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PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: Theories and concepts
PERSONALITY Classification of personality
Factors influencing personality
Dr. Mary Wong Siew Lian Implications on teaching-learning
Jabatan PIPK


Definition of personality
Personalityits who we are
Carl Jung (yoong)
Our personalities determine how we act and Sigmund Freud (froyd)
react, as well as how we interact with and Hans Eysenck (ay zeh nk)
respond to the world
Imam Al-Ghazali
Personality is the collection of characteristic
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are
associated with a person

The psyche represents a unified whole

Personality Theory: Carl Jung
Personality is the psyche; it embraces all We are born with this wholeness or at least
thought, feeling and behavior, conscious with the potential to become whole based
And unconscious on our experiences and learning

The psyche guides us in adapting to our Thus, the purpose of life is the optimal
social and physical environment development of this wholeness

The psyche is the great objective to the The psyche is a mystery; One does not know
world within what the psyche is

This needs to be explored to find wholeness Just as physicists dont know what matter is

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A definition of personality provided by Jung:
Structure of Personality
the supreme realization of the innate A combination of systems operating on
idiosyncrasy of a living being, it is an act of 3 levels of consciousness:
high courage flung in the face of life, the
absolute affirmation of all that constitutes Conscious
the individual, the most successful
adaptation to the universal conditions of
existence coupled with the greatest possible Collective unconscious
freedom for self-determination

The Conscious Level - The Ego The Personal Unconscious

Consciousness appears early in life, Nothing that has been experienced
perhaps before birth disappears; such experiences are stored in
Jung believed that the great danger in the personal unconscious
becoming conscious is to be one-sided; he Suppressed and forgotten experiences are
strove to see both sides also a part of the personal unconscious
The discriminating processes that develop The personal unconscious must contain
in infants is the first evolvement of the ego groups of associated feelings, thoughts,
The ego acts as gatekeeper - it determines and memories that have strong emotional
what perceptions, thoughts, feelings and content - and that form a complex
memories will enter consciousness

The Collective Unconscious

A complex means that a person is so Our evolutionary past provides a blueprint
preoccupied with something that it not only of our bodies but also of our
influences almost all of his or her behavior personalities, a blueprint carried in a so-
Mild complexes guide and color all of our called collective unconscious
lives The collective unconscious seems to
Complexes are unconscious - although transcend time
related elements may become conscious The collective unconscious is composed of
from time to time primordial images - thought forms or
memory traces from our ancestral past -
Some complexes may lead to outstanding
these images are a record of common
experiences that have been repeated over
countless generations

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In Jungs own words, from his collected Neglected contents of the collective
works, he indicates that the collective unconscious may find expression in such
unconscious is an image of the world disorders as phobias, delusions, and other
which has taken aeons to form serious psychological disturbances
We inherit a predisposition or potentiality You could call it your "psychic inheritance
for certain ideas It is the reservoir of our experiences as a
We are born with the potential to perceive, species, a kind of knowledge we are all
think and feel in many particular ways born with
In addition, this potential is fulfilled by our
personal experiences

Despite much research, the origins of Sigmund Freuds Personality Theory

personality are still a mystery, though there
Freud believed that every person normally
are many theories that attempt to explain progresses through five psychosexual stages
them During the first 5 years of life, pleasure is
successively focused on three zones of the
Some researchers propose that children body as the oral, anal, and phallic stages
learn personality from their parents; others unfold
believe personality is fixed from birth Then comes a quiet latency period of about
5 or 6 years
Some theories address how environment, Finally, if progress through each stage has
been successful, the person reaches the
genetics, and culture influence the
mature or genital stage after puberty
development of personality

Stage (Year) Characteristics

Oral The baby is completely dependent on others for the
(Birth-1) satisfaction of all needs; body pleasure is focused on the
The Structure of Personality:
mouth and on the satisfaction of sucking, eating, and biting Id, Ego, Superego
Anal A shift in body pleasure to the anus and by a concern with
(2) the retention and expulsion of feces Freud introduced the concept of id, ego and
Phallic The child observes the difference between the male and superego to explain the psychological drives
(5) female and experiences what Freud called the Oedipus of man
complex; initially both infants love their mother as the
satisfier of their basic needs The Id:
Latency A period of comparative sexual quiescence; the childs The id is the only component of personality
(6-early libido (sexual instincts) is channeled into non-sexual that is present from birth; this aspect of
adolescence) Activities; a period of preparation for the final stage
personality is entirely unconscious and
Genital With the onset of puberty comes an increased awareness
includes the instinctive and primitive
(Adolescence of and interest in the opposite sex. The reproductive organs
- death) mature, and the endocrine system secretes hormones that behaviors
result in secondary sex characteristics

