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Module 1 Maths Algebra

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Module 1 Maths Algebra

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.2 Algebra

MODULE 1

Sub Module 1.2

ALGEBRA

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Contents SIMULTANEOUSEQUATIONS........................................................15

EliminationMethodinSolvingSimultaneousEquations............15

EVALUATINGSIMPLEALGEBRAICEXPRESSIONS..............................1

PRACTICEQUESTIONS...................................................................17

AdditionandSubtractionofAlgebraicExpressions......................1

MultiplicationandDivisionofAlgebraicExpressions...................1 SECONDDEGREEEQUATIONSWITHONEUNKNOWN(QUADRATIC

TheUseofBrackets......................................................................2 EQUATIONS).................................................................................18

SIMPLEALGEBRAICFRACTIONS.......................................................4 SolutionofQuadraticEquationsbyFactorization......................18

SolutionofQuadraticEquationsbyUsingtheQuadraticFormula

PRACTICEQUESTIONS.....................................................................5

....................................................................................................19

LINEAREQUATIONSANDTHEIRSOLUTION.....................................6

PRACTICEQUESTIONS...................................................................20

TransposingFormulae...................................................................6

SolutionofLinearEquations.........................................................7

PRACTICEQUESTIONS.....................................................................8

INDICESANDPOWERS....................................................................9

TheLawsofIndices.....................................................................10

Substitution.................................................................................11

PRACTICEQUESTIONS...................................................................11

NUMBERSYSTEMS........................................................................12

BinaryNumberSystem...............................................................12

HexadecimalNumberSystem.....................................................13

PRACTICEQUESTIONS...................................................................14

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Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions The rules are exactly the same as those used with directed

numbers:

Like terms are numerical multiplies of the same algebraic

quantity. Thus 7x, 5x and -3x are three like terms. (+ x)(+ y) = + (xy) = + xy = xy

single term by summing (i.e. adding and/or subtracting) the

numerical coefficients together. Thus: (x)(-y) = - (xy) = - xy

q - 3q = (1 - 3)q = -2q +x x x

+y = +y = y

Only like terms can be added or subtracted. Thus (7a + 3b - 2c)

is an expression containing three unlike terms and it cannot be - 3x 3x

simplified any further. Similarly with (8a2b + 7ab3 + 6a2b2) 2y = - 2y

which are all unlike terms.

- 5x 5x 5x

It is possible to have several sets of like terms in an expression - 6y = + 6y = 6y

and each set can then be simplified.

4x 4x

8x + 3y - 4z - 5x + 7z - 2y + 2z - 3y = - 3y

= (8 - 5)x + (3 - 2)y + (-4 + 7 + 2)z

= 3x + y + 5z When multiplying expressions containing the same symbols,

indices are used:

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When removing brackets each term within the bracket is

(- m) m2 = (- m) m m = - m multiplied by the quantity outside the bracket:

= 5 m m n 3 m n nn

= 15m3n4 5(2x + 3y) = 5 2x + 5 3y = 10x + 15y

= 3 m n (- 2) n n= - 6mn3

m(a + b) = ma + mb

When dividing algebraic expressions, cancellation between

numerator and denominator is often possible. Cancelling is 3x(2p + 3q) = 3x 2p + 3x 3q = 6px + 9qx

equivalent to dividing both numerator and denominator by the

same quantity: 4a(2a + b) = 4a 2a + 4a b = 8a2 + 4ab

When a bracket has a minus sign in front of it, the signs of all

pq p q the terms inside the bracket are changed when the bracket is

q

p p removed. The reason for this rule may be seen from the

following example:

3p 2 q 3 p p q 3p p

6pq 2 6 p q q 6q 2q - 3(2x - 5y) = (- 3) 2x + (- 3) (- 5y)

2 = - 6x + 15y

18x 2 y z 18 x x y y z

3xy

6xyz 6 x y z - (m + n) = - m - n

- (p - q) = -p + q

- 2(p + 3q) = - 2p - 6q

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the brackets and then add the like terms together:

= - x + 4y

= 5x + 4y

= 13a

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Example: Simplify 12 + 4 - 3 .

The addition for algebraic fractions is the same as for

arithmetical fraction, that is: The L.C.M. of 12, 4 and 3 is 12.

