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ISSUE 11

MODERN CHESS
MAGAZINE
Master the Grunfeld Structure - Part 2

Practical Decision-Making -
Part 2

Alert Defence - Endgame Series -


Part 1 Part 11
King's Indian Structures - Black
Releases the Tension in the Centre
Table of contents
1 Alert Defence - Part 1 (GM John van der Wiel)

1 VanderWiel,JTimman,J/OHRA,1987
7 AlertDefenceTest14
8 Tests12Solution

11 Master the Grunfeld Structure - Part 2 (GM Mihail Marin)

11 Kasparov,Garry(2595)Pribyl,Josef(2395)/EUchT(Men)07th(5.8),24.01.1980
15 Yermolinsky,Alex(2597)Kasparov,Garry(2812)/HoogovensWijkaanZee(3),19.01.1999
18 Podgaets,MChekhelian,S/USSR27/561,1979
20 KarpovKasparovTest/Solution
21 Portisch,LAdorjanTest/Solution

23 King's Indian Structures - Black Releases the Tension in the Centre (GM Petar G. Arnaudov)

25 Hecht,HansJoachim(2357)Weindl,Alfred(2329)/AUTchT2W1213(7.2),12.01.2013
25 VanderSterren,Paul(2605)Glek,IgorV(2615)/Bundesliga9495,1995
29 Topalov,Veselin(2780)Mamedyarov,Shakhriyar(2760)/Amberrapid17th(4),18.03.2008
31 Bacrot,Etienne(2722)Guseinov,Gadir(2621)/GashimovMemorialB,22.04.2014
34 Wang,Hao(2701Paehtz,ThomasSr(2356)/DouglasIoMop(1),01.10.2016
37 Test15

39 Practical Decision-Making Part 2 (Boris Chatalbashev)


39 Carlsen,Magnus(2733)Topalov,Veselin(2780)/Morelia/Linares25th(12),04.03.2008
40 Carlsen,Magnus2872Gelfand,Boris2777/ZuerichChessChallenge(1)30.01.2014
42 Kasparov,Garry(2740)Kortschnoj,Viktor(2650)/OHRAABrussels(2),12.1986

45 Endgame Series - Part 11 (GM Davorin Kuljasevic)

45 Minedsquares15
50 Correspondentsquares1
52 Kuljasevic,Davorin2297Selbes,Tarik/EUchTU18Balatonlelle(5)17.06.2002
54 Correspondentsquares2
57 Socko,B(2617)Kuljasevic,Davorin(2561)/TChAUT201213(5.2),18.01.2013
58 Giri,A(2767)Papp,Ga(2587)/32ndECCOpen2016(2.14)07.11.2016
61 Correspondentsquares3
63 Exercise15
Modern Chess Magazine 1
Alert Defence - Part 1 a b c d e f g h

8 8

7 7

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1
a b c d e f g h

My main choice for a few years.


There is some logic to this eccentric
It happens to all of us. Sometimes we find move: White discourages g7-g6,
ourselves in a position, where we sometimes he wants to play Bc1-g5,
understand: 'if I don't find something good sometimes Rh1-h3 (after Qe2 it isn't
here, I'll be in trouble for the rest of the
always easy to develop therook).
game.' Or worse. Naturally, it would be best
Meanwhile he hopes that the
to avoid such situations in the first place,
endings will still be slightly better. f6
but as we aren't all prophylactic geniuses
like Petrosian or Karpov, we had better deal [ After 8...d6 9.c4 Nb6 10.exd6
with it. In a series of 2 articles, I will test I did win an ending in 1987, against
and hopefully improve your ability to Van der Sterren. If Black can
extricate yourself from trouble. It might recapture with the knight on f6 here,
spare you a lot of suffering! In this episode however, White has nothing. ]
I'll show you one whole game. A crazy one,
but with some instructive moments. Of 9.c4 Ba6 10.Rh3!?
those there will be a few exercise diagrams, a b c d e f g h
immediately followed by an exercise
8 8
diagram of something completely different.
This is to diminish the chances of you 7 7
accidentally reading the game solution 6 6
underneath, when you weren't yet ready to
5 5
do so. Of these 'other' exercises (A through
D) two will be treated at the end of the 4 4

article and two in the next one. 3 3


Van der Wiel,J 2 2
Timman,J
1 1
OHRA 1987
a b c d e f g h
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6
5.Nxc6 bxc6 6.e5 Qe7 7.Qe2 Nd5 Home preparation. Consistent with not
8.h4!? accepting unpromising endgames, but
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Modern Chess Magazine 2

objectively somewhat dubious. And yes, a b c d e f g h


combined with the next move it looks 8 8
like beginner's play, which is part of the
fun! fxe5 11.Ra3 Nb4 12.Nc3 7 7

I will not delve into the huge 6 6


complications that follow here: they are
outside of our theme and would take up 5 5

a lot of space. Qxh4 13.g3 Qd4 4 4


14.Rxa6
[ 14.Bf4 Bxc4! ] 3 3

14...Nxa6 15.Bf4 0-0-0 2 2


[ Perhaps better 15...Qc5!? ]
1 1
16.Be3 Qd6 17.c5 Nxc5 18.b4 Nd3+
[ After 18...Nb7 19.Qa6 the attack a b c d e f g h
would be severe. ] Bxb4 ( 21...Re8 22.Bf5+ is quite risky )
19.Qxd3 Qxd3 20.Bxd3 d5 22.Bf5+ Rd7 23.Bd2
[ Not 20...Bxb4 21.Ba6+ ]
This may be called unclear. There is
21.Rb1? Diagram
even some danger for Black due to
[ A) 21.Bf5+
the b-file, but Bc5! saves the day,
a b c d e f g h
threatening 24...Bxf2+ and ...Rf8.
White in turn has to be modest with
8 8 24.Ke2 but I don't think he is worse.
7 7 One final attempt in this line: 21...e4
(instead of Bxb4) does well against
6 6
most replies, but if White keeps his
5 5 cool with 22. Bf1! Bxb4.23. Bh3+ Rd7.
24. Bd2 Black gets a lesser version of
4 4
the endgame.
3 3 a b c d e f g h

8 8
2 2
7 7
1 1

a b c d e f g h 6 6

5 5
Kb7 22.Bc5 ]
4 4
[ But best is B) 21.Bg5
3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 3

After this White has a worse ending. To 36.Kg3 Re5


avoid such a fate, he could consider: a b c d e f g h
21...d4 22.Bf5+ Rd7 23.b5 c5 24.Ne4
8 8
dxe3 25.fxe3 Kd8 26.Bxd7 Kxd7
27.Rc1 7 7

[ 27.Rd1+ 6 6

a b c d e f g h 5 5

8 8 4 4

7 7 3 3

6 6 2 2

5 5 1 1

a b c d e f g h
4 4

3 3 Not an exercise, but what would you play


2 2 in time trouble? 37.Kg4? 37. Rc4 was
necessary because now Black could
1 1
acquire winning play via 37...a6!,
a b c d e f g h creating a passed c-pawn. c5?

Timman Bd6 28.Nxc5+ Ke7 29.Ne4 38.Rd7+?


[ Another lemon, not realising that
( 29.Na6 Rf8 ) 29...a6! 30.a4 ( 30.b6 38.bxc6+ Kxc6 39.Rc4+ was enough
Rb8 ) 30...axb5 31.axb5 Rb8 32.Rb1 to hold. ]
Ke6 would still be promising for 38...Kb8!
Black. ]
a b c d e f g h

27...Bd6 28.Nxc5+ Bxc5 29.Rxc5 Re8 8 8


30.Rd5+ Kc8 31.a4 Re7 32.g4! h6
7 7
33.Kf2 e4 34.Rd4 Kb7 35.g5?!
6 6
[ Better was 35.Kg3 g5 36.Rc4 ]
35...hxg5?! 5 5

[ Black should have tried 35...h5! ] 4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 4

39.Rd6 Preventing c5-c4 followed by Rc5. [ A) 47.Ke6


Re7 40.Kxg5 c4 41.Rd2 Kb7 42.Rc2 Rc7
43.a5! Black's king must be stopped. c3! a b c d e f g h

8 8
[ Better than 43...Rc5+ 44.Kf4 Rxb5
7 7
45.Rxc4 Rxa5 46.Rxe4 which should
be draw. ] 6 6

5 5
44.Kf5 Rc4 45.Ke5 If the king reaches
d5, salvation is near. But Black has 4 4
another trump. a6! 46.b6
3 3
[ Forced, since 46.bxa6+ Kxa6
2 2
47.Kd5 Rc7 48.Kxe4 ( 48.Kd4 g5! )
48...Kxa5 49.Kd3 Kb4 50.Rg2 ( or 1 1
50.Rc1 Rd7+ ) 50...Kb3 Leads to a a b c d e f g h
win for Black. ]
Rc5 loses outright ]
46...Kc6 [ As does 47.Rg2 c2 48.Rg6+ Kb7
49.Rxg7+ Kb8 ]
a b c d e f g h [ B) 47.b7
8 8
a b c d e f g h
7 7 8 8

6 6 7 7

5 5 6 6

4 4 5 5

3 3 4 4

2 2 3 3

1 1 2 2
a b c d e f g h
1 1

a b c d e f g h
White's plan has been thwarted. How
can he hope to survive? 47.Rc1!!
One of my favourite moves ever, found Kxb7 48.Kd5 Rc6 49.Kxe4 g5!
by elimination. The others: 50.Kd3 ( or 50.Kf5 Rc5+ ) 50...g4
is winning for Black. ]

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Modern Chess Magazine 5

[ C) 47.Kf4 47. Rc1 by knowing your classics.


There is a similarity to Botvinnik -
a b c d e f g h Euwe, Groningen 1946, although this
8 8 one is much more complicated.
Having seen that 47...c2 doesn't bring
7 7 the desired result, Timman opts for
6 6 a similar elimination. ]
5 5 47...g5
4 4 [ As we have already pointed out, the
3 3 move 47...c2 doesn't work, since after
48.Kf4 Kd5 ( 48...Kd6 49.Kf5 ) 49.b7
2 2
Rb4 50.Rxc2 Rxb7 51.Rd2+
1 1 the e4-pawn will be lost. ]
a b c d e f g h
48.Kf5 Rc5+ 49.Kxe4 Rxa5 50.Rxc3+
Kd5 intending 48...Rc5 and 49...Kc4! Kxb6 51.Rc8 Careful now: not 51. Kd4?
48.b7 Rb4 49.Rxc3 Rxb7 g4! and Ra5-g5 Rc5 52.Rb8+!
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
8 8
8 8
7 7
7 7
6 6
6 6
5 5
5 5
4 4
4 4
3 3
3 3
2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h

followed by a check on f7 and White


isn't likely to survive. This latter line Ka7 In time trouble again, how do you
may lead you to the idea, though: after secure the draw? 53.Rf8?
47. Rc1 c2.48. Kf4 Kd5 (48...Kd6.49.
Kf5). 49. b7 Rb4.50. Rxc2 Rxb7 White Instinctively I wanted the rook on an
has a check on the d-file, winning the open file, having seen that a5 54.Kd4
e-pawn, which he wouldn't have on Rb5 55.e4? ( I missed the right
square d3 (line C)! Or you might find continuation in this line: 55.Kc4! Rb4+

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Modern Chess Magazine 6

[ 53.Rg8! 65.Rf2!
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

8 8 8 8

7 7 7 7

6 6 6 6

5 5
5 5
4 4
4 4
3 3
3 3
2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
A very necessary resource. Rxf2
Instinctively I wanted the rook on an 66.e8Q Rd2+
open file, having seen that a5 54.Kd4 [ 66...a1Q 67.Qh8+ is an immediate
Rb5 55.e4? ( I missed the right draw by perpetual check on the corner
continuation in this line: 55.Kc4! Rb4+ squares. ( Also 67.Qe5+ )]
56.Kc5! g4 57.Rg7+ Kb8 58.Rg8+ 67.Kc7 Rc2+ Now that Black has
Kb7 59.Rg7+ Kc8 60.Kd5! brought the rook closer to his king, the
The idea is e3-e4. a4 61.Kc5 Re4 critical moment has arrived. Did you
62.Kd5 and draw. So 53. Rg8 was plan the next move? 68.Kd6!
correct. After the text White is in [ 68.Kd8? a1Q 69.Qb5+ Ka2
grave danger again. ) 55...a4 56.e5 70.Qd5+ Kb1 71.Qh1+ Rc1
a3 would win for Black. ] 72.Qe4+ Kb2 73.Qb4+ Kc2 74.Qe4+
53...a5 54.Kd4 Rb5 55.e4 a4 56.e5 Kb3! 75.Qb7+ Kc4 76.Qc6+ Kd4
[ 56.Rf5 Kb6! ] 77.Qf6+ Ke4
56...a3 57.Rf1 Kb6 58.Rf6+! Ka5 a b c d e f g h

59.Rf1 Rb2 60.e6 Re2 Here the game 8 8


was adjourned. I found the draw, which
7 7
should also be doable over the board.
61.Kd5 a2 6 6
[ 61...Kb6 62.Ra1 a2 63.e7 ] 5 5
62.Kd6 Kb4 63.e7 Kb3 64.Kd7 Kb2
It is up to you, dear reader, to earn the 4 4

half point. The beginning is not difficult, 3 3


but do you see the whole picture a few
2 2
moves later?
[ 64...g4 65.e8Q Rxe8 66.Kxe8 g3 1 1
67.Rg1 is a simple draw. ] a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 7

77. Qf6+ Ke4 and Black escapes to the Alert Defence


protection of his g-pawn. Now picture T Test 1
White's king on d6 in the diagram. a b c d e f g h
Whenever Black goes to d4 (or c4), 8 8
White can play Qd5+ and the king 7 7
cannot travel East without losing his g-
pawn with check! Timman was 6 6

convinced after 20 minutes of thought 5 5


and played: ] 4 4

a b c d e f g h 3 3

8 8 2 2

7 7 1 1
a b c d e f g h
6 6
Black's position looks dangerous. How
5 5
could he defend himself?
4 4

3 3
Alert Defence
2 2 Test 2
a b c d e f g h
1 1
8 8
a b c d e f g h
7 7

6 6
Why to this square? Well, after other
5 5
moves Black's king can probably escape
from perpetual check. One example: 4 4
68...Rd2+ 69.Kc7 a1Q 70.Qh8+ Ka2 3 3
71.Qa8+
2 2
1/2
1 1
a b c d e f g h

