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# SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 1

CHAPTER # 12
Q#1
The potential is constant throughout a given region of space is the
electric field zero or non zero in this region?
Ans#1:
Electric field E and potential difference are related by equation,
E =- v/ r
When the potential is taken as constant which means v= constant then the
potential difference becomes zero v=0 so,
E =0/r E=0
This relation tells that electric field is zero in a region of where the potential is
constant
Q#2:
Suppose that you follow an electric field line due to a positive point
charge .Do electric field and the potential increases or decreases?
Ans#2:
Relation for the electric field and electric potential are
E= 1/4 0 x q/r2 and v=1/4 0 x q/ r
this gives for same charge

E 1/ r2 V 1/ r
When we follow electric field line due to positive charge, distance from
positive charge increases which causes to decrease electric field and potential.
Q#3:
How can you identify that which plate of a capacitor is positively
charged?
Ans#3:
When a freely suspended positively charged gold leaf of electroscope is brought
near to one of the plates of capacitor the divergence of gold leaf shows that the

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 2

## plate of the capacitor is positively charged otherwise negatively charged.

Q#4:
Describe the force or forces on a positive point charge when placed
between parallel plates,
(a) With similar and equal charges.
(b) With opposite and equal charges.
Ans#4:
The electric force F on a charge q due to eclectic field E is given by
F= qE
(a) When a positive point charge is placed between parallel plates with similar
and equal charges. It will experience no electric force because electric field
between the plate is zero . F=qE
F=q(0) =0 F=0
(B) When a positive pint charge is placed between the plates of the Capacitor it
will experience electric force, F=qE

## Due to electric field set up from positive to negative.

Q#5:
Electric lines of forces never cross each other. Why?
Ans#5:
No, two electric lines of forces never cross each other because E has
only one direction at a given point .If two lines cross each other then there will

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 3

## be more directions at that point which is impossible.

Q#6:
If a point charge q of mass m is released in a non uniform electric
field with field lines pointing in the same direction, will it make a
rectilinear motion?
Ans#6: Yes it will make rectilinear motion.
Motion along a straight line is called rectilinear motion when a charge
q of mass m is released in a non uniform electric field. It will move in a
straight line and adopts regular path due to variable electric field. Because field
lines are pointing in the same direction.
Q#7:
Is E necessarily zero inside a charged rubber balloon if balloon is
spherical? Assume that charge is distributed uniformly over the surface?
Ans#7:
Yes E is necessarily zero inside a charged rubber balloon if balloon is spherical
and enclosed no charge but chage is distributed uniformly over its surface.
According to Gausss law.

## e =q/0=0/ 0=0 e = 0 --------1

From definition, e = E.A--------2
Putting equation 1 in eq 2 0= E.A A # 0 so, E=0
Q#8:
Is it true that Gausss law states that the total number of lines of
forces crossing any closed surface in the outward direction is proportional
to the net positive charge enclosed within surface?
Ans#8:
Yes, it is true that total no of lines of forces crossing any closed surface in
outward direction is proportional to the net positive charge.
According to Gausss law,
e =q/0 = constant x q

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 4

e q here
q = net positive charge.
e =no of electric lines of force
Hence no of electric lines of forces are proportional to net positive charge
Q#9:
Do electrons tend to go to region of high potential or of low
potential?
Ans#9:
Electrons tend to go to a region of high potential because high potential
is more positive than the lower potential as the charge on electron is negative.

## CHAPTER # 13 QUESTIONS AND

Q#1:
A potential difference is applied across the ends of a copper wire what is
the effect of drift velocity?
(1) Increasing the potential difference.
(2) Decreasing the length and the temperature of the wire.
Ans#1
The uniform velocity that the free electrons acquire opposite to the
electric field of battery is called the drift velocity.
(1) The increase of potential difference makes the electric field strong which
causes to increase the drift velocity. As the drift velocity depends upon

## the length Land area of cross section A.

(2) The decrease in length and temperature of the wire which causes to
increase the drift velocity of the free electron in the wire. R L,R T

Q#2:
Do bends in wire effects its electrical resistance?
Ans#3
We know that R= L/A with bends in a wire , its length (L) and area of
cross section (A) remains the same .Hence bends in a wire do not affect the
electrical resistance (R) of the wire .
Q#4:
Why does the resistance of a conductor rise with temperature?
Ans#4

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 5

## As temperature of the conductor rises the Vibrational amplitude of the

atoms of the conductor increases and hence the probability of collisions of free
electrons with them increases .At high temperature, the atoms offer a bigger
target area to free electrons to collide with them and resistance of conductor

-
Increases.
Q5#:
-
What -are the difficulties in testing whether the filament of lighting
bulb obeys ohm law?
Ans#5
At the beginning, when bulb is turned ON its filament is at low temperature and
it obeys Ohms law. I V
Later on when current rises to its maximum value, the maximum power P=I 2R
is dissipated across the filament which increases resistance. But current
increases at lower rate and does not obey ohms law
Q#6:
Is the filament resistance lower or higher in a 500W, 220V light bulb
than in 100W, 220V bulb?
Ans#6
Resistance of 1st bulb= R1=?
Resistance of 2nd bulb =R2=?
Power of first bulb =P1=500 watts
Power of 2nd bulb=P2=100 watts
Voltage =V=220 volts
By applying the formula, P=V2/R R=V2/P
For1stbulb = R1=V2/P1 (220)2/500 = 48400/500 = 96.8
For 2nd bulb =R2=V2/P2 (220)2/100 = 48400/100 = 484
Q#7:
Describe a circuit which wills give a continuously varying potential?