Find the L.C.M. of the denominators.

Express each fraction with the common m 2m + n m - 2n

denominators. 12 + 4 - 3

Add or subtract the fractions. m + 3(2m + n) - 4(m - 2n)

= 12

a b c m + 6m + 3n - 4m + 8n

Example: Simplify 2 + 3 - 4 . = 12

3m + 11n

= 12

The L.C.M. of 2,3 and 4 is 12.

2 + 3 - 4 = 12 + 12 - 12 arithmetical fraction, that is, after using the cancellation rule of

6a + 4b - 3c fraction multiplication, multiply all the numerators to get the

= 12 numerator of the result and all the denominators to get the

2 3 4 denominator of the result.

Example: Simplify x + 2x + 3x . x 7 2

Example: Simplify .

4 y x

The L.C.M. of x, 2x and 3x is 6x. x 7 2

2 3 4 12 + 9 + 8 29 4 y x

x + 2x + 3x = 6x = 6x

x 7 2

The sign in front of a fraction applies to the fraction as a whole. 24 y x

The line which separates the numerator and denominator acts

as a bracket. 7

2y

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Practice Questions

2.

(a) 7x + 11x (b) 7x - 5x (c) - 8x +

3x (d) 6b - 4b2 + 3b2

2

(g) 8mn (- 3m2n3) (h) (- 3a) (- 3b)

(i) 2k(k - 5) (j) - 3y(3x + 4)

(k) 3x2(x2 - 2xy + y2) (l) 3(x + 4) - (2x + 5)

x x x

(m) 5(2x - y) - 3(x + 2y) (n) 3 + 4 + 5

3 5 4 3x 5 y

(o) y - 3y + 5y (p)

2 y 6 x

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LINEAR EQUATIONS AND THEIR SOLUTION Step 1: Since there are no roots get rid of the fraction by

multiplying both sides of the equation by ( R r )

An equation is the relation of equality between two or more

V (R r) 2R

expressions.

If the degree of the equation, i.e. the highest power among the Step 2: Clear the bracket

variable of each term on both sides in the equation is 1, then the VR Vr 2R

equation is said to be linear equation. For example, 2x + 5 = 0,

x 2y = 7 are linear equations. Step 3: Collect the terms containing R on the LHS.

Transposing Formulae

VR 2R Vr

The formula y ax b has y as is subject. By rearranging this

R(V 2) Vr

formula we could make x the subject.

Step 5: Isolate R by dividing both sides of the equation by

The rules for transforming a formula are: (V 2).

1) Remove square roots or other roots Vr

2) Get rid of brackets R

V 2

3) Clear brackets

4) Collect together the terms containing the required Although we used five steps to obtain the required subject, in

subject very many cases far fewer steps are needed. Nevertheless, you

5) Factorize if necessary should work through the steps in order given.

6) Isolate the required subject

2R

Example: (a) Transpose the formula V to make R the

Rr

subject.

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The solution of linear equation(s) depends upon the number of and on division by 5, x= 9/-5

variable(s) used in the equation(s). The number of equations

must be equal to or greater than the variables used in a system or, x = 9/5

of equations.

8 + 4(x 1) 5(x 3) = 2(5 + 2x).

involving the unknown x on to the left-hand side of the equation,

simply by using our rules for transposition of formula.

Then: 3x + 2x 4 = 6

so, 3x + 2x = 6 + 4

or, 5x = 10

and so x=2

then collect all terms involving the unknown x onto one side of

the equation and the numbers onto the other side, then divide

out to obtain the solution. So:

8 + 4x 4 5x + 15 = 10 + 4x

4x 5x 4x = 10 + 4 8 15

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Practice Questions

RT

2. The formula P is used in connection with the

V

expansion of gases. Transpose it to find the value

of R .

