l uxury its lati fu ndi a ,

and ru stic fam ilies of w retched slaves scar c ely d i sguisi ng ,

th e d e solation o f the wasted corn la nds wh i ch had o nce fe d -

t he co nqueri ng y eome n of L atium .

E xcludi ng M arcellus the s w ord o f R ome and Fabi u s , ,

M aximus wh o s h o wed moderatio n and some rel i gious feeli ng


,

( w i th th e S cipios wh o see m to have ta k e n a literary vie w o f


,

art and foreseen the tri umphs o f G reek e ducatio n in their


,

o wn c ou ntry) from the list o f chie f spoliators ; there remai n

C M an lius Fu lv ius N obilio r (wh o plu ndered the te m ples


.
, ,

o f A m brac ia) M u mm iu s and Sulla L ucull us Sc au ru s and


, , ,

V e rres Y e t the stores o f the R hodia n work shops w ere


.

in exhaustible and the artistic populatio n must have bee n


,

v ery la rg e : able to supply a great G reek school in R ome as ,

in t he s eve nth centu ry A D w he n barbari sm had returned to


, . .
,

h er decade nce N at i ve talent w as overpo wered but there


.

w as patro nage e no u gh through portraiture triumpha n t bas ,

re l i e f an d orid architectural o rname nt to for m what are 2


, ,

C icero, D e D v n i i i
24 . . .

T he e
r ha d lo n g b e en an occa s on al d e m an d fo r sc enesio f battle a nd v c tor at i y
R ome ; and IE milius s ord er about mpo rt ng a ree k a nter and a

i i oso G
er pi phil ph
cannot h
ave bee n the e arl es t ns ta nc e o f i i
atronage in the forme r ne p ere li . Th
was a p c tur o
e if th Feas t o
e f V olon cs , or free d m e n -
sold ers, of T ibe r us rac c us i i G h
94 GREEK AN D GO THIC .

called the arts of the A ugusta n age What belo ngs to th at .

period is the developme nt o f the arch and v aul t u nderstood


fro m th e earliest times b ut now w orked ou t in the best ,

adapted material the broad tile bricks and excellent mortar ,


-

o f the rst ce n tury A D . .

R oma n religio n had s o much t o d o w ith a n cestral and


sepulchral rites that a great part o f the tra nsitio n o f decoration
,

bet wee n G reek and Teutonic is traceable in sepulchres o nly as ,

D A ginc ou rt says : and R ome is hersel f a su ffi cie nt p lace of


'

tombs fo r all i n quiries O urs w ill lead u s t o the subjects .

o f i nterme n t crematio n and the great catacomb or sub


, ,

terranea n system ; and a co nnecti ng example o f the burial


place and sarcophagi of the great IE m ilian house yet remai ns
to us called the Tomb o f the Scipios This w ill come in more
,
.

properly at the begi nni ng o f ou r chapters o n the Christia n


Catacombs Mea nwhile as the m u ral orname nt o f all these
.
,

s epulchres is b y pai nti ng rather tha n sculpture there are ,

plates and descriptio ns in the w ork s o f M Seroux d A ginc o u rt .


w hich w e here stro ngly recomme nd the reader t o look at if


he c an P lates [ 0 I I and 1 2 v ol v A rch itectu re ( the Tomb of
, , , , . .

the Scipios is at plate 1 2 descriptio ns in vol iii p 8 , . .


, .
,

These are from E trusca n tombs at T arq u inii or Corneta near , ,

Civita Vecchia and they illustrate t he d ec o rat io n as the


, .
,

I E m ilian tomb does the co nstructio n o f the e arlier cata c ombs .

The rst ma y be described here as show i ng in some measure ,

w hat a ncie n t R oma n pai nti ng w ould have bee n e ve n w i th out


the i nux of G ree k models .

The T arq u inian tombs may be briey desc ribed as broad


low bro wed sepulchral chambers s u pported b y massive pill ars
-
,

aft er the battle of B eneventum, cons ec rated by him in th e T emple of Libe ty r on

the Av entin e in B C . . 2 !3 ( Li vy xx v i . and t hi s w as p


ro bably b y a Gree k .

Fe gusson H ist A / ita t


r , ol i 1 88 . pa t I ; bk I I ch
rc z I t seems
c u re, v . . r . . . . v.

that th As yrian us ed the po inted arc h f


e s s tunnels aqu ed uc ts and generally for or , ,

u nd ground w o k w h re they feared great s p e i ncum be nt p e


er r e me n the apex u r r s u o ,

and th o nd arc h abo e g


e r u nd w h ere that w as not to be d ead ed
v rou and in th i the y
, r s

p bably showed m e sc ienc than we d o in uc h w ks H is ea lie t round


ro or e s or .

r s

arch es a e m a tomb near the Gee eh p yrami d a round rad iati ng vault of

ne f r o , ro z s,

f ur cour
o e a i ngular three s toned a c h
ses ov r and the city gates
s f Kh orsahad -
r o

( pp r5 8 1 8 7 ) p fect enou h t p ove that the arch was th


.
-
g er o ghly u nd erstood in
o r or u

the time of Sargon .


9 6 GREEK AN D GO THIC .

glad i atori al exhibit io ns w ere really the chie f means of destroy


ing all taste fo r true art an d its ge ntle pleasures in the R oma n
people . Some what more may be said o f this : but it is
evide nt at sigh t tha t th e exc i tement o f cruelt y must over
po wer any feeli ng fo r natural beauty except the most grossly ,

sensual ; and it is fou nd as a fact that cruelty is ge nerally


co nnected either w ith d ul ness o f feeli ng i n capable of art or ,

w ith that rage o f satiety male and female which has o nly
, ,

eyes for the evil side of art and has ceased to feel eve n that
,

as a stimulus T he charact er o f N ero is in fact the logical


.

development o f R oma n art and l uxury and he has his ,

sympathisers accordi ngl y in modern days But now and then .

faith ful and pow er ful w it ness is bor n e to the dread ful tra nsi
tion from se nsuality t o cruelty as in the follo wi ng li nes ,

from

There c om es a time
W hen the insatiate brute w ith in the man ,

W ea y wi th wall wing in the m ire leaps f th


r o , or

D vouri ng and the c l o en saty h oof


e ,
v r-

G ws to th e end ing c law and the so l sinks


ro t , u ,

A nd l ea es the man a d e il all his sin


v v ,

G wn sa ou l s and yet he longs to sin


ro v r es ,

A nd l ngs in ai n fo e e
o v r v r.

For a fe w easily accessible specimens of R oma n portrait


sculpture orig inal or in photograph see list at the e nd of
, ,

this book .
C H A PT E R II .

G R E GG R - O M AN
P AI NT I NG T H E W ALL S or P OM P E II .

T H OU G H the pictures which o n ce adorned the w alls o f


Pom peii and H erculaneum are no t al wa ys agreeable obj ects
o f co ntemplatio n some co nsiderable atte ntio n should be paid
,

t h e m b y an atte ntive stude nt o f art or history ta k i ng them as ,

docume nts ill ustrative of the ti m es w hich preceded and suc


c ee d e d them as w ell as o f their o w n
, From the decoratio n o f
.

th es e l i tt le pleasure cities o f Mag na G ra cia w e may k no w


-

p rett y w ell w hat popular G reek art had come t o ; w hat w as

its standard and ai m if any ; w hat amou nt o f beau ty it


,

retai ne d w hat signs of failure are v isi b le in tech n ical po w er


u p to A D .
79 ;
. an d w hat o n the w hole R
, oma n patro n s a n d,

employers o f the rst c entury really paid their artists to do .

A nd further the system o f decoratio n the g eometrical borders


, ,

and brea k i n g u p o f w alls i n to pa nels should be compared ,

w it h those o f the earlier Catacombs as th ey w ill be fou nd ,

v al uable mea ns o f disti nctio n and e nable the trave l ler to ,

m ake some co njectures as t o the date o f the rst pai nti ng


o f m a ny cubicula G e ll s w ork an d D yer s P ompeii are

.

alway s access i ble : the larger Fre nch an d G erma n H erc u

la neu m ct P ompeii is at least easy to nd in libraries w ith ,

th e exceptio n o f the eighth vol ume which most private ,

p e rs o n s w ould be i n cli ned to subject t o cre m atio n Fi n al ly .


,

M r J W Park er s P hotog raphs of P ompeian Fres coes w ith


. . .
,

the earlier o nes from the to m b o f St at iliu s Taurus and ,

oth e rs o f the rst ce ntury fro m the Villa P am ph ili D oria


at R om e w ill give the best po s sible ide a o f t h e prese nt state
, ,

ll
9 8 GREEK AN D GO THIC .

and no t a bad o ne o f the origi nal appeara nce and tech nical
skill o f the w all pai nti ngs Fi nally a visit to the C rystal
,
.
,

P alace w i t h L ord L ytto n s L as t D ays of P ompeii in o ne s hand


w ill give a nybody w ith some slight k no wledge o f R oma n his


tory a fair e nough grou nd w ork to start from in study o f the -

progress or rather rapid decadence o f G ra ce R oma n pai nti ng


, ,
-
.

H e w ill see that ill do ne as they are the Christia n picture s


,
-
,

o f the cemeteries do fo r a time co n ti nue this style o f decora

tio n w ith their own subjects u ntil they fail altogether H e , .

w ill u ndersta nd from these w orks in a great de gree in a


still greater fro m third and fourt h ce ntury sculptures how -

virtually hopeless the decaden ce o f heathen art had beco m e


be fore Christ s comi ng and h ow completely its rui n w as ac

complished be fore the Christia n Church had any pow er over


,

P aga n temples or statues T h e very best works o f Pompeia n .

art are nugatory as co m pared w ith the great G reek schools ;


the less importa nt pai nti ngs are facile and o fte n pretty w ith ,

harmless play ful fan cies and i magery There is every c on .

c e ivable variety o f grace fully equivocal g u re pai nti ng and - -


,

some work o f which nothi ng n ee d be said except th at it goes .

far to bear o ut St Paul in R oma ns i and J uve nal in some


. .

o f his worst Satires



.

T he Christia n faith does no t sta nd o n its morality alo ne .

To plead that as tri umpha nt over all evil w ould be to assert


a success w hich is yet w ithheld T he ex i ste nce o f both .

i mmorality and i n delit y is yet a solem n and i nsupe rable fact


but we Christians have an equal r i ght to assert o u r o wn exist
e nce ; as well as o u r o wn si ncerity ; and to sa y that races o f
greater stre ngt h and w ilder passio ns tha n the R om ans o r
G ree ks have learn t sel f restra i n t from the Fai t h s i n ce t he rs t
-

ce ntu ry ge nerally by pai nful methods


, T he quotatio n at .

p I 7 from the Master of B alliol s E pistles of St P aul sums


.
,

.
,

up all that need be said o n this matter .

P ompeia n art is e ntirely decorati ve in the modern sense ; ,

pictures are parts o f the general e ffect o f a roo m ; th ere


is never any atte m pt at i nstructio n or any ideal better ,

tha n that o f prese nt beauty ; very skil ful ha nds hav e be e n


Some of the w ors t o f t ese h pi c tu res w ere found in pi
r vate roo ms of p alaces
and g eat
r houses , not in p bli
u c hau nts of s in .
I OO GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

well adapted to rou nd arch c onstructio n at th i s day Ma ny


-
.

examples o f the earliest Christia n w ork are truly classical ,

A u g u sta n an d w ell adapted to R o m a n R e naissa n ce b uildi ngs


,

o f that character ; so that our great metropolita n Cathedral

m ight be adorned w ith patte rn s used by the P rimiti ve Church


and its martyrs to the pe rfect satis facti o n both o f arc h a o log y
,

and tech nical rigorism .

It w ould be delight ful could w e produce ex amples o f deco ,

ration from the walls o f Christia n d welli ngs w here the brethren
met in quiet days N o w riter has ever ve n tured o n an attempt
.

to represe nt Christia n happi ness in primitive times yet it c an ,

hardly be beca use there was not any A ll their pai nti ng is so .

peace ful gentle and al most j oyous in subj ect that it leaves
, ,

no doubt that hope in their Master led H is se rva n ts through

fear and gh t ings no t u n cheer fully They too k their house .

decoratio n i n to t he cataco m bs ; and there too they learnt , ,

the sculpture o f sarcophagi in has relie f o nly The great ,


-
.

rarity o f detached statues or images may prov e to us that


ico n oclastic troubles hardly existed as such in the Pri miti ve , ,

Church ; and that i m ages were fo r 300 years too heartil y dis
liked by the people as co n ne cted w ith P agan is m to give their
, ,

t e ache rs m uc h u n easi ness a b out idolatry w ithi n the Church .

That arose w ith sai n t worship o r in other w ords w it h the -


, , ,

decay o f the popular faith w h ich could no longer c all directly ,

o n Christ the L ord as a heave n ly Frie nd and s o required ,

a sig n or mediators w ith the Mediator Merely i nstruct i ve


, .

sculpture and pai nti ng historical and symbolic existed from , ,

the rst ; and from the rst was take n as i t w as mea n t and ,

s o it has bee n eve n t o this day .

It is probable that the rst acquisitio n by the C hu rch of


gre at bas ilicas as places o f m eeti ng and the i mp ulse th us ,

give n to Christia n architecture in that form led to i mport a nt ,

quest io ns about decorat io n T h e basili cas w ere full o f statues .

o f great m e n o f ti m es past besides pai nti ng and bas relie f ,


-

and in m any c ases somethi n g w ould h e w a nted to ta k e the

il
See M m an, H ist . C it rirlian ity, vol . iii . book iv . , ch. iv . p .
378, 1 8 67 ,
w h ere th e ad orat i on p id t i m
a o ages o f sa nts i is trac ed to t hat w hich was allowed
to be ad d s SC d to s tatues o f Em p e rors . D amas cenu s j ustie the former by the
s

lat te r ; 8 . Je ro me s p ake s of l
th e atte r as rank id lat y
o r .
THE WA L L S OF P OIPI P E I I . 101

p lace all this orname nt H e nce the great impulse g i ve n to


of .

p a i n ti n g a n d especially
, t o mosaic ; an d from this n eed arose the
grea t deco rative mov eme nt w hich is attached fo r the prese nt ,

to the scarcel y re m embered name of Pauli nus o f N ola D eities


-
.
,

or deied empero rs o r their favourites had bee n removed fro m , ,

the Christia n Ch u rches to the sca ndal o f L iban iu s and h is ,

modern c c religio nists The Church s aw no di ffere nce betw ee n


-
.

Seja nu s an d his master and no doubt tre ated both th eir ,

e ig ies as the mob o f R ome d id the dead favourite s


'

.

The spirited animal pai nti ngs o f the Villa P am ph ili D oria - -

have been already alluded to and w ill be fou nd in M r ,


.