Ans#7
Potentiometer is an instrument which gives continuously varying
potential. Its circuit diagram is given as. When the sliding contact C is moved

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 6

## R and potential varies from O to E the current following through is given by ;

I=E/R 1)
The potential drops across
r is given by V=Ir as I=E/R so
V=E/R xr V= r/R E 2)
This gives us continuously varying potential

Q#8:
Explain why the terminal potential difference of a battery decreases
when current drawn from it is increased?
Ans#8
The terminal potential difference is given by
Vt= E Ir 1)
The emf E of cell is constant .When current I through it increases, the product Ir
increases which causes to decrease the terminal potential difference Vt.
Q#9:
What is the wheat stone bridge? How can it be used to determine an
unknown resistance?
Ans#9
An electrical circuit devised by Professor Charles Wheatstone used to
determine unknown resistance is called wheat stone bridge.
It consists of four resistances R1, R2, R3, and R4. Connected in the form of
mesh ABCDA. A battery of emf E is connected between points A and C through
a switch S .A sensitive galvanometer is of resistance Rg is connected between
points B and D.
Its equation is, R1/R2 = R3/R4 .1)

## Determination of unknown resistance:

To determine unknown resistance in the arm containing R4 (R4 =Rx

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 7

Then known value of R1, R2. And R3are so adjusted that galvanometer shows
no deflection .Then from equation no 1
R1/R2 = R3/Rx Rx = R2/R2 x R3

Chapter #14
Q#1
A plane conducting loop is located in a uniform magnetic field that is
directed along the x-axis .For what orientation of the loop is the flux a
maximum?
Ans#1:
When plane of loop is placed perpendicular to the magnetic field the flux
will be maximum b = BAcos0 = EA (max)
When plane of loop is placed parallel to the magnetic field, the flux will be
minimum as, b = BAcos90 = 0 (min)
Q#2
A current in a conductor produces a magnetic field, which can be
calculated using Amperes law. Since current is defined as the rate of flow
of charges, what can you conclude about the magnetic field due to
stationary charges? What about moving charges?
Ans#2:
Magnetic field due to stationary charges is zero. Moving charges produce
magnetic field around them.
Q#3
Describe the magnetic field inside a solenoid carrying a steady current
I if (a) The length of solenoid is doubled but the number of turns remains
the same and (b)The number of turns doubled but the length remains same
Ans#3:
The magnetic field due to solenoid is given by,
B = 0 n I As n = N /L so. B = 0 (N/L) I
Case #1:
If the length is doubled and N remains the same.
B = 0 (N/2L) I = 1/2 0 (N/L) I = 1/2 B
Which means magnetic field reduces to half
Case #2:

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 8

## If the number of turns (N) is doubled and l remains the same.

B = 0 (2N/L) I = 2 0 (N/L) I = 2 B

## Which means magnetic field increases to two times?

Q#4
At a given instant the proton moves in the x direction in a region
where there is magnetic field in the negative z direction. What is direction
of the magnetic force? Will the proton continue to move in the positive x
direction? Explain
Ans# 4:
If proton moves along the positive x axis in a region of magnetic field is
along negative z axis .The magnetic force is given by R.H. Rule,
Fb = q(v x B) , this force(Fb) is along the positive Y- axis and it will be start to
move in circular path in xy plane around z axis and it will not continue to
move in the positive x direction.

Q#5
Two charged particles are projected into a region where there is a
magnetic field perpendicular to their velocities. If the charges are reflected
in opposite directions, what can you say about them?
Ans#5:
Two charged particles are projected in a magnetic field perpendicular to
its their velocity and they are deflected in opposite directions. As we know that
in magnetic field particles are deflected so they are oppositely charged .So, one
of particle is positively charged and the other is negatively charged.
Q#6
Suppose that a charge q is moving in a uniform magnetic field with a
velocity v. Why is there no work done by the magnetic force that acts on
the charge q?
-Ans#6:
A charge q is moving in uniform magnetic field B, with a velocity V in a
circular path due to magnetic force. The angle between magnetic force and
velocity will be 900 .Work done is given by,
W = F.d = Fd cos 900 =0 (as cos of 900 is zero).
So no work is being done.
90o

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F
SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 9

Q#7

## If a charged particle moves in a straight line through some region of

space, can you say that the magnetic field in the region is zero?
Ans#7:
No, when a particle moves in straight line in the direction of magnetic
field. B
. q o v
The force acting on charge will be zero as angle is 0 0 charge q and magnetic
field is parallel so,
F= qvBsin00 = qvB(0) = 0
Therefore we can not say magnetic field in this situa tion is zero.
Q#8
Why does the picture on TV screen become distorted when a magnet
is brought near the screen?
Ans#:8
As the picture is formed on the TV screen due to the electrons , when a
magnetic is brought is near the TV screen ,the beam of electron is deflected due
the magnetic force which is given by, F= evBsin0 .on the each electron.
Q#9
Is it possible to orient a current loop in a uniform magnetic field cush
that the loop will tend to rotate? Explain.
Ans#9
The torque acting on a current carrying loop in the uniform magnetic
field is given by,
(torque )=NIABcos ,Where is the angle between B and plane of loop .if
= 900 then cos of 900= 0 so torque will be zero here this shows that if plane of
loop is oriented at 900 with B .Then loop will not tend to rotate.
Q#10
How can a current loop be used to determine the presence of a
magnetic field in a given region of space?
Ans#10:
When current carrying loop is placed in the presence of a magnetic field
with its plane makes an angle with B .The torque acting on it will be
(torque )=NIBAcos if current loop deflects , filed is present otherwise not.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 10