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The Ego:
The id is driven by the pleasure principle, When children begin to interact with others,
which strives for immediate gratification of the ego develops from the id
all desires, wants, and needs; if these needs
are not satisfied immediately, the result is a The ego is the component of personality that
state anxiety or tension is responsible for dealing with reality

For example, if the infant is hungry or The ego develops from the id and ensures
uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the that the impulses of the id can be expressed
demands of the id are met in a manner acceptable in the real world

The ego functions in both the conscious,

preconscious, and unconscious mind

The Superego:
The ego operates based on the reality
The last component of personality to develop
principle, which strives to satisfy the id's
desires in realistic and socially appropriate
The aspect of personality that holds all of our
internalized moral standards and ideals that
we acquire from both parents and society -
In many cases, the id's impulses can be
our sense of right and wrong
satisfied through a process of delayed
gratification - the ego will eventually allow
The superego provides guidelines for making
the behavior, but only in the appropriate
time and place
According to Freud, the superego begins to
emerge at around age five

Two parts of the superego: The superego acts to perfect and civilize our
The ego ideal - includes the rules and
standards for good behaviors; these behaviors It works to suppress all unacceptable urges
include those which are approved of by of the id and struggles to make the ego act
parental and other authority figures; obeying upon idealistic standards rather than upon
these rules leads to feelings of pride, value realistic principles
and accomplishment
The superego is present in the conscious,
The conscience - includes information about preconscious and unconscious
things that are viewed as bad by parents
and society; these behaviors are often
forbidden and lead to bad consequences,
punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse

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Defense Mechanisms and Ego Anxiety
Interaction between id, ego and superego:
A person with good ego strength is able to The ego also has to cope with the conflicting
effectively manage the conflicts between the demands of the id and the superego
id, ego and superego, while those with too
much or too little ego strength can become The id seeks to fulfill all wants, needs and
too unyielding or too disrupting impulses while the superego tries to get the
ego to act in an idealistic and moral manner
According to Freud, the key to a healthy
personality is a balance between the id, the When the ego cannot deal with the demands
ego, and the superego
of our desires, the constraints of reality and
our own moral standards, anxiety sets in

Reality anxiety - fear of real-world events;

According to Freud, anxiety is an unpleasant
the cause of this anxiety is usually easily
inner state that people seek to avoid; anxiety
identified e.g. a person might fear receiving
acts as a signal to the ego that things are not
a dog bite when they are near a menacing dog
going right
Moral anxiety - involves a fear of violating our
Freud identified three types of anxiety: own moral principles
Neurotic anxiety - unconscious worry that we
will lose control of the id's urges, resulting in In order to deal with this anxiety, Freud
punishment for inappropriate behavior believed that defense mechanisms help shield
the ego from the conflicts created by the id,
superego and reality

Name Explanation
Ten Defense Mechanisms Denial Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that
something has occurred or is currently occurring. It protects
the ego from things that the individual cannot cope with
Repression Repression acts to keep information out of conscious
Denial awareness, but actually the memories continue to influence
Repression our behavior - a person with repressed memories of child
Suppression abuse may later have relationship problems
Displacement Suppression To consciously force unwanted information out of our
awareness; but it is usually believed to occur unconsciously
Displace Taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people
-ment or objects that are less threatening. Rather than expressing
Intellectualization our anger in front of the boss, we instead express our anger
Rationalization towards a friends or pets
Regression Sublimation To act out unacceptable impulses by converting these
Reaction formation behaviors into a more acceptable form. A person
experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a
means of venting frustration.

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Projection Taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and
ascribing them to other people. If you have a strong dislike
for someone, you might instead believe that he/she does not
like you Hans Eysencks Personality Theory
Intellectual- Works to reduce anxiety by thinking about events in a cold,
ization clinical way; A person diagnosed with a terminal illness might
focus on learning about the disease to avoid distress and the Hans Eysenck, believed that all human traits
reality of the situation can be broken down into three distinct
Rationaliza Explaining an unacceptable behavior or feeling in a rational universal categories called supertraits:
-tion or logical manner, avoiding the true reasons for the behavior;
A student blames a poor exam score on the instructor rather
than his lack of preparation 1. Introversion-Extraversion
Regression When confronted by stressful events, people sometimes 2. Neuroticism-Emotional Stability
abandon coping strategies and revert to patterns of behavior 3. Psychoticism
used earlier in development, e.g. cry or sulk over bad news
Reaction Reduce anxiety by taking up the opposite feeling, impulse or
formation behavior, e.g., treating someone you strongly dislike in an
excessively friendly manner to hide your true feelings