Par k e r s C ollection of P /cotog rap/I s Vol xix N o s 2 69 6 2 7 0 5



,
. .
,
.
, ,

&c .T hey bear co nsiderable rese m bla n ce in style to t h e


w or k s fou nd in P ompeii and also to those in the e arli e st ,

C hri s tian tombs an d cataco m bs as the tomb o f D o m itilla ,


.

T he Pompe ia n la ndscape possesses great natu ralistic merit to ,

j udge by M R o u x s records o f it and th e existence o f small


.

la n dscapes in the D omitilla vaul t an d also in the C allix t ine ,

C atacomb are stro ng argu m e nts fo r the high a ntiq u ity o f


,

th os e cemeteries .

G ree k patter ns resemble each other in P ompeii as else


w here ; and there is marked rese m bla n ce bet w ee n the pave
m e n t or vault patter ns w hich are fou n d there and the Christ ia n
-

v ault orname nts o f the Church o f St Co nsta nti ne at R ome


-
. .

C o n nec ti ng pictures bet ween the pl e asure cities o f R ome and


- -

its caves o f Christia n i nter m e n t are no t likely t o be n u m erous


bu t D e R ossi states that in the crypt o f L uci na (no w j oi ned
t o t h e Catacomb o f St Sebastia n) the G ood Shepherd is .

rep e ated alter n ately w ith a w oma n s gure w hich stro n gly

rese mbles a H ercula nea n picture supposed to have b e e n ,

c o p i ed from a stat u e by C alam is T h e m ari ne mo nsters in .


,

t he C allix t in e Catacomb and el s e where w h o s w allow and dis ,

g orge J o nah are certa in ly remembra


,
n ces o f hippoca m pi an d

the l i k e grotesques exactly like t hose o f P omp e ii ; and the ,

e m ble m atic picture o f U lysses and the Sire n s remi nds us

eas il y o f the fa n ci ful allegories o f the buried city


2
.

See H e c et P m peii r l .il Ge e al M R o x ai ne l iii 5


,

i pl 3

rece u n r ,
. ou ,
vo . .
'

se r e , .
,

pp . 1 2 2 9 33 3 5
, an,d t e n
,d f l m ,al th F a moy a d in D y p 8
3 9 o vo u e so e r r er, . .

A lis t o f th ese bj ect and f xam p l suf ad p ted t eatm nt will be gi e n


s, o e es o o r e , v

at the end of the c h ap te o n th e C h i ti an C atac m l r rs o


1 02 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

This characteri stic of in trod uci ng apparently irreleva nt


d ec oratio n a cc ordi ng t o taste or play o f fa ncy as orn ame nt ,

fo r i ts own sake seems t o be derived fro m d omestic pai nt


,

ing such as t h at o n the w a lls o f Pompeii


,
It prevails more .

in G othic tha n in G ree k art o f the best age I n the .

P arthe non no doubt and in the greater temples the mi nor


, , ,

pai nti ngs all h ad re ference to the D eity ; but be fore G reek
art came i nto Christi an h a n ds it had passed through ma ny
frivolous and la u ghter lovi ng phases in its lo wer depart me nts
-

and in the C atacombs as in Pompeii j ust be fore them and in , ,

the G othic churches a fterw ards all ma nner of re presenta ,

tio ns are to be fou n d alo ng w ith the solem n sy mbols of


the Christia n Faith
E u no fatto c h e ho co nst an te m e nte
.

notato says D e R ossi ne i sott erane i cim i te ri


,

i magi ne
,

del cielo cosmico 0 sce ne di pasto ri zia di agricoltura di ca c ce


, , , ,

di giuochi Obvio e notissi mo e il senso parabolico & c
.
, .

A ll s ecular images in fact t o w hich sacred mea n i ng might


, ,

be attached or on w hich the light o f the G ospel w ould rest at


,

all were freely adopted by the Chu rch H eathe n w orkmen


, .

may have bee n employed ; and u ndoubtedl y the t race s of


heathen desig n are n umerous tho u gh perhaps less so tha n we ,

mi ght expect co nsideri ng that the artists o f the rst t wo


,

c e ntu ries could not w ell divest their mi nds o f their whol e

stock in t ra d e o f subject emblem and fa ncy A s we shal l


- -
, , .

see some o f the earlier pai nti ngs in St Consta nti ne in the
, .
,

C allixt ine C atacomb and those o f D omitilla and P ra te x t at u s


, ,

are exactl y w hat m ight be expected from P o mpei an pai n ters


o f ge n re la ndscape and gu res possessi ng no remark able s k i ll , ,

bu t rep rod u ci ng pat te rns they k new .

A few w ords o n the materials and tech n icalities o f G ra c o


R o ma n wall pai nti ng ma y be appropriate here
-
I n the g reat .

time s (if Greek art it se e m s to be concl usivel y m ade o u t by


,

M R aoul R o chette th at i mportan t pai nti ngs w ere d on e o n


.

pa nels let i nto w alls and no t o fte n or not till later on, , ,

the w all itsel f in either fresco or te mpe ra I t m ay be well to


, .

explai n that fresc o means w ater colours applied fresh t o a wet -

plaster o f lime and san d ; that tempera distemper o r dry , ,

fresco mea n pai n ti ng with water c olou rs on a d ry wa ll ; and -

R oma S tte anea ol i pp 343 4 o r , v . . .


, .
1 04 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

T he vault and cemete ry o f St D omitilla are certai nly o f .

the rst centu ry th e w alls o f the Catacomb o f St P ra t e x,


.

t atus and various remai n s in the C allix t ine are u nquestio nably
, ,

not later tha n the seco n d The grace ful and ow i ng orn a m e nt .
,

naturalistic in treatme nt yet severely arra nge d in patterns , ,

adapted t o the co nstructive form w ith a total absen ce o f ,

sti ffn ess rude handl i ng or asceticism of spirit characterise all


, , ,

these wo rk s and disti nguish them from later C hristia n pai nt


i ngs Some attempt at classicatio n m ust be made but will
.
,

have to be de ferred till the n ext chapter .

O n any vis i t to a large library the stude nt w ill do w ell to


loo k at t h e architectural decoratio ns in vol i o f the R em eil . .

General H ercu la neu m et P ompei by M R ou x ai ne P aris 1 8 40


'

, , .
, , ,

Fir m i n D idot Freres ; and compare plates 9 1 to 9 8 in that


,

book w i th A ri nghi R oma S u bterranea vol i i pages 63 9 7 , , . .


, ,

1 0 5 (at lib iv cap and pp 2 9 2 303 3 1 5 ( at lib xiv cap


. . . .
, ,
. . .

T he y all resemble each other in pri nciple that of ,

b reaki ng up a space o f w all i nto pa nels square o r oblo ng if ,

possible But as the C hristia n w o rk is all do ne o n vaults or


.
,

s o it s o f broad arches o r in spa ndrils or parts o f caver n o u s ,

structure and in di m light and by rude ha nds there is o f


, ,

course di ffere nce e nough betw ee n it and the correct squares


and o b lo ngs o f the Pompeia n exa m p les T h e last o f these is .

the elaborate and beauti ful pa n el picture o f L ed a ana T yn -


d arus w ith its surrou ndi ng decoratio n but it has clea n relatio n
, ,

in compositio n to the simpler w ork and through it t o the ,

Christia n which is in several cases pretty e nough D e R ossi s


'
.
,

coloured illustratio ns should be see n in his R oma Sotterranea ,

and re fere n ce has bee n m ade t o Parker s Photograph s



.

These compariso ns c an only help t o determi ne the great


a ntiquity o f these C atacomb ce m eteries as prepared fo r their
rst te nant s and ca nnot prove a nythi ng abou t their prese nt
,

decoratio n T h e vaulti ng pictures as a rule are o f greater


.

antiquity tha n pai nt ings o n the w alls w h i ch are o ften rudel y ,

retouched or altogether restored or re new ed by u nskil ful


,

ha nds ( Se e chapter o n Catacombs )


. .

Po m peia n colours are varied an d bri llia nt but more w ill be ,


i
V tru v i us on C olou rs , D e A rch it ectu ra, vii 7 4
-
1 . . He p
ex resses c o nte m pt
for the unmean ng i g ro te s q ues in u se , c h . v.
THE WA L L S OF P OM P E I I . 19 5

learnt about them by a visit to the Crystal Palace tha n in


an y other way Various deep blues and violets w arm whites
.
, ,

rose golden yellow and green w ere probably the chie f colours
, ,

of dresse s T h e la ndscapes are very fa nci ful and as M


.
, , .

Barr remarks al m ost Chi nese and he humorously obse rves


,

that their perspective re m i nds him a good deal o f that cele


brat e d pri nt o f H ogarth which illustrates irregularities in tha t
m atter A l most all is fa ncy architecture and there see m s to
.

h ave bee n little study o f nature except perhaps in a fe w far m ,

yard subj ects and from childre n The A rts o f Greece have
,
.

ru n their course fro m A the ne to A phrod ite o f H eave n from ,

h er t o P h ryne o f E art h from her to C o t yt to u nder the E arth


, .

It is probably the greates t sca ndal in the history o f C hristen


d om or rather the chie f i nsta nce in w hich Christia n ity h as
,

bee n outraged by Paga ns w ithi n her pale that the sa m e ,

c ourse h as bee n ru n over and over agai n in the A rts o f the

R en aissa n ce But if w e go back t w o h u ndred ye ars from the


.

e nd o f Pompe i i to t h e last ge n ui n e sculpture o f the R epu b l ic

of R ome o ne odd coi ncide nce may strike the a ntiquaria n


, .

T hat latest sculpture is the Wol f ; the rst Christia n sculpt u re


i s the G ood Shepherd ; and the last w ildly barbarou s w ork o f -

decay the ivory D iptych o f R am bo na represents the Wol f


, ,

and T w i n s at the feet o f its s avage C rucix .

T wo topics remai n be fore we begi n our chapters o n the


C hurch s use o f A rt A s so m uch has bee n said w ith great cor

.
,

rec t ne s s a b out the sepulchral nature and origi n o f Christia n


,

art and eve n o f Ch ristia n religious se rvice and our o bj e ct is


,

to show h ow C hristia nity (ad apti ng itsel f to natio nal habit and ,

c ustom s no t heathe n but h u m a n) took posses s io n o f the r e lics


,

of classical art fo r the N orthern races it s ee m s neces s ary to


go back to G reece o n ce more and see w hat trac e s o f the ,

C hristia n tomb o f the P ri m itive Church or if no ne w h at , , ,

slight resemb la nces in sepulchral b uildi ngs or re m a ins c an


be produced to co nnect G othic and G re e k mo n u m e nts o f
,

buria l direct l y and not throu gh a R o m a n mediu m Mr Fergus


,
. .
.

son d iscusses the subj ect briey as far as architect u ral tombs ,

are c o ncern ed T h e G reeks he says like other A rya n races


.
, , ,

were never tomb bui ld e rs and built m o num e nts are rare
-
, .
1 06 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

T he Mausoleu m o f H alicarnas sus and the L ion T omb o f


C ni dus are his ch ose n examples But we are here interested .

in domestic buri al and in rock he w n tombs as w ell as built -


,

o nes . The p i ous a nxiet y o f all H ellen es for proper i nter


me nt their ow n and t h eir relatives in order t o adm iss ion
,

in to E lys i um o r eve n to just j udgme nt ma k es the relics o f


, ,

t h eir sepulture high ly i mporta nt But as t o large m on u .

mental tombs this statemen t is no doubt correct , But .

few G reek tombs remai n to be c onnected w ith G othic .

T h e a ncie nts o f both races must be co nten t w ith Pericles


great co nsolatio n that M pav m av6w an itbos A L ycia n .

t omb discovered by Sir C Fellow s and re ferred t o by D r . .


, .


Smith Fu n u s p consists o f a sto ne s ar , .

c e ph ag u s resti ng o n broad sto n e pli n ths and covered with ,

obtusely poi nted arches of absolutel y Gothic appeara nce


-
.

A ve ry i nteresti ng example is given in a w ood cut fro m A n ti


p h e llu s But at .X a n thus w here the tombs are still more
,

n u merous th e si m ilarit y t o w hat w e k no w o f t he C hristia n


,

burial o f the Catacom b s is more striki ng T hey are cut .

into the rock or are formed b y cutti ng it a w ay leavi ng the ,

t ombs sta n di n g li k e w orks o f sc u lpture ( Fellow s p , .

T h e same is the case at T elmessus w here th e y are h e wn o u t ,

o f the rock in form o f temples I n the chapter on the Cata .

combs in this book (as i ndeed in D A ginc ou rt by L ord

L i ndsay and else where) the format i on o f the C hr i stian


,

arcosolium or sepulchral apse and altar by cutting a w a y


, , ,

t he roc k beh i nd an d above t he t u fa c ut tomb is d ul y -


,

d escribed as exactl y the sa m e as in the L y cian tombs .

T he y have their parallels agai n lik e every other form o f , ,

roc k buria l on the n orthern and eastern s ides o f J er u s alem


-
, ,

where the h ill side is ho neycombed w ith th e graves o f sile nt


-

m ultitudes in th e Valley o f D ecision .

G ree k mo nu me nts are classied fourfold b y D r Smi th : as .

( )
1 m a a pillars o r u pright
, sto n e tablets ( )
2 ion s colu m ns ; ,

( 3) vatS o r i
jp j
c i
a
ui small b u ildi ngs in the
, form o f temples ; an d
( ) flat square sto es c lled me s also b y C icero

p c
r aa e u r t n, a n a ,
.

A n prov from Stachelberg pt i g iven also in D r ,


. .
,
.

Sm i th s artic le ( Fu n us) has s o start li ng a re s e mblance t o a


Fello ws E x rsions in Asia M ano p 2 1 9



cu r, . .
1 08 GR E E K A N D GO T H I C .

m uch o f the time o f an excelle nt desig ner and carver .

E ve n the rst tra nsitio n from th e loculus i nto the solid


sto ne chest m ust have b ee n made b y gradual progress .