Q#11
How can you use a magnetic field to separate isotopes of chemical
element?
Ans#11:
When isotopes of chemical element are projected in a magnetic field at
right angle. Then magnetic force,
Fb= evBsin90 = evB
Provide centripetal force, Fc = mv2/r
Bev = mv2/r r= mv/Be rm
Isotopes have same charge, but due to different masses they adopt different
paths due to which fall at different places and are separated.
Q 12:
What should be the orientation of a current carrying coil in a
magnetic field so that torque acting upon the coil (a)maximum (b)
minimum
Ans#12:
When the current carrying wire placed in the uniform magnetic field the
torque acting on it is given by,
(torque )=NIBAcos
Where is the angle between magnetic field and plane of the coil
(a) when plane of the coil is oriented parallel to B .then
=00 and cos00 = 1 so, (torque) =NIBA(1) = NIAB(max)
Torque will be maximum.
(b) When plane of coil is oriented at right angle to B then angle will be 90 so,
=900 and cos 900 = 0 (torque) =NIBA(0) =0
at this the torque will be minimum.

Q#13
A loop of wire is suspended between the poles of a magnet with its
plane parallel to the pole faces. What happens if a direct current uis put
through the coil? What happens if an alternating current is used instead?
Ans#13:
Torque on loop wire is given by , (torque )=IBAcos
When the loop of wire is suspended between the poles of a magnet with its plan
parallel to pole faces then =90 and cos 90 = 0 then we get the result
(torque )=IBAcos90 =0
if direct current or alternating current is passed through the coil .these current
have no effect on the loop

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 11

Q#14
Why the resistance of an ammeter should be very low?
Ans#14:
Ammeter is always connected in series so the magnitude of current
decreases through the circuit with the presence of ammeter .to measure

I R
maximum current the resistance of ammeter should be very small as compared
to the resistance of circuit.
Ans#15:
Why the voltmeter should have a very high resistance?
Ans#15:
Voltmeter is always connected in parallel with two points where
potential is to be measured. The potential across the points decreases with
presences of voltmeter because it draws some current Iv of the circuit. To
reduce the current through voltmeter, the resistance of voltmeter should be large
as compared to the resistance of circuit.

A IR R B

CHAPTER # 15
Q#1
Does the induced emf in a circuit depend upon the resistance of the circuit?
Ans#
According to Faradays law emf is given by
=-N / t
This relation shows that emf induced in coil depend upon the rate of change of
magnetic flux and does not depends on the resistance of the coil .
While in case of ohms law induced current flowing through coil depends upon
the resistance R, of the coil
I= / R
Q#2

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 12

## A square loop of wire is moving through a uniform magnetic field. The

normal to the loop is oriented parallel to the magnetic field. Is emf induced

## Ans#2; No, emf is not induced in the square loop.

. B
. A v
E= VBLsin0
If the vector area is parallel to B then according to faradays law the time rate of
change of flux becomes zero. / t=0 for N=1
=-N / t = -1 X 0=0
Hence there is no emf produced in a loop
Q#3
A light metallic ring is released from above into a vertical bar magnet.
Viewed for above, does the current flow clockwise or anticlockwise in the
ring?
Ans#3; According to lenss law the direction of induced current will oppose the
motion of ring towards the bar magnet.
For this purpose, the induced current should flow in the clock wise direction in

the ring.
Q#4
What is the direction of the current through resistor R in fig.? When
switch S is
(a) closed
(b) opened
Ans#4
a) As the switch is closed, according to lenss law, the direction of current
induced in R will be in anti clockwise direction.
b) A switch S is opened according to lenss law the direction of current
induced in R will be in the clock wise direction
Q#5
Does the induced emf always act to decrease the magnetic flux through a
circuit?
Ans#5

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 13

No, induced emf does not always act to decrease the magnetic flux through the
circuit .According to lenss law ,when bar magnet with N pole is moved
towards a loop flux decreases and when it taken away from a loop flux
increases which cause emf induced.
Q#6
When the switch in the circuit is closed a current is established in the coil
and the metal ring jumps upward (fig.) why?
Describe what would happen to the ring if the battery polarity were
reversed?
Ans#6
When switch S is closed, the changing flux of coil causes to induce current in
the metal ring which produces flux opposite to that of coil and ring is replaced
and jumps upward. Same thing will be happen if polarity of the battery is
reversed.
Q#7
The fig. shows a coil of wire in the xy -plane with a magnetic field directed
along the y axis.
Around which of the three coordinate axes the coil should be rotated in
order to generate an emf and a current in the coil?
Ans#7
The coil must be rotated about x-axis to get change of magnetic flux and an
induced current through it.The emf induced in the coil is given by
=NwABsin0 .
only in this case emf is induced.
If the coil is rotated about z-axis then no change of magnetic flux takes place.
If coil is rotated through y-axis then the flux through it will be zero b/c plane of
the coil is at all times parallel to the lines of magnetic field
Q#8
How would you position a flat loop of wire in a changing magnetic field so
that there is no emf induced in the loop?
Ans#8
Induced emf is given by ,
=NwABsin0 N=1 so,
=wABsin0
As flat loop of wire is parallel to changing magnetic field then =00
=wABsin00 = 0 this shows that nom flux change through it and hence no emf
is induced.
Q#9
In a certain region the earths magnetic field is vertically down .when a
plane files due to north, which wingtip is positively charged?