(a) 2x 5 7 (b) 3x 1 6 x 10

1 3 5

(c)

x 2x 2

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INDICES AND POWERS Now, providing the base of two or more numbers expressed in

index (exponent) form are the same, we can perform

When a number is the product of the same factor multiplied by multiplication and division on these numbers, by adding or

itself, this number is called a power of the factor. For example, subtracting the indices accordingly.

we know that 3 3 = 9. Therefore, we can say that 9 is a power

of 3. To be precise, it is the second power of 3, because two 3s Consider the following literal numbers in index form:

are multiplied together to produce 9. Similarly, 16 is the second

power of 4. We may use literal terminology to generalize the x2 x2 x x x x x4

relationship between powers and factors.

x 2 x 4 ( x x) ( x x x x)

2 x x x x x x x6

as a , where a is known as the base (factor) and 2 is the

exponent (or index). Thus writing the number 9 in exponent

form we get 9 = 32 where; 9 is the second power, 3 is the base x2 x x

x0 1

(factor) and 2 is the exponent (index). x 2

x x

exponent or index form. For example, 52 = 25, 92 = 81 and 33 = x 2

27. Notice that the second power of 5 gives the number 25 or 5 x 4

x x x x x x

5 = 25; similarly 33 means the third power of 3, literally 3 3

3 = 27. The idea of powers and exponents (indices) can be For multiplication of numbers with the same base, we add the

extended to literal numbers. For example: a a a a a or indices and for division of numbers with the same base, we

subtract the indices in the denominator from those in the

a 5 or in general a m where a is the base (factor) and the numerator.

m

exponent m (or index) is any positive integer. a means a used

We will now generalize our observations and so formulate the

as a factor m times and is read as the mth power of a. Note

laws of indices.

that since any number used as a factor once would simply be

the number itself, the index (exponent) is not usually written; in

other words a means a1 .

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Law 2: We have again used, when dividing numbers with a

In the following laws a is the common base, m and n are the common base in this case, the base is 3. Note that since

indices (exponents). Each law has an example of its use division is the opposite arithmetic operation to multiplication. It

alongside: follows that we should perform the opposite arithmetic operation

on the indices, that of subtraction. Remember we always

mn

22 24 224 26 64 subtract the index in the denominator from the index in the

1. a a a

m n

numerator.

am 34 Law 3: It is concerned with raising the powers of numbers. Do

n

a mn 3 4 2 3 2 9

2. a 32 not mix this law up with law 1. When raising powers of numbers

in index form, we multiple the indices.

3. (a ) a

m n mn

(2 2 ) 3 2 23 26 64

Law 4: As you have also met, this law simply states that any

number raised to the power 0 is always 1. Knowing that any

4. a 1 50 1

0

number divided by itself is also 1, we can use this fact to show

that a number raised to the power 0 is also 1. What we need to

m 4

do is use the second law concerning the division of numbers in

5. a a 27 3 27 4 34 81

n n m 3

index form.

1 1 1 We know that

a n 6 2

6. an 6 2

36 9 32

1 2

3 2 2 30 1

9 or 3

We need to study these laws carefully in order to understand

the significance of each.

which shows that 3 1 and in fact because we have used the

0

Law 1: As you have already met, it enables us to multiply second law of indices, this must be true in all cases.

numbers given in index form that have a common base. In the

example the common base is 2, the first number raises this Law 5: This, rather complicated looking, law simply enables us

base (factor) to the power 2 and the second raises the same to find the decimal equivalent of a number in index form; where

base to the power 3. In order to find the result we simply add the index is a fraction. All that you need to remember is that the

the indices.

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index number above the fraction line is raised to that power and These missed multiplication signs must reappear when the

the index number below the fraction line has that number root. numbers are substituted for the symbols.

2

So for the number 8 3 , we raise 8 to the power 2 and then take (a) 2y + 4 = 2 4 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

the cube root of the result.

(b) 3y + 5z = 3 4 + 5 5

It does not matter in which order we perform these operations.