T h e rudi m e nt the pri m itive Christia n grave w as al w ays t h e


, ,

loculus or niche cut length ways in the so ft gra n ular tu fa o f t he


catacombs w hich seems to have bee n o f an absorbe nt nature
, ,

and to have soo n dispersed the moisture o f decay w ithout ,

much smell or i nconve nie nce I t was a cell cut in the livi ng .

rock like the tomb at X a nthus in L ycia or the ma ny m an


, , ,

sio ns o f the vast ceme teries o f the Valley o f H i nnom w hich no ,

pilgri m to J erusalem c an ever forget I ts fro nt w as closed .

w ith large at tile bricks ; but if it co ntai ned a m artyr or


-

other perso n specially remembered o r regarded it had an ,

arcosoli um or s m all hal f apse hollow ed out above it so that


its upper sur face be came a at lid or ta b le o n w hich H oly ,

Co m m u nion m ight be celebrated I t thus became an altar .

tomb and w as o ften completed and le ft as a ch est by havi ng


, , ,

the rock cut aw ay all rou n d ; a fter w hich its sides m ight b e
carved or i nlaid or the i n mate might be tra nslated to a costly
,

marble sarcophagus w hich w ould take the place o f his


,

origi nal cell o f rest in the tu fa A certai n amou n t o f fresco or


.

mosaic orna m e nt in the hal f vault and sides o f the he w n o u t


- -

apse w ould complete the s m all cu b iculu m or chapel The .

di ffere nce betw ee n the eth nic G reek to m b and the Christia n
is that the former is ge nerally completed by a pedi ment and
fro nt cut in the solid (as very remarkably at P etra ) and ,

becomes a ha ndsome a d ic u la i nstead o f the h umbler ,

loculus .

T here i s w hat they call a


classic or great standard ex ,

ample o f the use o f locul i and tombs together in the natural


,

rock . I t is the great tomb o f the Sci pios so well described ,

and ill ustrated b y D A ginc o u rt I t is o f importa nce also as


'

the leadi ng i nsta nce o f heathe n burial rather tha n crematio n .

The Cornelia n race always buri ed their dead to the time o f ,

Sylla w hose hideous co nditio n at his death made burni ng


,

advisable Their cemete ry is near the A ppia n cells dedicated


.

an d occupied b y the fa m ilia



libe rtis liberta bus que ,
the ,

faith ful slav e s an d serva nts o f the house wh o rested w ith their
masters Several larger tombs were fou nd though only one
.
,
TH E WA L L S OF P OM P E I I . 19 9

of hew n sto ne The vaults had bee n penetrated be fore b y


.

succes sive occupa nts o f the soil above and their hasty and ,

cla ndesti ne search fo r treasure had do ne much m ischie f ,

u psetti ng and breaki ng co ffi ns and car vi ngs and leavi ng ,

n othi n g in its proper place I ndeed the regularly co nd ucted .


,
-

search in 1 7 8 0 2 w he n the to m b was discovered see m s not


,
-
, ,

t o have b ee n methodical e n ough ; and D A g inc o u rt complai n s


like everybod y else w ho has the least regard for histo ry o f ,

the disorder and w a nt o f registry or care fo r the relics dis


,

covered They w ere certai nly o f di fferent ages and w ould


.
,

have be en valuable illustratio ns to the history o f the later


republic H e describes the popular i nterest and delight w hich
.

e nsued o n the rst discovery o n M ay 2 3 1 7 8 0 With his , ,


.

frie nd th e Chev d A z ara he o ffered to purchase and i nclose



.
, ,

the w hole sepulchre and rais e over it a portico or peristyle o f


,

the style o f the rst buildi ng or o f its pri ncipal to m b that o f , ,

L C Scipio Barbatus
. . This was rejected and the w hole .
,

sepulchre in fact ried , P ius V I like his predecessors


, . .
, ,

could no t res ist tra nsporti ng the great s arcophagus o f Scipio


Barbatus to the Papal collectio ns at the Vatica n w here it still ,

remai ns ; and nobody else resisted the cha nce o f appro


p r ia t ing w hat they could get This tomb is o f hard peperi n o .
,

and w ell ca rved in a ki nd o f D oric style w hich show s that a ,

good d eal o f G reek art was b ei ng brought i n to R ome at a far


earlier date tha n the M acedo nia n w ars or the tra ns fere nce ,

from Cori nth The Scipios w ere as has been said a fa m ily o f
.
, ,

ad va nced culture and a nxious to i ntrod uce all they could I n


, .

any case the baseme n t corn ice compositio n an d decoratio n , , ,

o f this sarcopha g us are o f h igh merit and give it very much ,

the appeara nce o f a sto n e A ltar I n deed as the o fferi ngs .


,

made t o the m a nes w ere o fte n poured over o r i nto the actual
chest it w as an A ltar t o all i nte nts A ll the i nscriptio ns in
, .

the vault but three w ere re m oved to the Vatican museum ,

an d copies su b stitut e d com m o nly in the w ro ng places , A ll .

that might have bee n rearra nged or restored as m atter o f ,

history van ished b e fore reli c hu n ters an d and a nti quaria ns


,
-
.

The skeleto n o f Scipio Barbatus or w hatever w as le ft o f it ,



si n c e b y M r H ema ns accou n t it w as still in e x iste nce
. w as ,

ca rri e d a way no t w ithout honour i ndeed b y a Ve netia n


, ,
1 10 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

s en ator who raise d a m od es t mon um ent for its nal resti ng


,


place at h is villa n ear Pad ua
, H e w ho had lived w i thi n
.

that decayi ng fram ework had bee n C onsul R omanus in


A U C
. .
45
. 6 B C 2,97 a
. n d
. co ntributed
, w ith o ld P,ap iriu s

C ursor t o the e nd o f the Sam nite Wa rs


, H e w as the great
.

g ra nd father o f the destroyer o f Carthage .


P A R T L C ON S T R U C T I ON

C H A PT E R I .

T HE C A T AC O M B S AN D T H E I R PA I N TI NG S .

IN a book or essay o n historical archa ology and its


re mai ni ng monu ments it is no doubt desirable
,
if possible
, ,

to t reat t he three a rts properl y or in thei r a priori order


, .

A rc h i t ec ture c om es rst ; the n sculpture as more immediately


c onnec t ed w ith th e H ous e or Temple ; and p ai nti ng next ,

as esse ntiall y o rname ntal But we have to follo w the histo ry


.

of rac es w ho prese rved the art s for the use o f T euto n ic

C h ri st i anit y t hus far ; and at the e nd o f the rst centu ry w ith ,

the rs t Ch rist i a n cemet eries at R ome the earliest Christia n


,

work c laims our atte ntio n H i t herto architecture and sculpture


.

have preced ed ; but w e have no w to d o w i t h subterra nea n


habi tations in w hi c h one had no existe nce and the other was
s u bord i nat e
. H ere co nstructio n m ea nt excavatio n and ,

d eco rat i o n d epe nded o n colour ; s o that the history o f


C h ri s ti an art as Christia
,
n , n
b egi ns ith pai ti ng o f the
w
rud es t k ind ,
no doubt , but still i nherited as to its tech
,

n i q u e and meth od s from the earliest G reek ages


,
I t was
.

inheri ted in d e cade nce eve n in deg radatio n and seldom


, ,

p rac t i se d wit h much skill b y Christia n ha nds ; but it w as

mad e a med i um o f i nstructive symbolism and practical


t eac h i ng while it had this very great e ffect in favour o f the
,

arts t h at it lled t he peopl e


,
in fact the masses o f the R oma n

p po u la t i o n w ith ne w i nterest in t h e graphic l an g uage and ,


GREEK AN D GO THIC .

taught them once m ore to look to A rt as re pres ent i ng great


spiritual facts in w hich they were d eepl y conc erned here and
h erea fter T he s epulchral nature o f this early C hristia n
.

w ork connected it wi t h all previ o u s thou ght about the


dead I n t he C hristi an cemetery as in those o f old E truria
.
,

so me acco u n t in e mblem and myste ry so m e ideas o f tru th ,

u nde ned and u ndetailed were given men o f the herea fter ,
.

T he new belie f or supe rst i tion had m any new w ords to say
t o a nx ious hea t hen and some it s ai d at the las t e nd o f li fe ,

am ou nt i ng t o pre m is es o f pard o n resto rat io n resurrectio n , ,

o f th e bo d y Our last ch apte r has brou ght us down to the


.

construction o f the catacom b by the e xample of the early ,

tomb o f the Scipios which exactly illust rates it We k now


, .

from Pompe i an and other Ge ntile paintings a g oo d deal o f


th e state of wal l pa i nt i ng and c olo u r orname nt down to the
- -

catacomb peri od and w e now come to deal wi t h the places


,

an d p i ctures themselves .

M uch has been said wi th great j ust i ce and to l i ttle e ffect on


the u nsat is fact ory results o f severi ng th e ideas o f construction
and decoration and setti ng a rchit e ct aga i nst artist
,
A rchi .

tecture pai nti ng or sculpture cannot be i nd epende nt or at


, ,

variance and the sure and o nly rem ed y is t o u ni te the k no w


,

led ge o f const ruc tion and orname nt in every thoroughly trai ned -

arc hitect But w ith regard to the Christian u s e of pai nti ng


.
,

its co nnection w i th architecture is very di fferent from the


relatio ns o f sculpture in the same d i rec tion For archit ec tu re .

determi nes ma ny co nd itions of sculpture but C hristian ,

pai nting bega n w here there was no arch itecture or where the ,

scie nce o f co nstruction w as not that o f b u ildi ng but of


burrowi ng z in fact in the earliest C atacombs o f R ome T he

, .

use o f sepulch ral pai nt i ng in Ital y i s E tru scan ; belongi ng to


that great compon e nt element o f the R oman nam e w hich
d erives from E truria ; and w hich if le ft to itsel f m ight have , ,

provided R ome a fter the secon d Pu ni c war w ith a grea t


s chool o f her o wn I t would h ave do ne s o but fo r the c on
.


quest o f G re ec e an d ge neral co nve yance
, collec tio n or , ,

pl u nder o f her g reat work s A ll we have here to d o w ith it .

is to reme m b er its existence For there i s no doubt that .

Christia n pai n ti ng in the C atacombs is co nnec ted w it h old



1 16 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

to the anti quity o f the cataco m bs as t o their ve ry


As
generally or almost e ntirely Christia n origi n ; as to the
import a nt and decisive di fferen ces betw ee n the catacomb and
the are naria o r sa nd pit ; as to the i nfreque nt i nstances and
,
-

di fficult expe nsive w orks by which an arenaria coul d be made


use ful as a cataco m b ; as to the peculiar strata o f s oil
adapted for these cemeteries called gra nular tu fa a dry , , ,

fria b le sto ne m id way bet wee n the pu z z u o lana sa ndsto ne ,

w hich was too so ft for the purpose and th e lithoid tu fa , ,

w hich was too hard as to the way o f begi nn i ng a catacomb


by excavati ng a passage all rou nd your lot of grou nd and
drivi ng gall e ries across and across ; as t o table tom b s -
,

arcosolia lumi naria ambulacra and cubicula all this is


, , , ,

accessible in o ne view and w ith eq u al fu l ness and accuracy , ,

in the late lamented M r Wh arto n Marriott s art icle o n



.

C ataco mbs in Smith s new D ic tionary of C hris t ian


A nt iq u ities w hich is very ge nerally accessible


, .

Mr Parker s photographs are the be st or nal authority


.

fo r the pres ent state o f ce m eteries They fully conrm th e .

accuracy o f Bosio th e pionee r o f all s u bterra nean i nquiry ,

in R ome though too ma ny pai n ti ngs have perishe d si nce


,
9

his time A s w e shall s ee an even more grievous d estru c


.
,

tion be gan at a far earlier date R e touchi ngs and re .


-

pai nti ngs have been various and lamentable there have bee n
ma ny removals or attempts to remove p ictures and ins c rip
t i ons to the destructio n o f precious records or the loss of
, ,

hal f their historical value Fo r example the most a n cient .


,

C hr is ti an i nscriptio n kno wn w h ich bears a co nsula r date is o f ,

T he word catac om b is , in the rst instance, the old loc al name of a s ngle i
well-k now n c eme ter y ad catac u mbas
( ) a ppli d e to all ot hers as a generi c term . It
was s ituated near th e Porto S Se bas tiano,
. li
and th e re c s of S P eter and S Pau
. . l
were su pp osed to ha e lai n th ere
v .
( Anastas ius, H ad rian I , .
9 343 also colaus I Ni .

5 ym T he
l g y see ms toet be n d an d n
o oun th e la tt be ing the G ree k er er

f m of a ery w id ely sp read oot oo n


or v n b from w hi ch
-
own w o d c m b r , c r , coor ,
our r o

is d i d m ani ng any h llow th i ng r place


er ve , e In wn language h ell is th u
o o . our o s

c on nec ted w i th h le or h ollo w o .

Bo io s p l ates pu blish ed in his R m Sottem nea 1 632 are r peated in



s , o , , e

A ingh i s Latin R ma S bt agai n ep d ced b y



r an a ( 1 65 1 and w
o u err e ere r ro u

B tta i in h i S lt
o r
pitt s ag &
c u u re e
c M arc h i and D e R o i w i th
u re s re, .
,
ss ,

t an l ati n f the l atte are s tand a d autho i ti es w ith P e re t



D N rt hc t
r. o o e s r s o o r, r r r s
,

splend id F n h w k re c or .
THE C A T A C OM B S . 1 17

th e t hi rd y ear o f Vespas ia n A D 7 2 b ut its o rigi nal localit y


, . .
,

is u nk nown (N orth c ote R o ma Su bterraneo p , I ndeed , .

e ve n Seroux d A ginc o u rt is said to have i n curred some blame


for rash removals T he n some catacombs are forgotte n or


.

i naccessible and it is even thought that others still exist


,

u nknown and perhaps u ndespoiled w ith riches as we trust , , ,

reserved for a ge neratio n wh i ch wi ll prese rve them in s itu .


Betwee n the photographs B os io s plates and D e R ossi s , ,

coloured illustratio ns which fairly represe nt the usual greens


, ,

re d s, and bro w ns o f the origi nal w orks a fai r idea o f th e ,

catac omb pictures may b e obtai ned in any large library .

D A ginc ou rt may su f ce by h imsel f to care ful stude nts o f his


plate s an d t here i s an excelle nt abridged t ra nslatio n published


, ,

by Messrs L o ngma n about thirty yea rs ago O ne o f the


. .

mos t i n teresti ng obj ects I remembe r in the French E xhibitio n


of 1 8 67 was a full sized model o f an i nterior o f an ambula
-

cru m or gallery w ith a cubiculum or chapel and its arcosolia


, , ,

or vaulted tombs but what b ecame o f it I k now not .