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 14

Ans#9
The magnetic force on a moving electric charge is given by,
F = -e (V X B).
This relation shows that F acting at right angle to v is towards north B is
vertically downward, the electron moves towards left
N direction of F is directed towards west.

w E
S
Q#10
Show that and e/t have same units?
Ans#10
= W/q as unit of work is joule and charge is coulomb so,
= J/C = JC-1 = volt a)
Hence the unit of is volt.
Unit of / t is ---------b)
= BA = NA-1m-1 m2
t = sec
Then b) becomes,
/ t = NA-1m-1 m2/s
/ t = N m/A s As N m =J, A s = coulomb = C
/ t = J/C = volt
Q#11
When an electric motor, such as an electrical drill, is being used, does it
also act as a generator? If so what is consequences of this?
Ans#11
When an electrical motor is running, its armature is rotating in a magnetic field.
A torque acts on the armature and at the same time magnetic flux is changing
through which produced an induced emf .The induced emf opposes the rotation
of armature .this means that motor also act as generator when it is running
.when motor rotate without load it will rotate quite easy, then large back emf is
induced .but in case of when motor is over loaded the induced back emf in the
coil produces high current which cause to burn the motor out.
Q#12
Can a D.C motor be turned into a D.C generator? What changes are
required to be done?
Ans#12
Yes,

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 15

D.C motor and D.C generator are same in construction but the difference is that
D.C is mechanically driven instrument while D.C motor is electrically driven.
If voltage is supplied by connecting a battery to slip ring of D.C generator, then
D.C generator acts as D.C motor.
When current passes through armature of motor a torque is produced which
rotates the armature .By converting electrical energy into mechanical energy
.Thus a D.C motor can be converted into D.C generator.
There are two changes are to occur to convert D.C motor into D.C generator
1) The magnetic field must be applied by permanent magnet and not
by electromagnet.
2) An arrangement to rotate the coil armature should be provided.
Q#13
Is it possible to change both area of the loop and the magnetic field passing
through the field and still not have an induced emf in the loop?
Ans#13
Yes, it is possible in the magnetic flux takes due to the change in the area of the
loop and magnetic field, no emf will be induced in the loop.
Magnetic field is given by .
= B . A =Bcos
if the vector area A is parallel to magnetic field B.
= 00 so,
=BAcos00 cos0=1
=BA
if B and A are constant then , =0
=-N/t
=-N X 0/ t =0
Hence no induce emf in the loop will be produced
Q#14
Can an electric motor be used to driven an electric generator with the out
put from the generator being used to operate the motor?
Ans#14
No, it is impossible .If it is possible it will be self operating system without
getting energy .which is against the law of conservation of energy.
Moreover the efficiency is always less than 100.
Hence a combination of motor and generator can never produce more energy
out than its energy.
Q#15
A suspended magnet is oscillating freely in a horizontal plane. The
oscillations are strongly damped when a metal plate is placed under the
magnet. Explain why this occurs?

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 16

Ans#15
The oscillating magnet produces change of magnetic flux close to it. The metal
plate below it experience the change of magnetic flux .As a result eddy current
is produced inside the metal .According to lenss law ,
Eddy currents oppose the cause which produces it. Therefore, the oscillations of
magnet are strongly damped.
Q#16
Four unmarked wires emerge from a transformer. What steps would you
take to determine the turns ratio?
Ans#16
Four wires coming out of transformer are the ends of two coils (p&s) of
transformer each coil has negligible resistance for D.C .the coils are separated
as primary and secondary. An alternating voltage of known value v p is given to
the primary coil the output voltage emerges across the secondary coil. The turn
ratio of the coil is determined as,
Vs/Vp =Ns/Np
Q#17
a) Can a step up transformer increases the power level?
b) In a transformer, there is no transfer of charge from the primary to
secondary .How is then the power transferred?
Ans#17
a) No, a step up transformer cannot increase the power level. The power of
output is always less than input. In ideal case input is equal to the output.
b) Two coils of transformer are magnetically linked, the change of flux
through one coil is linked with the other coil and emf is produced.
Q#18
When the primary coil of a transformer is connected to a.c mains the current in
it,
a) is very small if the secondary circuit is open ,but,
b) Increases when the secondary circuit is closed .Explain these facts.
Ans#18
a) if the secondary circuit is open, then out power will be zero .Because
output power always is less than input power .therefore very small value
of current is being drawn by a primary coil of transformer a.c means
b) When the secondary circuit is closed, the out power will be increased
.Therefore the transformer will draw a large current from the a.c mains to
increase the primary power.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 17

PHYSICS CH# 12
Q#1:
Electric lines of forces never cross each other. Why?
Q#2:
Do electrons tend to go to region of high potential or of low potential?
Q#3:
Is E necessarily zero inside a charged rubber balloon if balloon is
spherical? Assume that charge is distributed uniformly over the surface?
Q#4:
How can you identify that which plate of a capacitor is positively
charged?

PHYSICS CH # 13
1) If last band is not silver not gold then tolerance------
a) 0 b) 10 c) 20 d) 30
2) A complex system consisting of number of resistor is solved by ----
a) Joules law b) Ohms law c) coulombs law d) Kirchhoff, s law
3) In metals the current flows due to the motion of
a) Electron b) proton c) holes d) both a and b
4) The unit of electromotive force is ------
a) J b) C c) N d) V
5) The color code usually consist of ---------
a) Infinite bands b) 2 bands c) 3 bands d) 4 bands
6) During the electrolysis process, density of CuSO4 -----
a) Increases b) decreases c) remains constant d) none of these
7) The liquid which conduct electricity is called, ------
a) Insulator b) conductor c) electrolyte d) both a&b
8) The drift velocity of electrons is
a) 103m/sec b) 10-3m/sec c) 106m/sec d) 10-6m/sec
9) Rheostat act as ----
a) Variable resistor b) source of current c) potential divider d) both a&c
10) Four similar wires of each resistance 20 attached to form square then the
resistance between two corners is-----
a) 0 b) 10 c) 20 d) 40
11) Why the resistor are added in series ---
a) Divide the voltage b) increase the voltage c) decrease the voltage d) non
12) If a 40 watt light bulb burns for 2hours, how much heat is generated
a) 388x103J b) 288X103J c) 60J d) 90J

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 18

Q#1:
Do bends in wire effects its electrical resistance?
Q#2:
Why does the resistance of a conductor rise with temperature?