Black's situation has already improved,


but still exists an "advantage fact" for
White: the queenside pressure thanks to
Nb5 (and some space). In such cases,
only defend passively if you have to.
First try to look for active solutions.
These invariably require correct/sharp
calculation. Black to move.
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Modern Chess Magazine 8

Alert Defence Tests 1-2


T Test 3 Solution
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
8 8
8 8
7 7
7 7
6 6
6 6
5 5
5 5
4 4
4 4
3 3
3 3
2 2
2 2
1 1

a b c d e f g h 1 1

a b c d e f g h
The position after 21.hxg3 is not as
simple as it might look. Can you
demonstrate your defensive skills as Surely, you have noticed that the
Black? previous 2 exercises were from the same
game, being Vaganian - Van der Wiel,
Baden bei Wien 1980. Let's take a
deeper look at this position. 1...Nh5!
Alert Defence
Test 4
[ The dangers are clear. 1...Nc7?
a b c d e f g h
fails to 2.Bxf6+ Bxf6 3.Nxd6
8 8 Having spotted the dangers, it is time
7 7
to calculate and, if possible, find an
active solution. ]
6 6 [ 1...g5? 2.Bxg5! Leads to disaster ]
5 5 [ 1...Bf8?! stops the immediate threats,
but what on earth will Black do after,
4 4 say, 18. g4 ? 18. ..Nc7 is not allowed,
3 3 18...Nb8 runs into 19. Bxf6+ Qxf6. 20.
Qxf6+ Kxf6. 21. Nc7; 18...Rc8. 19.
2 2 Nxa7; 18...g5. 19. Nxg5. The position
1 1 is hopeless; ]
a b c d e f g h
2.Bxe7
Black may not be in serious trouble, but
un unpleasant future is a realistic [ 2.Qg4? Bc8 ]
scenario. Can Black alter that? 2...Nxf4
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Modern Chess Magazine 9

[ 2...Rxe7 3.Qxd6 Qf8 4.h3 Black's situation has already improved,


saves the queen, when Nc7! 5.Nxc7 but still exists an "advantage fact" for
Re1+ 6.Rxe1 Qxd6 7.Nxa8 Nf4 White: the queenside pressure thanks to
might give some (dubious) Nb5 (and some space). In such cases,
compensation, but 20. Re1 also works only defend passively if you have to. First
for White; ] try to look for active solutions. These
3.Bxd8 Raxd8 invariably require correct/sharp
a b c d e f g h calculation. In the game I found a
8 8
reasonable solution for the queenside,
but with hindsight I think I should have
7 7 preferred the even more active route.
6 6 Re2!
[ 4...Nb8!? 5.g3 ( The point of my last
5 5
move was that the move 5.Nxa7
4 4 could be always met by Ba6
when Black immediately regains the
3 3
pawn. ) 5...a6 ( 5...Nh5 6.Nxa7 Ba6
2 2 7.Nb5 would not be quite enough. )
6.Nxd6! Rxd6 7.gxf4 b5 8.b3 Rf6
1 1
9.f5 Bc8 10.Re1 This is the most
a b c d e f g h
precise move. It feels like White
might still have "something".
19...Rexd8 looks too passive, with the ( In the game after 10.Kg2 Re2
Nb5 still paralising Black and 20. Bc2!? Black even got some advantage due
(or Re1) with 20...Rd7. 21. Ba4 adding to to careless play by Vaganian. )
the pressure; 19...Nxd3. 20. Bh4 and d6 10...Rxe1+ 11.Nxe1 Bxf5 12.Bxf5
will fall. 4.Bc2 Rxf5 13.Nd3! would be a good start. ]

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

8 8 8 8

7 7 7 7

6 6 6 6

5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 10

5.Rc1 A) or 8.Nb5 Rd2 and if ( 8...Nh3


[ 5.Bd1 Rxb2 6.Nc3 is not a problem 9.gxh3 just doesn't work this time. )
since Black has Nd3 7.Be2 Nf4 ] 9.Nc3 then Ne2!;
5...Bc8! Diagram B) 8.f3 Nh3! ]
7...Bxf3 8.gxf3 Rd2 Diagram
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h
8 8 8 8

7 7 7 7

6 6 6 6

5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

Stopping the threat g2-g3 because of


the check on h3. 6.Nxa7 Aiming for Nh3. Now it is probably wisest
[ 6.h3 Re7 Now is the time to go to go for a draw with 9.Ke1
easy. ( 6...Nb8 7.g3! Bxh3+ 8.Rxh3 [ Dangerous is 9.Nc3 f5!
Rxc2 9.Rxc2 Nxh3 10.Nxa7 The f5-square must be taken. 10.Ke1
Would be to White's advantage. ) Rd4 ]
7.Re1 On the other moves follows 7... [ 9.h4 Re8! ]
Nb8. Rxe1+ 8.Nxe1 Nb8! 9...Re2+ 10.Kf1
With an improved version of the game.
Black has nothing to worry about.
9.g3!? ( 9.Nxa7 Ba6; 9.Nd3 Bf5! )
9...Bxh3+ 10.Kg1 Ne2+ 11.Kh2
Bd7!? 12.Nxd6 Nd4 should be more
dangerous for White than for Black. ]
[ 6.h4 Bg4 is not recommended. ]
6...Bg4 7.Nb5
[ 7.Ng1 Rxc2!? 8.Rxc2 Bf5
Gives Black a good play. ]
[ 7.Ne1 Rde8 look very dangerous, e.g.

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Modern Chess Magazine 11

Master the Grunfeld In order to understand whether the price is


worth paying, we should mention the main
Structure - Part 2
virtues of advancing the queen's pawn so
far. If Black had previously played ... e7-e6
in the hope of restricting White's centre's
mobility, d4-d5 implies creating a passed
pawn. Whether it is strong or weak largely
depends on each side's piece placement
and activity. With the pawn on e7 still, the
central advance could cause some
discomfort to Black's knight (usually
developed on c6) and allow the occupation
of the c6-square (if Black had advanced his
b-pawn). On the negative side of this
typical operation we have three main
elements. 1) In the systems with Ng1-e2,
handing in the control over e5 could lead to
strong black initiative after ... Nc6-e5. True,
Optically and not only, playing d4-d5 if White manages to extinguish it, Black
implies a completely different approach would soon be crushed by White's space
with respect to e4-e5 examined in the advantage. 2) The second aspect refers to
previous article. Instead of restricting the relative weakness of the daring pawn.
the g7-bishop, White actually opens the After losing the support of his colleague
whole long diagonal for it. This is from the c-file, the intruder could easily be
especially effective if he had managed lost if his advance is not properly sustained
clearing in advance the diagonal. In our by pieces. 3) Finally, even if after ...exd5,
featured structure this means removing exd5 White manages defending his passer
the queen's rook from the bishop's range with c3-c4, a blockading knight on d6 could
and inducing a previous exchange on d4 well yield Black a favourable ending. We
so that the c3-pawn is not hanging. This will start with a typical example where the
can lead to a paradoxical situation when passed pawn will be the main hero, while
the bishop is actually useless, since the minor pieces will gladly offer their lives
attacking empty squares does not to ensure its glorious career.
contribute to the fight. Things are
different, of course, if the bishop Kasparov,Garry 2595
sustains other pieces' activity, for Pribyl,Josef 2395
instance of a knight could jump to b2 or EU-chT (Men) 07th (5.8) 24.01.1980
c3, paralyzing White's army. Due to the
dynamic character of the opening, there 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5
is not always time for clearing the Nxd5 5.e4 Nxc3 6.bxc3 Bg7 7.Nf3 b6
diagonal before playing d4-d5 and in 8.Bb5+ c6 9.Bc4 0-0 10.0-0 Ba6
many theoretical lines White sacrifices an 11.Bxa6 Nxa6 12.Qa4 Qc8 13.Bg5 Qb7
exchange or a pawn. 14.Rfe1 e6 15.Rab1

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Modern Chess Magazine 12

a b c d e f g h [ In his comments from an old book


8 8 (Ispitanije Vremenem) Kasparov
considers 18...Nc7 Since Black is not
7 7
coordinated, White could also try
6 6 launching a kingside attack with:
A) insufficient due to 19.Be7 Rfe8
5 5
20.Qd7 but in his newer two volume
4 4 work on his carrer he changes his
mind mentioning the paradoxical
3 3
Reb8 as offering good equalizing
2 2 chances.;
B) But White has other promising
1 1
moves instead of 19.Be7. For
a b c d e f g h
instance 19.Qc4 Bg7 20.Qxc5
Black has treated the opening quite retrieves the pawn with reasonable
originally, but by now it became clear he chances for maintaining a small plus
had to resort to the typical advance of the even though his position is hanging
c-pawn. After removing the rook from the slightly. Rac8 ( 20...bxc5?21.Rxb7
long diagonal White already threatened c3- offers White the initiative. ) 21.Bh4;
c4 and if ...c6-c5 then d4-d5 with all the C) 19.h4!? Nxd5 ( Or if 19...Bg7
comfort. indeed, Black's knight would have 20.d6 Ne6 21.h5 with dangerous
little chance of reachingthe blockading d6- threats. For instance Nxg5?!
square. c5 16.d5! 22.Nxg5 Rad8 23.hxg6 hxg6
a b c d e f g h
24.Qh4 Rfe8 25.Rb3 Rd7 26.Rf3
causes the black king serious
8 8 problems. ) 20.Qe4 f6 21.Rxd5 fxg5
7 7 22.Qc4 Rf7 23.Rxc5 Bf6
A necessary loss of time due to the
6 6
threat Nxg5. 24.hxg5 Bg7 25.Rc6
5 5 a b c d e f g h

4 4 8 8

3 3 7 7

2 2 6 6

1 1 5 5
a b c d e f g h
4 4
With a bishop on g5, this pawn becomes a
3 3
dangerous candidate to promotion. Since
Black's majority is immobile and the d4- 2 2
square not easy to occupy, winning the c3-
1 1
pawn is a feeble consolation for Black.
Bxc3 17.Red1 exd5 18.exd5 Bg7 a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 13

With at least some pressure. ] A fantastic moment! For the sake of


19.d6 f6 Black has managed interferring ensuring the pawn's vitality White not
the important diagonal, but his troubles only does not retreat with the attacked
are not over yet. 20.d7! bishop, but puts another
a b c d e f g h piece en prise! The following
illustrative lines are taken from
8 8
Kasparov's extensive analysis. fxe5
7 7 ( Or if 22...fxg5 23.Nf7+ Rxf7
24.Qxf7 Qc6 25.Rb3 threatening Re3
6 6
and if Qf6 26.Qe8+ Qf8 27.Re3 Nc7
5 5 28.Rde1 soon winning an exchange. )
23.Bxd8 Rxd8 24.Qe6! With the help
4 4
of the far advanced pawn, White's
3 3 pieces feel at home in the enemy
territory. Nc7 ( Mechanically
2 2
approaching with the knight does not
1 1 help, but even after the objectively
a b c d e f g h better 24...Qb8 25.Rb3 planning Rh3
remains very strong. ) 25.Qe7 Qb8
Under the actual circumstances the pawn 26.Rb3 Threatening Rf3-f7. e4
does not threaten promoting yet, but its 27.Re3
force consists of cutting Black's position a b c d e f g h
into two parts, leaving the king
vulnerable. fxg5?! This makes things 8 8

simpler for White. 7 7

[ The crucial line goes 20...Rad8 6 6


21.Qc4+ Kh8 22.Ne5!!
5 5
a b c d e f g h
4 4
8 8
3 3
7 7
2 2
6 6
1 1
5 5
a b c d e f g h
4 4
and Black is helpless after Rxe4. ]
3 3 21.Qc4+ Kh8 22.Nxg5 Bf6
[ Relatively best for if 22...Bd4
2 2
23.Rxd4 cxd4 24.Qxd4+ Kg8
1 1 25.Ne6+- (Kasparov) ]
a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 14

23.Ne6 Nc7 24.Nxf8 Rxf8 With every chance to convert his


a b c d e f g h material advantage. The structure
and material are similar with the tenth
8 8
game of the reykjavik 1972 Fischer-
7 7 Spassky World title match. ]
6 6 25...Be7
5 5
[ Kasparov proves with extensive
4 4 analysis that both 25...Qb8 26.Rbd1
Qd8 27.Rc6 ]
3 3
[ and 25...Bd8 26.Rb3 are won for
2 2 White. ]
1 1 26.d8Q!
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
Black has been forced to return part of
his material advantage without solving 8 8

his main problems. 25.Rd6 7 7


[ This is strong but 25.Qf4 is a worthy
alternative, not analyzed by Kasparov. 6 6

Kg7 Parrying Qxf6!+. 26.Rd6 Ne6 5 5


( Black has to give his knight for the
4 4
dangerus pawn for if 26...Bd8
27.Qe5+ Kg8 28.Rb3 followed by Rf3 3 3
he would be lost. ) 27.Rxe6 Qxd7
2 2
28.Rbe1
a b c d e f g h 1 1

a b c d e f g h
8 8

7 7
Being a hero until the end, the pawn
6 6 offers its life in order to clear the
seventh rank for the attack and spoil
5 5
even more Black's anyway poor
4 4 coordination. Bxd8
3 3 [ 26...Rxd8 27.Rxd8+ Bxd8 28.Rd1
2 2
followed by Qf7 wins. ]
27.Qc3+ Kg8 28.Rd7 Bf6 29.Qc4+
1 1
Kh8 30.Qf4 Putting the dot on the I.
a b c d e f g h
Black loses one of his minor pieces.

