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Inequalities from 2009 Mathematical Competition

DIEN DAN BAT DANG THUC VIET NAM

TheTheTheThe VietNamVietNamVietNamVietNam InequalityInequalityInequalityInequality MathematicMathematicMathematicMathematic ForumForumForumForum

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Abbreviations

Abbreviations

IMO

TST

MO

RHS

W.L.O.G

LHS

International mathematical Olympiad

Team Selection Test

Mathematical Olympiad

Left hand side

Right hand side

Without loss of generality

Contents

Contents

1 Problems

4

2 Solutions

7

Problems

Inequalities From 2009 Mathematical Competition Over The World

Pro 1 (USA TST 2009). Prove that for positive real numbers x, y, z

3

x (y

2

+

2

z )

2

+

3

y (z

2

+

2

x )

2

+

3

z (x

2

+

2

y )

2

xyz[xy(x

+

y)

2

+

yz(y

+

z)

2

+

zx(z

+

x)

2

Pro 2 (Germany TST 2009). Let a, b, c, d be positive numbers. Prove that

(

a

b

)(

a

c

)

a

+ b +

c

+

(

b

c

)(

b

d

)

b

+ c +

d

+

(

c

d

)(

c

a

)

c

+ d +

a

+

(

d

a

)(

d

b

)

d

+ a +

b

0

Pro 3 (China TST 2009). Let

x

1

by

X

=

m

=

i

1

x Y

,

=

n

=

j

1

y Prove that

.

2

XY

m

n

∑∑

i

=

1

j

=

1

x y

|

i

,

j

x

2

|

,

X

,

2

x

m

n

,

y

1

n

∑∑

j

=

1

l

=

1

,

y

y

|

i

2

,

y

l

,

|

y

n

+

be positive real numbers. Denote

Y

2

m

m

∑∑

i

=

1

k

=

1

x

|

i

x

k

|

Pro 4 (India National Olympiad 2009). Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that

a

3

+

b

3

=

3

c .Prove that

a

2

+

b

2

c

2

>

6(c

a)(c

b)

Pro 5 (Indonesia TST 2009). Let x, y, z be real numbers. Find the minimum value of

x

2

+

y

2

+

z

2

if

x

3

+

y

3

+

z

3

3xyz

=

1.

Pro 6 (Iran TST 2009). Suppose that a, b, c be three positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 3 . Prove that

 

1

1

 

1

3

     
 

2

+

a

2

+

b

2

+

2

+

b

2

+

c

2

+

2

+

c

2

+

a

2

4

Pro

7

(Serbia

TST

2009).

 

Let

x, y, z

be

 

positive

real

numbers

such

that

xy + yz + zx = x + y + z . Prove the inequality

 

x

2

1

y

+ +

1

+

y

2

1

z

+ +

Pro 8 (USA USAMO 2009). For n 2 let

a

1

,

1

+

z

2

a

2

,.,

a

n

1

x

+ +

1

1

be positive real numbers such that

(

a

1

+

a

2

+

.

+

a

n

)

a

1

1

+

1

a

2

+

.

+

1

a

n

≤

(

max a

1

,

a

2

 

1

n +

,.,

a

n

2

)

2

. Prove that

4

(

min a

1

,

a

2

,.,

a

n

)

Pro 9 (Serbia Junior Balkan TST 2009). For positive real numbers x, y, z

 

1

1

1

 

+

+

=

x

2

+

1

y

2

+

1

z

2

+

1

2 1 . Prove the inequality

 

1

1

1

1

 

+

+

x

3

+

2

y

3

+

2

z

3

+

2

3

holds

Pro 10 (China 2009). Let x, y, z be real numbers greater than or equal to 1. Prove that

Problems

(x

2

2x

+

2)

(

xyz

)

2

2xyz

+

2

Pro 11 (Mediterranean Mathematics Olympiad 2009). For positive real numbers

x,y,z . Prove that

xy

xy

+

x

2

+

y

2

x

2 x

+

z

Pro 12 (Poland 2009). For positive real numbers a, b, c and n 1, n . Prove that

Pro

a

i

>

a

b

n

+

1

+

c

+

b

n

+

1

c

+

a

+

c

n

+

1

a

+

b

a

n

b

+

c

+

b

n

c

+

a

+

c

n

a

+

b

n n n  a + b + c n  3 
n
n
n
a
+
b
+
c
n
3

13

(Moldova

TST

2009).