Q#3:
What is the wheat stone bridge? How can it be used to determine an unknown
resistance?
Q#4:
Describe a circuit which will give a continuously varying potential?

PHYSICS CH #14
1) The unit of magnetic flux is----------
a) Weber m+2 b) Weber m-2 c) Tesla d) Weber
2) A galvanometer is converted into an ammeter by connecting a
suitable-------
a) Low resistance b) high resistance c) comparing voltage d) none of
these
3) The magnetic induction is also called -----
a) Flux density b) magnetic intensity c) flux d) electric intensity
4) Which of the following is scalar quantity ------
a) emf b) flux density c) magnetic flux d) a & c
5) The working of a galvanometer depends upon
a) Material of the coil c) magnetic force exerted on the coil d) mass of
coil b) torque exerted on the coil
6) A current flowing towards the reader is denoted by the symbol -----
a) Cross b) Dot c) a& b d) none of these
7) the radius of an obit of an electron moving at the rate of 9.3 x 106
m/sec in a uniform magnetic field of 3.5 x 10-2 T IS
a)1.51x10-2m b)1.17x103m c)1.51x10-3m d) non
8) Which of the following quintiles does not effected by magnetic field
a) Moving charges b) stationary charges c) charge in the magnetic flux
d) current in conductor
9) a magnetic needle placed in a non uniform magnetic field experiences.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 19

## a) only torque b) only force c) no effect d) both a&b

10) AVO meter is used to measure a---------
a) Resistance b) voltage c) current d) all of these
11) Total number of lines of magnetic induction passing through any
surface placed perpendicular to the field is called ----
a) Magnetic induction b) magnetic flux c) flux density d) flux
12) A charge particle moving at right angle to the magnetic field will
experience ---
a) Minimum force b) maximum force c) zero force d) none of these
13) Two wires carry current in the same direction ---
a) Attract each other b) repel each other c) remains same d) non
Q#1:
Why does the picture on TV screen become distorted when a magnet is
Brought near the screen?
Q#2
How can a current loop be used to determine the presence of a magnetic
field in a given region of space?
Q#3:
Why the resistance of an ammeter should be very low?
Q#4:
Why the voltmeter should have a very high resistance?
Q#5:
How can you use a magnetic field to separate isotopes of chemical element?
Q#6:
If a charged particle moves in a straight line through some region of space,
can you say that the magnetic field in the region is zero?

PHYSIC Ch#15
1) The fact that eclectic current produces magnetic field was discovered
by____
a) Michel faraday b) Hens arrested c) Henry d) Amperes
2) The current produced due to the phenomena of electromagnetic induction
is called___
a) Positive current b) Negative current c) Conventional current d)
Induced current

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 20

## 3) Lens law deals with the__

a) Magnetic field of emf b) Direction of emf c) Direction of induced
current d) All
4) The SI unit of mutual induction is__
a) Vsec/A b) VA/sec c)A/Vsec d) V
5) Identify which one is not the main component of an A.C generator
a) Armature b) Magnet c) Slip rings d) Commutatotr
6) For a motor which is over loaded the magnitude of back emf ___
a) Becomes zero b) Get decreased c) Increased d) Remains constant
7) The magnetic flux linked with a coil varies at the rate of 10Wb/min, the
induced emf is___
a) 1/6 V b) 10V c) 6V d) 8V
8) If the magnetic flux is doubled in an inductor then the energy density
____
a) Double b) Half c) Four times d) Remains constant
9) If the velocity of the conductor moving through a strong magnetic field
is zero then motional emf is__
a) D.C generator b) D.C Motor c) A.C Generator d) All of these
10) The magnet falls with its S-pole along the axis of a ring the
current generator is
_____ and acceleration is____
a) Clock wise, >g b) Clock wise, <g c) Anti clock wise, >g D) Anti
clock
Wise, <g
11) Which of the following remains constant in a transformer___?
a) Current b) Voltage c) Power d) Frequency
12) In an open ring magnets are falling along the axis of the ring, The
current generated has direction____
a) Clock Wise b) Anti clock wise c) Perpendicular to magnet d) Zero
Q#1:
Can a D.C motor be turned into a D.C generator? What changes are
Required to be done?
Q#2:
Does the induced emf always act to decrease the magnetic flux
Through a circuit?
Q#3:
Show that and e/t have same units?

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 21

Chapter no 16
ALTERNATING CURRENT
SHORT QUESTIONS

## 1) A sinusoidal current has rms value of 10A. What is the maximum

or peak value?
Data;
Irms=10A
I0 = ?
SOLUTION;
Irms=I0/2
I0=2 Irms
I0= 2 * Irms
I0= 2 * 10
I0= 14.14 A

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2) Name the device that will (a) permit of direct current but oppose
the flow the alternating current (b) permit flow of alternating current
but not the direct current?
(a)
The device that permits flow of direct current but opposes the flow of
alternating current is inductor.
XL=2 fL
For D.C f=0 so XL=0
Hence I is maximum..
(b)
The device that permits floe of A.C but opposes blocks the D.C is
capacitor.
XC = 1/2 fC

## For D.C f=o so XC becomes infinite hence I zero.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3) How many times per second will an incandescent lamp reach
maximum brilliance when connected to a 50Hz. sources?
It reaches brilliance 100 times per second.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 22

Reason;
The lamp shows maximum brilliance when A.C reaches its peak value.
As, A.C reaches its peak value. [+ve and -ve] twice a cycle .therefore A.C reaches
its peak its peak value in one second = 2*5 =100 times/second
hence lamp reaches maximum brilliance 100 times per sec.