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 15

Qa6? But this makes things worse: a b c d e f g h

31.Qh6 8 8

a b c d e f g h 7 7
8 8
6 6
7 7
5 5
6 6
4 4
5 5
3 3
4 4
2 2
3 3
1 1
2 2 a b c d e f g h

1 1

a b c d e f g h 12.d5? It will soon turn out that White's


bishops will not have enough activity to
sustain the pawns advance, so the last
1-0
move remains only a unnecessary
weakening of the dark squares. The
A fascinating game played under the main problem is created by the double
slogan "Everything for the passed pawns, standing in the light=squared
pawn!" Indeed, Kasparov sacrificed the c3- bishop's way. If White plays f3-f4, the
pawn and the g5 bishop on the way, while other bishop would remain passive. exd5
in a comment he showed himself ready to 13.exd5 Nd7 14.c4 Qb6 15.Bh3 f5!
have offered Black a choice of which minor a b c d e f g h
piece to grab! We will now exemplify the
8 8
opposite situation when the passed pawn
is more of a weakness than strenght. And 7 7
we will have Kasparov on the black side, of
6 6
course.
5 5

Yermolinsky,Alex 2597 4 4

Kasparov,Garry 2812 3 3
Hoogovens Wijk aan Zee (3) 19.01.1999
2 2

1 1
1.Nf3 c5 2.c4 Nf6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 a b c d e f g h
Nxd5 5.d4 Nxc3 6.bxc3 g6 7.e4 Bg7
8.Be3 Qa5 9.Qd2 Bg4 10.Rc1 Bxf3
11.gxf3 e6
www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 16

Turning this bishop into a spectator for a White has improved his pawn structure
long time. 16.0-0 Qd6 The queen is but this doesn't help him very much as the
known for not being a good blockading black knight is much stronger than the
piece, but in this game it will temporarily white bishop anyway. Besides, the a2, c4
fulfil this task without problems. 17.Bf4 and e3 pawns are still weak and (last but
Be5 18.Rfe1 0-0-0! not least) the black king is closer to the
a b c d e f g h battlefield than his white counterpart.
8 8
Rd6!! A fantastic decision!Before
installing the knight on d6 Black makes
7 7 full use of this square. The rook is
6 6
heading for a4, in order to put pressure on
White's weak pawns.
5 5 [ 26...Ne8 The natural 27.h4 Nd6
4 4
would allow White consolidating since
the black rook would not have active
3 3 perspectives. 28.Kf1 a6 29.Ke2 Kd7
2 2 30.a4= ]

1 1 27.Ra3 Kb8
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h

Anticipating the queenside king's activity 8 8


in the endgame. 19.Bxe5 Nxe5 20.Qc3 7 7
Rhe8 21.Re3 Qf6 22.f4
[ Only not 22.Rce1?? Nxf3+! ] 6 6
22...Nd7 23.Bg2 Qxc3 24.Rcxc3 Nf6 5 5
25.Bf3 Rxe3 26.fxe3
4 4
a b c d e f g h
3 3
8 8
2 2
7 7
1 1
6 6
a b c d e f g h
5 5

4 4
28.Rb3?! Preventing an intrusion along
the b-file but allowing Black to carry out
3 3 his initial plan.
2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 17

[ The regrouping starting with 28.Ra5 a b c d e f g h

would have offered better chances for 8 8


defending this inferior ending: Nd7
7 7
29.Bd1 Rb6 30.Bb3 Rb4 31.Kf1 b6
32.Ra4 Nf6 33.Ke2 a5 34.Kd3 Kc7 6 6
White's position remains unpleasant
5 5
but as long as he avoids clearing the
c5-square with Rxb4, ...axb4, he is not 4 4
in immediate danger of losing. ]
3 3
28...Ra6 29.a3 Ne8! The long awaited 2 2
moment when the knight is transferred to
d6. 30.e4 It's now or never. White 1 1

probably hoped to attack the kingside a b c d e f g h


pawns with his bishop, but this will Things have partly cleared up. Black will
happen too late to save the game. fxe4 finally win the d5-pawn, which had
31.Bxe4 Nd6 32.Bd3 Ra4 33.Rc3 imprudently advanced 26 moves earlier.
Kc7 34.Kf2 The only open problem remains whether
White will manage activating his king in
a b c d e f g h
order to save the game. 39.Be8
8 8 This will allow Black staying in control
with the help of a small tactical trick a
7 7
few moves later.
6 6 [ But the same applies to 39.Bc2 : Kc5
40.d6!? Kxd6 41.f5 ( The problem is
5 5
that 41.Kd4 runs into Nb5+ 42.Kxc4
4 4 Nxa3+ Compare with the next line. )
3 3
41...g5 42.f6 h5
a b c d e f g h
2 2
8 8
1 1
7 7
a b c d e f g h
6 6

Black has completed his regrouping and 5 5


time has come for the thematical pawn
4 4
break: b5! 35.cxb5 Kb6 36.Ke3 c4
37.Bc2 Nxb5! Small tactical fireworks 3 3
are typical for the technical phase in the
2 2
endgame. 38.Bxa4 Nxc3
1 1

a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 18

The f-pawn is inoffensive leaving a b c d e f g h

White short of adequate ways to keep 8 8


the c-pawn and the kingside majority
7 7
under control. ]
6 6
39...Kc5 40.d6 Nd5+!
5 5
a b c d e f g h
4 4
8 8
3 3
7 7
2 2
6 6
1 1
5 5
a b c d e f g h
4 4

3 3 ]
2 2
45...Kd4 46.h5 gxh5 47.Bxh5 Nf6
Feeling helpless against Black's passers, so
1 1 remote from each other, White resigned.
a b c d e f g h
0-1
The best way of keeping the enemy king
under control. 41.Ke4 Nf6+ 42.Ke3
[ Sad necessity since 42.Ke5 Nxe8
Podgaets,M
43.d7 is refuted by Nd6 forcing
Chekhelian,S
44.d8N c3 45.Ne6+ Kc4 46.Nd4
USSR 27/561 1979
Nb5-+ ]
a b c d e f g h
42...Kxd6 With the king on e3 the bishop
8 8
is taboo, but White now has to spend a
tempo, allowing the black king's return 7 7
in the centre. 43.Bf7 Kc5 44.h4 Ng4+
6 6
45.Kd2
5 5
[ Another line illustrating the knight's
vitality is 45.Ke4 Nh6 46.Be6 Nf5 4 4

47.h5 Ng3+! 3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 19

This position arose after 22...Nc4 23. a b c d e f g h

Bxc4 Rxc4 24.h6 Bg7. Try using the 8 8


mobile centre and the far advanced h-
7 7
pawn to prove Black's hopes for
queenside counterplay illusory. 25.d5!! 6 6
Everything is ready for this thematic
5 5
break, even though the b2-bishop seems
to be handing. 4 4
[ defending it in advance with 25.Qb3
3 3
runs into Qa4 with acceptable play for
Black. ] 2 2
25...Bxb2 26.Qb3!
1 1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

8 8 29...Bxd5
7 7 [ 29...Rf8 30.dxe6 Qc7 31.Qd4+-
is also hopeless. ]
6 6 30.Ne5 Qc7 and now the killing move,
5 5 possibly overlooked by Podgaets, is
31.Nf7!+-
4 4
a b c d e f g h
3 3
8 8
2 2
7 7
1 1
6 6
a b c d e f g h
5 5
The point. White retrieves the piece
keeping strong initiative in the centre 4 4
and dangerous kingside threats. Rxe4 3 3
[ 26...exd5 27.Qxb2 d4 runs into
28.Ne5 Qa4 29.Nxc4 Qxc4 30.Rd2 2 2

followed by Red1 with a clear extra 1 1


exchange. ]
a b c d e f g h
[ The counterblow 26...Bc3
loses instantly after 27.dxe6+- ]
27.Qxb2! winning the exchange due to the threat
[ 27.Rxe4 Bh8 offers Black ample Qg7 mate while keeping the initiative.
compensation for the exchange. ] 1-0
27...Rxe1+ 28.Rxe1 f6 29.Qxf6!
[ 29.Rxe6?! was played in the game. ]

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Modern Chess Magazine 20

Karpov - Kasparov White has securely defended the central


Test pawn after evacuating the long diagonal.
For once, the g7-bishop proved useful
after 19...Nc3 White decided eliminating
a b c d e f g h
Black's counterplay and fighting back for
8 8 the initiative with 20.Rxc3!? Bxc3
7 7
21.Ne4 Your move. Rxe4!!

6 6 [ Retreating with the bishop leads to


5
passive play: 21...Bg7 22.Nxc5 Bc8
5
23.d6 ]
4 4 [ Or if 21...Be5 , controlling d6,
3 3 22.Nxc5 Bc8 23.Nd3 Bg7 24.c5
. White's pawns, sustained by the
2 2
bishops, are crushing in both cases. ]
1 1
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
As a compensation for the exchange, 8 8
White has a stong central passed pawn
7 7
and very active pieces. How could Black
neutralize White's initiative? 6 6

5 5

Karpov - Kasparov 4 4

Solution 3 3

2 2
a b c d e f g h
1 1
8 8
a b c d e f g h
7 7

6 6
Black rightly answers with the same
5 5 method, giving up a rook for the
4 4 annoying knight. 22.Bxe4 Re8 23.Bd3
b6 24.Kg2 f5 and Black managed to
3 3
hold this slightly worse ending.
2 2

1 1
a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 21

Portisch,L - Adorjan White had advanced his central pawn


Test several moves ago but by now it became
clear he could not keep the central
tension so he played 22.dxe6
a b c d e f g h

8 8 Where would you go with the rook? Rd3!


It is essential to keep the control over
7 7
the d4-square.
6 6
[ The main move is slightly more
5 5 forcing than 22...Rd6!?
4 4
a b c d e f g h
3 3
8 8
2 2
7 7
1 1
6 6
a b c d e f g h
5 5

The rook is attacked. Where to go? 4 4

Black to move. 3 3

2 2

Portisch - Adorjan 1 1
Solution
a b c d e f g h

a b c d e f g h when White can keep his far


advanced pawn at least for a while:
8 8
23.e7 Re6 24.Rc7 Rxe4+ 25.Kf1
7 7 planning Bb4 and Kg2. ]
6 6
[ Adorjan played the inferior 22...Re7?!
and remained unpunished after
5 5 23.0-0?! ( The paradoxical 23.Nd4!
4 4
would have caused him more
problems since the obvious f5
3 3 runs into 24.Nxf5! gxf5 25.exf5
2 2
with tremendous compensation for the
piece as indicated by Adorjan. )
1 1 23...Rxe6 and the game ended in a
a b c d e f g h draw. ]

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Modern Chess Magazine 22

23.Na5 b6 24.Nb7 Trying to prevent ...


Nc5. Bf8 25.Ke2 Rxa3 26.Rhc1 Nc5
27.Bb4 Ra6!!
a b c d e f g h

8 8

7 7

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

A fatnastic move creating a X-Ray


attack against the e6-pawn. 28.Nxc5
bxc5 29.Bxc5 Bxc5 30.Rxc5 Rxe6
with a probable draw.

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 23

King's Indian Structures - Black 2. Black can try to use the e5-square
Releases the Tension in the like outpost for his pieces, using the
Centre fact that f3-f4 can be met by ...Bxc3
followed by Rxe4
3. Black can try to exchange 3 pairs of
minor pieces and enter a position with
3 major pieces + light squares bishop
against 3 major pieces + knight. In
general, such positions are slightly
better for White but in many cases very
close to a draw.
4. The idea of Nh5 followed by Be5
and Qh4 with attempts to organize an
attack on the dark squares.
5. The tandem Nf4 and Qg5 attacking
on g2 could be very dangerous. Those
positions are strategically very risky for
Black. They should try to play very
actively since if White manages to
Introduction consolidate his position with Be3, Qd2,
Hello dear readers of Modern chess,
Re1, Rd1, he should be better.
In this issue, I will start a three-part series
On the other hand, White has the
of articles about one of the most
following ideas at his disposal
fundamental pawn structures in chess and
particularly in KID defense - The structure 1. Making use of the d4 and d5 squares
when Black takes exd4. for his knights.
In this article, we will have a close look into 2. White also can increase his space
the position which arises after advantage on both sides by playing b2-
Black's ...exd4 followed by ...Nc6. This b4, f2-f4 or both.
looks like a positional concession for 3. If White manages to consolidate his
Black, but the things are far from simple. position with Be3, Qd2, Rd1, his space
Black's main strategical ideas are: advantage will be a significant factor.
4. White organize an attack against
1. Vulnerability of the e4 pawn. Black Black's king by playing g4-g5 or f3-f4-f5
puts his rook on the semi-open e-file and or both.
tries to put pressure on the e4-pawn. 5. White plays Nc2 to avoid exchanges.
Since in most of the cases White should Later on, he could consider playing Nd5
defend it with f2-f3, Black could make use sacrificing a pawn on b2 for the initiative.
of this concession by pushing f7-f5 or by 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6
playing Nh5-f4 which allows him to 5.Nf3 0-0 6.Be2 e5 7.0-0 exd4
achieve some counterplay on the dark 8.Nxd4 This is the starting position for
squares our structure. Re8 9.f3 Nc6
www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 24

[ 9...c6 a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
8 8
8 8
7 7
7 7
6 6
6 6
5 5
5 5
4 4
4 4
3 3
3 3
2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1 a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
White can ruin Black structure on the
The other main move for Black. This queenside, but this exchange has some
position will be discussed in details in drawbacks as well. 1. The pawn on c6
the next issue of Modern Chess protect the important d5-square and also
Magazine. ] Black has the possibility to play c6-c5 and
a b c d e f g h take full control of the d4-square. 2. Black
8 8 has counterplay on the semi-open b-file. ]
a b c d e f g h
7 7
8 8
6 6
7 7
5 5
6 6
4 4
5 5
3 3
4 4
2 2
3 3
1 1
a b c d e f g h 2 2

1 1
This is the starting position of our survey.
Black immediately attacks the d4-square a b c d e f g h
and after 10.Be3, he will be trying to The main move. In the first part of the
occupy the dark squares with Nh5, Be5 article, I will show you all the typical
and Qh4. White has several possibilities strategical and tactical ideas in this
here: 10.Be3 structure. Also, we are going to make a
[ 10.Nc2 According to the basic theoretical overview. According to my
positional principles, White should avoid analyses, and to the current state of
exchanging pieces, because he has a theory, Black is in trouble in this line. Of
space advantage. ] course, it is always possible that he will
[ 10.Nxc6 bxc6 come with an improvement.
www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 25

Hecht,Hans Joachim 2357 14.Qxf4 Desperate decision Qxf4


Weindl,Alfred 2329 15.Nd5 Qh6
AUT-chT2W 1213 (7.2) 12.01.2013 0-1
a b c d e f g h