Let

m, n

0,

i

= 1, n , such that

n

i = 1

a

i

= 1

. Prove that

a

2

1

m

+ a

2

+ +

a

n

1

1

a

1

+

2

2

a

m

+

a

3

+ +

a

n

+ +

1

a

2

N, n

2

and

positive

a

2

n

m

+

a

1

+ +

a

n

2

1

a

n

n +

real

numbers

n

m n

n

1

Pro 14 (Costa Rica Final Round 2009). Let x and y positive real numbers such that

(1 +

x)(1 + y) = 2 . Show that

xy +

1

xy

6

Pro 15 (Russia All-Russian Olympiad 2009). Prove that

log

a

b

+ log

b

c

+ log

c

a

log

b

a

+ log

c

b

+ log

a

c for all 1 < a

b

c

Pro 16 (Croatia TST 2009). Prove for all positive reals a, b, c, d

a

c

c

b

b

+

+

d

+

d

a

b +

+

c

c

+

d

d

a

a

+

b

0

Pro 17 (Vietnam TST 2009). Let a, b, c be positive numbers. Find k such that

k

+

a

b

+

c



 

k

+

b

c

+

a



 

Pro 18 (Moldova TST 2009). Let x, y, z

k

+

c

a

+

b

 

 

k

+

1

 

2

3

be real number in the interval

1

 

2

;2

 

and

a, b, c a permutation of them. Prove the inequality:

60

a

2

1

4

xy

+

5

z

+

60

b

2

1

4

yz

+

5

x

+

60

c

2

1

4

zx

+

5

y

12

Pro 19 (Germany TST 2009). Let

be positive real numbers such that abcd = 1 and

a

+

b

+

c

+

d

>

a . Prove that

b c

c

+

b

+

c

d

+

d

a

a

+

b

+

+

d

<

b

a

+

c

b

+

d

c

+

a

d

Pro 20 (Middle European Mathematical Olympiad 2009). Let

numbers satisfying

x

x

4

+

y

+ y

4

+

+

z

z

4

+

+

9

=

4(x

+

y

+ z ) . Prove that

16( x

2

+

y

2

+

2

z )

8(x

3

+

y

3

+

2

2

2

3

z )

+

27

x, y, z

be

real

Pro 21 (Hungary-Israel Binational 2009). Let x, y, z be non negative numbers. Prove

that

Problems

x

2

+

y

2

+

z

2

+

xy

+

yz

+

zx

 

6

a

+

c

4 +

b

4

4

 

2

2(a b

2

+

Pro 22 (Kyrgyzstan TST 2009). Does

a, b, c if it is known that

2 2 2 x + y + z x + y + z . 3
2
2
2
x
+
y
+
z
x
+
y
+
z
.
3
3
2
2
2
a
+
b
+
c
2(ab
+
bc
+
2
2
2
2
b c
+
c a )

ca) hold for every

Pro 23 (Indonesia National Science Olympiad 2009). Let

numbers greater than 1. Show that x x

1

2

+

x x

2

3

+

+

x x

n

1

4 n

x

3

x

4

x

2

x

1

,

x

Pro 24 (Kyrgyzstan TST 2009). For any positive

a

1

+

a

2

+

+

a prove that

a

1

a

,

n

a

2

,

>

,

n

n

a

2

+

a

3

a

3

+

a

4

a

1

+

a

2

4

2

,

,

x be

n

real

Pro 25 (Spain Mathematical Olympiad 2009). Let a, b, c real positive numbers with abc = 1 .Prove that

a

1

+

ab

 

2

+

 

b

1

+

bc

 

2

+

 

c

1

+

ca

2

 

3

4

Solution

SOLUTION

We thank a lot to Mathlinks Forum and VietNam Inequality Forum and their member for the reference to problems and some nice solutions from them!

Pro 1 (USA TST 2009). Prove that for positive real numbers x, y, z

3

x (y

2

+

2

z )

2

+

3

y (z

2

+

2

x )

2

+

3

z (x

2

+

2

y )

2

xyz[xy(x

+

y)

2

+

yz(y

+

z)

2

+

zx(z

+

x)

2

Solution 1 (VIMF). Write the inequality become

 

(

2 +

2

xy

x

+

z

Or

x

(

(

xy

xz

+

2

)

xz

2

2

+

(

z +

y

2

+

y

y

z

+

2

yz

2

yz

2

)

)

)

2

y

(

(

y

x

(

yz

z

)

+

x yz

+

+

x yz

xy z

)

yz

y

)

,

2

2

2

+

z

2

2

yx

(

x

)

2

(

y

+ 

)

)

2

x

0

z +

y

(

2

xz

2

+

yx

)

2

2

+

yz

z

x

zx

2

+

z

2

+

zy

2

xz

2

)

x z

x y

2

x y

2

2

(

+

xy

z y

2

x z

2

y z

yz

xy

+

yz

2

x yz

2

2

2

2

2

xy z

)

2

)

)

)

xy z

2

+

zx

zx

)

2

x yz

)

z

3

,

S

=

z

xyz

(

2

xyz

x

y

z

3

(

yz

+

2

   +

2

 

+   

 

(

zx

2 2

+

zy

+

2

x

xy

2

2

x

z

2

x

+

+

y

z

(

2

2

y

(

(

z

x

x

3

(

z

y

x

y

x y

+

)(

)(

z

2

x z

2

x y

2

2

+

+

)(

2

2

yz

2

+

z y

2

2

z x

)