D ean M il ma n s o b servatio n is o fte n q uoted that at leas t


the rs t two ce nturies o f the L ati n Church w ere e ntirely


Gree k as to langu age spoke n w ritte n and read in the H oly
, , ,

Sc ri pt u res ; as to orga nisatio n and ritual and in fact in all , , , ,

res p ec ts . I t has an importan t bea ri ng o n the catacomb


p a in t in g s a n d
, o n thos e i n o t her Christia n churches ; a nd it
is e mphas ised by the cu rio u s fact we lear n from So z o m en th e ,

h i storian that for the rst t wo centuries there was no public


,

p re a c hi n g in R ome N o r this o nly but


. as all n atio n s met ,

in R o me co nve rts o f all la ng uages would the n fre q ue ntly


,

m e e t in th e C hri stia n C hurches ; and this w ould certa i n l y sta n d


in the way o f any lo ng addresses But if these were rare .
,

there m ust h ave bee n catechi s i ng or expositio n at special ,

t imes and places in the cemeteries or above grou nd in times ,

of s afe ty . N ow no better aid to i nstructio n c an w ell be


im agined t h a n that Script u ral cycle o f illustratio ns o f the
Old and N ew T estame nt w hich as all agree occ u pied , , ,

C h ris ti an art for t h e rst three o r four ce nturies I t is p ro .

bable t hat th e earliest pictures represe nted the L ord s own


Fi g u re of H i msel f as the G ood Shep he rd and the True Vi ne


but next afte r th ese certa i nly come such p i ctures o f t ype and
1 18 GR E E K AN D G OT H I C .

an t itype , Old T es t a me nt and N e w , as are fo und wi th th em


in t he C atacomb of S D o mi t i ll a, . of N ereu s and A chilles ,
and of S C
llixt us. a .

Such pictures w i th com parati vel y few words in the lan


,

g ua ge of the aud ie nce would convey to I tal ian or barbarian ,

c o nve rts the re al mea n i ng o f the ir c o nne c tion w ith the Old

T estame nt and the Jew i sh c ove na nt ; and th i s t oo enable s , ,

one t o u n dersta nd h ow H ebre w obj e c tions t o th e use o f


pi ctures w ere eas ily wa ived w ith respect to these I n deed as .
,

has been said the J ewi sh C atacombs i de ntied by the seven


, ,

bra n ch candlestick s and other obvious t ok ens are il lus trat ed ,

w ith ow ers and leaves peacocks and ot her bird s , .

T he use o f pictu res to c o nvey i nformatio n or te ach do c t ri ne


m ade the church w alls as Pro fessor R usk in s ays o f S M ark s

, .

o f Ve nice l ite rally as the pa ges of an ill u mi nated M S


, T he .

q u ai nt bri ght pict ures in thes e latter w ere for us e q uite as


,

m u c h as for o rnament they mad e it mu c h eas i er to spell out


the mea ni ng o f a w ritte n t ext T hose who shudder at th e .

barbarity o f o ur fore fathers w ho could not read may u nder ,

stand that readi ng was a much m ore di f cult matter in earl y


times o f M SS w ith their various ha nds and multi form abbre
.

v iat io ns th an in o u r days o f u n i form p ri nti n g and u n i form


,

letteri ng H a nd c haracters and co ntractions vary quite


.
, ,

e ndlessly fro m gran d u ncials and R oma n capitals do wn to ,

G othic cursive or Merovi ngia n grotes q ue letters and the p ithy -

pictures w hich al wa ys tell thei r tale so strai ght forwardly were


,
-
,

use ful to b i shops and k i ngs I n presenc e o f the w all pai nt .


-

ings in earlie r days the pr oper passages o f H ol y Sc ripture


, ,

w ould be read t o the catechumens in G ree k and in th e ir own ,

la ngua ges : and some sho rt expo siti on would foll ow I t is .

v ery importa n t t o co nsider h ow th e spe ci al p as sa ges w h i ch

conne ct th e Old Testament w ith the N ew and to wh i ch S , .

Peter in his rst preachi ng appe a led (as indeed the L ord
H imsel f had done ) are set forth in sy mbo l in th e se wall
,

pictures as certai n mea ns of supply i ng th e dec ienc i es of


,

speakers in a foreig n to ngu e T hey are G reek like eve ry .


,

thi ng in the early or G ra ce R om an C hu rch Of cou rse we - .

A s M oses and th e roc k , D i


an el and the lions, i
D av d w t ih his sling, and

Jona h ,
ver y freq u ent ly and in th e N ew Testament the Miracles of Mercy .
[ 20 GR E E K A N D GOT H I C .

in no s li ght degree our own jealou s and ho stile E ngli sh


t raditions an d w ill probably inuen c e them s till more
,
T he .

e d u cation o f the w orld in th e principles o f a s ound juri s

pruden c e sa ys D c an M erivale was the most wonde rful


,

work o f the R oman c on q u erors .


We ll law o f so ciety is o f R ome and s h e got earl y


, ,

le s son s in it from A thens in th e twelve tabl es G rammar is


, .

law o f arti c ul ate s peech and we get it from G reece t hrough


,

R ome .A rchitec ture is the law o f t and beauti ful con s tru e
tion sc ul pt ure and pai nting the laws of form and colour ;
,

and all thi s w e get from G reece throu gh R ome We have .

the language of the N ew T e stament from G ree ce ; and the


P eace of R ome ( Pax R omana) the order whic h R ome k ept ,

in the w orld s e cured it a hearing in the w orld R ome he rsel f


,
.
,

in the earl y ages of decadence s peaks through law alone ; ,

for the la s t remnant s o f poe try and art belong to her earl y
Church wh i ch was Old G ree k and their rs t and faintes t
,
-
,

R enai ss an ce t o the B y zantine G ree k o f Con s tantinople -


.

N everthele ss w hether from the ea s tern or the w e s tern


,

capital o f the empire civili sation came to the north als o ;


,

and as far as art is con cerned the ineradi cable character o f ,

cla ss ical la w (or method or doctrine or teaching) is seen in


, ,

Scoto Iri s h N orthumbrian Saxon and Swedi s h M SS T hen


-
, , ,
.

at las t the full y prepare d R enai s san ce bas e d its el f on th e


s tudy of G ree k language an d art w ith pre eminent s ucces s ,
-

and glory in Florence ; an d the G reek T e s tament was


publi shed in German y and E ngland .

T he s ubterrane an archit ect u re so to call it o f the C ata , ,

combs w ould natu rall y have roun d arches an d vaults as th e ,

w ork of ex cavation proceeded in cavernous form s T hese .

vaults woul d be roughl y divi d e d out into geometri cal form s ,

and a d orned with s ubject s in compa rtme nt s ; an d the place

being one o f Chri s tian s epulture Chris tian ideas of deat h , ,

t he res urre ction an d the L ord o f L i fe and D eath w ould


,

necess aril y s uppl y the most fre q uent s ubjects H i storical .

p icture s o f event s in H ol y Scripture came perhap s s ome w hat


later ; the great rs t example of them being the Old T es ta
ment mo saics in the L iberian B a s ili ca or Sta Maria Maggiore , .

See also B ryc e H oly R oman E mpire, ch 2 64 , ed t 8 66


s . xv .
p . . .
TH E C A T A C OJU B S . 12 !

at R o me I have never been able to unde rs tand why modern


.

arti s ts have tak en so little intere s t in s criptu ral motives or ,

have followed each o ther in repe ating the s ame s ubject s so


very o fte n People have copied each other in all ages or
.
,

been led b y t raditio nal meth od s and purpos e s It see m s .

poss ible that th e inten se interes t o f the Go s pel hi s tory s hould -

have ins pired an earl y Churc h A nge lic a or a primitive G iotto .

H owe ver it was not s o ; the fear o f idolatry s tood in the wa y


,

till the s ixth c entury and then i d olatry it s el f cared nothing


,

for his toric or in s tructive picture s al w ays wanting miraculou s ,

p ortrait s and fre s coe s attributable to angel s T h e decline .

and fall of the R oman E mpire w as to proceed and to ,

accomplis h its appointed de solation s which includ e d the loss ,

of all the a rts When the y reappe ared it was in modied


.

form s and thes e the moder n world is rather occu p ied in


,

di s tingu is hi ng than in tracing to any common s ource or


,

rudi m ent Gree k and Gothic A thenian and Florentine archi


.
,

tecture are not so much opposed to each other as our G ree k


or Gothic architect s ; m uch le s s s o than the phrenzied fol
lowers on either s i d e T he con s tructive principle is t he same
.


in both to build a hou se to one s mind and s uitable to one s
,

want s ; the deco rative stud y w as the s ame in both the ,

obs e rvation of beauti ful fe atures o f nature T he modern s .

have not yet learn t that you do not i mitate an original man
b y copy ing h is works so m uch as b y doing as he d id , ,

and learning as he learned T hen w hat y ou do w ill be in .

natu ral and true relation to your purpos e ; d iere nt perhaps


'

, ,

fro m h is in appearan ce but li k e h is in original adaptation or ,

i nve ntivenes s .

L et u s go bac k to the condit ion of a Christian Church or


c ongregation in R ome or N aple s w he re the large s t s ys tem s
, ,

of c ataco mb s are found T he y would mee t above groun d


.

in times of pe ace and w herever they could in tolerabl e s a fe ty ;


,

It s oul
h d be m entione that the d su b terranean ce mete ries o f S yracu se, c alle d
the G rott os of S J
oh n, and
. erh aps p connec ted w ith th e anc ient L atomi were ze ,

ted by
D Aginc ourt, wh o d c i bes th m a f i mm n e si th at the i
es r e s o e s ze re s

a Sarac en Catacomb near Tao m ina with ambulacra twel e f t w ide and
r ,
v ee ,

loc uli or graves at right angles, and no t parallel with them ; that th e re are
ot her pagan to mbs of th is c harac ter in E gy p t ; and that a s mall hristian C
catacomb has lately been d i covered at
s Al e xand ria. I remem ber see ng i traces
1 22 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

and certainl y in the ce meteries


acti ve pe rse cution was while
going on T hat some catacomb s were u s ed as places of re fuge
.

is a certaint y not onl y from the a rrangements for w ater


,

s uppl y & c & c but even from di s gui se d exits entrance s


, .
, , ,

galleries ending abruptl y bet ween d ierent oors (where


'

lad d ers were evi d entl y k ept be low and onl y produced on ,

s ome proper s ignal ) and other mean s o f e s cape


, H ere cate .

c h u m ens would receive in s truction and hear exhortation at ,

lei s ure and sy mbolic representations o f s ome kind would be


found if not nece s sary at le as t extremel y u s e ful
, T here
, .

w ere undoubtedl y both Jewi sh and heathen catacomb s ; and


w e o ften n d heathen or secular ornament in undoubtedl y
Chri s tian cemete rie s as heathen phras es appear in Chri s tian
,

in s cription s In d eed it s eem s certai n that heathen s were


.
,

occas ionall y laid to res t among Chri s tian brethren Separa .

tion i n the grave mu s t have been one and not the leas t , ,

o f the di s tre ss es of divided hou s es where s ome members ,

accepted the faith an d others continue d heathen or nu


convinced and the enormous s pac e occupie d b y the burial
,

vaults o f Chri stian R ome s ho w how s earching the di s tinctio n


became in man y families between non Chri s tians and
, ,
-
,

thos e who gave up Gentile modes o f burial or changed fro m ,

the us e of cremation to that of Chri s tian i nte rment T he .

total length of the ambulacra or galleries is vagu ely calculated


at from 300 to 900 miles D r Momm se n gives a better . .

notion o f extent by s a yi ng that they are not s urpa ss ed b y


the whole s ys tem of the C loaca of R epublican R om e while ,

he emphatically in si sts on their being the w ork o f that


communit y which S Paul addre ssed in his E pi st le to the


.

H eath en burial d i d take place ; but s t ill bu rning



R oman s .

was the heathen rule and burial the Chri st ian , A nd th e .

Church pres s ed the principle o f common burial also so that ,

all holders o f the faith might lie together and the eccles i a or ,

ass embl y o f the faithful be continued in death So that the .

c ultu s of deceas ed ancesto rs the hearth or hou seh old w orshi p ,

of d
loculi in the san stone there as long ago as 1 8 5 9 T he N a politan cata .

d
c ombs are cut in a hard b uil ing-stone, and are on a lar er scale, more like
g
d
u n ergroun d
c hurc hes and h alls A
beautifu l icture of the L atornic of yracu se,
. p S
by M r E L ear, is now, I believe, in the ossession of E arl Beaucham
. . p p .
:2 4 GR E E K AN D GO THIC .

enough has been s aid abo ut the increas ing di s t re sse s o f th e


d ying civili s ation of R ome and the w orld T he w illing .

ex pectation o f death and o f the L ord s coming w hether to

all s oul s or the individual soul continued to expre s s its el f ; ,

and chiey b y loving and admiring the memory of tho se w ho


had gone be fore T h e marty r s tomb had alread y taken the
.

form o f the cemetery A ltar in it s typ ical s hape o f a table ,

tomb w ith a hal f vault or arcos olium hollo wed out above it
,
.

T h e great Bas ilica perhaps occ upied b y the Churc h from


,

heathen purpos es was a s ig n o f her tri umph ; but the


,

marty rs graves represented her s trengt h the power w hich


had won the triumph N ow o f cours e the mos t impo rtant .


, ,


o f the change s made in a converted Bas ilica w ould be
tho s e connected w ith the A ltar T he aps e o f the Bas ilica .

w ould be a thoroughl y convenient place either for it or for ,

the bi s hop s throne behi nd it and the seat s o f the pre sb ytery ;

as in the D uomo o f T orcello ( Stone: of Venice vol Where ,


.

the old class ical or heathen arrangement was retained i a , . .


,

where the po s ition o f the heathen altar o f the Bas ilica was
k ept for the Chri s tian one which probabl y did not o ften

happen there would be a s pace and perhaps s eats behind
t he A ltar ; bu t generall y s pea k ing it w ould be at the farthes t
rece ss of the aps e its el f as i n its e arlies t arran gement o f ,

arco s olium and table tomb -


.

We have alread y s een ho w natural it was to excavate


a hal f dome i n th e tu fa above the gra v e o f an y s peciall y
-

v enerated pers on and to mak e the at s u rface over h is bod y


,

an A ltar of Celebration or to go a s tep farther and to cut a ,

pass age behind al so ; and the next thing was to ornament the
s urface s th u s formed w i t h painting o f s y mbolic or even ind if

ferent s ubjects A nd th u s began the round arch ornam e n


.
-

t at ion o f R oma nes q ue E arl y E ngli sh N orthern and other , , ,

s ty le s T he sarcophagu s would be ca rved or a marble tomb


.
,

s ub s tituted and the w all s and arch or vault over it w oul d be


,

painted in compartment s Illu stration and d ecoratio n were .

univers al and of invete rate habit in the E mpire and the


, ,

Church accepte d both q uite fran k l y N o ha rm followed for .