8 8

7 7 Van der Sterren, Paul 2605


Glek,Igor V 2615
6 6
Bundesliga 9495 1995
5 5
1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4
4 4 d6 5.d4 0-0 6.Be2 e5 7.0-0 exd4
3 3 8.Nxd4 Re8 9.f3 Nc6 10.Be3 Nh5
a b c d e f g h
2 2
8 8
1 1

a b c d e f g h 7 7

We are in one of the main tabyas of the 6 6


variation. I am showing you one of the 5 5
most famous traps in KID.
In response to 11...Nf4 White shouldn't 4 4
play 12.Rfe1?? This natural move is 3 3
actually a terrible blunder which loses
the game immediately 2 2
[ If 12.Nxc6 ,then after Nxe2+ 1 1
13.Nxe2 bxc6 1/2 (31) Lenic,L (2639)-
a b c d e f g h
Bachmann,A (2603) Rhodes 2015
Black has a pair of bishops and a This is Black's only logical attempt in
good position. ] this position. Black's idea is to continue
[ After 12.Bxf4 Nxd4 Black is fine and with Nf4 or f7-f5 and put pressure on
the draw was soon agreed in 1/2 White's centre. White has several plans
(19) Fedoseev,V (2664)-Kovalev,V here. Let's discuss them one by one. 1.
(2560) Moscow 2016 ] To play f3-f4 stopping Nf4 and attacking
[ 12.Rfd1 Is the main line and will be the h5-knight. This plan has one big
analyzed in the next games. ] drawback - the e4- pawn is vulnerable.
12...Bxd4! Remember this trick. This Furthermore, Black could consider
idea is working in other KID lines as well. some exchange operations connected
That is why it should be part of your with ...Ng4 or ...Bg4 as we can see later
tactical arsenal. 13.Bxd4 Qg5! in this game. 2. Another plan is to avoid
The point of Black's idea. Black is not exchanging pieces by playing Nd4-c2
only threatening mate on g2, but also (White can play this on the previous
Nh3+. White can simply resign here. move as well).
www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 26

White loses some time and moves his 12.Bf3 Bg4!?


knight away from the centre but manages [ 12...Ng4 is another possible move
to keep more pieces on the board which which is preferred by R. Mamedov, but
is good when you have the space the current theory says that the move
advantage. This is the most dangerous in the text is better. ]
plan in my opinion and Black struggles to
prove equality here. He is almost forced a b c d e f g h

to continue with f7-f5 which leads to a 8 8


very complicated position. This position is
7 7
a matter of discussion of some recent
games. We will discuss this position in 6 6
details in the next games. 3. Take on c6
5 5
and then play Qd2 or g4. In this way
White wins some tempos but this 4 4
exchange favours Black, in general.
3 3
Black has a counterplay on the semi-
open b-file and the pawn on c6 protects 2 2
d5-square. The position becomes
1 1
unclear, but it looks like Black has
a b c d e f g h
enough counterplay. This exchange
Nd4xc6 could be very dangerous for This small trick saves the day. Black
Black if White can continue with c4-c5 manages to exchange some pieces.
and then attack the central pawns. Now 13.Nxc6 Bxf3 14.Qxf3 bxc6 15.Bd2
this is not possible, because White is not In this position White has many other
developed, but it remains a strategical options, but we will not discuss them
threat later in the middlegame when the because this is not the point of our topic.
center is stable and White's rooks are on You can find some hints in the
c1 and d1 4. Ignore the threat of Nf4 and theoretical section. Qb8!
complete the development by means of a b c d e f g h
Qd2, Rd1 11.f4 The most straightforward
8 8
reply, tried by Karpov, Shirov, Bareev
and many other strong players. White 7 7
accepts the challenge and tries to refute
6 6
Black's idea. If he manages to play Bf3,
h3, Qd2, Rd1 and Re1, then the space 5 5

advantage will become the most 4 4


significant factor in the position and
White will have a huge advantage. So 3 3

Black should play dynamically. Nf6 2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 27

Very nice move from GM Glek. Black is 19...cxd6 20.Rad1 Qe4!


activating the queen with tempo. The
manoeuvre Qd8-b8-b6-d4 is very a b c d e f g h

impressive. 16.b3 Qb6+ 17.Kh1 Nxe4! 8 8

a b c d e f g h 7 7
8 8
6 6
7 7
5 5
6 6
4 4
5 5
3 3
4 4
2 2
3 3
1 1
2 2 a b c d e f g h

1 1

a b c d e f g h Black wants to force an endgame. One


can say that White has a better pawn
Another nice move and a well-calculated structure, but the activity of Black's
combination. 18.Nxe4 Qd4! pieces and the possibility to create a
[ 18...Bxa1?? is losing due to the passed d-pawn gives him an easy game.
thematic 19.c5! ] 21.Rde1?! Inacurate move which gives
a b c d e f g h
Black an edge.
8 8
[ 21.Qxe4 The safer option for White
7 7
was: Rxe4 22.Rfe1 Rae8 23.Rxe4
6 6 Rxe4 24.Re1 f5 25.g3 Kf7
The game should end in a draw, but I
5 5
prefer to be Black here. His plan is to
4 4 go with the king to e6 and start
pushing d-pawn ]
3 3

2 2
21...Qxf3 22.Rxf3 Rxe1+ 23.Bxe1
1 1 Re8 24.Bd2 Re2 25.Rd3
a b c d e f g h

Black is regaining the piece with


benefits. 19.Nxd6
[ If 19.Rae1 then d5! ]

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 28

a b c d e f g h Black's favour. 29.f5 desperation d5!


8 8 a b c d e f g h

7 7 8 8

6 6 7 7

5 5 6 6

4 4 5 5

3 3 4 4

2 2 3 3

1 1 2 2
a b c d e f g h
1 1

a b c d e f g h
I believe that White missed Black's next
strong reply hoping for the 25...Bf8. c5!
Very strong move. The idea is to install Black is winning. The rest is easy
the bishop on d4. Both Black's pieces 30.fxg6 hxg6 31.Bf4 dxc4 32.Ra3
are very active. The plan is just to Rb2 33.Rxa7+ Kf6 34.h4 Rxb5
activate the king, White can't do this so 35.Bg5+ Kg7 36.a4 Rb1+ 37.Kh2 c3
easy. 26.h3 a b c d e f g h

8 8
[ the pawn is untouchable 26.Rxd6??
Bd4 ] 7 7

6 6
26...Bd4 27.b4 It is hard to offer a
constructive idea for White. It is 5 5
understandable that White wants to be 4 4
active, but his last move just creates new
weaknesses in White's camp. Kf8 28.b5 3 3
Ke7 The king comes to the action - d6-d5 2 2
is coming and then the advance of the c-
pawn will decide the game in 1 1

a b c d e f g h

Absolutely fascinating game by Igor


Glek.
0-1

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 29

Topalov,Veselin 2780 you can start with this move and this
Mamedyarov,Shakhriyar 2760 is the move order preferred recently
Amber-rapid 17th (4) 18.03.2008 by Azeri players. 12.Bxd4 Nf4
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4
0-0 5.Be2 d6 6.Nf3 e5 7.0-0 exd4 A) 13.Be3!? White has this
8.Nxd4 Re8 9.f3 Nc6 10.Be3 Nh5 additional option to keep more
11.Qd2 pieces on the board. Nxe2+
( 13...Bxc3! 14.bxc3 Nxe2+
a b c d e f g h
15.Qxe2 b6 and Black is at least
8 8 fine here. ) 14.Nxe2 f5 15.Bg5
7 7
Kramnik managed to win the game,
but objectively Black shouldn't
6 6 have problems here. 1-0 (63)
5 5
Kramnik, V (2790)-Radjabov,T
(2744) Kazan 2011;
4 4 B) 13.Rfd1 Bxd4+ 14.Qxd4
3 3
Nxe2+ 15.Nxe2 This transposes to
the game. ]
2 2
12.Rfd1
1 1

a b c d e f g h [ 12.Bxf4 ]
The most popular move. White 12...Nxd4 13.Bxd4 Bxd4+ 14.Qxd4
continues developing with logical moves. Nxe2+ 15.Nxe2 b6
Nf4 a b c d e f g h
[ 11...Nxd4
8 8
a b c d e f g h
7 7
8 8
6 6
7 7
5 5
6 6
4 4
5 5
3 3
4 4
2 2
3 3
1 1
2 2
a b c d e f g h
1 1

a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 30

Let's analyze this position a bit deeper. What else - if White allows fxe4 only he
Theoretically speaking, White should be can be in trouble. Qxf5 22.h3
better because of his space advantage Now the weakness on c7 is compensated
and weakened dark squares around by the weak d5-pawn. Also , we shouldn't
Black's king. Also, the knight should be the forget that the open e-file is under Black's
better minor piece here. The problem is control. The position is approximately
that it is really hard to find another plan equal. Rf8 23.b4 Qg5 24.Qg4 Qe5 Black
than Nc3-d5 followed by cxd5 in case keeps the queens because White's king
of ...Bxd5. Later on, White could consider is more vulnerable. 25.Rc4 Qe3+
attacking the weakness on c7. Black has a 26.Kh2 Qe2 27.Rdc1 Qxa2 28.Rxc7
very simple plan: b6, Bb7, Qg5, and f5. It Rxc7 29.Rxc7 Qxd5 A lot of exchanges
is important for Black to play Qg5 before happened and soon the draw was
White plays Nd5 or immediately after that . agreed. 30.Rxa7 Qe5+ 31.Qg3 Rf4
Then after a possible exchange on d5,
a b c d e f g h
Black's queen will be active. After
protecting the pawn on c7, Black could 8 8

start his own counterplay connected with 7 7


f7-f5. 16.Nc3 Bb7 17.Nd5 Bxd5
18.cxd5 Qg5 6 6

As we said, Black should activate his 5 5


queen, before playing Re7 19.Rac1 Re7
20.Rc3 f5! Any passive defence like Rc8 4 4

or something else can lead only to troubles 3 3


because White has a lot of ideas to
2 2
improve his position on both flanks.
21.exf5! 1 1

a b c d e f g h

a b c d e f g h
Conclusion: My opinion is that this kind
8 8 of endgames is only tiny better for White
7 7
but if Black knows what he is doing, he
shouldn't be worry to enter it. The
6 6 drawback of this line and this endgame
5 5
is that Black's chances to win the game
are close to zero.
4 4 1/2
3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 31

Bacrot,Etienne 2722 12.Nd5!


Guseinov,Gadir 2621 [ 12.g3 is the alternative, but here I do
Gashimov Memorial-B 22.04.2014 not like the variation Bh3 13.Rf2
Nxg3 14.hxg3 Bxg3 With dangerous
initiative. My engine is trying to
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 convince me that White is OK, but still,
5.Nf3 0-0 6.Be2 e5 7.0-0 exd4 I think it is unpleasant to play such
8.Nxd4 Re8 9.f3 Nc6 10.Be3 Nh5 positions. 1/2 (56) Bilchinski,A
11.Nc2! (2231)-Powierski,E (2262) Hannover
2015 ]
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
8 8
8 8
7 7
7 7
6 6
6 6
5 5
5 5
4 4
4 4
3 3
3 3
2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h

The best move for White. For a very


long time this line had the reputation of A multi-purpose move. White is ready to
being harmless but in the recent games meet 12...Qh4 with 13.f4!. At the same
White managed to prove his advantage. time, he covers the f4 - square while
Be5 Typical move for this variation. attacking the c7-pawn and threatening
Black stops f3-f4 and prepares Qh4 or 13.g4!. The only drawback is that our
Nf4. pawn on b2 is hanging. 12...Ne7
Guseinov knows very well the painful
[ 11...f5 is the other main move in this loss of his team-mate and friend
position which is covered in the game Mammedov, (see my comments to 12...
Wang, H - Paehtz, T ] Bxb2) and decides not to accept the
pawn. He is trying to exchange the
"monster" knight on d5.

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 32

a b c d e f g h
[ 12...Bxb2
8 8

a b c d e f g h 7 7

8 8 6 6

7 7 5 5

6 6 4 4

5 5 3 3

4 4 2 2

1 1
3 3
a b c d e f g h
2 2
White's position is practically winning at
1 1 this point. His idea is rather simple -build
a b c d e f g h an attack by playing Ne3-g4 and Bb2
followed by f4-f5. Bf8 21.Nce3 Nh5
22.f5! the end is coming - all White's
13.g4! White sacrifices the exchange. pieces are joining the attack. Bg7
Ng7 ( If 13...Bxa1 14.Qxa1 Ng7 23.fxe6 Bxe6 24.Bf5 Bf7
15.Bh6 Ne5 16.f4 It is time for Black 25.Bg4 An inspiring game by the Chinese
to resign. ) 14.Rb1 Bf6 15.f4 GM who beats one of the biggest
White continues to play very actively. specialists in this variation and structure.
Now the pawn on e4 is hanging. You can notice that in the final position
Black is still two pawns up, but the threats
( 15.Kh1 was played by GM
Bxh5 and Rxf7 are impossible to meet.
Shankland, but after Ne6 16.f4 Bg7 1-0 (25) Ding,L (2695) -Mamedov,R
17.g5 Nc5 White can't prove enough (2634) Istanbul 2012 ]
compensation for the pawn and
13.Bg5!
eventually lost in 0-1 (29) Shankland,
S (2634)-Naroditsky,D (2543) Saint a b c d e f g h
Louis 2014 ) 15...Rxe4 ( also possible 8 8
is 15...Ne6 16.f5 gxf5 17.exf5 Nc5
7 7
18.Rf3 And White has more than
enough compensation for the 6 6
sacrificing pawn. ) 16.g5 Be7 17.Bd3 5 5
Re6 Black's pieces are so awkwardly
4 4
placed that White's play is quite easy.
18.Bc1 The bishop is heading for the 3 3
long diagonal. f6 19.h4 fxg5 20.hxg5 2 2

1 1
a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 33

f6 Unfortunatelly for Black, he has This rook lift is quite unpleasant, Black's
nothing else. By provoking f6, White king is in big danger now. fxe4 Nobody
prevents Black's e5-bishop from going cares about the pawns. 21.Rg3Re7
back to g7. 14.Be3 Nxd5 15.Qxd5+ Be6 22.Ne3 The knight comes to a perfect
16.Qd2 Black managed to exchange the position: from here it blocks the e4-
knight on d5 and to develop his pieces pawn, controls d5, and f5 and support
but his position is still worse, mainly the f4-f5 push. Compare this piece to the
because of the fact thathis bishop can't "poor" Black's bishop on e6. Rf8 23.Rf1
retreat to the g7-square. f5 Against the The last force is joining the attack. h6
only move but now White achieved a very 24.f5! Well calculated move which wins
pleasant position by force. 17.f4! As you a piece. Bxf5 25.Bxg7 Rxg7 26.Qf2
see nobody cares about this b2-pawn.
Bg7 a b c d e f g h
[ If 17...Bxb2 then 18.Rab1 Bg7
8 8
19.Bxh5 gxh5 20.Bd4 With a similar
to the game. position. White has an 7 7
option to take on b7 or to transfer the
6 6
rook to the kingside by means of the
manoeuvre Rb3-g3. ] 5 5
18.Bxh5! Wise decision. White enters a
4 4
position where all major pieces are on
the board and his knight is stronger 3 3
than the opponent's bishop. The
2 2
difference between this game and
Topalov's one is that now Black's 1 1
kingside is ruined which becomes a a b c d e f g h
decisive factor. gxh5 19.Bd4 Qd7
20.Rf3!
a b c d e f g h White is winning a piece and soon the
game. Rg5 27.Nxf5 Kh7 28.Rxg5
8 8
hxg5 29.h4 gxh4 30.Qf4 Qe6 31.Qg5
7 7 1-0
6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 34