So we could have just as easily taken the cube root of 8 and (c) 8 - x = 8 - 3 = 5

then raised it to the power 2.

y 4 1

Law 6: This is a very useful law, when you wish to convert the (d) x = 3 = 13

division of a number to multiplication. In other words, bring a

number from underneath the division line to the top of the 3y + 2z 3 4 + 2 5

division line. As the number crosses the line we change the sign (e) x + z 3 + 5=

of its index. This is illustrated in the example, which 12 + 10 22 3

accompanies this law. = 8 = 8 = 24

Practice Questions

Substitution

1. Simplify:

The process of finding the numerical value of an algebraic 3

expression for given values of the symbols that appear in it is 1 1 16 4

called substitution. (a) 3 2 7 5 2 4 (b) (c)

2 2 81

Example: If x = 3, y = 4 and z = 5, find the values of: b 3 b 8 b 2

b 0 b 5

(a) 2y + 4 (b) 3y + 5z (c) 8

2. Simplify:

- x

1 1 1

(d) x

y 3y + 2z

(e) x + z

(a) (2 2 ) 6 3 24 2

2 1

(b)

2 3 3

3. If a = 2, b = 3 and c = 5, find the values of

Note that multiplication signs are often missed out when writing the following:

algebraic expressions so that, for instance, 2y means 2 y.

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abc

(a) a + 2b + 5c (b) 6 (c)

5a + 9b + 8c

a+b+c

the remainder at each stage.

The decimal system of numbers we have been studying up till

now use the integers 0 9. There are in fact 10 integers and for For example, to convert the number 2510 to binary, we proceed

this reason we often refer to the decimal system as the denary as follows:

(ten) system.

25/2 = 12 ----- remainder 1 Least significant digit (LSD)

Thus, for example, the denary number 245.5 is equivalent to: 12/2 = 6 ------ remainder 0

(2 102) + (4 101) + (5 100) + (5 101) 6/2 = 3 -------- remainder 0

3/2 = 1 -------- remainder 1

This arrangement of the number consists of an integer 1.0 and 1/2 = 0 -------- remainder 1 Most significant digit (MSD)

10.0 multiplied by the base raised to the power.

The binary2 equivalent of 2510 is 110012.

Binary Number System

Note the order in which the digits of the binary number are laid

In the binary system of numbers, the base is 2 and so, for out from the MSD to

example, the denary number 43 to the base 10, written as 4310 the LSD; i.e. in reverse order to the successive division.

is equivalent to the number:

25 + 23 + 21 + 20 = 3210 + 810 + 210 + 110 To convert binary to denary, we lay out the number in

successive powers. For example, to convert binary number

As a reminder and source of reference the binary and denary 11012 into denary, we proceed as follows:

equivalents for some important numbers related to computing 11012

are detailed below: = (1 23) + (1 22) + (0 21) + (1 20)

= (1 8) + (1 4) + (0 2) + (1 1)

= 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 1310

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When numbers are placed in binary form, we can see from

above that they consist of a number of ones (1) and noughts

(0). Denary10 Binary2 Hexadecimal16

represent ON and the binary digit 0 to represent OFF. We 1 0001 1

can apply this binary code to electronic logic systems. It is this

powerful application of binary numbers that makes their study 2 0010 2

important. 3 0011 3

4 0100 4

Hexadecimal Number System 5 0101 5

6 0110 6

In order to get more digital information down computer

communication lines, we can use another number system that 7 0111 7

allows us to send 16 individual pieces of information (bytes) 8 1000 8

down parallel lines, all at the same time. This type of

communication may be coded using hexadecimal 9 1001 9

representation. Thus, for hexadecimal numbers their base is 16. 10 1010 A

However, because in our decimal number counting system we

only have 10 digits (0 9), we make up for this in the 11 1011 B

hexadecimal system by allocating capital letters to the 12 1100 C

remaining decimal numbers 10 15 (remembering that decimal

zero is counted as part of the 16 digit base). Hexadecimal 13 1101 D

representation, together with their denary and binary 14 1110 E

equivalents, are shown in the table below.

15 1111 F

may be represented as:

which is equivalent to

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21E16 = (2 162) + (1 161) + (E 160). The denary10 equivalent of hexadecimal number BA4516 is

4768510.

To convert denary to hexadecimal, we repeatedly divide by 16

in a similar manner to the way in which we converted denary to Practice Questions

binary.