See art cle i C atac o mbs


"
in S mith s
D ictionary ef Anh qu ih er,
' '

or

D Agin
A rc/crlcclu rc, pl iii
'

c ou rt , . x .
THE C A T A C OM B S . 1 25

c enturies at lea st : an d in the e vil days w hen Iconoclas m had ,

b ecome unavoidable an d a s ource of d ivi s ion and rui n the


, ,

real evil was not s o much in the pictures them s elves as in


the changed and fallen faith o f their worshippers I f there .

ha d been no painting or s culpture at all the relics o f s aints ,

would have been wors hipped all the s ame T h e evil was th at .

the Ch u rch had lo s t the sen s e of communion w i th God in


Chri st H e had no t rent H is heaven s an d come to her in
.

what s ee med and w as her g reat need


, , H e s eeme d not to .

hear prayer to be i nacce ss ible to re q uire to be me d iated


, ,

with rather than to be the ever pre s ent ever interce d ing
,
-
,
-

A d v ocate : and men began to s e t up images o f the brethren ,

w hom perhap s they had s een to ta k e the place of H im they ,

co ul d not s e e .

But in the A ugus tan and follow ing age s ( as an y book of


P om peian or other archae ology w ill s ho w) all G entile li fe was
a gallery of picture s and s cul p ture good bad ind ie re nt
'

, , , ,

and omnipre s ent from marble A p ollo s and tinted A p hrodites


,

down to the s ign cloth s or ins c ripta lintea of tavern s an d


-
, ,

ladiator s chool-
s A nd once more let u s get rid o f the idea
g .
,

t hat ea rl y Church paintings were di fferent from the s e or an y ,

thing li k e what we call B y zantine or Gothic R oughl y s pea k ing .


,

at this time there would be no By zantine for 5 00 years and


po inted Gothic certainl y was not d ue for a thou s an d I f .
,

w hich is impo ss ible any Chri s tia n o f the rs t ve centurie s


,

c oul d have imagined s uch object s as earl y m e d ize v al picture s ,

h e c ertainl y w ould not have w anted them in Church or el s e


w here : and if he had they would have given ground for
,

P agan acc us ation s o f s trange w itchcra ft an d abominable rite s .

T h e d i s tinction between Christian an d heathen w as the n


abs o l ute a matter o f heart and m ind : an d th e e x p re ss ion
, ,

pagan ornament as we use it no w s ince the R enai s s an ce


, ,

nev er could have been u s ed in those d ays It is the .

R enai ssan ce w hich has s omehow s e t clas s ical w ork agains t


G othic and correct dra wing again s t Chri s tianit y
,
We u s e d .

to have and have s till a great ma ny pers o ns who are


, ,

devoted to G othic grotes q ue and archai s m : but w ithout ,

den ying man y merits and great val ue to the s tyle t he y


love it is no us e s etting it up as exclu s ivel y the Chri s tian
,
1 26 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

K eble Chape l is excellent so is S D o m it illa s



s tyle .
, .

Cemetery so is the C hapel of Galla P lacidia ; but the t wo


,

latter are a goo d deal the ol d es t and their ornamentation ,

is class ical R eal earl y Church work is too ancient for


.

archai s m J u s t as in Gothic times m en live d in G othic


.

h ou ses ,so in class ic times they pra yed in clas s ically


adorned C hurche s ; and very we ll the latter mu st have
loo k ed T he notion th at all G othic building is Chri stian
.
,

and all Chri s tian building is Gothic is an error w hich may ,

yet cau s e a good deal o f prejudi c e and q ua rrel .

A very bri e f hi s tory of the C atacomb s is nece ss a ry and ,

that mean s for the mo st part an a cco unt o f their d e s poiling


and de fa ce ment While w e lament over the des truction s o f
.

the R e formation in G erman and E ngli sh Churche s let u s ,

take some o f the follow ing fa ct s to hea rt all perfectl y ,

u ndi s pute d and e q uall y matte r of reg ret to R oman Catholi c s


,

and A nglic ans .


It

First the Chri stia n Catacombs or the whole Catacomb


, ,

s y st em practicall y s pea k ing was an enlarged development


, ,

o f the s ubterranean tomb or v ault almo s t pec uliar to R ome


, ,

from the s oil w hich invited excavatio n


,
T here is e v idence o f .

rst century tomb s fo r thi s T he u s ual method o f con s tru e


.

t ion was to s ecure a piec e o f ground on the right s ort o f

g ran u lar tu fa s o man y f


,eet in front facing th e road s o man y
, ,

d eep in agro ; to excavate a pa ss age all roun d it bury ing ,

people in the w all s as you went on ; and then to drive


g allerie s acro ss a s y ou w anted more grave s B y the begin .

n ing o f the third centu ry the Chri s tian s o f R ome are found in

q uiet po ss e ss ion o f s u c h a c emeter y to thi s da y c alled the ,

c emetery of Callixtu s ; be s ide s the c rypt o f the V a tican th e ,

t omb s and catacomb s o f D omitilla P re tex tat u s and probabl y , ,

others T hen about hal f through the third century b egin s the
.

p eriod o f regul a r imperial pe rs ecution as di s tingui s hed fro m ,

former outb reak s o f popular violen c e and oc ca s ional s everitie s ,

s uch as w e kno w of in the celebrated corre s pon d en c e o f P lin y

and M r c u s A ureliu s N y be

a ero s in A D. 6 5 ma excepted . .
,

as a gene ral pe rsecu tion


but D eciu s s (A D 2 49 5 1 ) and the
. .

See
Catac ombs and Frescoes articles in S mith s D ictiona y of

,

r
1 28 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

li mited in all times to the Biblical c ycle o f th e Catacomb s .

T h e pri m itive Church onl y repre s ented or sy mboli s ed the


words and work o f God on her wall s H is saints were rep re
.

s en ted but as characters in hi s tori cal pictures as ves s el s o f


,

H is Spirit c ommi ss ioned by H im to act or s pea k as s aints ,

doi ng s omething not merely s tanding in glo ry to be adored


,

with or in s tead o f H im It is to be wi shed th at ou r own


, , .

Ch urch buildings s hould obs erve the primitive res triction .

It is mere non se ns e to s ay the Old and N e w T es tam e nt


w ould not s uppl y noble s ubjects to believing painters even ,

to all ti me ; and if Church painting is to be con s idered a


-

s eriou s matter and a part o f Chri s tian i n s tru ction (an d not
,

m ere art work in which cas e it has no bu s ines s in Church


-
,

at all ) it ought to be u sed under the regulation s o f oth er


,

in s truction We d o not read the legends of s aints from the


.

eagle ; we ought not to have legend s painted on w alls or


windows T he fact is our whole religiou s u se o f th e art s
.
,

req uires a good deal of regul ation ; for between s inging and
ceremonial mos aics and w indows o w ers and banners
, , ,

candles an d embroide ry the Chri s tian s oul s eem s to have


,

t oo man y prett y thi ngs to atte nd to ; and both the dee p


ab s traction o f prayer from the heart and true un animit y ,

o f s pirit in our commo n s ervi c e are a great deal more


,

interrupte d than the y used to be in l ess e sthetic days .


C H A PT E R I I .

T HE S C R I P T U R A L CYC L E S OF T H E C ATAC OM B S .

T HE ob s ervation w as mad e at the end o f ou r las t chapter that


it might have bee n better if our s ubject s of Church decoratio n
and s y mboli s m had bee n limited to the Biblical C y cle o f the

C atacomb s or at all events to s ubject s ta k en from H ol y Scrip


,

t ure Between hi s torical paintings of events and s y mbolic illus


.

t rat io ns o f d octrine ; bet ween repre s entation s o f facts s ymbolic


in them s el ve s and imagination s o f the foretold things that

,

s hall be it seem s that s uch li mitation w ould not be too


n arrow for the invention o f the painter ; an d that the mind o f
the wors hi pper w ould not be led into d anger of w ande ring too
far from Chu rch s ervice or the theme o f h is meditation s ; in the
,

congregation or b y him sel f Such res triction s are I s uppos e


.
,

o ut o f the q ue s tion li k e all other control in the s e da ys


, bu t
it o ught to be al ways remembered th at they w ere the natural
and general ord er of the rst four centurie s A lmos t all the .

ru le s we kno w o f as the X X X V I Canon o f th e Council o f


.

E lvira were res trictive an d again s t picture s rather than in


, ,

their favour ; and b y E usebiu s s con scation o f the em


b roidered c urtain at A nablatha it s eem s that no d i s tinction


was made at rs t betw een coloured w or k on the at and
relieved s c ulpture T he C hurch b y no mean s invented d eco
.

ration o f an y kind but had to adopt it as a matter of cours e ,

bec aus e nine room s out of t en in a d welling hou se were -

d ec orated ; and every tomb in a cemetery had its device even ,

in the H ebre w Catacombs w here one would have though t


,

both povert y and re ligio n would interpos e prohibition T o .

K
1 3o GR E E K A N D GO THIC .

the Pauline or G entile s ch ool o f converts the grave n or painted



i mages w ere nothi ng at all ins ignic ant in the lite ral s en s e .

It was not wort h while to notice w hether w all s w ere p aint e d


or not when s uch grave things w ere heard and done w ithin
,

them I have been man y yea rs interes ted in Church d e cora


.

tion but it has al ways s ee med to me that tho s e have b e s t


,

learned to appreciate it who remember that it is a fter all a , ,

matter of no great importance b y compari s o n .

T h e trans ition from purel y orname ntal to s ign icant


decoration was eas ily made o f cours e ; but it s eem s to h ave ,

been made graduall y and i n some in stance s it s carce ly too k ,

place at all For example the chapel or cubiculum o f the


.
,

O cean in the C allix t ine Catacomb ta k e s its name from a


, ,

large head o f Oc ea n u s which is in the centre o f the vaulte d ,

roo f T he remainder of the roo f w ith the w all s is done in


.
, ,

rect ilinear panel s with s ubject s in their ce ntre s exactl y as


, ,

i n Pompeii and the date o f the w hole lie s s omewhere in the


,

third century ; but the s ubj ect s are all birds (the peacock
in particular) ow ers and ying genii A nd in another
, , .

chamber (D e R os s i vol i pl x ) O rpheu s occ upies the , . . . .

ce ntre above s urrounded b y di shevelled genii and s upp orted


, ,

b y eight oblong panel s t wo Shepherd s t wo female O rant es , ,

and four genii bearing croo k s T he wall s are covered w ith .

arabes q ue s combini ng dove s peacocks and other bird s w ith


, , , ,

dolphin s and s ea mon sters -


.

But one unmi stak abl y Chri s tia n emblem s eem s to decide
the cha racter o f all T h e L amb is there beari ng the Bread
.
,

and the whole ma y be an i ns tance o f highl y s y m boli c painting ,

w ith implied mea nings s acred to the brethre n though appa , ,

re nt ly trivial to the unbeliever It may have been done in .

dubio us or threatening ti m es when P agan work men had to ,

be emplo yed or had acces s to the cemete ry P erhaps the t wo


, .

best examples of very earl y ceilings w ith full Chri s tian orna ,

ment are in the tomb o f S D omitilla in her cemetery on the


, .
,

A ppia n Wa y and the chapel o f S Callixtu s in h is Catacomb


, .
,
.

Both have a s pecial characteri stic of the earlie s t ornament ,

in being partl y adorned w ith land s cape s and entirely s ubject ,

to decora t ive sys tem A nd as Canon Venable s ob s erve s .


, ,

Fm a
S mi th s D i ti n a y Of mama A n h g itic p 693
u
r ,
'
c o r

u r, . .
1 32 GR E E K A N D GOT H I C .

were almo st at Open w ar w ith each other if occa s ion too k ,

place ; and prelate s w ere falling foul o f prelates and p e opl e ,

all in factio n again s t people ; and u ns peak able h ypocri s y


an d di s gui s e of thought w ere dra w ing to ward s extrem e o f

w ickedness .

T he rs t and s econd centurie s were the s p ring s o w i ng o f


the word ; and for a time it grew w ith little m ole s tatio n be ,

fore the burning o f s um m e r and thick u ndergro wth o f thorns .

T he cemetery o f S D omitilla is P ro fe ss or Momm s e n s


chosen example of an ancient burial chamber and o f the ,

development of s uch a tomb into a regular Catacomb ;


either by exten s ion underground or b y other s ubterran ean ,

addition s till a Catacomb was es tabli s hed


,
I t s prim itive .

name is a fter its foundre s s or rst occupa nt and it h as s ince ,

bo rne the name s of SS P etronilla N ereu s and A chille s


. . ,
.

S D omitilla was in fact a grand daughter o f Ve spa s ian a


.
, ,
-

heathen i n s cription s ay s P ro fes s or Momm s en me ntion s


, ,

h e r as the donor o f the cry pt ; and dated tiles found in it


belong to the times of H adrian and A ntoninu s P iu s 1 1 7 1 6 1 ,
-
.

T he former date is j u s t tw ent y one years fro m the death o f -

D omitian in 9 6 ; and the y ear 9 5 is mark ed i n Chri s tian hi s tory


as the y ear o f the death o f a Chri s tian con s ul T hi s w as T . .

Flaviu s Clemen s D o m it illa s hu s band H e ma y have b e en


,

.

a m an of too retiring or indolent a character ; bu t I s hould


not thin k a fter J uvenal s Fourth Satire about the

, la s t
F lav iu s ( D omitian) that any k in s man o f h is w as far w rong
,

in k eeping out of the wa y while h e could A t all event s .


,

Flaviu s Clemen s undoubtedl y underwent d eath for athei s m


and Jew is h s upers tition as a Chri s tian mart yr ( Suetoniu s
, ,

D am it : 1 5 and D ion Cas s iu s lxvii I 4) and was co ntemp


, , .

t uo u s ly s po k en o f by H eathen dom in con s e q ue nce B y s ome .

he is thought to be Clemen s R omanu s him s el f Bi s hop o f R ome ,

at the end o f the rst century and it is q uite po ss ible H e , .

died an d D omitilla was s ent a fter h is death to the i s la nd o f


,

P onza w here s he probab ly e nded her day s in e x ile T he


, .

room s she occupied there s ays Momm sen were s till vi s ited , ,

by p iou s pers on s i n the fourth century N ereu s and A ch ille s .

are s aid to have been members o f her hou sehold H e r o w n .

tomb or the s pecial crypt o f her bes tow ing s till reta in s s ome
, ,
S C R I P T U R AL C YC L E S OF C A T A C OM B S . 1 33

of original fre scoes o f which the Vine on the ceiling is the


its ,

m o s t beauti ful ; but N oah and D aniel the D ov e and the , ,

G ood Shepherd w ith an A gape are on the wall s and are , , ,

pronou nced by the P ro fes s or to be o f the s ame d ate T h e .

Chapel of Calli xtu s has D aniel (he s tand s bet ween the lion s
i n both ins tan c es ) w ith Mos e s and the R oc k L azaru s and
, , ,

D avid with h is s ling .

A proper li s t of the Old and N e w T e s tament C ycle s o f


pictures in the Cata comb s is given b y Canon Venab les

( S s D ictionar

mith y Fre s co p and he re fers to a , , .

m o s t learned and comprehen s ive boo k b y the D ani sh Bi shop , ,

D r Fred M iinte r called Sinnbzld er 2c K u ns tw rs tcllu ng c n


'

. . .
,

der alter: C k rzs ten A ltona 1 8 2 5 w hich I beg to com mend


'

, , ,

to all who can nd it in l ibraries .