Wang,Hao 2701 a b c d e f g h
Paehtz,Thomas Sr 2356 8 8
Douglas IoM op (1) 01.10.2016
7 7

6 6
1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4
5 5
d6 5.d4 0-0 6.Be2 e5 7.0-0 exd4
8.Nxd4 Re8 9.f3 Nc6 10.Be3 Nh5 4 4
11.Nc2 The starting moves are the same
3 3
like in the previous game. f5!?
2 2

a b c d e f g h 1 1

8 8 a b c d e f g h

7 7
The key idea for White. Now Black faces
6 6 a hard choice. f4 Black decides to give
5 5
back the pawn immediately, but then
White enjoys an advantage with equal
4 4 material
3 3 [ 14...Nf6 The retreat of the knight
2 2 allows White to open g-file 15.gxf5
gxf5 1-0 (31) Ehlvest,J (2524)-Sepp,O
1 1 (2431) Puhajarve 2015 16.Bg5N
a b c d e f g h This move again is the strongest one.
The idea is Kh1-Rg1 with an attack ]
We saw already that the move 11...Be5 15.Bd2 Nf6 16.Bxf4 Ne5 17.Qd2
leads to a hard position for Black. Here a b c d e f g h
the things are not much different. 12.Nd5
Bxb2 the most principled decision. 8 8

7 7
[ If 12...fxe4? then 13.fxe4 Rxe4
14.Bxh5 gxh5 15.Bh6! And Black is 6 6
in danger ]
5 5
[ after 12...Nf6 13.Bg5 This pin is very
unpleasant for Black. ] 4 4

13.Rb1 Bg7 14.g4! 3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 35

White is definitely better. He has a space Remember - no unnecessary exchanges


advantage and can improve calmly his when you have the space advantage. a6
position, because Black has no 25.Nc6 Qd7 26.Nxe5
counterplay at all. The pawn on e4 is well
protected. Moreover, it is not easy for [ better was 26.Qc2! This move is
Black to exchange pieces. b6 multi-purpose: threatening c7-pawn
and preparing f3-f4. ]
18.Nd4 Bd7 19.g5
[ 19.Nb5!? was probably better Bxb5 a b c d e f g h
20.cxb5 White has two bishops and 8 8
can attack the c7-weakness. The
other idea can be to prepare inside 7 7

a kingside expansion by means of 6 6


Be3, g4-g5 and f3-f4. ]
19...Nxd5 5 5

4 4
[ 19...Nh5! was better 20.Be3 c6
21.Nc3 and If Nf7 then 22.f4 c5 3 3
And Black is trying to generate
2 2
some counterplay. ]
1 1
20.cxd5 Now the weakness on the light-
a b c d e f g h
squares and on c7 should tell. Nf7
21.Kh1 Qe7 22.Rbc1 Bh3 23.Rg1
Be5 24.Be3! There was no need to rush 26...dxe5
27.Rc6 Nd6 28.Rgc1 Ra7 29.Qc3
a b c d e f g h Re7 30.Qa3 Ne8 31.Qb3 Kg7 32.Qb2
Kg8 33.a4 a5 34.Qb3 Nd6 35.Qc3
8 8
Qd8 36.Kg1 Qf8 37.Qe1 Qd8 38.Qc3
7 7 Qf8 39.Qa3 Rd7 40.R1c3 Rb7
41.Qc1 Rf7 42.Bf2 Nxe4 43.fxe4
6 6
Rxf2 44.Rf6? After a long maneuvering
5 5 in the middle game, Black managed to
create some counterplay and the game
4 4
became sharp. This does not change
3 3 the evaluation of the position and If now
the Chinese GM found 44.Ba6, the game
2 2
would have been over very soon.
1 1

a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 36

[ 44.Ba6! [ 56.Qa3 covering the c1 square was


a b c d e f g h the only chance to stay in the game. ]
8 8 a b c d e f g h

7 7 8 8

6 6 7 7

5 5 6 6

4 4 5 5

3 3 4 4

2 2 3 3

1 1 2 2

a b c d e f g h 1 1

Triple attack - the pawn on c7, the a b c d e f g h


rook on b7 and the bishop on h3. One mistake never came alone.
Black can simply resign ] 56...Bb5
44...Rxf6 45.gxf6 Bd7 46.d6? [ 56...Rc2+! was stronger with forced
[ 46.Qg5 Was much better ] mate, but the move in the text was
46...cxd6 47.Bc4+ Kh8 48.Bd5 Rb8 also winning. ]
49.Qg5 Rc8 50.f7 Kg7 51.Rf3 h6
57.Rf3 Qg5+ 58.Rg3 Rc2+ 59.Kh1
52.Qf6+ Kh7 53.Rg3 Qg7 54.Qxd6
Rc1+ 60.Kg2 Bf1+
Bxa4 55.Be6??
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

8 8 8 8

7 7 7 7

6 6 6 6

5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

Probably in time trouble Wang blundered With mate soon. Unfortunate game
Qf6! The very experienced German GM for the Chinese GM. He first
does not miss his chance. 56.Kg2?? achieved a winning position

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 37

and then after commiting several Test 2


mistakes, even managed to lose the
game. For us, the most important part a b c d e f g h
was the opening and the early
8 8
middlegame when White convincingly
outplayed his opponent. I hope that you 7 7
are now aware of all the ideas for Black
6 6
and White and you can play with
confidence this pawn structure. Good 5 5
luck and stay tuned for the next part
4 4
when we will discuss the structure when
Black plays c7-c6 instead of Nb8-c6. 3 3
0-1 2 2

1 1
Test 1 a b c d e f g h

a b c d e f g h How Black should react here?


8 8

7 7 Test 3
6 6
a b c d e f g h
5 5
8 8
4 4
7 7
3 3
6 6
2 2
5 5
1 1
4 4
a b c d e f g h
3 3

2 2
In this position Black has a very strong
1 1
ressource. Can you find it?
a b c d e f g h

How Black should react to c4-c5 push?

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 38

Test 4 Test 5

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

8 8 8 8

7 7 7 7

6 6 6 6

5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

How White should continue? In this position, which is quite typical for
our structure, White execute a very
strong idea to obtains the advantage.
Can you find it?

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 39

Practical Decision-Making - a b c d e f g h

Part 2 8 8

7 7

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1
a b c d e f g h

"An interesting psychological trick" -


Marin . Topalov also likes sacrificing,
but giving up the initiative - not so
much...After all other moves, White
Dear Reader, would be just a pawn down. Rad8?!
In the second part of the article After this cautious move, White has
concerning the practical decision-making, adequate compensation for his minimal
we continue examining interesting material disadvantage - two of Black's
situations in which it is much more minorpieces are far from the kingside.
important to find the most "unpleasant" [ 23...Bxd4! 24.Bxd4 f5! It is essential
move for the opponent instead of looking to deprive the bishop of the stable
for the objectively strongest one. outpost on f6, although opening the
It is not a surprise that once again we are position looks a bit dangerous.
going to analyse the games of the World ( 24...Qd6 25.Bf6 Rfd8 26.Rf3 )
Champion Magnus Carlsen who is by far 25.exf5 Qd8! 26.Qf2 Rxf5 27.Bg4
the best practician nowadays. Rf7 and it is not easy to continue the
As a beginning, let's see how Magnus attack, for instance 28.Ne4 ( 28.Re1 )
handles an objectively bad position 28...Rxf4! 29.Nf6+ Qxf6! ]
against Veselin Topalov. 24.e5! Rxd4 25.Bxd4 c5 26.Be3 f6
27.Nb5 Qd8 28.f5!? fxe5 29.Bg5 Qb6
Carlsen,Magnus 2733 30.f6 c4+ 31.Kh1 Qxb5 32.fxg7
Topalov,Veselin 2780 Rxf1+ 33.Bxf1 Kxg7 The safest
Morelia/Linares 25th (12) 04.03.2008 continuation, eliminating the dangerous
pawn. 34.Bd8 Nc6?? An incredible
On the diagram position, White is a pawn blunder...
down. Moreover, it is difficult to find any [ 34...Qd5 35.Qe7+ Kg8 ( 35...Kh6?
compensation. Magnus went for the strange 36.Qf8+ Kh5 37.Be2+ ) 36.Qe8+= ]
looking 23.Rd4!? [ 34...Kg8 35.Qe7 Qd5= ]

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 40

a b c d e f g h I surely like the way Carlsen plays. Here


8 8 the position is also about equal, with long
maneuvering to be expected: not an easy
7 7
thing to beat Gelfand that way. 15.g4!
6 6 "An excellent move, with a good mix of
objective merits and provocation." P.H.
5 5
Nielsen
4 4 Computers like most 17.Ra5 best, and
this is also the logical move from human
3 3
point of view. But if you take a closer
2 2 look at the position, the desire to open
the bishop on g2 becomes very strong.
1 1
With pawns hanging on d5,b7, with the
a b c d e f g h
knight on a6 and the rook on a8 -
35.Qf6+ Kg8 36.Qe6+ Kf8 37.Bg5 somehow you want to make it happen.
Black was better in all cases - so 23. Bxg4 Provocation or not, Gelfand goes
Rd4! was surely practically best, though for the most principled answer.
disliked by engines. It was creating most [ 15...Nxd2 16.Nxd2 Be6
problems over the board and was possible, but 17.b1-c3 keeps
psychologically. And I am sure not many putting pressure on the black
players would dare taking on d4 if there position. ]
was not an absolute necessity... 16.Nxe4 dxe4 17.Nd2 f5
1-0 a b c d e f g h
8 8
Carlsen,Magnus 2872
Gelfand,Boris 2777 7 7

Zuerich Chess Challenge (1) 30.01.2014 6 6


a b c d e f g h 5 5
8 8 4 4

7 7 3 3

6 6 2 2

1 1
5 5
a b c d e f g h
4 4
The price Black has to pay for winning
3 3 the pawn, is that his bishop on g4 now
is cut out of play.
2 2
18.f3 e5!?
1 1 [ 18...exf3 19.Nxf3 illustrates well
a b c d e f g h White's idea. He is a pawn down, but
Another example by the World Champion. his bishops point at the queenside,

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 41

and should White's knight go to either Rf6 An uncomfortable necessity, but the
e5 or g5, Black would appear to be more obvious.
unable to defend b7. However there
seems to be a hidden defence: [ 24...Rf7 is answered very strongly by
Rad8! 25.Ra4 Bd6 26.Rfa1! threatening 27.
a b c d e f g h
a8! with a white mating attack. ]
8 8

7 7 25.h3
6 6 [ 25.Ra4!? ]
5 5
25...Bh5?! Not the best move, but an
alternative seems almost impossible to
4 4 find and even in this case White is
3 3 somewhat better.
2 2 [ 25...Bxd4! 26.exd4 Be2 27.Rc1 g5!
1 1 28.Rg7+ Kh8 29.Re7! Rg8 30.Bxg5
a b c d e f g h
Rxg5 31.Rc8+ Rg8 32.Rxg8+ Kxg8
33.Rxe2 ]
20.Ne5 ( 20.Ng5 e5! 21.dxe5 Rfe8
22.Bxb7 Nb4 with enough 26.Nc2!!
counterplay ) 20...Bxe5 21.Bxe5 Rd7
and although White definitely still a b c d e f g h
has sufficient compensation, Black's
position does seem very solid. ] 8 8
19.dxe5 exf3 20.Nxf3 Rae8 21.Ra5! 7 7
Magnus defends the pawn on e5, thus
being ready for d4 or g5 - going for 6 6
a tactical battle. Nb4 22.Nd4 b6
5 5
23.Rxa7 Bxe5
24.Bh6! 4 4
a b c d e f g h
3 3
8 8

7 7 2 2

6 6 1 1

5 5 a b c d e f g h

4 4
g5!
3 3

2 2 [ 26...Nxc2 27.Bd5+ Rfe6 28.Rc1


1 1
and Black can not retreat the knight
because of the mate on c8. ]
a b c d e f g h
www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 42

27.Bxg5 Rg6 28.Rxf5! h6 a b c d e f g h


[ 28...Nxc2? 29.Bd5+ Kh8 30.Rxe5 8 8
Rxe5 31.Ra8+ Kg7 32.Rg8# ]
29.Bxh6 7 7

[ 29.Nxb4!? ] 6 6
29...Rxh6?
[ 29...Bf3! 5 5

4 4
a b c d e f g h

8 8 3 3

7 7 2 2

6 6 1 1

a b c d e f g h
5 5

4 4 Threatening 38.f5+ and if 37...xe7


3 3
then 38.g2+!
Again seemingly dull and calm position
2 2 got too complex for Carlsen's opponent.
Maybe not 100% best objectively, 15.g4!
1 1
worked wonders.
a b c d e f g h
1-0
amazingly prolongs the resistance.
Again - I want to see the person that
can find such moves on regular basis Kasparov,Garry 2740
:) The point is that after 30.xf3 xc2 Kortschnoj,Viktor 2650
the bishop on h6 is hanging, and Ne1 OHRA-A Brussels (2) 12.1986
is a threat, so White has to play
a b c d e f g h
30.Rg5 Rxg5 31.Bxg5 Bxg2
32.Nxb4 Bxh3 33.Nd5 keeping good 8 8
winning chances. ] 7 7
[ 29...Nxc2 30.Rxh5 Now the bishop
on h6 is protected, and Ne1 31.Rg5! 6 6

Just wins. ] 5 5

30.Nxb4 Bxb2 31.Nd5 Kh8 32.Rb7 4 4


Bd1 33.b4 Rg8 34.Ne7 Rd8 35.Be4
3 3
Bf6? In time trouble Gelfand blunders
but the position was already desperate. 2 2

36.Rxb6 Kg7 37.Rf2! 1 1

a b c d e f g h

www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 43

Especially in mutual time-trouble, good a b c d e f g h

practical decision can be highly effective. 8 8


Though it is tough to believe here, in
such a dead-lost position, a rook down... 7 7
32.Re7!? To stun your opponent like that
6 6
- the only practical way :)
5 5

[ Having calculated 32.f6 Rxf2+ 4 4


33.Kg3 Ng6 34.Ne7+ Rxe7 35.fxe7
Nxe7 36.Rxe7 ( 36.Qxh7+ Kf8 3 3
37.Qh8+ Ng8 ) 36...g6-+ Kasparov
2 2
decides that it is unrealistic to expect
a mistake here - probably this is the 1 1
line that was also seen by his a b c d e f g h
opponent. ]
but if you do not - it is also fairly easy
32...Rxf2+ 33.Kg3 Rxe7 There are to be afraid of a bishop's appearing
many other moves that are winning. But on either d5 or g6. Visually it looks
everybody who has played in a severe nasty... ]
time-trouble knows that you can hardly
expect something else - both 32...Rxf2
and 33...Rxf7 are just a hand reflex :) a b c d e f g h

8 8
[ 33...Rf1 ]
[ 33...Qa8 ] 7 7
[ 33...Ng6 ]
6 6

5 5
34.f6 Ng6 35.Nxe7+ Kf8 36.Qxh7
Bxf6? "Kasparov has convinced me that 4 4
he is threatening a thousand mates."
3 3
Kortschnoj
2 2

[ If you have time, it is fairly easy - 1 1


36...gxf6 37.Nxg6+ ( 37.Bxg6 fxg6
a b c d e f g h
38.Nxg6+ Ke8 ) 37...fxg6 38.Bd5
( 38.Bxg6 fxg5! ) 38...Qe8!

