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TOP - very neurotic parents

Chap 7: Fromm: Humanistic Psychoanalysis - probably a rather unbearably neurotic child

- Self-awareness contributes to: - Father - being moody
o loneliness - Mother - prone to depression

o isolation - 2 very distinct worlds

o homelessness o Traditional Orthodox Jewish world
- People strive to be reunited with nature and o Modern capitalist world
fellow human beings
- lifelong tendency to see events in more than
- Emphasis one perspective

o Sociobiological factors - wondered why the woman preferred death

than life
o Economics

o History
interest in Freud and psychoanalysis
o Class

o Structure
learned about Oedipus complex
- Basic anxiety

o Humanitys separation to natural world
loneliness and isolation Conclusion: young woman is irrationally
dependent on her father
- Focus: historical perspective and cultural
perspective - World War I

- Individuals < characteristics common to a o How could normally rational and

culture peaceful people become so driven by
national ideologies, so intent on killing,
- Humans - End of World War I
o - animal instincts o How was war possible?
o + an increase in brain development - wish to understand the irrationality of human
that permitted self-awareness, mass behavior, by a passionate desire for
imagination, planning, and doubt peace and international understanding.
- RISE OF CAPITALISM - Became a socialist but not a part of the
- growth of leisure time and personal freedom socialist party

- Focus on his studies on psychology, philosophy,

sociology in Univ ersity of Heidelberg
- feelings of anxiety, isolation, and powerlessness
- received his PhD in Socio
- 2 alternative:
- Personality theorist
o 1) to escape from freedom into
interpersonal dependencies - Social critic

o 2) to move to self-realization through - Psycho- therapist

productive love and work - Philosopher
BIOGRAPHY - Biblical Scholar
ERICH FROMM - Cultural Anthropologist
- Jewish family life, suicide of the young woman, - Psycho-biographer
extreme nationalism of the German people
contributed to his conception of humanity - 1925-1930: psychoanalysis Munich
Frankfurt Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute
- Born: March 23, 1900 (Frankfurt, Germany) (analyzed by Hanns Sachs)
- Parents: Napthali Fromm & Rosa Krause Fromm - 1926: married Frieda Reichmann
- with their vision of universal peace and o His analyst
harmony, their teaching that there are ethical
aspects to history- that nations can do right o Mother figure to Fromm
and wrong, and that history has its moral laws
o Resembled his mother
- Childhood = less ideal
- Marriage: not a happy one
- 1930: separated - arrogant
o Both emigrated to USA - pious
- Found (with other):South German Institute for - autocratic
Psychoanalysis (Frankfurt)
- shy

- sincere
- Switzerland
- phony
- brilliant
- Joined: International Institute of Social Research
in Geneva - Fromms theory of personality

- 1933: Gave series of lectures at Chicago o has myriad sources

Psychoanalytical Institute o most broadly based theory in this book
- 1934: moved to United StatesPrivate practice - 5 important influences
in NYC
o the teachings of the humanistic rabbis
- Karen Horney
o the revolutionary spirit of Karl Marx
o Met in Chicago & New York
o the equally revolutionary ideas of
o Strong mother and mentor to him Sigmund Freud
o Joined: Association for the o the rationality of Zen Buddhism as
Advancement of Psychoanalysis espoused by D. T. Suzukit
o Became lovers o the writings of Johann Jakob Bachofen
- 1943: conflict made them rivals on matriarchal societies

- Fromm & other members quit AAP then

planned to begin an alternative organization Fromms basic assumptions
- 1946: William Alanson White Institute of most basic assumption

o Fromm chaired both faculty and the
training committee Individual personality

- 1944: married Henny Gurland who had

rheumatoid arthritis only in the light of human history
- 1951: move to Mexico because it was more HUMAN DILEMMA
favorable climate for Gurland
- torn away from their prehistoric union with
- joined the faculty at the National Autonomous nature
University in Mexico City
- no powerful instincts
- established a psychoanalytic department at
the medical school - acquired the facility to reason