O L D T as rau am x N EW TEST A M EN T .

1 . T he Fall . 1 . Ad orat on o f i the M agi .

2 . O fferi ng of Cain and A bel .


2 . M irac le C ans of .

3 . N h
oa and th e D ave . 3 . C hris t and th e oman of amaria W S .

4 . Sacrice of I saac , 4 . T h e P araly tic : gene rally carry ing


5 . M oses remo ving his S hoes .
his be d .

6 . M o ses and the R oc k , 5 . T he W oman with the I ss ue .

7 . v id wi th h i S li ng
Da s .
6 . H ealing th e Bli d n .

8 E lij ah T an lati on L a d Fi h M ultiplied



. s r s , 7 . o aves n s es .

9 . T h e C hild en in the Fu rnace r .


8 R ai s i ng 0 L aw 15

10 . D anie l in th e L i on s D en
. 9 . Zac cm us o

1 0. T he E ntry i nto Jerusalem .

n , 1 1 . C hris t before Pi late who , is wash


ing his hands .

12 Jo b on th e D un
gh i ll ( m h )
rarer 2 T he Appearanc e at the Sea Of

. uc .
'

3 . Tob ias with the F ish .


G i
al le e with b ead and sh r .

14 . S usanna and the E ld ers .


Add
1 3 . T he A nn unc iat on i . B ottar i , tav .

1 76 .

14 . Our Lord s
p
B a t ism . C at . of S .

Ponti anus .

1 5 . T h e F i ve W ise V i gin r s. C at . of

S Agnes
. .

N . B .
A D is p ute with the D oc tors, in the C allixtine Cata co m b .

M os t o f these are de s cribed in the catalogue rai s onn at


the end o f P rimitive C hurch A rt T here are s ome obs erva .

t ion s to be made on s everal o f them which are not in that


,
1 34 GR E E K A ND GO THIC .

pre s cr ibed as it were b y Ou r


, ,
t he Good
L ord o f the V i ne ,

She p herd the L amb o f God and the Sheep o f the C h urch :
, ,

the D ove as s y mboli s ing the H ol y Sp irit and the faith fu l ;


the a nagrammat ic I KO I E or Fi s h which repre s ent s Ou r L o rd

, ,

and the s maller P isc ic u li the Faith ful within the Ch urch s ne t
,

.

T hen w e may s ay s omething about mi s cellaneou s or rare , ,

painti ngs in the Catacomb s A lmos t all the above m entio ned .
-

are o f fre q uent and many o f con s tant occurrence th e y m ay


,

be con s id e red as current s y mboli s m s o f the earlie s t ti m e s ,

u s ed b y Chri s tian prie s t s and people from a time when t he ,

d is t inction betwee n lait y and cle rgy w as not s trictl y draw n or


re s olutel y formulated T hese i mage s conveyed the L ord s
'

hi s tory the chi e f part o f H is teaching concer ni ng H im s e l f


,

and the H ol y Spirit ; and w ere be s ides the k e y to t he , ,

T ypical P ers on s and E vent s o f the O ld T e s tament \Vit h .

proper explanatio s the y ma y have forme d ia R o m e at


n

le as t s ometh ing li k e a catech i s m o f i ns truction the th e n

i ns titutio n of a catechumen preparing for Ba pti s m or ,

u nder in s truction a fterw ard s T h ey ma y have been u s ed as .

a s e cre t langu age o f religiou s doct rine and hi story ; but ,

bes ides thi s the y appealed to the Chri s ti an u nders ta nding at


,

s ight b y a co m mon s peech ; as if men reall y heard in th e ir


,

ow n tongu e s the w onder fu l w or k s o f G od Bes ides the y .


,

conveye d ideas old and ne w to the mind w ith all the plea s ant ,

ne ss o f q uick l y und e rs tood s ymbol is m and the fres h s harp


-
, ,

outli ne o f graphic t e achi ng Colour and for m are al ways .

s om e thing and all the w orld over it is a plea s ure to l oo k at

a picture and see w hat it mean s .

T here were reas on s w h y the Good Shepherd w ith t h e ,

V ine s hould be the rs t decorative image s o f w hich the


,

Church made u s e T he e arlie s t me ntion of s uch an i mag e


.

is in T ertulli an D c P u d za tia c vii and x o f a relie f o n


, ,
. . .
,

an euchari s tic chalice T he s e tw o w ere the readie s t to hand


.

and leas t s u s pected as vine s and shepherd s were a favour


ite s ubject of ornament everyw here O u r ch apter on .

Sculpture may be s o far anticipated here b y re ference to


R aoul R ochette fo r the t wo type s o f the Good
Sh e pherd and the derivation o f one o f them ; in which
,

See note next page , .


1 36 GREEK A ND GO THIC .

fanci ful P latonic in connecting H im w i t h Gree k


and N eo -
,

s tory but there may have been a better rea so n w h y Chri s t ian
G reek s li k ed it as it mini s tered to id ea s o f charity and ho p e
,

fo r G entile fore fathers w ho might be thought to have l o o k ed , ,

tho u gh onl y in m ystic gure to the coming R edeemer and ,

Shepherd o f man k ind In fact the earlier habit o f Chri s tia n .

i s ing the m yth s s eem s al ways related to the habit o f ind ulg ing
Chri s tian hope o f the s alvation of the fathers .

T here is not much more to be s aid o f the numb e rle s s


ill us tration s of the Vine except that as it is con stantl y ,

repres ented from the rs t century to the R enai s sance it is ,

the bes t example b y whi ch the draughts man or anti q u ary ,

accu s tomed to j udge o f drawi ng can form an id ea o f s u c ,

c es s ive date s o f picture s We could ma k e out man y s tage s .



,

as the earl y natu rali s m o f S Clement s mo saics and S


.
, .

D o m it illa s V ine then the s light con ventionali s m o f P ra te x


tatu s 3 and the great C allix t ine then the s everer circul ar com

,

pos ition o f the beauti ful s econd centu ry s tuccoes of the L ati n -

Way w ith naturall y drawn grapes and bo ys ( B ottari ii T cm 9 3


, , . .
,

and al s o P Marchi ) T hen in the chapel o f Galla P lacidia w e


4
. .

come to c omplete conventionalit y and a beauti ful clos e pattern , ,

which would do admi rabl y for any modern chancel R oma n ,

e sq ue B yzantine or P ointed unl es s w e s tand in aw e 10 f the


, , ,
-

Phari s ai s m o f architectural puri s ts But then w e have the .

probabl y s ixth century V ine of T orc ello s and the blue and
-
,

whi te mos aic o f S Mark s I s uppos e about the tw el fth ; .


an d a s
the be uti ful coloured pandril all illu strated b y
P ro fe ssor R u s k in in Stones Of Venice vol ii D uring the ,
. .

R enai ss ance the V ine lo s t it s Chri stia n s ignication and was ,

treated art i sticall y till T itian trans ferre d the w hole s ubject
,

to the Bacchic orgie .

T he d esc ript i on in P h il stratus j unr c 6 of a pi c tu e of O pheus ans w


o , .
, .
, r r e rs

almost exac tly to th at d esc i bed abo e r v .

V ine of P m textatu Catac mb Parke N o 1 82 2 ( ol s



and book n th o , r, . v . o e

C atacomb Via A pp ia p lat i Const ruc tion of ent ance wall of time of N
s, , e . r -
ero .


W ood cut in D e R oss i s D nllctino d i A rche ologia C hrirtia na . P ra
etextatus is a
su rname , not a ge nt i le name ; no doubt a R oman family bore it, but there seems
no t to have been any Saint P raetextatus .

Sm i th p 69 5 ; B o ttari t i T an 74 ; an arcoso lium


, .
, . . . .

7 av xxii M on u ment i d ellc A rti C ristia ne


4
. .
, R ome 1 844 .
, .

5 T he c olumns m us t be long to the original ed i c e .


SC R I P T U R A L C YCL E S 0F C A TA C OM E S . 1 37

T itian meant no harm he w as a goo d Chri s tian accord ing


to h is lights It is not ea sy eve n in H ol y Scri pture to s et the
.
, ,

contradicto ry as s ociation s o f the V ine over again s t each other .

T here are happy natural image s o f vine and g tree and the -
,

fatne ss o f the vine and the fruit that delights G od an d man


, ,

to oppos e to the vine yard o f I s rael cut do wn and rooted ,

up and to the j ud gment betw een the L ord and H is V ine


, .

A ll end s in the dread vi s ion o f the Apocal y p s e o f the angel ,

w ith h is s harp s ick le reaping the clu s ters o f the vine of the
,

eart h to ca s t them into the w inepre ss o f the w rath of God


, .

A nd it h as o ften been noticed in di fferent point s o f vie w and ,



w ith variou s application ho w O u r L ord s parable o f the ,

V ine united the idea s o f fertilit y natural beaut y and rich , ,

nes s w ith the fate o f barren branche s ta k en awa y from the


,

s toc k and fruit ful one s pruned an d purged b y s u e rin that


'

, g ,

they ma y bear y et more T h e fact is the se s i militudes as .


, ,

old as the world point out and b e ar w itne ss to t he wa y o f


,

G o d w ith man s ince the beginning o f the worl d T he .

R enai s s ance w ould onl y loo k at the p lea s ant s i d e as the ,

monas tic Church had onl y loo k ed at the s ide o f s u ffering ;


T itian h ad m an y excu s e s and m an y companion s an d w as ,

one o f the bes t among them But his time does u n q ues tion .

abl y in d icate the nal s everance o f the trad itional connection


between art and religion and man y s ince his ti me have done
their be st or wors t to ma k e s everanc e into repul s ion
, , .

T he D ove as a s y mbolic man ifes tation o f God the H ol y


,

Spirit occurs in all paintings o f our L ord s Bapti s m ; per


h a ps the earlie s t s till in exi s tence is the very well k no w n -

one in the Catacomb o f S Pontianu s T he A bb Martign y . .


a s s igns it to the s ixth century T he catacomb in q ue s tio n .

po ss es s es a s p ring which was properl y d rai ned and collected in


,

a ci s tern and chamber and thu s gave occas ion fo r one o f the ,

earlie st Bapti s terie s T here is another in the Catacomb of.

S A gne s and Pope D am as u s made a th ird in the V atican


.
,

cemete ry But the D ove is al s o u s ed as w as s ai d to re


.
, ,

pre s ent the Chri s tian wors hipper and appears in countle ss ,

in s tance s on the tombs i n the fun e real cubicula T here are .

A i nghi i
r , .
3 8 1 ; B o ttari, T ar . xl vi . ; M arch i , pp
.
32 , 2 2 02 2 4, ii
.

and xl ii .
1 38 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

beauti ful one s in S D omitilla in the C allix tine S P ra te x


.
, , .

tatu s and almo s t everywhere T he very numerou s b ird s


, .

fou nd on the in s cription s o f Southern G aul s eem o fte n


intended fo r dove s T h e train of thought is evidentl y that


.

o f P 5 lv 6 o f eeing a w a y to be at re s t ; and o f cours e in


. .
,

ma ny in s ta nce s w h e re the dove bears the palm the victory ,

o f Chri s tia n death by mart y rdom or ordinary s u ffering m ay


, ,

be intended Where the dove s repres ent the living believer


.
,

the i mage s eem s to re fer to Matt x 1 6 Be y e w is e as . .


s erpent s and harmle ss as dove s
,
.

But the com mone s t appearance o f the D ove is w ith N o a h .

T h e earlie s t o f the s e picture s are all li k e each other N oah .

is al w ays s tanding in the s q uare area or che s t done in a , ,

s ty le o f pers pective which m ak e s one fe el as if one had been

examining a s chool in that s ubject H e wears a long tunic .

w ith stripes or clavi and hold s out h is hand to the olive ,

bearing D ove T hu s he appears continuall y in variou s


.

Catacombs but the curiou s th ing is that thi s treatment and ,

gure s eem to be derive d from a coin of the city o f A pam e a


,

in P hrygia which was called KiBarrs arca ark or trea s ure , ,


che t from its being one o f the great emporia o f A s ia
s

M inor It is a curiou s adapta t ion naturall y s uited to the secret


.
,

s y mboli s m o f earlier d ay s ; and no doubt conve yed the s en s e o f

pre servation through the s torm s o f thi s world to man y anxiou s


s pirit s I t is not o ften s een in medi e val s culpture mo s aic
.
, ,

or M SS s o as to be recogni s able fo r the old q uas i A pam ze an


.
,
-

s y mbol But it is found on one memorable and well


.

kno w n relic s o w ell de s cribe d and gu re d latterly in A ratra


,


P entelici o n the bronze doors o f S Z enone at Verona and .

the di fference o f the w ork is remark able T he s q uare .

is changed into a k in d o f upright s tructure li k e a



area ,

tabl e altar w ith a rai sed bac k or reredo s N oah s hea d pro
-
.

trude s from a s q uare hole in the latter rather l ik e a bearded ,

L omb ard and the dove is dra wn in th e act o f alighting s o


well that I ca nnot but fancy the arti s t had s tretch ed out
,

h is s t to a ha w k prett y o ft e n in h is time O r if he w as a .
,


G ree k as L ord L ind s ay w ill have it and I cannot thin k ,

h e mu s t have been c rit ici s ed b y s ome northern tamer o f the


L e blau t 1 m m.
} . C /z rticnnc: dc la Gon/c, &c . Paris ,
1 8 56 .
l 4o GREEK A ND GO THIC

conditio ns w h at w e call real or common li fe in R om an ,

decad e nce had m uch i n common w ith our mo d e rn E ngli s h


,

exi s te nce T he s ame cro wde d s treet s tall teeming hou s e s


.
, , ,

ince ss ant din o f t raic love of exciteme nt at an y price ind if


, ,

ference i n all cla s s e s as to the q ualit y o f exc itement ; the


s ame general s ceptici s m and ab s ence o f creed w ith the s ame ,

reall y s incere ac k no w l e dgment that re li gion is good and de


s irable if o ne onl y could be religiou s ; the s ame n ucl e u s o f
,

believers w il full y mi s un d ers tood by the public ; th e same


,

s en s e o f political po w er and i mpatience o f taxation and that


burde n al w a ys i ncreas ing an d graduall y l e velling all men ,

down ward s into povert y ; the sa m e dail y anxi et y fo r ne ws


from the other end o f the w orld and inevitabl e endle s s wars ,


on every fronti e r all thi s m u s t have amounted b y the ti me ,

one w as fort y or s o to an i nexpre s s ible di s traction and wear i ,



ne ss o f heart about all one s hope s or pro s pects or past or
, , ,

future exi s tence P eople in thi s outworn s tate o f mind


.

re q ui re pretty s hort vie w s on all matters it s eem s an al mo s t


hopel e s s thing to i nsp ire s uch a race w ith ne w s piritual hopes ,

to t e ach th e m a ne w religion Y e t thi s the G o s pel did fo r .

the town population s o f R ome A ntioch and A lexa ndria ;


-
, ,

and it w as don e humanl y s pea k ing b y appl y ing to every , ,

heart and ma k ing every s oul p arta k e in s uch great broad


, ,

ideas in s tantl y appre hend e d and n e ver in thi s world com


,

preh e nded as are conveye d by the s e Catacomb pai ntings


, .