## 4) A circuit contains and iron-cored inductor, a switch and a D.C

source arranged in series. the switch is closed and after an interval
reopened. Explain why a spark jumps across the switch contact?
Reason;
When switch is reopened, the current in the circ uit
decreases, from its maximum value to zero, this changing current produces an
emf across the inductor which produces spark (heat and light) across the switch
contacts..

5) How does doubling the frequency affect the reactance of (a) and
inductor (b) a capacitor?
(A)
The resistance of the inductor becomes double.
Explanation;
AS reactance of an inductor,
XL=2 fL
if f`=2f
then,
X`L=2 (2f)L
X`L=2(2 fL)
X`L=2XL
(B)
The reactance of capacitor becomes half.
Explanation;
As reactance of a capacitor,
XC=1/2 fC
if f`=2f
then,
X`C=1/2 (2f)C
X`C=1/2[1/2 fC]
X`c=1/2Xc
6) In a R-L circuit, will the current lag or lead the voltage? Illustrate
In R-L circuit the current lags the voltage.
ILLUSTRATION;
Consider the vector diagram of R-L circuit. It is
clear from diagram that voltage leads the current by which is given by

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 23

=Tan-1(VL/VR)
= Tan-1(IrmsXL/IrmsR)
= Tan-1(XL/R)

## 7) A choke coil placed in series with an electric lamp in an A.C circuit

causes the lamp to become dim. Why is it to? A variable capacitor
added in series in this circuit may be adjusted until the lamp glows
with normal brilliance. Explain, how this is possible?
(a)
When the choke coil is connected in series with an electric lamp in L.C
circuit, the impedance Z of circuit is increased, Z= XL+R
SO I=V/Z
Thus, the current is reduced. Hence the lamp becomes dim..

## How glows with normal brilliance?

As reactance of capacitor (XC) and inductor (XL) opposes each other. Thus when
the variable capacitors connected in series with inductor and adjusted until.
XC=XL
Under this condition, they cancel each other`s effect. So impedance becomes
minimum and current becomes maximum. Thus lamp glows with normal brilliance.
So at resonance,
Z= (XL-XC) +R2 =R and I=V/R

## 8) Explain the conditions under which electromagnetic was are

produced from a source?
Electromagnetic waves are generated, when electric or magnetic flux is changing
through a certain region of space. This is possible only when electric charges are
accelerated A.C source.

## Written By: Asif Rasheed Contact# 0344-7846394

SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 24

Example;
For example when electron in the radio transmitting antenna
vibrate, it produces a changing magnetic flux. This changing flux sets up
electromagnetic waves which propagate in space away from antenna..

------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------
9) How the reception of a Particular radio station is selected
natural frequency of Lc- circuit (in our radio set) equal to the frequency of
particular transmitting station. This is done by adjusting the value of capacitance
or inductance which is given by
f=1/2 LC

-----------------------------------------------------------
-----
10) what is meant by A.M and F.M?
Amplitude Modulation;
It is that type of modulation in which the
amplitude of carrier wave is increased or decreased as the amplitude of
superposing modulating signal increases or decreases.
Frequency Modulation;
It is that type of modulation in which frequency
of carrier wave is increased or decreased as the amplitude of superposing
modulating signal increases or decreases but the amplitude of carrier wave
remains constant.

----------------------------------------------------------------

PHYSIC CH#16
1) The speed of electromagnetic wave becomes zero---
a) Air b) water c) vacuum d) non of these
2) Which of the following not belongs to the electromagnetic waves ------
a) Light waves b) TV waves c) radar waves d) sound waves
3) In series RC circuit when R=Xc then the phase angle is -----

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 25

## a) 600 b) 900 c) 1800 d) 00

4) In A.C circuit power is consumed only in
a) Capacitor b) inductor c) resistor d) both b&c
5) In purely capacitive circuit, the current---
a) lag the voltage by 900 b) lead the voltage by 900 c) lead the voltage by
1800 d) lag the voltage by 1800
6) The chock coil is used to control------
a) A.C b) D.C c) both a&b d) none of these
7) At high frequency of A.C, the capacitive reactance----
a) Remains constant b) increases c) decreases d) zero
8) The impedance at resonance frequency of series RLC circuit. C=0.015F
R=80
a) 50 b) 80 c) 100 d) 150
9) The average value of A.C and voltage over a complete cycle is ----
a)0.707times b) zero c) maximum d) minimum
10) Shake an electrically charged object to and fro produces.
a) Transverse wave s b) sound waves c) electromagnet waves d) none
11) Maximum of sound wave with electromagnet wave is called ----
a) Modulation b) choke c) frequency d) a&b
12) In free space the speed of electromagnetic waves is----------
a) 3x 108ms-1 b) 3 x10-8ms-1 c) 2.99 x 10-8ms-1 c) varying with time
Q#1:
A sinusoidal current has rms value of 10 A. what is
Maximum value or peak value?
Q#2:
In a R-L circuit, will the current lag or lead the voltage?
Q#3:
Explain the conditions under which electromagnetic waves
Are produced?