Introversion/Extraversion: Neuroticism refers to an individuals tendency

Introversion involves directing attention on to become upset or emotional, while stability
inner experiences, while extraversion relates refers to the tendency to remain emotionally
to focusing attention outward on other people constant
and the environment
A person high in introversion might be quiet Individuals who are high on this trait tend to
and reserved, while an individual high in have difficulty dealing with reality and may
extraversion might be sociable and outgoing be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic and
Neuroticism/Emotional Stability:
This dimension of Eysencks trait theory is
related to moodiness versus even-

Traits and Supertraits

Everyone exhibits specific responses to both Development of Trait and Supertrait
internal and external stimuli

These specific responses will vary according

to the intensity of the stimuli, the situation,
state of mind, and many other factors

When this behavior becomes the normal way

to respond, the response then becomes a

When all these habitual responses are

combined, they become a trait

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Example: A girl is very concerned about how
other people view her. She stays away from However, due to the vast differences in
strangers in most specific situations. When personality, it is quite difficult to determine
this behavior becomes the normal way to the supertrait of an individual based on
respond to new people, the response then responses and habits only
becomes a habit. Suppose that she also
avoids public settings where a large number Eysenck argued that there were varying
of people gather, or limits her social activity degrees of each of the two supertraits and
to only a few trusted friends. When all of most of us fall somewhere on the spectrum
these habitual responses are combined, they between Stable versus Unstable (neurotic)
become part of a larger group known as a and Introverted versus Extroverted
trait (shyness or social phobia). This trait, is
a component of one of the three supertraits,
i.e. introversion-extraversion

Eysencks Model of Personality

The person who is high on extroversion and
high on stability may fall in the lower right
quadrant of the circle

Those who are less stable and more

4 1
introverted would fall somewhere in the
upper left

According to this diagram, each of us will

3 2 ultimately fall somewhere on the circle
based on a sum of our responses and traits

Man are born pure and changes to the

Al Ghazalis Personality Theory personality depends on the influences on
the mind, soul and body

Imam Al-Ghazali deliberated a lot on the Mans personality becomes perfect when
mind, soul and body the body, soul, mind and spirit are in a
(akal, jiwa dan raga) balanced state
In his theory, the spiritual aspect of man
controls the body Al-Ghazali emphasized the concept of
The Al-Quran also contains information Everlasting Nature of Soul, which exists
regarding the mind, soul and body in religion, and believes in the life

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The Five dimensions of personality: The following chart is an example, where
Extraversion, agreeableness, each triangle marker represents the degree
conscientiousness, emotional stability, each of the five factors is present for a
intellect particular individual

Anyones personality can be measured along The factor numbers are in the first column,
these five dimensions using a variety of followed by the factor names
questionnaires and assessment instruments
designed for this The last column names each inverse trait

The result can be displayed in a chart

showing where your personality falls
between the extreme poles for each trait

Your Personality Profile

People vary in the strength with which their
I Extroverted Introverted
personalities exhibit each trait
II Agreeable Antagonistic

III Conscientious Disorganized Most people fall somewhere between the

extremes of each pole, and are neither pure

extrovert nor pure introvert
IV Neurotic Emotionally
V Open Closed This person is somewhat antagonistic
(not agreeable), quite conscientious, rather
In this example the person is more emotionally stable and somewhat more open
extroverted than introverted, but not to experience (high intellect) than closed to
extremely so (the Factor I marker is not all
the way to the left)

Personality is stable over very long periods Extroversion and introspection are not
of time; personality traits do not change mutually exclusive
There is some misunderstanding of the
They form the stable second layer in the nature of introverted and extroverted
architecture for interaction model personalities
Since the days of Carl Jung's research on
Understanding, accepting, and applying your personality, people often contrast
personality traits is an important part of outgoing, extroverted activity with
knowing yourself
introspective, contemplative behavior
Jung believed that extroversion was
determined by whether a person is inward
or outward looking

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There's been a lot of research in the last Personality traits in the classroom
10-20 years that has made it clear that Brown (2000) argues that personality is one
extroversion versus introversion is about the of the affective factors that are equally
important for explaining differential success
contrast between being active, energetic,
among second language learners
adventurous, assertive and somewhat
sociable versus being quiet, passive, timid, While extroversion is associated with
submissive, and somewhat unsociable risk-taking, introversion is subsumed under
the concept of self-esteem
A person can climb a mountain a very
extroverted thing to do even if it's done According to Myers (1962), extroverts tend
alone and can be very introspective while to prefer learning situations that afford
doing that. interaction, while introverts tend to prefer
small groups

Students from Galvan and Fukadas (1997/ According to Barrett and Connot (1986),
1998) study explained they were unable to introverted students are least involved in
participate in class because they were not school activities and have lower academic
used to a student-centered class setting
A study conducted by Galvan and Fukada
(1997/1998) found that students who were As Carskadon (1978) states, extroverts
outgoing participated more than introverts generally produce more action with fewer
did thoughts whereas introverts produce
numerous thoughts with little action
Knowledge of personal preferences can help
teachers understand and predict student
Carl Jung classified personality into three
performance so they can restructure the
types: extrovert, introvert and ambivert
situation to facilitate student participation .