Chri s t is G od as w ell as Man and the Shepherd o f men H e , .

is the V ine and all men are part s o f H im Cai ns and Cai a
, ,

P uden s the Se nator and Claudia the fair Britone s s G laucu s ,

and Ione o f A the ns Volero the esh er and the strong s mith ,

,


M ure na even all the D av us e s o f the s lave mark et all w e -

are one in H im ; H e is the L amb and H e died as well as ,

l ived for all thes e H e died and ros e from the dead having .
,

foretold that H e would do s o li k e the H ebre w Jonah He , .

gave s ign of H is pow er over death b y recalling the shrouded


L azaru s to li fe H e may call upon H is follow ers to die by
.
:

re for H im and if H e doe s s o H e w ill be w ith the faith ful


, ,

as w ith the T hree Children an d w ith D aniel ; H e was


La a us is al most alway presented as not only bound hand and fo ot with
z r s re

grave cl
-
oth e b u t r lled in lins
en ba
,nd
ages lik e an E gy
o p t ian m um my .
SC R I P T U R A L C YCL E S 0F C A TA C OM E S . 14 !

prepared for b y the fathers o f thi s s tran ge H ebre w race .

T hought s o f thi s k ind pre s ented b y rough art w ould pre s ent
, ,

them s elve s as realities to the mind o f the R oman m echanic ,

or trader or s oldier ; and each o f them s eparatel y would be


,

enough to thro w a ne w light on the darknes s o f h is s piritual


pros pects and the monoton y or bas e e x
, citement o f h is worldl y

li fe T he y w ould give him wh at man y o f us w ant s omething
.

to live fo r .

I believe s ome pro fe ss or or other has fulminated about


Chri stianity having d e stroyed G ree k or R oman civili s ation ;
and if civili s ation mean s l u xury s lav ery an d d egradation of , ,

women wh y it di d so
, But there is no doubt that Chri s
.

t ianity p re serve d a large part o f the R oman populatio n from


de s pai r fo r s everal centuries ; and there is no do ubt that
w ithout Chri s tianity there would have been no Con s ta nti
nop le no E a s tern E mpire no bul w ar k again s t O rien tal or
, ,

R u ss ian barbari s m no G regory to intercede w ith the L o m


bard s A ll civili s ation which s urvived the fall o f R ome was


.

either Chri s tian i n origin or pre s erved b y Chri s tian hand s ; ,

and the hold of Chri s tianity on mankind w as mad e fas t


through certain broad fact s about m an k in d ; which Chri s tian
teachers were empowered to tell them an d d id tell them , ,

through th es e paintings and by other mean s T h e Coli s eum , .

and its gladiators ma y to the agnos tic m ind conve y a greater


idea o f civili s ation than the C atacombs an d their marty rs but ,

th e latter prevailed a fter all .

T h e gure o f Jonah as a s y mbol o f the R e s urrection o f the


,

Bod y is certainl y the mo s t fre q uentl y repeated of all the


,

Catacomb picture s ; and there m ay have b een the other


reas on for its freq uenc y from the e arlies t time s that it m ight ,

be ev e ry where repre sent e d w ithout attracting an y particular


attention as pass ing fo r an illu s tration of class ical m ythology)
,

T here w as a P h oenician m yth o f H ercule s sw allo wed b y a


wh ale w hich R ochette q uotes fro m Bottari vol iii p 4 2
, , . . .

s heltering h im s el f w ith s ome caution un d er the elder an d

long deceas ed w riter s authorit y or impunit y



-
Jas on is said .

to be repre sented on an E tru s can vas e as going through the ,

s ame proce s s T he s tories o f H e s ione an d A ndromeda w ere


.

R R c h ette T alm x d : C M amma p 1 67 sq


. o ,
u c l s, . .
1 42 GREEK A ND G O THIC .

con stant s ubjects fo r R oman and G ree k ornament T h e re .

is a ca pital de s cription o f H ercule s and H es ione in Philo


s tratu s I m agi nes ch xii

which Charles K ings le y m ay h ave
, . .
,

made use of in h is A nd romed a and in T Ice H eroes : and it


is reall y intere s ting to s ee to what perfection the rhetoricia ns
.

had brought the art o f pictor ial i nventory and compo s ition in

word s th e me main fact s acce s s ories and by pla y H ow eve r
, , ,
- .
,

di s regarding P h ilos t rat u s w e ma y remark th at it is very curi


,

o us that s o man y tradition s s hould s u rround the port o f Jo p p a ,


or Jaa the Beauti ful as the y ma y w ell call it all remi nding
,

u s more or le s s o f Jona h S Jerome notice s thi s in h is 1 0 8 t h


. .

E pi s tle : Joppa too he s ays


, the harbour of Jonah when
, ,


he ed from G od an d if I ma y mak e s ome allu s ion to the
tales o f poet s the tow n which witnes s ed the bi nding o f
,

A ndromeda to her roc k A n d he s a ys in h is comment ary



.

on Jonah (c 1 ) that the bone s o f A ndromeda s se a mon s ter


.

-

w ere s till exhibited at Joppa in his time Jo sephu s had him .

s el f s een a lin k o f her chai n (B ell u d aic 1 I I I cviii R aoul


y . . . . .

R ochette is in s ome trouble becau s e P lin y s a ys that in h is


time th e se (cetaceo u s or other) remain s had be e n tran s ported
to R ome no doubt b y some anti q uarian o f the s chool o f
,

M u m m ius and M ac C ribb H e cheerfu ll y s urmount s thi s .

apparent di s crepancy betwee n P lin y and S Jerome (on thi s .

s ubject no doubt o f almo s t e q ual authorit y b y uppo ing


) s s

th at another s et o f bone s h ad been s ub s tituted ; w hich is


q uite po s s ible as there are proverbiall y al ways as good s h
, , ,

i n the s ea as ever came out o f it It w ill be obs erved th at .

clas s ical relics or curio s itie s w ere no m ore authentic than


medi e val ; and it is grati fying to nd arch ae ology enriched
w ith one more dragon M rs Ja m e s o n s remark that the . .

vas t bone s o f s uppose d dragon s exhibited at A ix and el s e ,

where were probabl y Saurian


,
D ragon s o f the prime w ill .

apply to thes e remai n s as w ell as oth e rs .

It is evident o f cours e that all thi s has nothing to d o


, ,

with the Old T e s tament record w hatever con s tructio n we ,

ought to put upon it ; but it is curiou s ly connected w ith the


Catacomb picture s A lmo st all o f them repre se nt the w hale as
.

a v as t lacerti ne or se rpentine creature greatl y re se mbling the ,

me d i e val and modern ideals of the sea s erpent T radition s - .


1 44 GREEK A ND GO THIC .

of colour and pro portion L etters ma y be made be auti ful


.

enough as orna m ent : a very little trouble in selectio n from


P ro f Wes twood s P ale og rap/I ia Sac ra or Count Bas tard
.

would s oon show ho w and s uppl y coun tle ss exampl e s onl y


, ,

for th e copy ing T h e s cale o f the illu minated wall b e ing


.

so m uch larger than the illumi nated page it would re q u ire ,

m ore s ubdued hue s but common rules or w hat is th e s am e , ,

thing a tolerable ey e fo r colour and a little practice w ould


, ,

s oon s ettle that T h e i nitial letter o f each text s hould b y


.
-

rights contain an illu s tration or s y mbol o f its meaning ; an d


the re s ult would be bett e r than the mere d regs o f Morri s and
Faul k ner ; which are now too freq uentl y s ub s titu t e d fo r th at
decent old whi te wa s h w hich we have o ften good reas on to regre t .

It w ill be s een on loo k ing to ou r li s t at page 1 3 3 th at t he


, ,

primitive choice of s ubjects from the Old T es t am e nt w as


determined b y the N ew T h e las t three grou ps on our li s t
.
,

Job T ob ias and Su s anna are very rare ; T obi as I thin k


, , ,

altogether uncertain as I onl y k now of one dubiou s exam p le


,

in the C allix t ine Cataco m b T he N e w T e s tament c ycl e


.

d well s al mo s t entirel y on the L ord s li fe and miracl e s o f


'

mercy T here is one fres coe d crucixio n in the Cat aco m bs


. ,

a ss igned to P ope A drian I I I A D 8 8 4 : the one P ass i o n .


, . .

s ubject in the s ar cophagi be s id e s P ilate is the Cro w ni ng



w ith T ho m s the c irclet brea k ing into ro se s P ilate Wa s h ing
h is H and s is found in one or t w o s culpture s and paint ing s .

T o the E arl y Church the Cro ss w as pri mari ly a s y mbol o f


the L ord s P e rs on rather tha n o f H is D e ath up to the time

, ,

o f Con s tantine T h e u s e o f the X or decu ss ated s y mbol o r


.
,

letter is the initial o f H is N ame and it w as not till the


, ,

Chri s tian E mpire that it graduall y changed to the u p right


and penal s ign o f H is D eath i n the u s ual L atin and G ree k ,

crosses Perhaps it was the hope o f H is s peed y return to


.

j udge the earth : perhap s it w as the do m i nating and s u p


port ing idea o f H is I ncarn ation and D ivi ne P re s e nce o n
earth ; but the Chri s tian congregat ion s eem s to have b e e n
fo r 2 00 y ears directed to thin k o f H is Sacrice in m ys te ry ,

u n d er the w ell unde rs tood i mage of the L amb H e w as .

to be thought of as the Me s s iah and ful ller o f the L aw , ,

the P roph et s and the Ps al m s ; as the V ine o f Soul s t he


, ,
SC R I P T U R AL C YC L E S OF C A T A C OM B S . 1 45

Shepherd people ; as the Work er o f all miracles


of all H is ,

and chie y o f th e conclu s ive wond e r of H is R es u rrection from


the D ead H e was L ord o f L i fe and D eat h but in primitive
.

days people s eem ho nes tl y to have looked over and be yond


D eath and to have con s idered it as a brie f pa ss age between
,

t wo lives rather th an the nal co n s ummation of a s u ffering


,

T hey d w elt on the L ord s


and dubious exi s tence here .

victory rather than on H is s u e rings


'

.
,

T h e A doration o f the Magi claim s s ome s pecial attention


h ere b e cau s e it connect s the Chri s tian paintings w ith the
,

E as t or w ith O riental imagery ; and becau se it is u nque s


,

t ionably i n it that the Ble ss ed V irgin ma k e s her e arlie s t


appearance in the cemeteries I t is clearl y felt to co nvey .

an a s sertion o f the D ivi nit y o f the L ord an d of H is I nc ar


nation ; an d that mo st probably be fore pronoun ced here s ie s
, , ,

or s trict denition s o f doctrine It mu s t have claimed atten .

tion too as the E piphan y or mani fe s tation o f Chri s t to the


, ,

Gentile Ch urch T h e picture s are all ve ry li k e each other


. .

T he three almos t al wa y s wear the P hrygian cap and an axy


rides or leggings or R oman c aligae and the y are generall y
, ,

o f y outh fu l appearance Sometime s the y lead their hors e s ; .

and in Bottari ( T av lxxxii ) the y wear boots and ro w elled . .

s pu rs w hich i nd i cates either a very late re s toration or s ome


, ,

con s i d erable mi s ta k e on the part o f the d raughts ma n or


engraver I n a fre s co in S A gnes the y appear be fore H erod
. .

and o n the gates o f S Z enone in V erona the y are obs erving .


, ,

the Star T he great P roce s s ion o f H ol y Women in S A pol


. .

linare N uova at R avenna e nd s near the altar w ith their


, ,

A doration ; evi d entl y intend e d to intro d uce the V irgin as


Mother o f the L ord and ble s s ed among wome n I n the .

original s tate o f the fth century mosaic o f the A doration in -

Sta Maria Maggiore at R ome s h e occupied a s mall e r throne


.
, ,

b y the s i d e o f her Son w ho was receiving the A doratio n ,

attended by angel s .

T he Miracle of Cana is more fre q uent in carvings than in


fre s co but o c curs in the cemetery o f L ucina in the C allix t ine
,

See S mith s
D ictionary o f C l

m stian A n tion ities, s 22
'

. . A ngels and A rc h
angels also C iampiui s Vetera M on u menta, vol i

2 00, tab . . p
. . xlix . C iampani
is the old au th ority for ev erything o u t of th e atacombs C .
1 46 GREEK A ND GO THI C .

( Bottari T c w 1,9 3 5
1 1 1 8 . T,
here is a ,b e,
auti fu l ivo ry
,

pla q ue or tablet i n the D uomo at R avenna w hich is s aid to ,



be part o f the covering o f the E xarch s throne and whic h ,

is gured under Cana M iracle o f in Smith s D ictionary , ,

.

O u r L ord s ometi me s touche s the h yd ri e or w ater p o ts w ith -

a wand ; and one is place d in H is han d in the R ai s ing o f


L azaru s T here are not al w ays s ix pots repre s ented as in
.
,

the R avenna ivo ry ; four or ve are enough to ll the s pace


in man y picture s and Bottari ma ke s th e s en s ible remark that
,

the arti s ts ma y have been hampered b y k no wing that the s e


ve s sel s were large containing as m uch as a Metretes
, T hi s .

miracle h as pass ed into the cy cle o f mode rn sacre d art ,

s o called
-
What has been sai d on the Vi ne may partl y appl y
.

to it as to the R afae les q u e or modern treatment o f the Fall


, ,

Mos es D avid an d E lij ah where D aniel is painted so obvious ly


, , ,

for the s a k e of the lion s that I s in c erel y w i s h ( in Mr Bretton .

R ivi ere s otherwi s e excellent pi cture fo r example) that he


could be le ft o ut altogether and s uppos ed at the s ide , .

T hi s is done and I thin k rightl y done in an A doration


, ,

o f Shepherd s b y Ba s sano w ith nothing to a d ore ; the y and ,

their h e rd s forming the whole s ubject T he V enetian was .

a s traight forward fellow at all events or he had enough ,

reverence le ft in him to s h rin k from painting a N ativity


deliberately express ive o f i ndi fference to the birth o f the
Son of Go d .