CHAPTER NO 17 SOLIDS
SHORT QUESTIONS
1) Distinguish between crystalline, amorphous and polymeric solid?
Crystalline solids;
1) There is regular arrangement of molecules.
2) There is an ordered structure.
3) The average atomic positions are perfectly ordered over large distances.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 26

## 4) The transition from solids to liquid is abrupt.

5) Melting point is definite.
Amorphous solids;
1) There is no regular arrangement of molecules.
2) There is no ordered structure.
3) The average atomic positions or not ordered over long distances.
4) The transition from solid to liquid is gradual.
5) They have not definite melting point.
Polymeric solids;
1) Polymers have structure that is intermediate between order and disorder.
2) They have very low specter gravity.
4) They exhibit good strength to weight ratio.
---------------------------------------
2) Define stress and strain. What are their SI units? Differentiate between
tensile, compressive and shear modes of stress and strain.
Stress;
The force applied on unit area to produce any change in shape, volume or length of
body called stress.
=F/A
Its unit is N/m2

Strain;
It is the deformation of solid when stress is applied on it.
E = L/L
It has no units.
Tensile stress;
When stress changes length of the body called tensile stress.
Volumetric stress;
When the stress changes the volume of the body, it is called volumetric
stress.
Shear stress;
When the stress produced angular deformation in a body called shear stress.
Compressive stress;
When the force on the ends of a bar, are ``pushes``, the bar is compressive
and the stress called compressive stress.
Tensile strain;
The fractional change in the length of body called tensile strain.
E= L/L
Volumetric strain;
The fractional change in volume of a body is called volumetric strain.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 27

## Volumetric strain= V/V

Shear strain;
When one face of an object under shear stress is displaced by a distance a
relative to opposite force, the shear strain is defined as
As
Shear strain= a/a
OR
r= r/r = tan
For small values of ,
tan =
SO that
R=

## 3) Define molecules of elasticity. Show that the units modulus of elasticity

and stress are the same. Also discuss its three kinds.
Modulus of elasticity;
The ratio of stress to strain is constant for a given material provided the
external applied for is not too large. This ratio is called modulus of elasticity.
E=stress/strain
Its unit is N/m2
1) Young`s Modulus;
The ratio of tensile stress to the tensile strain is called young`s modulus.
/
Y=F/A L/L

Y=F/L/ L/A
2) Bulk modulus;
The ratio of volumetric stress to the volumetric strain is called bulk modulus.
/
K=F/A V/V
K=FV/ VA
3) Shear Modulus;
The ratio of shear stress to the shear strain is called shear modulus.
G=F/A/tan
-------------------------------------------------
4) Draw a stress-strain curve for a ductile material, and then define the
terms; Elastic limit, yield point and ultimate tensile stress.
Elastic limit;
From B, stress and strain are not proportional, but nevertheless the load is removed
at any point between O and B, the curve will be reached and material will return to its own
length. In the region OB, the material is said to be elastic. The point B is called yield point.
The value of stress at B is known as elastic limit sign.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 28

Yield point;
The point on the curve beyond which the permanent deformation occurs in the
material by increasing stress, called yield point.
The point B is called the yield point.
Ultimate tensile stress;
This is the maximum stress that a material can be regarded as the
nominal strength of the material.
Its represented by point C in the graph.

## 5) What is meant by strain energy? How it earn be determined from

the force extension graph?
Strain-energy;
The potential energy of the molecules due to their displacement from their
mean position is called strain energy.
Determination;
It can be calculated by area under force-extension graph.

Pic.

As we know that,
W=F. d
d= x

So,
W=F. x

## Total work done in producing the extension L, is equal to sum of areas of

these parts which is equal to area of triangle OAB So,
Work done= Area of OAB
W=1/2(OA) (OB)
W=1/2 F1 L1
W=P.E SO,
P.E=1/2 F1L1
-------------------------------------------
6) Describe the formation of energy bands in solids. Explain the differences
amongst electrical behavior of conductors, insulators and semi-conductors
in terms of energy band theory?
Electrons of an isolated atom are bound to the nucleus and can only have definite
energy levels. But whenever two atoms are brought near to each other then each level is split
up into two sub levels called states, under the action of forces exerted by other atoms in the

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 29

solids. These permissible energy states are discrete and closely spaced and they appear to
form a continuous energy band.
Forbidden energy gap;
The range between two consecutive permissible energy bands is called
forbidden energy.
Valance band;
THE BAND occupied by free electrons is called valance band.
Conduction band;
The band above the valance band called as conduction band.
Filled band;
The band below the valance band is called filled band.
Insulators;
Insulators are those materials in which the valance electrons are bound very
tightly to their atoms. They have
empty conduction band.
> A filled valance band.
>A large energy gap of several eV

Conductors;
Conductors are those materials in which we have large number of free electrons.
They have,
> A partially filled conduction band.
> A partially filled valance band.
> No energy gap.
Semi-conductors;
Semi-conductors are those materials which have electrical properties lies
between those of insulators and conductors. They have,
> A partially filled valance band.
> A partially filled conduction band.
> A narrow energy gap.

-----------------------------------------------
7) Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors. How would
you obtain n-type and p-type material from pure silicon? Illustrate is by
schematic diagram?
Intrinsic semiconductors;
A semi-conductor in its extremely pure form is called intrinsic semi-
conductor.
Pure Ge or Si are intrinsic semi-conductor.
Extrinsic semi-conductor;
An impure form of semi-conductor material is called as the extrinsic semi-
conductor.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 30

1) N-type semi-conductors;

## The semiconductor formed by which is formed by adding pentavalent impurity to a

semi-conductor is called N-conductor.

## In N-type semi-conductor the majority charge carriers are free electrons.

2) P-type semi-conductor;
The semi-conductor which is formed by adding trivalent impurity to a pure
semi-conductor is called as P-type semi-conductor.
In P-type semi-conductors majority charge carries are called holes.