1. Convert the following denary numbers into binary:

To convert the denary number 513610 to hexadecimal, we (a) 17 (b) 23 (c) 40

proceed as follows:

2. Convert the following binary numbers into denary:

5136/16 = 321 ------ remainder 0 LSD

321/16 = 20 --------- remainder 1

20/16 = 1 ------------ remainder 4

(a) 1011 (b) 11111 (c) 1010101

1/16 = 0 -------------- remainder 1 MSD

3. Convert the following denary numbers into

So the hexadecimal16 equivalent of 513610 is 141016. hexadecimal:

(a) 5890 (b) 16892

Similarly, to convert the number 9410 to hexadecimal, we

proceed as follows: 4. Convert the following hexadecimal numbers into

94/16 = 5 ------------- remainder 14 (=E16) denary:

5/16 = 0 -------------- remainder 5 (a) 6E (b) CF18

So the hexadecimal16 equivalent of 9410 is 5E16.

manner as for binary to denary.

follows:

BA4516=(B 163) + (A 162) + (4 161) + (5 160)

= (11 4096) + (10 256) + (4 16) + (5 1)

= (45056) + (2560) + (64) + (5)

= 4768510

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We can now eliminate x by subtracting equation [1] from

equation [3].

SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

3x + 4y = 11 [1]

2x + 3y = 13 [1] 17y = 34

3x + 2y = 12 [2] y = 2

Each equation contains the unknown quantities x and y. The To find x we substitute for y = 2 in either of the original

solutions of the equations are the value if x and y which equations. Thus, substituting for y = 2 in equation [1],

satisfy both equations. Equations such as these are called

simultaneous equations. 3x + 4 2 = 11

3x + 8 = 11

There are various methods of solving simultaneous equations. 3x = 11 - 8

We will only discuss one method, that is elimination method. 3x = 3

x= 1

Elimination Method in Solving Simultaneous Equations

Hence the solutions are:

The method will be shown by considering the following

examples. x = 1 and y = 2

Example: Solve the equations: Hence the solutions are correct since the L.H.S. and R.H.S. are

equal.

3x + 4y = 11 [1]

x + 7y = 15 [2] Example: Solve the equations:

coefficient of x in both equations: 4x + 7y = 37 [2]

equation [1] is multiplied by 4 (the coefficient of x in equation

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[2]) and equation [2] is multiplied by 5 (the coefficient of x in

equation [1]). Example: Solve the equations:

7x + 4y= 41 [1]

20x + 12y = 116 [3] In these equations it is easier to eliminate y because the same

coefficient of y can be obtained in both equations by multiplying

Multiply equation [2] by 5, equation [2] by 2.

y = 3

15x = 45

Substituting for y = 3 in equation [1], x = 3

5x + 3 3 = 29

5x + 9 = 29 Substituting for x = 3 in equation [1],

5x = 20 7 3 + 4y = 41

x = 4 21 + 4y = 41

4y = 20

Hence the solutions are: y = 5

x = 3 and y = 5

Check in equation [2],

Check in equation [2],

L.H.S. = 4 4 + 7 3 L.H.S. = 4 3 - 2 5

= 16 + 21 = 37 = R.H.S. = 12 - 10 = 2 = R.H.S.

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x = 2

Example: Solve the equations:

Substituting for x = 2 in equation [3],

2x y 7

3 - 4 = 12 [1]

8 2 - 3y = 7

3x 2y 3 16 - 3y = 7

4 - 5 = 10 [2] - 3y = -9

y = 3

It is best to clear each equation of fractions before attempting to

solve. Hence the solutions are:

x = 2 and y = 3

In equation [1] the L.C.M. of the denominators is 12. Hence by

multiplying equation [1]by 12,

Practice Questions

8x - 3y = 7 [3]

1. Solve the following equations for x and y and

In equation [2] the L.C.M. of the denominators is 20. Hence by check the solutions:

multiplying equation [2] by 20, (a) 3x + 2y = 7 ; x+y =3

(b) x - 3y = 1 ; x + 3y = 19

15x - 8y = 6 [4] (c) x + 3y = 7 ; 2x - 2y = 6

We now proceed in the usual way. Multiplying equation [3] by

8,

19x = 38

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term a = 1. What about the constant b? Well there is no x term

SECOND DEGREE EQUATIONS WITH ONE UNKNOWN in our

(QUADRATIC EQUATIONS)

equation so b = 0. What about the constant c? Our equation is

A quadratic equation is one in which the unknown variable is not in standard form, because the equation should be equated

raised to the second power (or degree). to zero. Then in standard form our equation becomes x2 4 = 0

by simple transposition! So now we know that for our equation

For example, the equation x2 =4 is perhaps one of the simplest the constant term c = 4.

