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Learning with Block Diagram on How basically Cell-phone


works?
How basically Cell-phone works?

In this lesson we are going to take a brief familiarization of a typical block diagram of a cellphone.
Block Diagram can help us understand the flow of a cer tain part of a cellphone's circuit.
A Cell-phone handset is basically composed of two sections,
which is RF and Baseband Sections.
RF
RF refers to radio frequency, the mode of communication for wir eless technologies of all kinds,
including cordless phones, radar, ham radio, GPS, and radio and tele vision broadcasts. RF
technology is so much a par t of our lives we scarcely notice it for its ubiquity. From baby monitors
to cell phones, Bluetooth to remote control toys, RF waves are all around us. RF waves are
electromagnetic waves which propagate at the speed of light, or 186,000 miles per second
(300,000 km/s). The frequencies of RF waves, however, are slower than those of visible light,
making RF waves invisible to the human eye.

Baseband
In signal processing, baseband describes signals and systems whose ra nge of frequencies is
measured from zero to a maximum bandwidth or highest signal fr equency. It is sometimes used
as a noun for a band of fr equencies starting at zero.
In telecommunications, it is the fr equency range occupied by a message signal prior t o
modulation.
It can be considered as a synonym to low-pass.
Baseband is also sometimes used as a general term for par t of the physical components of a
wireless communications pr oduct. Typically, it includes the control circuitry (microprocessor), the
power supply, and ampliers.
A baseband processor is an IC that is mainly used in a mobile phone t o process communication
functions.

Basically Baseband also composed of t o sections which is the Analog and Digital Processing
Sections. So, we are going to separate each other for better and easier t o understand.
Cell-phone have three different sections which is the following.
I prepare this to be simple and easy instead of using or explaining it with deep technical terms .
In this manner, it is easy for us to understand the concepts and methods of how basical ly the
cellphone works.

Cell-phone have three sections since baseband is differentiated by into two which is the Analog
and Digital function while the RF section remains as a whole circuit section.. which is the
following cosists.
1. Radio Frequency (RF Section)
2. The Analog Baseband Processor
3. And the Digital Baseband Pr ocessor.

Radio Frequency Processing Section


The RF section is the par t of the cell-phone circuit is
also known as RF Transceiver.
It is the section that transmit and r eceive certain
frequency to a network and synchronize to other phone.

The RF - A radio section is based on two main Circuits.


1 Transmitter
2 Reciever
A simple mobile phone uses these two cir cuits to
correspond to an other mobile phone . A Transmitter is a
circuit or device which is used to transmit radio signals
in the air.and a reciever is simply like radios which are used to recieve transmissions(Radiation)
which is spread in the air by any transmitter on a specic frequency.
The two way communication is mad e possible by setting two transmitters and two r ecievers
sycronized in this form that a trasmi tter in a cell phone is syncr onised with the frequency of other
cell phone's recieving frequency same like the transmitter of second cell phone is syncronised
with the recieving frequency of rst cell phone. So rst cell phone transmits its radiation in the air
while the other phone listens it and same pr ocess is present in the opposit side. so these hand
held two cell phones corr espond to one another.
the technology used in these da ys is a little bit different but it is based on the basic theor y
prescribed before. the today's technology will be discussed in later on.

Analog Baseband Processor


A/D and D/A section
The analog baseband processing section is composed
of different types of circuits.
This section converts and process the analog to digital
(A/D) signals and digital to analog signals (D/A).
Control section
This is the section acts as the contr oller of the the input
and output of any analog and digital signal.
Power Management
A power management section in mobile phones is
designed to handle energy matters that is consumed in mobile phones. Ther e are two main sub
sections in a single power section.
Power Distribution and switching s ection
Charging Section
A power distribution section is designed t o distribute desired Voltages and currenst to the other
sections of a phone. this section tak es power from a battery (which is gured commonly 3.6
Volts)and in some places it conv erts or step down to various volts like 2.8 V 1.8V 1.6V etc.while
on other place it also
steps up the voltage like 4.8 V. this section is commonly designed ar ound a power IC(and
integrated circuit) which is used to distribute and regulate the voltage used in other components.
The Charging section is based on a c harging IC which takes power from an external source and
gives it to battery to make it again power up when it is exhausted. this section uses conv ertibly
6.4 V from an external batter y charger and regulates it to 5.8V wile giving it to battery. The battery
is made charged by this process and it is ready to use for the next sessio n (a battery session is a
time which is provided by the manufacturer of a cell phone for standb y by condition of a mobile
phone or talk condition.)
Audio Codecs Section
This section where analog and digital audio properties being process like the microphone,
earpiece speaker headset and ring-tones and also the vibrator circuits.

Digital Baseband Processor


This is the part where All Application being process.
Digital Baseband Processor section is used in mobile
phones to handle data input and ouput signal lik e
switching, driving applications commands and memor y
accessing and executing.
These are the parts and sections o a Digital Baseband
Circuit were installed.
CPU
CPU( Centeral Processing Unit) The Central Pr ocessing
Unit (CPU) is responsible for interpreting and executing most of the commands fr om the users
interface. It is often called the "brain s" of the microprocessor, central processor, "the brains of the
computer"
Flash and Memory Storage Circuits
*RAM( Random Access Memor y)
*ROM,Flash(Read Only Memor y
Interfaces such as the following wer e also part on this section:
*Blutooth
*Wi-
*Camera
*Screen Display
*Keypads
*USB
*SIM-Card

Here a typical overview of a block diagram on latest mobile phone designs.


Various mobile phones ha ve different concepts and design on e very aspects, but the methods
and operational flow are all exactly the same. It differs on how and what cer tain IC chips and
parts they are being used and installed t o a certain mobile phone circuitry.

Kim at Sunday, April 25, 2010

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