## 8) Discuss the mechanism of electrical conduction by holes and electrons in

a pure semi-conductors element.
In semi-conductors there are two kinds of charge carriers, a free electrons (-ve)
and a hole (+ve).
Current in a conductor due to holes and electrons. When a battery is connected to a semi-
conductor.
It produces an electric field across the semi-conductor and which causes the flow of
electrons and holes. Electrons moves towards positive and while the holes move towards
negative end of semi-conductors shown in figure.

Thus this current is due to flow of both electrons and holes. So the total current is
equal to the sum of electronic current and hole current.
---------------------------------------------
9) Write a note on super-conductors.
Super conductors;
The materials whose resistivity approaches to zero below a certain temperature
are called super-conductors.
These materials have zero resistivity below a certain temperature to
called critical temperature to called critical temperature, as shown in figure.
----------------------------------------------
10) What is meant by para, dia and ferromagnetic substances? Give
example for each.
Paramagnetic substances;
The substances in which the magnetic fields produced by orbital and
spin like a tiny magnet are called paramagnetic substances.
Example;
Platinum, sodium; oxygen gas etc.
Ferromagnetic substances;
The substances in which the magnetic field produced by the orbital and
spin motions of electrons of an atom support each other in such a way that the atom show a
strong magnetic effect are called ferromagnetic substances.

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SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 31

Example;
Iron, nickel, cobalt alnico, chromium oxide.
Diamagnetic substances;
The substances in which the magnetic fields produced by orbital and
spin motion of electron cancel each other effect and the resultant magnetic field zero, are
called diamagnetic substances.
Example;
Water, copper, silver, sodium chloride etc.
-------------------------------------------------
11) What is meant by hysteresis losses? How is it used in the construction
of a transformer?
Hysteresis loss;
When a ferromagnetic material is placed in an alternating current solenoid, the
energy is needed to magnetize and demagnetize the material during each cycle of
magnetizing current. This energy is needed to do work against internal friction of domains.
In this way, work is loot as heat, it is called hysteresis loss.
Iron frame is used as the core of transformer because it has small hysteresis are
which represents that small energy is lost during its magnetization and demagnetization. In
this way, hysteresis loss useful to decide either the material is suitable for construction of
transformer or not.
--------------------------------------------------

## PAPER OF 2ND YEAR PHYSICS

Total marks: 83 Time: 2:40 hours
SECTION ----------------- II
2. Write answers of any EIGHT questions. (8 x 2 = 16)
1) How can you identify that which plate of a capacitor is positively charged?
2) Electric lines of forces never cross each other. Why?
3) Do electrons tend to go to region of high potential or of low potential?
4) Find electric flux through a surface enclosing charge?
5) Why does the resistance of the conductor rise with temperature?
6) What is meant by drift velocity?
7) Define kirchoffs 2nd law and also write its conventions?
8) Do bends in wire effect its resistance?
9) Write down four properties of parallel resonance circuit?
10) Define Ferromagnetic & Diamagnetic substances?
11) What are the difference b/w brittle and ductile substances?
12) What is Choke?

## Written By: Asif Rasheed Contact# 0344-7846394

SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 32

1) Why does the picture on TV screen become distorted when a magnet is brought near
the screen?
2) How can you use a magnetic field to separate isotopes of chemical element?
3) Why the resistance of an ammeter should be very low& voltmeter should have a very
high resistance?
4) What is meant by shunt resistance? Describe the function of shunt resistance in
ammeter?
5) Show that and e/t have same units?
6) Can a D.C motor be turned into a D.C generator? What changes are required to be
done?
7) What advantages of electron microscope has over an optical microscope?
8) Is it possible to create a single electron from energy? Explai
9) Differentiate b/w A.M am F.M?
10) Define Impedance & choke?
11) Define Para and diamagnetic substances?
12) How n-type and p-type semiconductors are formed?

## 3. Write answers of any SIX questions. (6 x 2 = 12)

1) What advantages of electron microscope over optical microscope?
2) What is the basic difference b/w nuclear fission & nuclear fusion reactions?
3) Why wont observe Compton Effect with visible light?
4) Can pair production produce in vacuum?
5) Which has the lower energy quanta, X-rays or radio waves?
6) What is the energy of photon in a beam of infrared radiation of wavelength 1240nm?
7) Differentiate b/w NOR and NAND gate?
8) What are the advantages of laser over ordinary light?
9) What do we mean when we say that the atom is excited?

## SECTION II (Essay Type)

Note:- Attempt any three questions. (8x3
= 24 )

Question # 5
a) Derive a relation for charge on an electron by MilikansMehtod?
b) The resistance of an wire at 0C is 110-4. What is the resistance at 500C if
temperature co-efficient of resistance of iron is 5.210-3 K-1 ?

Question # 6
a) Explain Lenzs law? Also explain that how it is another form of law conservation of
energy?
b) Find the radius of an orbit of an electron moving at a rate of 2*107m/s in uniform
magnetic field of 1.2*10-3T

## Written By: Asif Rasheed Contact# 0344-7846394

SOLUTION OF BOOK QUESTIONS 2nd YEAR PHYSICS 33

Question # 7
a) Explain R-C and R-L series circuit?
b) 1.25cm diameter cylinder is subjected to a load of 2500 kg. Calculate the stress on the
bar in megapascals?
Question # 8
a) What do you know about special theory of relativity? By using it explain time
dilation and length contraction?
b) The current flowing into the base of transistor is 100 uA .find its collector current Ic
its emitter current IE and ratio Ic /IE if the value of current gain is 100.
Question #9
a) State and explain the term mass defect and binding energy.
b) What are the energies in eV of quanta of wavelength = 400,500
and 700nm.