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Modern Chess Magazine 44

37.Nxg6+ fxg6 38.Kxf2? have been so stunned, he did not even


[ 38.Qh8+ Ke7 39.Qxd8+ Kxd8 try...
40.Kxf2= ] [ 41...Qb3+ 42.Kg4 Bf6 ]
42.Qxf6+
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

8 8 8 8

7 7 7 7

6 6 6 6

5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

38...Qb6+ 39.Kg2 Qb2+ 40.Kh3? The comedy of errors from these great
Bxg5? players somehow spoils the impression
[ 40...Be5 White will get mated soon ] of the rook sacrifice. But Kortschnoj's
comment tells the story...
a b c d e f g h
1/2
8 8

7 7

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

41.Qxg6 Qf6?! It was very difficult to


win here, but probably Kortschnoj must

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Modern Chess Magazine 45

Endgame Series - Part 11 a certain ("mined") square which might


look like the "best" or the "quickest" way to
your destination actually spoils the game,
while the other, apparently longer, route
brings you safely to your final destination.
A simple example that will illustrate this
point is the one that we have already seen
in our previous discussion about mutual
zugzwang: White to move can either win,
draw, or lose, depending on his choice of
next move. 1.Ke7! This detour smartly
avoids the mined square e6, at the same
time forcing black on to the mined square
c5.

Mined squares 1
a b c d e f g h
Hello Dear chess friends!
So far we have focused on pawns' and 8 8

king's roles in endgames, but in this 7 7


issue we will see how squares can be of
great importance as well. 6 6

When we talk about squares, you might 5 5


remember that we have previously
explained the "anomaly" of the chess 4 4

board and how the king can "bend 3 3


space" by using this unique feature. For
example, reaching square a7 from a1 2 2

can be done in the same number of 1 1


moves (6) with the most natural straight- a b c d e f g h
line movement (Ka1-a2-a3-a4-a5-a6-a7)
as well as via an apparent "detour" [ Many a beginner goes for the "most
(Ka1-b2-c3-d4-c5-b6-a7). We can also natural" 1.Ke6?? when Kc5+-
use various combinations of squares puts white into zugzwang and black
between these two routes to get to a7 in wins. ]
6 moves. [ 1.Kf5? can lead to a draw after Kc4
I bring up this "anomaly" of the chess 2.Ke4 Kc5 3.Ke3 Kxd5 4.Kd3= ]
board again as an introduction to today's 1...Kc5
topics: 1) mined squares and 2) [ 1...Kc4 2.Kxd6+- ]
correspondent squares, since we need 2.Ke6+- and now it is black who is in
to have in mind that in certain cases not zugzwang. The mined squares, or the
all routes lead to Rome, so to speak. squares of mutual zugzwang, in this
There are positions in which stepping on basic example are e6 and c5.
www.modern-chess.com
Modern Chess Magazine 46

Mined squares 2 [ In case of 1...Kd4 white would take


a b c d e f g h
the opposition with 2.Kd2 Ke5 3.Ke3
Kd5 and now 4.d4! wins as in the
8 8
main line. ]
7 7 2.Kd1! Excellent maneuvering by white.
6 6 He patiently takes the longer route to e3,
avoiding the mined d2 square. There is
5 5
no problem in moving the king away from
4 4 the center of the board as black should
3 3
not play Kd4 anyway. Kd5
[ Alternatives are not any better:
2 2 2...Kd4 3.Kd2+- ]
1 1 [ 2...Kf4 3.Ke2+- ]
a b c d e f g h 3.Ke2 Kd4
[ 3...Ke5 basically leads to the same
It should be quite clear by now why mined ending after 4.Ke3 Kd5 5.d4 ]
squares should be avoided and why we 4.Kd2 Ke5
would do well to force our opponent to step [ White has an even simpler win after
on a mined square himself. Let us see one
4...Kd5 5.Ke3 Ke5 6.d4+ Kd5 7.Kd3
more example of mined squares in pawn
since here black can not even
endgames: White has an extra passed
achieve counterplay against the b4
pawn, though the position of his king is far
from ideal. For example, he can not start
pawn. Kd6 8.Ke4 Ke6 9.d5+ Kd6
pushing the pawn yet as 1.d4 gives black 10.Kd4 Kd7 11.Kc5+- etc. ]
the opportunity to engulf the pawn with 1... 5.Ke3 Kd5 Diagram
Ke4. White should, therefore, maneuver a b c d e f g h
with his king to a better position, keeping 8 8
an eye on black's counterplay. The most
natural choice seems 1.Kd2, but one has 7 7
to notice that then 1...Kd4 puts black king
6 6
into a good position for queenside
breakthrough with Kd4-c3 etc. Instead, 5 5
white has a smarter move:
4 4
1.Kc2!
[ If 1.Kd2?! Kd4 2.Ke2? ( 2.Kc2 3 3
still gives white all chances to win the 2 2
game. ) 2...Kc3 3.Ke3 Kxb4 4.d4 Kc4 it
is white who has to think about saving 1 1
the game since 5.Ke4 b4 6.d5 b3 7.d6 a b c d e f g h
b2 8.d7 b1Q+ even loses! ]
1...Ke5! Black avoids d4 square unless
white steps on d2 first. In other words, 6.d4! White is now ready to push the
d4 and d2 are mined squares. pawn. He will have to sacrifice his b4

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Modern Chess Magazine 47

pawn, but at the end of the day a nice Mined squares 3


tactical motive will ensure victory: Kc4
7.Ke4 Kxb4 8.d5 Kc5 This is the only a b c d e f g h
sensible move here as it forces white to
8 8
waste a tempo with his king.
[ Otherwise after something like 7 7
8...Kc3 white wins the pawn race: 9.d6 6 6
b4 10.d7 b3 11.d8Q b2 12.Qd3++- ]
9.Ke5 b4 10.d6 b3 5 5
[ Nothing is changed by 10...Kc6 4 4
11.Ke6 b3 12.d7 b2 13.d8Q b1Q
white wins the same way as in the 3 3
main line after 14.Qc8+ Kb5 2 2
15.Qb8++- ]
11.d7 b2 1 1

a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h

8 8
To my mind, the concept of mined
7 7
squares can also be extended to other
6 6 types of endgames. For example, we
encounter a sort of mined squares in the
5 5
following interesting and practically
4 4 important type of knight vs. pawn
endgame.
3 3
In general, the knight has the most
2 2 difficult time fighting against the side
passed pawn (a-, or h-) and the
1 1
presence of this pawn on the seventh
a b c d e f g h rank is even worse news for black.
However, white has to side-step some
mines in order to get to the black knight
12.d8Q b1Q Pawns have been
on c7 unscathed. If we mark all the
promoted at the same time, which
mined squares where white king can or
usually means draw, but here white to
should not step, we get a real minefield:
move can use awkward positioning of
e8, e6, d6, d5, d4, b5, a6! What is, then,
black pieces to create a winning skewer:
the best route towards black knight?
13.Qc7+ Kb4 14.Qb6+ black loses his
1.Kf6! The only way. White will reach the
queen. White wins.
knight via e7-d7.
[ If white tries to break through via

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Modern Chess Magazine 48

1.Ke5? Ke2 2.Kd6 black has Nb5+! We have the same type of endgame as
followed by Nxa7 draw. ] the previous one, the only difference
[ or 1.Ke4? intending to continue Kd3- being that black knight controls the
c4-c5-c6, then white can simply close promotion square from b6, rather than
down the route with Ke2! and if 2.Kd4 from c7. This brings some new features
then again Nb5+ draws. ] to the position as the "minefield" is layed
1...Ke2 2.Ke7 Kd3 3.Kd7 Na8 out differently compared to the position
Diagram with the knight on c7. Now the forbidden
a b c d e f h squares are: e7, d7, d6, d5, c4, and a4.
g
8 8 Two routes are available for the king: 1)
via f7-e8-d8-c7(tempo on the knight)-b7
7 7
and 2) via e5-d4-c5(tempo on the knight)-
6 6 c6-b7. They are both five moves long,
5 5 so there should be no difference
between them. Let us see: 1.Ke5
4 4

3 3 [ Second route: 1.Kf7 Kg3 2.Ke8 Kf4


3.Kd8 Ke5 4.Kc7 Na8+ 5.Kb7 Kd6
2 2
6.Kxa8 Kc7= ]
1 1 [ It should also be noted that two more
a b c d e f g h direct attempts fail: 1) 1.Ke7 Nc8+
2.Kd7 Nxa7= ]
Black knight will soon be trapped in the
[ 2) 1.Ke6 Kg3 and white king hits an
corner, but this is the only move. 4.Kc6
invisible brick wall due to 2.Kd6
Kc4 5.Kb7 Kc5 6.Kxa8 Kc6
Nc8+= ]
and it turns out that black king is one
move shy of stalemating white: 7.Kb8
1...Kg3 2.Kd4 Kf4 3.Kc5 Na8 4.Kc6
with pawn promotion. White wins.
Ke5
Mined squares 4 a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
8 8
8 8
7 7
7 7
6 6
6 6
5 5
5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 49

It is important to remember that black 1...Nc2! 2.a6 Nb4 3.a7 Nd5+ This
draws if his king reaches this square intermediate check is the key. Black will
before his knight has been attacked. be in time to get to b6 or c7 on the next
5.Kb7 Kd6 6.Kxa8 Kc7 move. The question is - can he hold off
Draw by stalemate. the inevitable attack of white king long
enough for black king to reach the e5
square, as we have seen in the previous
Mined squares 5 position? It turns out that the answer to
this question is affirmative, regardless of
a b c d e f g h the side from which white king
8 8 approaches the knight. Let us see:
1) 4.Ke5
7 7

6 6
[ 2) 4.Ke6 Nb6! This creates a wall d7-
5 5 d6-d5, making white's last move
useless. If white tries to reach d4-c5
4 4
route with 5.Ke5 ( Otherwise 5.Kf7
3 3 Ke3 6.Ke8 Kd4 7.Kd8 Kc5=
is much too slow as black king has
2 2
reached the knight before white did. )
1 1 black denies the passage with
a b c d e f g h 5...Ke3!= ]
[ 3) 4.Kf7
Putting the conclusions of these two
examples together will help us
a b c d e f g h
understand and solve the following
brilliant study by Grigoriev (1932). 8 8

By the looks of it, it seems impossible 7 7


for black to catch white's passed pawn
6 6
and save the game, but black knight
performs a miracle and reaches from a1 5 5
to a8 just in time. Firstly, it is important
4 4
to notice that the most "natural" move
1...Nb3? will not work since after 2.a6 3 3
Nc5 3.a7 knight's attacks are nothing 2 2
more than an encouragement for the
pawn to move forward. Instead, the 1 1

knight has another route: a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 50

Now, on the other hand, black moves [ Instead, moving "towards" the pawn
his knight to Nb6! ( 4...Nc7? 5.Ke7 8...Kc4? loses as white king shoulders
Ke3 6.Kd7 Na8 7.Kc6 Ke4 black king away from c7: 9.Kc6!+-
8.Kb7+- ) when he will be just in time Kb4 10.Kb7 Ka5 11.Kxa8 Kb6
with his king after 5.Ke8 Ke3 6.Kd8 12.Kb8 with pawn promotion. ]
Kd4 7.Kc7 Kc5= ] 9.Kc6 and finally the king can reach
Ke5= with a draw.
a b c d e f g h

8 8
Correspondent squares 1
a b c d e f g h
7 7
8 8
6 6
7 7
5 5
6 6
4 4
5 5
3 3
4 4
2 2
3 3
1 1

a b c d e f g h 2 2

1 1
4...Nc7! You can refer to the first a b c d e f g h
example in this type of endgame. Black
creates the minefield on the squares: e6, Correspondent squares are nothing more
d6,d5,d4. than multiple pairs of mined squares, or
[ 4...Nb6? loses as white quickly gets squares where mutual zugzwang occurs.
to the knight with 5.Kd4 Kf3 6.Kc5 In the pawn endgames that we have
Na8 7.Kc6+- and here we can notice seen so far there was only one pair of
that black king is not in time to reach mined squares (e6 and c5 in the first,
e5 square, which means that white is and d2 and d4 in the second example).
winning. ] How many pairs of such squares can
White has two passages: 1) 5.Kf6 there be? I have seen endgames where
[ and 2) 5.Ke4 Ke2!= stopping Ke4- as much as ten pairs of correspondent
d3. ] squares have occurred. Such examples
5...Ke3 6.Ke7 Kd4 7.Kd7 Na8 are quite complex and we should strive to
8.Kd6!? A tricky last try. make instructive examples as simple as
[ 8.Kc6 Ke5= 9.Kb7 Kd6 10.Kxa8 possible, so let's return to a familiar
Kc7 Stalemate. ] elementary endgame.
Black should always have c7 square in We have already discussed this position
his sights and that is why the king from many angles, so let us now focus on
temporarily moves "away": 8...Ke4! the correspondence squares.