People who exhibit an EXTROVERTED

Those at the opposite end of the spectrum
personality have the following
characteristics: are considered to have an INTROVERTED
They direct all their energy and attention personality type:
outward, towards people and objects People who are extremely introverted
They are more social, active, and direct their energy and attention inward
spontaneous toward their own ideas
They find their energy in things and in They rely more on reflective thinking, and
people they try to better understand their
They are very uncomfortable being alone situations
The motto for many extroverts might be:
They find their energy in the inner world of
"Ready, Fire, Aim . . ." because they
ideas, concepts, and abstractions
experience no impression without
expression They want to better understand the world

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They are concentrated and reflective
Characteristics of Ambiverts
The motto for many introverts might be:
"Ready, Aim, Aim . . ." because introverts This refers to people who have a combination
of introvert and extrovert characteristics
experience no impression without
Most people fall into this category, where
introvert characteristics are apparent at one
time and extrovert characteristics are
apparent at other times


Ambiverts are usually active but sensitive,
like to socialize, but choose to work Although there has been much research
individually, able to speak fluently but they regarding personality, the origins of
think first before they give their opinion personality remains a mystery

Example: A student who is smart in his

Researchers suggest that:
studies but prefers to study on his own
instead of in a group Children learn about personality from their
Personality has been determined at birth
The environment, heredity and culture
influence personality development

Genetic factor: Inherited genetic material Intelligence also plays an important role in
determine characteristics such as body the development of personality
structure, intelligence and emotions of a
person Individuals who have a high degree of
intelligence may have more outgoing
Individuals who are physically handicapped, personality, are confident, smart, daring and
for example deaf and dumb may have even proud
introverted personality characteristics and
are too shy to come forward in front of Emotional characteristics inherited from
others parents can also influence personality
individuals who are usually unhappy project a
personality that appears aggressive and bad

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Environmental factors also play an important
role in the development of personality The school environment also influences
personality development
A family environment that is harmonious and
happy encourages development of personality A teacher who is loving and caring and is
that is positive and stable dedicated to teaching students will be an
excellent role model for development of
In contrast, a family environment that is positive personality traits among students
chaotic encourages development of
personality that is negative and unstable Peer perception and acceptance also
encourages development of positive and
confident personality characteristics

Societal values and practices also influence Culture and Personality

personality development Cultural psychologists have noted that
some aspects of personality differ across
These influences depend on the type of cultural groups
experiences the individual has in life For example, Americans and Asians have
slightly different conceptions of self
According to Freud, bitter and sad American culture promotes a view of the self
experiences leads to development of a as independent; American children tend to
personality that is withdrawn, shy, fearful describe themselves in terms of personal
and unhappy attributes, values, and achievements and
they learn to be self-reliant, to compete
with others, and to value their uniqueness

Many Asian cultures, such as those of IMPLICATIONS IN

Japan and China, promote a view of the TEACHING AND LEARNING
self as interdependent
Children from these cultures tend to Personality traits in the classroom
describe themselves in terms of which Participation usually means students
groups they belong to speaking in class: answer and ask questions,
They learn to rely on others, to be modest make comments, and join in discussions
about achievements, and to fit into groups
Students who do not participate in those
ways mentioned above are often considered
to be passive and are generally penalized
when participation is graded

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Teachers should be able to identify the The teacher should be able to predict the
interests and learning styles of their students responses and behavior of students in
certain situations and be prepared
The teacher will then be able to select t-l beforehand to handle such situations
activities that are suitable and interesting
and ensure t-l is effective Example: A situation where a student who is
rather passive and inferior is unable to
Example: If there are students who are answer a question correctly and is laughed at
rather passive and do not like group by his peers; the teacher should be ready
activities, the teacher could group them with an easier question that he can answer
together with peers who are more active so this will reinstate his self confidence in front
that they learn to be more actively involved of the other students
in learning

The teacher should encourage students to The teacher should be fair to all students in
share what they have achieved with other the class, accepting the views put forward by
students students regardless of their personality type
Example: A quiet, shy student who is good This will result in good rapport between the
at drawing may be encouraged to show his teacher and students and encourage
drawing to the class development of positive personality among
As a result, the student will feel that he is
appreciated by his teacher and peers

This indirectly improves his personality

from one who is shy and quiet, even inferior,
to one who is more confident

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