- 1952: Gurland died human ability to reason

- United States - blessing

o 1957-1961: Professor of psychology & o permits people to survive

Michigan State University - curse
o 1962-1970: Adjunct professor & New o forces them to attempt to solve basic
York University insoluble dichotomies
- Mexico - existential dichotomies
o 1953: Freeman Annis 1. Life and death
- 1968: Fromm: serious heart attack 2. Humans are capable of conceptualizing
o slow down his busy schedule the goal of complete self-realization, but
we also are aware that life is too short to
- 1974: moved: Muralto, Switzerland reach that goal.
- Death: March 18, 1980 3. People are ultimately alone, yet we cannot
- authoritarian tolerate isolation.

- gentle

- pretentious
Human Needs o To kill for reasons other than survival
(Existential Needs) Rootedness
- Can move people toward a reunion with the - The need to establish roots or to feel at home
natural world again in the world.
- Emerged during the evolution of human culture, - May cause unbearable isolation and
growing out of their attempts to find an answer helplessness.
to their existence and to avoid becoming
- Productive strategy
o Being weaned from their mother and
- Healthy people find answers to their existence
actively and creatively relating to the
Relatedness world and becoming whole and
- The drive for union with another person or
other persons. - nonProductive strategy

- SUBMISSION o (fixation)
o Transcending the separateness of ones o Reluctance to move beyond the
individual existence by becoming part protective security provided by ones
of somebody or something bigger than mother
oneself and experiences ones identity
- Incestuous Desires/Feelings
in connection with the power to which
one has submitted. o Universal but not essentially sexual and
are based in the deep-seated craving
to remain in or to return to the all-
o Searching for a relationship with enveloping womb or to the all-
domineering people nourishing breasts.

o Establishes a symbiotic relationship

o Being drawn to one another not by sense of identity
love but by a desperate need for
- Capacity to be aware of ourselves as a
separate entity
o Blocks growth toward integrity and
- Identity of most people still resides in their
psychological health
attachment to others or to institutions (nation,
- LOVE religion, occupation or social group)
o Union with somebody or something - Without a sense of identity, people could not
outside oneself under the condition of retain their sanity which is a powerful
retaining the separateness and integrity motivation to acquire a sense of identity.
of ones own self
o Only route by which a person can
frame of orientation
become united with the world and at
the same time, achieve individuality and - Enables people to organize the various stimuli
integrity. that impinge on them. A solid frame of
orientation can help make sense of these
o Care
events and phenomena
o Responsibility
o Respect/ knowledge
the burden of freedom
- Being able to gain more freedom to express
Transcendence ones individuality, to move around
unsupervised, to choose friends, clothes and so
- Urge to rise above a passive and accidental
on means being free from the security of being
existence and into the realm of purposiveness
one with the mother.
and freedom
Basic Anxiety
- One can transcend their passive nature by
either CRE ATING life or by DE STROYING it. - Feeling of being alone in the world
- Creating

o Means to be active and to care about Mechanisms of Escape

that which we create.
- Ways of fleeing from freedom to prevent basic
- Destroying anxiety.

o Malignant Aggression - Driving forces in NORMAL PEOPLE, both

individually and collectively.
authoritarianism relates himself to the human and natural
o Tendency to give up independence of
ones own individual self and to fuse ones o The substitute for instincts which people act
self with somebody or something outside according to.
the self in order to acquire the strength
nonproductive orientations
w hich the indiv idual is lacking.
o Strategies that fail to move people closer to
o masochism
positive freedom and self-realization
- Result from basic feelings of
o receptive
powerlessness, weakness and inferiority
and is aimed at joining the self to a o Tendency to give up independence of
more powerful individual or institution. ones own individual self and to fuse ones
self with somebody or something outside
- Often disguised as love or loyalty but
the self in order to acquire the strength
can never contribute positively to
w hich the indiv idual is lacking.
independence and authenticity
o Positive
o sadism
o More neurotic and more socially harmful
o 1. The need to make others dependent on
oneself and to gain power over those who Trust
are weak
o Negative
o 2. The compulsion to exploit, take
advantage and use others for ones benefit Passivity
or pleasure. Submissiveness
o 3. The desire to see others suffer, either Lack of self-confidence
physically or psychologically
o Aggressively taking what they desire rather
o Rooted in the feelings of aloneness, than passively receiving it.
isolation and powerlessness.
o Prefer to steal or plagiarize rather than
o Does not depend on a continuous create.
relationship with another person; it seeks to
do away with people o Using cunning or force to take someone
elses spouse, ideas and properties.
o Positive
o Giving up ones individuality and becoming
whatever other people desire one to be Impulsive