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Modern Chess Magazine 51

Black should obviously play: 1...Kf8 [ Nothing essential is changed by


and now the question is how white can 2...Kg8 3.Kf4! ]
improve his position? There are two ways 3.Kf4! Diagram The key position. Now
into black's position: via e6 or f5-g6. black would like to give up his turn to
However, if white plays 1.Ke6, black has white since his king is already on the
Ke8 (first pair of correspondence corresponding square (pair f4-e8), but
squares), while after 1.Kf5 intending 2. since he has to play, he will get into
Kg6, black stops him with 1...Kf7 zugzwang on the next move.
(second pair). Therefore, direct attempts
[ Again, pointless is 3.Kf5 Kf7 ]
will not fly. Another important observation
[ as well as 3.Ke5 Kf8! ]
is that the current squares of two kings
are also in correspondence (third pair). In a b c d e f g h

all these pairs, whoever it is to move is in 8 8


zugzwang. That means that right now
7 7
white is in zugzwang. However, if white
would somehow get the same position 6 6
with black to move, then black would be
5 5
the one in zugzwang. This can be done
using triangulation (as discussed in one of 4 4
the previous issues) on squares e4 and
3 3
f4. You will notice that the corresponding
square to e4 is e8 (or g8), just as it is for 2 2
f4 (fourth and fifth pair). If that is the case,
1 1
white can outsmart black by playing Ke4-
Kf4 (or vice versa) on two consecutive a b c d e f g h

moves, while black could not do the same 3...Kf8


- he could play Ke8 or Kg8 once, but not
twice in a row! He would have to step [ Stepping on the mined square 3...Kf7
either on f7 or f8 when white gets him out is not advisable due to 4.Kf5 Kf8
of correspondence with Kf5 or Ke5,
respectively! Let us see how this plays out 5.Kg6+- ]
over the board: 4.Ke5! and, as promised, white obtained
the same position as on the first move,
2.Ke4! only with black to move. This means
[ White gets nowhere with either 2.Ke6 that black is in zugzwang and the end is
Ke8 ] near. Let us just see a few more moves:
[ or 2.Kf5 Kf7 ] Ke8
[ Just as strong as the text is 2.Kf4! [ or 4...Kf7 5.Kf5 Kf8 6.Kg6+- ]
Ke8 3.Ke4 which puts black in 5.Ke6 Kf8 6.f7+-
zugzwang. Kf8 ( 3...Kf7 4.Kf5+- )
4.Ke5+- ]
2...Ke8

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Modern Chess Magazine 52

61...Kxf7 62.Kd3
Kuljasevic,Davorin 2297
Selbes,Tarik a b c d e f g h
EU-chT U18 Balatonlelle (5) 17.06.2002 8 8

a b c d e f g h 7 7

8 8 6 6

7 7 5 5

6 6 4 4

5 5 3 3

4 4 2 2

3 3 1 1

a b c d e f g h
2 2

1 1
Can black hold his own in this position?
The answer lies, of course, in analysis
a b c d e f g h
of correspondence squares. To
I would now like to share with you two understand where black should go with
examples from my own practice where in his king on the next move, we need to
both cases the defending side found the find the critical squares in the middle of
correct way of holding the position by the board. It is obvious the e4 and e6
keeping his king in correspondence with are the first pair of "mined" squares, as
his counterpart. It should be admitted that whoever steps on it first is in zugzwang.
correspondence squares are one of the Then we move on to d4, when d6 is the
most complex topics in endgame theory, only corresponding square. As white
so please bear with me as I explain how king has access to both those squares
they work in the upcoming examples. (e4 and d4), so does black have to play
In the following position, white's choice is a move which keeps the option of
either to avoid the rook trade or enter the playing either Ke6 or Kd6 in response to
pawn endgame. Since black can hold the white's next move. Thus, Ke7!
draw in the rook endgame effortlessly, I This brings us to the third pair of
decided to try my luck in the pawn correspondence squares: d3 and e7.
endgame: 61.Rxf7+ [ For the above-mentioned reasons
wrong are 62...Kf6? 63.Kd4 Ke6
[ If 61.Rh5 then black simply draws 64.Ke4 Kf6 65.Kd5+- ]
with Rf3 62.Ke2 ( 62.Rxg5 Rxh3= ) [ and 62...Ke6? 63.Ke4+- ]
62...Ra3 63.Kf2 Kf7 64.Kg2 Kg6= 63.Ke3 White continues to test black's
and the g-pawn is safe. ] understanding of correspondent squares.
[ Clearly, nothing is achieved by
63.Kd4 Kd6 ]
[ not 63.Ke4 Ke6 ]
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Modern Chess Magazine 53

Where should black go? Again, we need Black has another important decision to
to keep in mind the pairs of make. In order to make the right move,
correspondent squares: e4-e6; d4-d6; d3- he needs to find the square that
e7. From e3, white has access to all corresponds with white's king on g3
three squares: e4, d4, and d3. That (with the idea h4, gxh4, Kxh4). This
means black should put his king on the square would have to be in contact with g6
square from which all three responses: as black has to able to answer Kxh4 with
Ke6, Kd6, and Ke7 are possible. There Kg6. Thus, f6 or f7 seem like good
is only one such square: 63...Kd7! candidates as correspondent squares to
The only correct solution, which means g3 (fifth pair). Black can reach f6 or f7 from
that we have a fourth pair of either e6 or e7. Does it make any
correspondent squares: e3-d7. Moving difference? Of course it does!Remember
away from the otherwise vulnerable that e6 was correspondent square to e4,
kingside is possible because white does while e7 was in correspondence with d3.
not have the option to outflank white White king is currently on f3 which means
with Kf4, while Ke4 is answered by Ke6! that he still has access to e4 square, but
[ Wrong is 63...Kf7? as white plays not to d3. Black should therefore avoid e6
64.Kd4!+- when black loses as he can square and play: 64...Ke7= which gives
not reach the correspondent square us the sixth pair of correspondent squares
d6 from f7. ] (f3-e7).
White can obviously not break through [ As explained, it would be wrong to go to
the center and he tries his last chance e6 64...Ke6? due to 65.Ke4+- ]
on the kingside. The plan is to push h3- [ while 64...Kd6? would keep the king too
h4 if black king remains far away from far away from the kingside and thus black
the pawns. 64.Kf3 Diagram would not be in time to get into
[ 64.Ke4 Ke6= ] correspondence after 65.Kg3!+-when Kf6
[ 64.Kd4 Kd6= ] or Kf7 is not possible. White wins after
a b c d e f g h
Ke6 66.h4 gxh4+ ( or 66...Kf6
a b c d e f g h
8 8
8 8
7 7
7 7
6 6
6 6
5 5
5 5
4 4
4 4
3 3
3 3
2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 54

when white should create an outside However, even this is a draw after
passed pawn: 67.h5! Ke5 68.Kf3 Kf6 79.Ke3 Kd5! Black has found another
69.Ke4 Ke6 Here white puts black in square corresponding to e3. We have
zugzwang as his king can not seen that d7 was also in correspondence
simultaneously keep the opposition with with e3, but Kd7 is not achievable when
white king and stay in the square of the the king is on e5. Kd5 is just as good,
outside h-pawn. 70.Kd4+- ) 67.Kxh4 though. 80.Kf3 Ke5 e5 is also in
Kf6 68.Kh5 etc. ] correspondence with f3 as it stops white
from playing Ke4 and is in time to bring
65.Kg3 Kf6= Black made the fourth
his king back in case of 81.Kg3 Kf6=
consecutive move on a correspondent
and we are back to the old position.
square, which meant that he understood
82.Kf3
the idea and knew how to hold a draw.
[ 82.h4 gxh4+ 83.Kxh4 Kg6= ]
The rest of the game was spent in 82...Ke5 83.Kg3 Kf6 84.Kg2 Kf7
maneuvering attempts to somehow 85.Kf2 Kf6 86.Ke2 Ke6 87.Ke3 Ke5
confuse him, but to no avail: 66.Kf3 Ke7 88.Kf3 Kf6 89.Kf2 Ke5 90.Ke3 Kd5
67.Kf2 Kf6 68.Kg2 Kf7 69.Kh2 Kf6 and, finally, draw was agreed.
70.Kg3 Kf7 71.Kf3 Ke7 72.Kf2 Ke6 1/2
73.Kg2 Kf6 74.Kg3 Kf7 75.Kf3 Ke7
76.Ke3 Kd7 77.Kf2 Ke6 78.Ke2
Ke5!? Diagram This is the last important Correspondent squares 2
moment. In principle, the defending side a b c d e f g h

should not reach out with his king like 8 8


this, but rather keep it in the background
7 7
where it has more maneuvering space.
[ Thus, something like 78...Kf6 6 6
was more principled. ]
5 5
a b c d e f g h
4 4
8 8
3 3
7 7
2 2
6 6
1 1
5 5
a b c d e f g h
4 4 I think that a thorough analysis of the
3 3
previous endgame will help you
appreciate the following study by Kling
2 2 (1848) where the only difference
1 1 compared to Kuljasevic - Selbes
endgame is the position of the side pawn,
a b c d e f g h
which is on its starting square. To an
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Modern Chess Magazine 55

inexperienced eye, this might seem like From f2, white has access to e3, f3, and
an irrelevant detail, but we know that in g3, so black's corresponding square
endgames a saved pawn tempo can should also have access to d5, e5, and
make all the difference. Before we look f6. There is only one such square: e6.
at the position, I should just note that OK, what about g2 square? From it,
Kling's original starting position was a white has access to f3 and g3, so the
mirror image (pawns are on a- and b- corresponding square should have
files) of the one we will see here. The access to e5 and f6. Again, only one
reason that I present the position with square satisfies the conditions: e6. This
pawns on g- and h- files is to make the is very good news for white since e6
comparison with the previous endgame square corresponds to two white squares
easier. and we have already seen such situation
As we can see, the pawn is not on h3, in the first example on correspondent
but on h2, which will come in handy at squares. White simply has to do a
the moment when white and black king triangulation between these two squares
are in opposition on squares e4 and e6. (g2 and f2) since black can play Ke6 only
In that position, white will put black in once. Therefore, we firstly need to take a
zugzwang with the little move h2-h3. "step back" by playing:
However, black king is currently more
1.Kf2!
active than white, so white needs to
[ 1.Kd3 Ke5 and ]
maneuvre a bit to improve his and
[ 1.Kf3 Ke5 are both pairs of
worsen opposing king's position. What is
correspondent squares, as we have
the best way to do that? Well, remember
determined. White does not achieve
the previous endgame where white had
anything by going there immediately.
a distraction opportunity with Kg3, h4?
For example after 2.h3? Kf6!
Black king had to be on f-file in that
we transpose into the drawn
moment. Correspondent squares were:
Kuljasevic-Selbes endgame. 3.Ke4
g3-f6(f7). However, here only f6
Ke6= ]
corresponds to g3 as black also needs to
According to our conclusions, the only
defend the center of the board as well. If
correspondent square to f2 is: 1...Ke6!
white tries to penetrate via f3, black
[ 1...Ke5 on the other hand, allows
quickly blocks him with Ke5 (second pair
white to take the correspondence with
of correspondent squares). We can
2.Kf3!+- and after Kf6 ( or 2...Kd4
already see that e3 and d5 are in
3.Kg3 Ke5 4.h4+- ) 3.Ke4 Ke6 4.h3!
correspondence (third pair), as well as
white wins like in the main line. ]
d3 and e5 (fourth pair). So, what about
[ 1...Ke4 2.Kg3+- followed by h2-h4,
the background squares like f2, and g2?
has similar consequences. ]
We can derive corresponding squares for
them by looking at the nearby 2.Kg2! The absolutely crucial move. From
correspondent pairs that we have the distance, white already puts black king
already determined. in zugzwang since e6 is the correspondent

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square to g2 and black has to step 3.Kg3 We know that g3 and f6 are a pair
away. of correspondent squares, which means
[ 2.Kg3?! would beat the purpose of that black king is in zugzwang. Now he
white's triangulation plan as black can only choose the poison from which
simply answers: Kf6 when white has he will die. Kf7 This allows central
no direct way of winning and has to breakthrough.
return to maneuvering. ] [ as well as 3...Kg6 4.Kf3 Kf6 5.Ke4
Ke6 6.h3 ]
a b c d e f g h [ while 3...Ke6 loses immediately to
4.h4+- ]
8 8
4.Kf3
7 7
a b c d e f g h
6 6
8 8
5 5
7 7
4 4
6 6
3 3
5 5
2 2
4 4
1 1
3 3
a b c d e f g h
2 2

1 1
2...Kf6 The most stubborn option,
keeping and eye on both the kingside a b c d e f g h
and the center of the board.
[ Alternatives lose as well: 1) 2...Kd6 We know that the correspondent square
brings the king too far from the to f3 is e5, but Ke5 is now impossible.
kingside and white wins with: 3.Kg3 Comparing this with the initial position
Ke6 4.h4+- ] when 1.Kf3 would be simply answered
[ 2) 2...Kf7 on the other hand, with 1...Ke5, we can see that black king
brings the king too far from the has been triangulated, or actually
center, giving white king an "squared" (f2-g2-g3-f3!), away from the
opportunity to take the fourth rank e5 square. Fascinating stuff! Kf6 5.Ke4
with 3.Kf3 Kf6 4.Ke4 Ke6 when the Ke6 Black achieved the opposition,
saved pawn tempo 5.h3+-puts which in the previous endgame would
black in zugzwang. ] secure him a draw, but here white has
[ 3) 2...Ke5 3.Kf3+- transposes to an ace up his sleeve: 6.h3! Kf6
the line we have already seen. ] 7.Kd5+- and it is all over.

