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11/3/2016 BoostconverterWikipedia

Boostconverter
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Aboostconverter(stepupconverter)isaDCtoDCpowerconverterthatstepsupvoltage(whilestepping
downcurrent)fromitsinput(supply)toitsoutput(load).Itisaclassofswitchedmodepowersupply(SMPS)
containingatleasttwosemiconductors(adiodeandatransistor)andatleastoneenergystorageelement,a
capacitor,inductor,orthetwoincombination.Toreducevoltageripple,filtersmadeofcapacitors(sometimesin
combinationwithinductors)arenormallyaddedtosuchaconverter'soutput(loadsidefilter)andinput(supply
sidefilter).

Contents
1 Overview
2 History
3 Applications
4 Circuitanalysis
4.1 Operation
4.1.1 Continuousmode
Thebasicschematicofaboostconverter.Theswitchistypicallya
4.1.2 Discontinuousmode
MOSFET,IGBT,orBJT.
5 Seealso
6 Furtherreading
7 References
8 Externallinks

Overview
PowerfortheboostconvertercancomefromanysuitableDCsources,suchasbatteries,solarpanels,rectifiersand
DCgenerators.AprocessthatchangesoneDCvoltagetoadifferentDCvoltageiscalledDCtoDCconversion.A
boostconverterisaDCtoDCconverterwithanoutputvoltagegreaterthanthesourcevoltage.Aboostconverter
issometimescalledastepupconvertersinceit"stepsup"thesourcevoltage.Sincepower( )mustbe
conserved,theoutputcurrentislowerthanthesourcecurrent.

History
Forhighefficiency,theSMPSswitchmustturnonandoffquicklyandhavelowlosses.Theadventofa
commercialsemiconductorswitchinthe1950srepresentedamajormilestonethatmadeSMPSssuchastheboost
converterpossible.ThemajorDCtoDCconvertersweredevelopedintheearly1960swhensemiconductor
switcheshadbecomeavailable.Theaerospaceindustrysneedforsmall,lightweight,andefficientpower
convertersledtotheconvertersrapiddevelopment.

SwitchedsystemssuchasSMPSareachallengetodesignsincetheirmodelsdependonwhetheraswitchis
openedorclosed.R.D.MiddlebrookfromCaltechin1977publishedthemodelsforDCtoDCconvertersused
today.Middlebrookaveragedthecircuitconfigurationsforeachswitchstateinatechniquecalledstatespace
averaging.Thissimplificationreducedtwosystemsintoone.Thenewmodelledtoinsightfuldesignequations
whichhelpedthegrowthofSMPS.

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Applications
Batterypowersystemsoftenstackcellsinseriestoachievehighervoltage.
However,sufficientstackingofcellsisnotpossibleinmanyhighvoltage
applicationsduetolackofspace.Boostconverterscanincreasethevoltage
andreducethenumberofcells.Twobatterypoweredapplicationsthatuse
boostconvertersareusedinhybridelectricvehicles(HEV)andlighting
systems.

TheNHW20modelToyotaPriusHEVusesa500Vmotor.Withoutaboost
converter,thePriuswouldneednearly417cellstopowerthemotor.
However,aPriusactuallyusesonly168cellsandbooststhebatteryvoltage
from202Vto500V.Boostconvertersalsopowerdevicesatsmallerscale BoostconverterfromaTIcalculator,
applications,suchasportablelightingsystems.AwhiteLEDtypically generating9Vfrom2.4Vprovided
requires3.3Vtoemitlight,andaboostconvertercanstepupthevoltage bytwoAArechargeablecells.
fromasingle1.5Valkalinecelltopowerthelamp.

Anunregulatedboostconverterisusedasthevoltageincreasemechanisminthecircuitknownasthe'Joulethief'.
Thiscircuittopologyisusedwithlowpowerbatteryapplications,andisaimedattheabilityofaboostconverterto
'steal'theremainingenergyinabattery.Thisenergywouldotherwisebewastedsincethelowvoltageofanearly
depletedbatterymakesitunusableforanormalload.Thisenergywouldotherwiseremainuntappedbecausemany
applicationsdonotallowenoughcurrenttoflowthroughaloadwhenvoltagedecreases.Thisvoltagedecrease
occursasbatteriesbecomedepleted,andisacharacteristicoftheubiquitousalkalinebattery.Sincetheequation
forpoweris( ),andRtendstobestable,poweravailabletotheloadgoesdownsignificantlyasvoltage
decreases.