o Characteristics: Proud

Seldom expression of opinion Charming

Cling to expected standards of behavior Self-confident

Appear stiff and automated o Negative

Do not know what one wants, thinks or Egocentric

Positive freedom
o Being free and not alone, critical and yet Seducing
not filled with doubts, independent and yet
an integral part of mankind hoarding
o Spontaneous and full expression of both o Saving which one has already obtained.
rational and emotional potentialities
o Tries to possess the loved one and to
o active love and work preserve the relationship rather than
allowing it to change and grow.
Character orientations
o Tends to live in the past and is repelled by
- Persons relatively permanent way of relating to
anything new
people and things
o Positive
o The relatively permanent system of all non-
instinctual strivings through which man Cleanliness
punctuality Personality Disorders
o Negative Necrophilia
Rigidity - Love of death
Sterility - A sexual perversion in which a person desires
sexual contact with a corpse
- Any attraction to death
- Opposite of biophilia
Lack of creativity
- harm to humanity, death, dirt, and darkness
Malignant narcissism
o I am as you desire me
- Benign form of narcissism
o Empty vessels waiting to be filled with
whatever characteristic is most marketable o Interest in their own body
and is currently in fashion
- Malignant form of narcissism
o Ones personal value depends on their
o Distorts perception of reality
exchange value or their ability to sell
oneself. o Everything to the narcissist is high
valued, everything else devalued
- Hypochondriasis
o Changeability
o Obsessive attention to ones health
o Open-mindedness
- Moral Hypochondriasis
o Adaptability
o Preoccupation with guilt about previous
o Generosity
- Possess neurotic claims
o Aimlessness
- Feel that they are superior to others
o Opportunism
- Cannot take criticism
o Inconsistency
- Result in depression
o Wastefulness
- Depression, intense guilt, and hypochondriasis
The productive orientation could be symptoms of deep underlying
- Working toward positive freedom and a
continuing realization of their potential Incestuous Symbiosis

productive work - Extreme dependence on the mother or mother

- A means of creative self-expression and
producing lifes necessities o Mother substitute is not necessarily
another human, could be a group of
Productive love people
o biophilia - Exaggerated form of mother fixation
o A passionate love of life and all that is - Originates in infancy as a natural attachment
alive to the mother
o Being concerned with the growth and - Sexual strivings is the result, not cause, of
development of oneself as well as others fixation to mother
o Influence people through love, reason, and - Feel extremely anxious and frightened when
example not by force the relationship is threatened
o Lov e of others and self-lov e are - Cannot live without mother substitute
inseparable but that self-lov e m ust com e
first - Incestuous orientation

Productive thinking o Distorts reasoning powers

o Motivated by a concerned interest in o Destroys capacity for authentic love

another person or object
o Prevents people from achieving
o Seeing others as they are and not as they independence and integrity
would wish them to be
Syndrome of decay
o Knowing oneself for who one is and has no
- Possession of all three personality disorders
need for self-delusion
Syndrome of growth
- Opposite of syndrome of decay
o Biophilia
o Love

o Positive freedom
Aim of therapy: Patients to come to know
Without knowledge of ourselves, we cannot
know any other person or thing
Patients come to therapy seeking satisfaction of
their basic human needs
Free association
Dream analysis

Dream symbols are not universal

Patients are asked to associate their