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Socko,B 2617 This means less maneuvering space for


Kuljasevic,Davorin 2561 black and more for white, yet the position
TCh-AUT 2012-13 (5.2) 18.01.2013 is still theoretically drawn. Again, it is all
about correspondent squares and in that
a b c d e f g h
sense there is no essential difference in
8 8 this endgame compared to the one with
black pawn on g5. The critical
7 7
correspondent squares in the center are:
6 6 d5-d7; e5-e7, while black also needs to
5 5
make sure he has his king on the f-file
when white king is on g4.
4 4 [ Interestingly, even the more distant
3 3 defense 61...Ke8! 62.Ke4 Kd8!
draws, just as Selbes did in the first
2 2
example. 63.Kf4 ( 63.Ke5 Ke7=;
1 1 63.Kd5 Kd7= ) 63...Ke8! 64.Kg4
a b c d e f g h
Kf8= ]
a b c d e f g h

What would happen if we moved all 8 8


pawns one rank forward in this type of 7 7
pawn endgame? We will find the answer
to this question in another game from my 6 6
own practice. 5 5
The rook endgame 2P vs. P on the same
flank is generally drawn in such cases 4 4
by keeping the defender's rook active. 3 3
Here, however, I realized that there is an
opportunity to force a draw in the pawn 2 2

endgame with: 59...Rb4+ 1 1

[ as mentioned, even something like: a b c d e f g h

59...Ra5 60.Rd7+ Kf8 61.Rd5 Ra1 62.Ke4 Kd6! 63.Kf4 Ke6 Keeping the
62.Ke5 Kf7 63.Rd7+ Kg8 64.Re7 king in correspondence. White will try to
( 64.Kf6 Ra6+= ) 64...Kf8 65.Re6 break it with the h4-h5 threat. 64.Kg4
Kf7= also draws. ] Kf7! The only good square for the king.
[ 64...Ke7? loses to the well-known
60.Rd4 Otherwise, white loses the h- motive: 65.h5 gxh5+ ( or 65...Kf7
pawn. Rxd4+ 61.Kxd4 Ke6 We have 66.h6 ) 66.Kxh5 Kf7 67.Kh6+- ]
seen an almost identical endgame in 65.Kg3 Going to the background,
Kuljasevic-Selbes, but here the pawns [ since the direct attempt 65.h5 gxh5+
are moved one rank forward. 66.Kxh5 is fruitless: Kg7= ]

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65...Ke7 66.Kf3 Ke6 70...Ke6 71.Ke3 Ke7 72.Kf3 Ke6=


[ Equivalent is 66...Kf7 67.Kg4 Kf8 73.Kf4 Kf7 74.Kg4 Kf8 75.Kg3 Kf7=
68.Kf4 Kf7 69.Ke5 Ke7 1/2
with transposition to the main line. ]
67.Kf4 It seems like white has caught Giri,A 2767
black king wrong-footed by using Papp,Ga 2587
triangulation (g3-f3-f4), but in fact he 32nd ECC Open 2016 (2.14) 07.11.2016
can switch to the last line of defense with
Kf7! Diagram The only move as it a b c d e f g h
enables the correspondence on e7 after 8 8
Ke5.
[ Other moves lose: 67...Kd6? 68.Kg4 7 7

Ke7 69.h5+- ] 6 6
[ 67...Ke7? 68.Ke5 Kf7 69.Kd6+- ]
5 5
a b c d e f g h

8 8 4 4

7 7 3 3

6 6 2 2

5 5 1 1

a b c d e f g h
4 4

3 3 To drive the point home, let us see


2 2
another example from this type of
endgame. In a recently played game Giri-
1 1 Papp, European Club Cup, 2016., black
a b c d e f g h used the knowledge about this endgame
68.Ke5 Ke7 69.Kd5 Kd7== Black has= to liquidate into a theoretically drawn
closed all passages to his kingdom. The= position.
position is obviously drawn. 70.Kd4
[ Trying to stretch black king with
70.Kc5 is not a good idea, since after In this simple position, black can
Ke6 ( Just not 70...Kc7?? 71.h5! obviously keep the balance by defending
gxh5 72.g6+- ) 71.Kc6 Kf5 72.Kd5 the pawn with 1...Kg7. However, he
Kg4 73.Ke5 Kxh4 white has to decided that the most practical solution
accept the draw with 74.Kf4 ( since was to force a theoretically drawn pawn
74.Kf6?? Kh5-+ leads to the well- endgame with 52...Ng4+!? 53.Nxg4=
known Trebuchet position, where Rxf3 54.gxf3 hxg4 55.fxg4=
white is in zugzwang! ) 74...Kh5
75.Kf3 Kxg5 76.Kg3= ]

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a b c d e f g h [ 58...Kf7? loses after 59.Kd3!


8 8 A typical outflanking motive. Kf6
60.Kd4 Taking diagonal opposition.
7 7
Ke6 61.Ke4 Kf6 62.Kd5 Kf7 63.Ke5
6 6 Ke7 and here the saved pawn tempo
makes the difference: 64.g5!+-
5 5
Black is in zugzwang and has to give
4 4 way to white king. ]
3 3 a b c d e f g h

8 8
2 2
7 7
1 1

a b c d e f g h 6 6

5 5

This position is a little different compared 4 4


to the previous ones as the pawns are
3 3
not fixed. This gives white two benefits.
Firstly, there is another penetration 2 2
route via g5, which means that the first
1 1
pair of correspondent squares is f4-f6.
Likewise, e4-e6, as well as d4-d6, are a b c d e f g h

corresponding pairs. Secondly, a saved 59.Kd2 Kd8 60.Kc2 Trying to stretch


pawn tempo (g4-g5) could also prove black king outside of the h-pawn's
useful if white king takes control of the square. Ke8! Black is careful.
fifth rank. However, black can defend [ 60...Kc8?? 61.h5+- ]
against all threats, as we will see shortly: 61.Kc3
Kh8!? An interesting approach. Black a b c d e f g h
goes for the straight-forward distant
8 8
opposition, though any other non-
opposition move would draw as well 7 7
since white king is still far from the
6 6
battlefield. 56.Kg2 Kg8 57.Kf2 Kf8
58.Ke2 Ke8! Diagram Papp sticks with 5 5
the eight-rank defence, as it gives him
4 4
the greatest amount of maneuvering
flexibility. 3 3

2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h

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Modern Chess Magazine 60

a b c d e f g h
This is a very important moment. White is
trying to approach the central squares, 8 8

so black needs to thread carefully. We 7 7


already know that correspondent pairs
6 6
are: d4-d6; e4-e6; and f4-f6.
Neighboring squares are equally 5 5
important. For f3, the correspondent 4 4
square is f7, for e3-e7, and for d3-d7.
But what about the squares on the c- 3 3

file? Well, black should never put his 2 2


king on the c-file due to the h4-h5 threat,
1 1
but he has correspondent squares on
a b c d e f g h
the e-file. For square c3 it is e7, while It is, of course, essential not to give
for c4 it is e6. This is why black played: white king access to g5 square. 65.Ke4
Ke7! Ke6 66.Kf3 Kf7 67.Kf4 Kf6
Giri realized that black knows what he is
[ If 61...Kd7? then white takes the
doing, so he changed the character of
correspondent square: 62.Kd3! Ke7
the position with 68.g5+ but now we are
63.Ke3 Kf7 and here he can outflank
in the well known theoretical endgame
black king with 64.Kd4!
that we have seen in Socko-Kuljasevic
since correspondent square d6 is not
example. Papp defended accurately for
available to him. Kf6 65.Kd5
another 5-6 moves after which draw was
White wins the fifth rank and it is all
agreed. Ke6 69.Kg4 Diagram
over. Kf7 ( 65...g5 66.h5+- ) 66.Ke5
a b c d e f g h
Ke7 67.g5+- ]
8 8
62.Kd2 Giri makes a small detour before
7 7
he takes a shot at central squares.
6 6
[ If 62.Kc4 black takes the
correspondent square e6 Ke6! 5 5
putting white king in diagonal 4 4
opposition. 63.Kd4 ( 63.Kc5 Ke5= )
63...Kd6 64.Ke4 Ke6 65.Kf4 Kf6= ] 3 3

2 2
62...Kd6 63.Ke3 Ke7 64.Kf4 Kf6
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Kf7!= 70.Kf4 Ke6 71.Ke4 Kd6 72.Kf3
Ke6 73.Kf4 Kf7 74.Kg4 Kf8
1/2

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Correspondent squares 3 However, if it was black to move, he


would be in zugzwang as he would have
a b c d e f g h
to play with his king, allowing white to
8 8 penetrate with Ke5 or Kc5. Thus, we have
the first pair of correspondent squares: d3
7 7
and d7. On the f1-a6 diagonal, there are
6 6 two more squares for white: e2 and f1.
5 5
However, black also has two squares on
the corresponding diagonal a4-e8: e8 and
4 4 c6, respectively (second and third pair).
3 3
White can, therefore, not count on putting
black in zugzwang just by maneuvering
2 2 on this diagonal. The longest diagonal a1-
1 1
h8 will also be of little use since white has
only 2 squares (g2 and h1) while black
a b c d e f g h
has three (c6, b7, and a8). So white
Finally, let us see a very instructive type should look at the other side of the board.
of endgame: "good" vs. "bad" bishop, in What about the c2 square? Well, then the
which correspondent squares play a corresponding square is e6 (fourth pair).
critical role. This is Baxter's study from The reason why Bc8 is not a good choice
1961. against Bc2 is the move a4!, which would
This is a typical type of endgame that expose the weakness of h5-pawn after
may arise from IQP middlegame. Black bxa4 Bxa4, followed by Be8. On the same
has a "bad" bishop which is bounded by diagonal, Bb1 should be answered with
its own pawns. Although white king can Bc8 (fifth pair) because squares d7 and
not penetrate into black's camp yet, he e6 are already taken. There are two more
has two ideas to improve his position. squares next to the critical square c2 - d1
The first one is to put black into a and b3. When white plays Bd1, black
zugzwang position where his bishop should put his bishop on f7 (sixth pair),
could not defend one of the pawns, while Bb3 should be answered by Bg8!
forcing the king to move, which would (seventh pair).
lead to white king's breakthrough via c5 Having all this is mind, white wins with:
or e5. The second plan is to push a3-a4 1.h4! basically putting black in zugzwang
in order to penetrate with the bishop and because f1 and c6 are in
attack black pawns from the back. correspondence. The other benefit of this
White bishop can target three pawns move is that white creates a potential
immediately: b5, d5, and f5, and passed h-pawn if he manages to capture
potentially the h5 pawn as well. We can on h5. It will take a few more moves to
immediately see that from d3 the bishop prove why black loses by force, but first
keeps an eye on both the b5 and the f5 let us see how black would have held a
pawns. In that position, the only viable draw using correspondent squares had
square for black bishop is d7. white not played 1.h4.

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[ 1.Be2? Be8 2.Bd1 ( 2.Bd3 Bd7 ) 5.Bc2! This intermediate move is==
2...Bf7! 3.Bc2 ( 3.Bb3 Bg8! ) 3...Be6 necessary to worsen the position of black
4.Bd3 Bd7 5.Bb1 Bc8! Black just bishop.
follows the correspondent squares
that we outlined above. 6.Ba2 Be6 [ It was premature to open the position
7.Bb3 Bf7 8.a4 bxa4 9.Bxa4 Bg6= ] with 5.a4? since after bxa4 6.Bxa4
1...Be8 This is the most stubborn Bf7= black is in time to defend his h5-
defense. pawn. ]
[ 1...Bd7 loses immediately to 2.Bd3 5...Bc8 The only move,
Ke6 3.Kc5+- ]
[ while 1...gxh3 2.Bxh3 opens up new [ as 5...Bd7 leads to a well-known
attacking diagonals for white bishop, zugzwang. 6.Bd3 ]
so it is hard to imagine that black can
defend all four of his pawn 6.a4! Now with black bishop on c8, this
weaknesses. Bd7 3.Bg2 Be6 move is very strong. b4 This is the last
( 3...Bc6 4.Bf3 Be8 5.Bxd5+- ) 4.Bf1 try to complicate matters.
Bd7 5.Bd3 ] [ In case of 6...bxa4 7.Bxa4+-
2.Be2! the correspondent square for e2 there is no defense from Be8-Bxh5
is e8 (second pair), which is exactly why and black goes down quietly after Be6
white played this move. Black bishop has 8.Be8 Bc8 9.Bxh5 Ke6 10.Be8 Ba6
to go to a less favorable position. Bc6 11.h5 Bc8 12.h6 Kf6 13.Kxd5 etc. ]
3.Bd1! Again, stepping on the
correspondent square. Bd7 7.a5 Black has prevented immediate
Black's options are becoming more and material loses, but he will have to deal
more unpleasant. with an outside passed pawn now. Be6
[ The alternative 3...Be8 quickly loses 8.a6 Kc6 9.Ba4+! Getting to the h5
to 4.Bc2! because black can not pawn after all.
reach correspondent square e6. Bd7
[ White should, of course, not go after
( or 4...Bg6 5.Bd3+- ) 5.Bd3+- ]
the d5 pawn with 9.Bb3
4.Bb3 Be6
a b c d e f g h
because black has "electric pawns"
and in case of Kb6 10.Bxd5?? Bxd5
8 8
11.Kxd5 b3-+ he even wins. ]
7 7
9...Kb6 10.Be8 Kxa6 11.Bxh5 Ka5
6 6

5 5
[ 11...b3 is not dangerous: 12.Kc3
d4+ 13.exd4 Kb5 14.Be8++-
4 4
followed by h4-h5 etc. seals the deal. ]
3 3

2 2

1 1
a b c d e f g h

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12.Be8!+- We should not hide the fact that


endgames with correspondent squares
a b c d e f g h
are more difficult to understand than
8 8 most of the others. Still, I don't know
many strong chess players who have
7 7
skipped this part of their chess education.
6 6 I believe that studying this topic has an
added benefit of understanding the
5 5
chess board and capabilities of certain
4 4 pieces, especially the king, better. If you
3 3
feel that you have not properly understood
the principle of correspondent squares
2 2 from the first reading, give it another go
1 1
because it is an essential endgame tool.
You can also test your understanding by
a b c d e f g h
solving the exercises on mined and
This is the key move that both defends= correspondent squares below.
against Ka5-a4 counterplay and=
prepares the winning march of the h-
pawn. White is winning as we can see in= Exercise 1
a sample line below: Kb6 13.h5 b3=
14.Kc3 Kc5 15.h6 b2 16.Kxb2 Bg8= a b c d e f g h
17.Bg6 d4 18.exd4+ Kxd4 19.Bxf5=
8 8
Ke3 20.h7 Bxh7 21.Bxh7= Diagram
a b c d e f g h 7 7

8 8 6 6

7 7 5 5

6 6 4 4

5 5 3 3

4 4 2 2

3 3 1 1

a b c d e f g h
2 2

1 1

a b c d e f g h White to move and win.

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Modern Chess Magazine 64

Exercise 2 Exercise 4

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

8 8 8 8

7 7 7 7

6 6 6 6

5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

White to move and win. White to move and win.

Exercise 3 Exercise 5

a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

8 8 8 8

7 7 7 7

6 6 6 6

5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h

Black to move and draw. White to move and win.


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