Circuitanalysis
Operation

Thekeyprinciplethatdrivestheboostconverteristhetendencyofaninductortoresistchangesincurrentby
creatinganddestroyingamagneticfield.Inaboostconverter,theoutputvoltageisalwayshigherthantheinput
voltage.AschematicofaboostpowerstageisshowninFigure1.

(a)Whentheswitchisclosed,currentflowsthroughtheinductorinclockwisedirectionandtheinductorstores
someenergybygeneratingamagneticfield.Polarityoftheleftsideoftheinductorispositive.

(b)Whentheswitchisopened,currentwillbereducedastheimpedanceishigher.Themagneticfieldpreviously
createdwillbedestroyedtomaintainthecurrenttowardstheload.Thusthepolaritywillbereversed(meansleft
sideofinductorwillbenegativenow).Asaresult,twosourceswillbeinseriescausingahighervoltagetocharge
thecapacitorthroughthediodeD.

Iftheswitchiscycledfastenough,theinductorwillnotdischargefullyinbetweenchargingstages,andtheload
willalwaysseeavoltagegreaterthanthatoftheinputsourcealonewhentheswitchisopened.Alsowhilethe
switchisopened,thecapacitorinparallelwiththeloadischargedtothiscombinedvoltage.Whentheswitchis
thenclosedandtherighthandsideisshortedoutfromthelefthandside,thecapacitoristhereforeabletoprovide
thevoltageandenergytotheload.Duringthistime,theblockingdiodepreventsthecapacitorfromdischarging
throughtheswitch.Theswitchmustofcoursebeopenedagainfastenoughtopreventthecapacitorfrom
dischargingtoomuch.

ThebasicprincipleofaBoostconverterconsistsof2distinctstates(seefigure2):
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intheOnstate,theswitchS(seefigure1)isclosed,resultingin
anincreaseintheinductorcurrent
intheOffstate,theswitchisopenandtheonlypathofferedto
inductorcurrentisthroughtheflybackdiodeD,thecapacitorC
andtheloadR.Thisresultsintransferringtheenergy
accumulatedduringtheOnstateintothecapacitor.
Theinputcurrentisthesameastheinductorcurrentascanbe Fig.1:Boostconverterschematic
seeninfigure2.Soitisnotdiscontinuousasinthebuck
converterandtherequirementsontheinputfilterarerelaxed
comparedtoabuckconverter.

Continuousmode

Whena
boost
converter
operatesin
continuous
mode,the
current
throughthe
inductor(
)never
fallsto Fig.2:Thetwoconfigurationsofaboost
zero. converter,dependingonthestateofthe
Figure3 switchS.
showsthe
Fig.3:Waveformsofcurrentandvoltageinaboost typicalwaveformsofcurrentsandvoltagesina
converteroperatingincontinuousmode. converteroperatinginthismode.Theoutputvoltage
canbecalculatedasfollows,inthecaseofanideal
converter(i.e.usingcomponentswithanidealbehaviour)operatinginsteadyconditions:[1]

DuringtheOnstate,theswitchSisclosed,whichmakestheinputvoltage( )appearacrosstheinductor,which
causesachangeincurrent( )flowingthroughtheinductorduringatimeperiod(t)bytheformula:

AttheendoftheOnstate,theincreaseofIListherefore:

Disthedutycycle.ItrepresentsthefractionofthecommutationperiodTduringwhichtheswitchisOn.
Therefore,Drangesbetween0(Sisneveron)and1(Sisalwayson).