of quadratic equations. We can solve this equation by taking the

square root of both sides, as: There are several ways in which quadratic equations may be

solved, that is finding the values of the unknown variable. We

shall concentrate on just two methods of solution; factorization,

x2 4 and using the quadratic formula.

or x 2

Solution of Quadratic Equations by Factorization

Note that even for this simple equation there are two possible

solutions, either x 2 or x 2 , remembering the laws of Example: Solve the equation 3x 2 5 2x 4 .

signs!

A quadratic equation can not be solved until it is converted into

In general, a quadratic equation is of the type the standard form. So first we have to convert the given

equation in standard form as:

ax2 bx c 0 , 3x 2 5 2x 4

or 3x2 5 2x 4 0

where the constants a, b and c can take any numerical value,

positive or negative, decimal or fraction. or 3x 2x 1 0

2

Like linear equations, quadratic equations do not always appear

in standard form, i.e. they are not always arranged in exactly the 3x 2 3x x 1 0

3x( x 1) 1( x 1) 0

same order as their qualifying equation, ax bx c 0 . How

2

or

is our simple equation x2 = 4 related to its qualifying equation?

or ( x 1)(3x 1) 0

Well the coefficient of x2 that is the number multiplying the x2

So, either x 1 0 , giving x 1

ISO9001:2008Certified ForTrainingPurposeOnly

PTC/CM/B Basic/M01/01 Rev. 00

1.2 18 Mar,2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC) Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.2 Algebra

1 Solution of Quadratic Equations by Using the Quadratic

or 3x 1 0 , giving x . Formula

3

It is not always possible to solve quadratic equations by

Thus, the solution of the given equation is either x 1 or

factorization. When we cannot factorize a quadratic expression,

1 we may resort to use of the standard formula. Now we know

x

3 that the standard form of the quadratic equation is

Example: Solve the equation x 4x 4 0 . ax2 bx c 0 and it can be shown that the solution of this

2

equation is:

The given equation is already in the standard form; so we will b b 2 4 ac

factorize it, as: x

2a

x 2 4x 4 0 The above formula, commonly known as Quadratic Formula,

or x 2 2x 2x 4 0 may look complicated but it is relatively simple to use. The

x( x 2) 2( x 2) 0 coefficients a, b and c are the same coefficients, as in the

or standard form of the quadratic. So in finding a solution for the

or ( x 2)(x 2) 0 variable x, all we need to do is substitute the coefficients into

the above formulae, for the quadratic equation we are

If we get the same factors, then we combine them as a square considering. All we need to remember is that, before using the

power of single factor and solve it, as: above formula, always put the equation to be solved, into

standard form.

( x 2) 2 0

Example: Solve the equation 5x( x 1) 2x(2x 1) 20 .

or

( x 2) 2 0

A quadratic equation can not be solved until it is converted into

or x2 0 the standard form. So first we have to convert the given

or x2 equation in standard form as:

Thus, the given equation has only one solution as x 2 . 5x( x 1) 2x(2x 1) 20

or 5x 2 5x 4x 2 2x 20

ISO9001:2008Certified ForTrainingPurposeOnly

PTC/CM/B Basic/M01/01 Rev. 00

1.2 19 Mar,2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC) Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.2 Algebra

or x 2 7x 20 0

Practice Questions

Here, a 1 , b 7 and c 20

1. Solve the following equations:

(a) 6x x 2 0

2

b b 2 4 ac

x

Since 2a

(b) 2x 20x 32

2

7 (7) 4(1)(20)

2

1

x (c) x 3

2(1) x

or

1 1 2

7 49 80 (d) 0

x x 1 x 2 3

or 2

7 129

x

or 2

7 11.358

x

or 2

7 11.358 7 11.358

x x

or 2 or 2

4.358 18 .358

x x

or 2 or 6

or x 2.18 or x 9.18

x 9.18 .

ISO9001:2008Certified ForTrainingPurposeOnly

PTC/CM/B Basic/M01/01 Rev. 00

1.2 20 Mar,2014

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