A ll our N e w T e s tament li s t are al so treated as modern


s ubject s arti s ticall y
, an d for th e s ake o f the picture ; and
,

there ma y be no harm i n that But it m us t be re m embered .

that now there is no conve ntional method or xed sy mbol o f


,

repres entat ion as in primitive days the e ffect o f the sacred ,


picture fo r good or evil depend s o n the s pirit o f the man


, ,

who paint s it I f he believes what he pain ts h is pi cture w ill


.
,

s ho w it as H ol man H unt s ; if he doe s not it w ill s ho w that


, ,

al s o as D or s ; if he thi nks the Scriptural event grave matter


,

o f thought and faith ful record under the light of h is imagina

ti on that too w ill be s een in h is work as in P oynte r s I once


, ,

.

he ard an eminent paint e r s pea k with not unreas onable con ,

te m pt and d i s li k e o f the piou s d od ge s o f incompetent



,

person s who chos e sacred s ubjects in the hope o f s elling their


,
1 48 GR E E K A N D G OT H I C .

T he evangeli c sy mbol s the Fi s h and others are in thi s


, ,

partl y Scriptu ral category an d the Sea son s D olia Ch ariot


, , , ,

an d other exampl es come from entirel y s ecular s ources .

T here is and mu s t al wa ys be a certain re s e rve or s ome ,

amount o f actual s parri ng between ours elve s and the R o m an


,

Catholic authorities o f modern days about the Catacomb s ,

and their illu s t ration s It is better to ta k e that as it come s


.
,

on s uch s ubject s o f di s pute as we nd Y e t they ought not .

to be m an y for there is no doubt that the s e picture s furni s h


,

s omething li k e a bod y o f E arl y Church doctrine as h e ld b y ,

the people with a va st deal o f hi s torical and arch e olog ical


,

in formation s c arcely to be had el s e where A s D A ginco u rt


s aid (an d it w as literally tru e in h is time) the Cat acomb s and

their tomb s furni s h the onl y authoritie s for the earl y decadence
of p ainting an d the meaning o f the s e p icture s b e ing evi d e nt
and un m i sta kable the y certainl y s e t fort h the practical and
,

popular Cree d o f the rs t ce nturie s in a mar k edl y i ns tructive


way T hes e w ere the practical religiou s thought o f the time
.

they gave us at lea s t an approximative idea of the ho pe s


and expectation s in death o f whole generation s o f faith ful
men and women T here is no doubt a tendency to piou s
.

anachroni s m in s o m e o f the account s o f the Catacomb s b y ,

which ever y s ubterranean picture is referred to the s econd or


third century and the more eagerl y if it contain s an ything
,

li k e medi ae val ves tment or ton s ure or di stinctivel y R oman ,

characteri s tics of any k in d .


But it is q uite eas y to d is tingui sh betw een later and earlier


w ork to thos e w ho care to do so It was not till the s ixth .

century that the sti ffer and more eccles ia s tical gures s een in
S Pontianu s Catacomb fo r exa m ple made their appearan ce

. .
, ,

Y o u have o nl y to s ee the un q ue s tionably earl y w or k s w ith


the contempo rar y Gentile decoration to unders tand that t he
ruder and more barbaric picture s m us t be of later date .

Some o f the s e w ork s are un q ues tionabl y o f the P ri mitive


Church and it w ill never do to neg lect them becau s e they are
,

found in R ome an d not el s ewhere M uch o f what h as gone .

be fore about architecture has s how n how much we hav e


T he n nti h centur
-
y fresc oes of S C lemente are d escribed sim ply as I magine
. s

V etus tis simae, el w th S D mitilla



and l
i

p u t o n a ev . o s.
S C R I P T U R AL C YCLE S OF C A TA C OM E S . 1 49

inherite d li k e the re s t o f the T eutonic worl d from the vas t


, ,

p o w er org ani,s ation an d accumulated , k no w le d ge w hich t h e

g reat I mperi um brought to bear on all it s s ubject s even on the ,

far aw a y Briton s
-
T he s e were not our ance s tors but our
.
,

ance s tors victim s for the mo s t part ; an d very man y of us


are de s cended from fres h waves o f N orthmen who dealt b y ,

Saxon s an d A ngle s as the y had dealt b y the race o f Claudi a


and P uden s But it is d ue to the teaching of R ome i e of
.
, . .

the C h ri s tian Faith received through G reece and R ome that ,

our whole hi s to ry is not one continuou s gathering of raven s


an d wolves to the fea st A ny s tu d ent of the d read ful hi s tory
.

o f the D ecline Fall and R eco ns truction o f C ivili s atio n among


, ,

the T eutonic races will s e e that the rs t s tep was to bring


them to conceive the action of merc y to utte r the w ord ,

A lboin j u st lear nt it and died in L ombardy



s pare . In , .

E nglan d C oeur de L ion as great a s avage as he even under


, , ,

S H ugh o f L incoln s teaching w as able to pronou nce i t in



.
,

h is las t moments T hat w ord the Chri s tian Faith alone could
.

teach But when the barbarian had once m astered it he could


.
,

ta k e ve ry eas ily to all the great O rd er an d L aw of ancient


R ome T o forget all w e have received thro ugh R ome is to
.

ignore or q u arrel with hi s tory ; and it is in hi sto ry that the


s trength o f our cas e lie s again s t the R oman Curia w henev er ,

that case h as to be gravel y as s ert ed A s to Church decora .

tion it s eem s that the limit s o f repres entation an d s ymboli s m


,

w ithin which the Church o f the rs t four centuries abode and


prevailed ought to content u s in our o wn da y ; and there is
plenty o f room for the highes t ight o f artis tic imagination ,

i n the record s o f the H i s tory o f Man s Creation and R ed e m p

tion A ll our arti s t s have to do is to believe it and if they


.
,

w ill not i t is not m y immediate dut y to give an y opinion as


,

to what w ill happen to them in the next world but as fo r the


pres ent one into the Bathos o f emptines s and frigidity the y
,

w ill go w ithout redemption and that appears to be the


pre s ent direction o f their e fforts With tho se of the .

Sen s uali s ts I am not now concerned .


C H A PT E R I I I .

C H R I STI A N SY M B O L I SM .

T O w rite about the extra Scriptural cy cle o f the catacom b


-

pictures is to enter on the s ubject o f Chri stian sy mboli s m in


gen e ral T he neares t approach to xed rule about the u se o f
.

i magery which can be made for modern time s is to allo w ,

Scriptural s ubject s onl y and that term may be very w id el y


and variou s l y interp reted and s eem s to have b een s o fro m
,

t h e rs t I t s ee m s to have been hel d from the rst t hat t h e


.

mention o f an y name o f man or a ngel in H ol y Scri p ture


made him at leas t admi s s ibl e i nto iconograph y ; perhaps onl y
as a hi s to rical pers onage in s ome s cene o f action as P ilat e ,

or H e rod ; perhaps as deserving o f commemoration in h is


ow n p ers o n li ke the A pos tle s and E vangeli s ts T hi s d is tinc
,
.

tion o f Chri s tian s y mboli s m (or imagery or icon ography) ,

into hi s torical an d commemorative is of s ome im port ance ,

and s e em s to have be e n fe lt from the earlie s t time s It w as .

c ertainl y earl y und e rs tood that hi s to rical delineatio n o f ev e nt s

is as harm le s s as pictorial de s c ription in w ord s ; s ince both


ali k e are i ntended for in stru ction and do not appea l to the
,

feel ings pri maril y or chie y But it w as probabl y not long


.
,

a fter picture s o f non apos tolic s ai n ts rst appeared on ch urch


-

wall s that thin k ing m en began to s ee d anger i n them


, ,

whether o f exciti ng undue emotion w id e o f the s cope o f


,

Ch ri s tian wors h ip or i ndeed an d in con s e q uen ce o f m is


, , ,

directing popular devotion altogether Saintl y person s in a.

hi s torical p icture are engaged in its action and part o f its ,

com p o s ition ; the y are acting as s aint s doing s omethi ng to ,

God s glory ; to w hich the picture is at leas t i n theory


'

, ,
1 5 2 GR EEK AN D GO THIC .

they never knew ; an d which are not in fact as sert e d to be , ,

like s aint s long s ince out of the bod y T hes e picture s cannot .

be con s i d ered as P ro fe ss or Max M illle r s ingeniou s Brahmin


put it as portraits o f deceas ed friend s We never s aw their


,
.

s ubject s in the e s h We k now what it is to s e e the li k ene s s


.

o f the brother w e have seen and w ho as w e tru s t is w ith G od


, , ,

and among the saint s it may be that w e pray w ith him and
them be fore the throne o f God and to H im who s itteth ,

thereon T rue portraits o f the loved and lo s t might rai s e


.

gen uine emotion i n pray er though of cours e familie s cann ot


have their L ares and P enate s i n church But as to fanc y .

picture s o f the greate s t s aint s they s eem to u s to be ind e fe n


,

s ible on the ground o f their mini s teri ng to pa s t human

ae c t io n an d unde s irable as an aid to pres ent devoti o n


'

.
,

A nthropomorphi s m is natural but in thi s cas e it is again s t ,

the Second Commandment P ray i ng be fore a face or form .

mu st practicall y come to praying to it T h e dark ey ed .


-

V irgi n meets the gaze o f the w ors hipper ; in theory s he is


in all her portrait s as omnipres e nt ; she w ill hear as o m nipo
tent ; s urely s he will hear s he is hearing the pra yer of faith
, ,

an d need and terror She loo k s as if s he heard : did not her


.

ey es change i n the gaze which is s traine d on them through


,

tear s ?
It m u s t be s o it was s o s he moved or w in k ed , ,

or s omething and there is y our miracle and all its train o f ,

d ubiou s glories and moc k eries .

E ngli s h clergy fo r man y y ears be fore the Ox ford move


,

ment are now describe d as either Methodi s ts holding w rong


, ,

tenets s incerel y or w orldl y plurali s ts who believed nothing


,

and preached again s t enth us ias m which is now held to be the ,

one thing need ful Ou r age is a fas t o ne and expects th at


.
,

q ualit y in all clergy T he y are to strive for pace in s tead o f


.

peace an d show w ell in front o f every movement ; if pos s ible


, ,

the y are neither them selve s to s ee nor s ugge s t to others , ,

which w a y it ought to move or w here it ought to s top I t , .

is there fore an unpopular thing to have to as s ert that common


s e ns e or j udgment is a j udicial faculty and the gi ft o f G o d
,

intended to be us ed and to guide u s in s pi ritual things ; j u st


as enthu s ias m or partial abandonme nt o f ordinary rule s o f
,

mental j udgment is the gi ft o f God on certain rare occas io ns


, .
C H R I S TI AN S YM B OL I SIY
I . 1 53

I t is more a wkward s till to re q uire deliberate judgment ,

moderation or decenc y it sel f in congregational act s of


, ,

devotion or to have to den y that the excitement whi c h


,

pas s e s fo r devotion is a thing to be had at any price It w as .

probabl y found that G ree k or Italian ass emblies in the s ixth


or s eventh centurie s were rai s ed to a higher pitch o f emotion
b y praying be fore s aint s w hom they could s e e ; and that
carried the w hole iconolatry q ues tion w ith their clergy T hi s
-
.

is one o f the commone s t form s o f s ee k ing a fter a s ign ; and


a fter a due amount o f devotion the s ign w ill a ss uredly ta k e
the place o f the thing s ignied and the i mage having long ,

excited pas s ionate feeling will be s uppo sed to have s how n


,

li fe or miraculou s po wer T hen God or the s aint is in it


.
,

an d it can help the wor s hipper .

T he s aving di s tinction bet w een s y mboli s m and idolatry


'

s e e m s to con s i s t in thi s that the true s y mbol is not like that


,

which it call s to the mind and doe s not represent it to the eye
, .


I t is properl y a vi s ible s ign o f the Invi s ible pointi ng toward s
H im teaching tru th concerni ng H im proclaiming its el f not
, ,

to be H im It was on thi s principle or so it s eem s that the


.
, ,

Cherub form s w ere u sed in H e bre w wors hip T he people .

w ere protecte d from temptation to w ors hip them b y their


being repre s ented in pairs and as mini s ters attendant on
,

the s pec ial P re s enc e o f Go d I t is s uppo s ed indeed that


.

'

th e form s o f the Cherub s o f G lo ry on the A rk w ere k now n


o nl y to the prie s t s ; th e people being allow ed to see
another conve ntional form on the doors o f the T emple .

But Cherubs were k now n as m in istering s pirits and were not ,

wors hipped N o r doe s it s eem e ver to have entered the mind


.

o f an y P rimitive Chri s tian to w ors hip the V ine or Fi s h or , ,

G ood Shepherd E ven t he la s t is not repre s e nted as s tand


.


ing to receive the wors hip o f H is people th at is for the
portrait i mage T h e Shepherd is engaged in care of H is
-
.

charge lay ing the m on h is s houlders or h e aring them in H is


,

arm s T he gure is onl y a graphic repetition o f the L ord s o wn


.

p arable about H im s el f as,K i n g and Shepherd o f m an k ind .

It is s y mbolic o f H is o f ce not o f H is Person T he image


, .

h as been u s ed b e fore and in oth e r land s being H omeri c and ,


univers al probabl y from the earlie s t days of A ryan herdsmen .
1 54 GREEK AN D GO THI C .

T hedi fference be t w een the portrait image and the g u re s -

in a hi s torical picture h as alread y been not e d ; it was lo ng


felt and unders tood and appears in the i mportant an s we r ,

o f Charlemag ne s bi s hop s to the Second Cou n cil o f N ice



,

called the L ibri C arolini Ou r own A ngl ican view s eem s t o .

s tand on it but it has never be en m uch regarded in South e r n


E urope or b y the mass o f man k ind
, Simple or thoughtle s s .

people onl y thin k that an imag e is an image ; they do not


s ee much di fference bet ween a s y mbol w hich re mi nd s o f Go d ,

and a gure which as they are told repres ents and is li k e , ,

H im T he di s tinction bet ween hi s torical picture s o f s aints


.

doing s o m ething and portrait images o f s aints s tandi ng


,

fo r ado ration was nev e r s u s tained nobod y s aw it or cared


,

fo r it Compromi se s were foun d ed on it fo r a time ; bu t


.

then as always happen s th e more numerou s d ull and


, , , ,

pow erful part y interpre ted all co mpromi se its ow n w ay T h e .

s ecret force o f image w ors hip and indelit y as well h as -


, ,

alw ays been expres s ed in the unavaili ng exc us e o f A aron


that the people w ere s et on mi s chie f and that he was unabl e ,

to control them but determined at lea st to appear to lead


, , ,

them T hat is al way s the hi s tory o f I c ond u lis m


. .

I thin k it is bes t to give a li s t o f Chri s tian s y mbol s here ,

generall y o f s uch as are der