DuringtheOffstate,theswitchSisopen,sotheinductorcurrentflowsthroughtheload.Ifweconsiderzero
voltagedropinthediode,andacapacitorlargeenoughforitsvoltagetoremainconstant,theevolutionofILis:

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Therefore,thevariationofILduringtheOffperiodis:

Asweconsiderthattheconverteroperatesinsteadystateconditions,theamountofenergystoredineachofits
componentshastobethesameatthebeginningandattheendofacommutationcycle.Inparticular,theenergy
storedintheinductorisgivenby:

So,theinductorcurrenthastobethesameatthestartandendofthecommutationcycle.Thismeanstheoverall
changeinthecurrent(thesumofthechanges)iszero:

Substituting and bytheirexpressionsyields:

Thiscanbewrittenas:

Theaboveequationshowsthattheoutputvoltageisalwayshigherthantheinputvoltage(asthedutycyclegoes
from0to1),andthatitincreaseswithD,theoreticallytoinfinityasDapproaches1.Thisiswhythisconverteris
sometimesreferredtoasastepupconverter.

Rearrangingtheequationrevealsthedutycycletobe:

Discontinuousmode

Iftherippleamplitudeofthecurrentistoohigh,theinductormaybecompletelydischargedbeforetheendofa
wholecommutationcycle.Thiscommonlyoccursunderlightloads.Inthiscase,thecurrentthroughtheinductor
fallstozeroduringpartoftheperiod(seewaveformsinfigure4).Althoughslight,thedifferencehasastrong
effectontheoutputvoltageequation.Itcanbecalculatedasfollows:

Astheinductorcurrentatthebeginningofthecycleiszero,itsmaximumvalue (at )is

Duringtheoffperiod,ILfallstozeroafter :

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Usingthetwopreviousequations,is:

TheloadcurrentIoisequaltotheaveragediode
current(ID).Ascanbeseenonfigure4,thediode
currentisequaltotheinductorcurrentduringtheoff
state.Therefore,theoutputcurrentcanbewrittenas:

Fig.4:Waveformsofcurrentandvoltageinaboost
ReplacingILmaxandbytheirrespectiveexpressions converteroperatingindiscontinuousmode.

yields:

Therefore,theoutputvoltagegaincanbewrittenasfollows:

Comparedtotheexpressionoftheoutputvoltagegainforcontinuousmode,thisexpressionismuchmore
complicated.Furthermore,indiscontinuousoperation,theoutputvoltagegainnotonlydependsonthedutycycle
(D),butalsoontheinductorvalue(L),theinputvoltage(Vi),thecommutationperiod(T)andtheoutputcurrent
(Io).

Seealso
Joulethief
Buckconverter
Buckboostconverter
SplitPi(patentedboostbuckconvertertechnology)
Transformer
Voltagedoubler
Voltagemultiplier
Thehydraulicramcanbeseenasanalogoustoaboostconverter,usingtheelectronichydraulicanalogy.

Furtherreading
Mohan,NedUndeland,ToreM.Robbins,WilliamP.(2003).PowerElectronics.Hoboken:JohnWiley&Sons,Inc.
ISBN0471429082.
Basso,Christophe(2008).SwitchModePowerSupplies:SPICESimulationsandPracticalDesigns.NewYork:
McGrawHill.ISBN0071508589.

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References
1."BoostConverterOperation".LT1070DesignManual,CarlNelson&JimWilliams

Externallinks
Videotutorialexplainingboostconverterswithpracticalcircuit
WikimediaCommonshas
designexample(http://afrotechmods.com/tutorials/2014/12/21/dcdc mediarelatedtoBoost
boostconvertertutorial/) converters.
Explanationofnonlinearbehavior,modeling,andlinearizationofthe
boostdc/dcconverter(https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307936847_Invited_Lecture__Boost_DCD
C_Converter_Nonlinearity_and_RHPZero_Survey_of_the_ControltoOutput_Transfer_Function_Lineariza
tion_Methods)
Boostconvertermaximumoutputpoweroperationforenergyharvesting(https://www.researchgate.net/publi
cation/308265721_Dynamic_Dutycycle_Limitation_of_the_Boost_DCDC_Converter_allowing_Maximal_
Output_Power_Operations)

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