2

(

xy

+

xz

S

x

= x

3

(

xy

+

2

2

2

yz

+

zx

)

y

+

+

y

z

xyz

+

xy z

2

2

(

2

x

2

+

3

xyz

(

S

z

y

=

2

x

y

)

3

2

(

2

2

Let

We must prove that

S

= S

x

(

y

z

)

2

+

S

y

(

z

x

2

)+

S

z

(

x

y

2

)

0

Assume x y z . We have

Another

S

y

0

S

x

S

y

+

+

S

y

S

z

Thus

=

=

4

x y

4

y z

+

+

3

x z

xy

3

S

=

(

(

x

y

(

S

x

We have Q.E.D

y

z

)

+

)

+

+

S

y

xy

yz

)(

y

4

4

+

+

z

3

y z

xz

3

)

2

+

(

(

(

y

z

S

y

x

y

+

)

)

S

z

z

x

(

x

(

y

)(

x

y

)(

x

3

z

)(

y

3

y

2

)+

2

S

y

y

)

3

=

z

3

=

)

(

x

z

(

x

x

(

y

y

)(

y

)

2

x

2

0

(

yz

+

zx

y

)

z

2

)

)

z

(

(

x

y

2

+ y

+

z

2

(

zx

xy

x

+

2

(

+

y

0

2

)

)

2

xy

z

xy

2

)

xy

+

+

yz

  

y

2

)

(

0

2

y

)

2

z

)

0

x

)

 

0,

0

Solution 2 (Vo Quoc Ba Can).

Let

1

,y

1

b

2

,z

=

+

2

c )

1 c , the inequality becomes

(

b

2

+

c

2

)

2

1

2

=

a(b

2

x

=

=

a

or equivalently,

We have

a(b

(

b

+

c

)

2

a b c

3

4

4

a(b

2

+

2

c )

2

4

+

4

c )

+

2

c)(a

abc

2

3

a (b

+

3

b c

c)

2

3

,

. (1)

ab c

=

c)

[a (b

4

+

b)(a

4

a (b

2

+

+

a bc(b

c)

0.

c)

+

+

c)

3

2

a bc(b

+

a (b

+

2

c) ]

so the last inequality can be written as

2

a (b

+

This can be proved easily using Vornicu Schur.

c),

0, that is

Solution

Comment. Especially, we have a very nice identity which implies (1), it is

LHS

RHS

=

a(b

2

c) (b

+ −

c

2

a) .

Pro 2 (Germany TST 2009). Let a, b, c, d be positive numbers. Prove that

 

(

a

b

)(

a

c

)

(

b

c

)(

b

d

)

(

c

d

)(

c

a

)

(

d

a

)(

d

b

)

0

 

a

b

+ +

c

+

b

c

+ +

d

+

Solution (quykhtn-qa1). We will prove the stronger inequality Let a, b, c, d be positive numbers. Prove that

c

d

+ +

a

+

d

a

+ +

b

 

(

a

b

)(

a

c

)

(

b

c

)(

b

d

)

(

c

d

)(

c

a

)

(

d

a

)(

d

b

)

(

a

+

b

c

− −

d

)

2

a

b

+ +

First,we have

c

+

b

c

+ +

d

+

c

d

+ +

a

+

d

a

+ +

b

8(

a

+

b

c

+ +

d

)

 

a

b

c

d

a

2

c

2

+

2

ad

2

bc

ab

+

cd

 
 

a

b

+ +

a

2

c

c

2

+

c

ad

d

+ +

bc

a

=

2

ab

+

(

2

a

b

+ +

cd

+

(

a

c

)(

c

c

d

+ +

)(

b

+

d

)

a

)

So,

2(

a

=

b

 

c

d

(

a

)

b

+ +

(

a

c

)(

c

d

+ +

c

)(2

a

+

2

a

c

)

+ +

b

d

)

+

3(

a

+

c

)(

d

b

)

 

a

b

+ +

Similar,we have

2

b

c

c

c

d

+ +

d

a

a

=

=

(

b

d

)(2

(

b

a

+

+ +

b

c

)(

c

d

+ +

2

d

+ +

a

c

)

+

3(

a

b

)

+

d

)(

a

c

)

 
 

b

c

+ +

d

d

+

a

+

b

 

(

b

c

+ +

d

)(

d

a

+ +

b

)

 

Then,

 

2 LHS =

(

a

c

2

) (2

a

+

2

c

b

+ +

d

)

(

b

d

2

) (2

b

+

2

d

a

+ +

c

)

 

3(

a

c

(

a

)(

b

b

+ +

d

)

c

)(

c

d

+ +

b

+

a

)

d

+

(

b

c

+ +

d

)(

d

+ +

c

a

+

a

b

)

-

+

If (a c)(b d)



b

0 , we have

(

c

+ +

d

)(

d

a

+ +

b

)

(