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2203BPS Mathematics 2A Assignment 2 solutions

(Overall total 20 marks)

Question 1 (from 12.1, Q2, page 279, hint: refer to examples 12.1, 12.7)

Given f (x) x for

interval and determine the sum of the Fourier series.

1

x 1. Write the Fourier series of the function f (x) on the

Solution:

The Fourier series of f (x) x on 1,1 has the form

1

n 1

aa

0

n

cos(

) b

nx

n

sin(

n

x

)

2

f (x) is an odd function because f ( x) f ()x , so each

a

n

We only need to compute

b

n

OR

OR

b

n

:

1

1

1

1

x

sin(

n

xdx )

x

cos(

nx

)

)

1

1

1

cos(

nx

)

x

n

cos(

nx

1

1

n

sin(

n

x

n

(

n

)

2

dx

)

1

1

cos(

n

)

cos(

n

)

n

n

2cos(

n

)

n

Odd n

b

n

2

 

and Even n

n

2

(

1) n

n

2

n

0

.

Hence the Fourier series f (x) is

OR

2

n

1

(

1)

n

n

2

cos( n

n

1

n

) sin(

sin(

n

x

)

.

n

x

)

 

(total 5 marks)

Question 2 (from 13.1, Q2, page 295, hint: refer to example 13.1)

Given

f

(

x

)

k

0

for

for

10 x

10

x

10

Write the Fourier integral of the function f (x) and determine what this integral

converges to.

Solution:

The Fourier integral coefficients of f are

A

B

w

w

1

1

10

10

10

10

k

k

cos(

wt dt

)

sin(

wt ) dt

2 k

w

0

sin(10

w

)

if

w

0

,

The Fourier integral of f is

0

A

w

cos(

wx

)

B

w

sin(

wx ) dw

0

2

k

w

sin(10

w

)cos(

wx ) dw .

Because f is continuous for x 10 , the integral converges to f (x) for x 10 .

At x 10 , the integral converges to 1

2

ff

(10

)

(10

)

1

k

2

(

)

k

k

.

2

0)

10

2

)

1

(0

At x 10 , the integral converges to 1

2

k

2

.

ff

(

10

)

(

This converges to

k

0

k

2

for

10 x

10

for

x

10

for

x

10

and

x

10

(total 5 marks)

Question 3

(from 15.2, Q6, page 355, hint: refer to 15.2.2, examples 15.4 and 15.6)

Solve the initial-boundary value problem using separation of variables.

2

y

2

y

 

2

4

2

for 0 x 5 , t 0

t yt(0, ) yt(5, ) 0 for t 0 y

x

(

x

,0)

(

x

)

y(x, 0) 0 ,

for 0 x 5

t

g

 

0

for

0

x

4

where

g

(

x

)

5

x

for

4

x

5.

Solution:

Let y(xt,) X (xT)

()t

2

y

4

2

x

y

2

t

2

2

y

2

2

2

y

t

2

x

2

XT

2

2

X

X T T

 
 

Take

where

is a constant.

 

X

2

2

T

X

T

X

2

2

T

X X 0 -----------(1) T 2 T 0 ----------(2)

2

y(0,t) X (0)Tt( ) 0 for t 0 X (0) 0

y(5,t) X (5)Tt( ) 0 for t 0 X (5) 0

yx( ,0) X (xT)

(0) 0

T (0) 0

(1) X X 0 gives XA sin(x ) B cos(x ) where A and B are constants

x ) B cos( x ) where A and B are constants ) , when X
x ) B cos( x ) where A and B are constants ) , when X
) ,
) ,

when X (0) 0 , 0 B , XA sin(x )

when X (5) 0 , 0 Asin(5

Since A 0 , so sin(5

X (0) 0 , 0 B , XA sin( x ) when X (5) 0 ,

) 0

5

2

,

n

n

5

2

for n 1, 2,3,

 

Xx (

)

A

sin

n

x

 

n

 

n

5

 

So, (2)

T

2

222

n

T

0

 

n

5

2

n

gives

(

Tx

n

)

for

n 1,2,3,

C

n

sin

and

5

C

2

nt

and

D

n

sin

2 nt

5

D

are constants.

 

n

n

when T (0) 0 ,

0

D ,

n

T

n

C

n

sin(

2 n

t

5

)

y

n (

xt

,

)

X

(

xT

)

nn

( )

t

AC

n

n

sin

nx

5

sin

2nt

5

Let b AC n since

n

n

A

n

and

C

n

are both constants.

y

y

n

(

(

xt

,

x

, t

)

nx

sin

2

nt

)

b

n

sin

n

b

n

1

sin

5

nx

5

5

2

nt

5

sin

y

Now f ind

b

n

which satisfies

since

y

t

(

x

then yxt (

,

)

,0)

X xT

n

b

n

1

(

)

sin

(0)

g

t

(

(

x

x

)

,0)

nx

5

sin

2

nt

5

g

y

t

y

(

t

x ,0)

gx

(

)

n

b

n 1

n

b

n 1

n

1

b

n

2

2 n

5

n

sin

55

nx

2

n

5

sin

sin

nx

n

5

x

5

(

x

) ,

cos

2

nt

5

Using the sine Fourier series:

b

n

b

n

2

52

5

0

5

n

g

( )sin

x

1

n

5

0

g

( )sin

x

n

x

5

n x 5

dx

y

(x,t)

n 1

1

n

5

0

g

( x )sin

nx

5

dx

dx

sin

nx

sin

55

2

nt

0

Given

g

(

x

)

Use integration by parts to find

5

x

for

for

b

n

b

n

1

n

5

0

g

( )sin

x

n

x

5

dx

,

0

4

4

x

x 5.

5

15

15

nx

5

5

n

5

4

5

4

(5

x

)

cos

5

2

2

n

2

4

sin

25

2

2

n

sin

cos

nn

5

nn

15

n

n

cos

cos

n 4

5

n

nx

5

4

4

n

5

5

2

2

n

n 45

5

cos

n

sin

n 4

5

nx

5

d x

yxt

,

(

)

2

n

1

2

n

5

cos

45

n

5

n

sin

nn 4 sin

55

x

n

5

sin

2

t

(total 10 marks)

Question 4 (from 16.2, Q8, page 397, hint: refer to 16.2.2) - optional

A thin, homogeneous bar of length L has insulated ends and initial temperature B, which is a positive constant. Find the temperature distribution in the bar.

Solution: (the working is similar to Question 3)

Let u(xt,) X (xT)

()t

X

X

0

gives

XA

n

n

T kT 0

u

t

u

x

k

(0,

t

2

u

x

)

2

u

x

ux

(

,0)

B

(

Lt

,

)

X T kX T

Let T

kT

X

X

cos

n

x

L

where

A

n

0

are constants

T

n

kT

nn

Let

0

T

n

D e

n

n

2

2

kt

2

L

u xt

(

u xt

,)

(

n

X xT t

()

(

X

)

(

xT

)

nn

,)

()

t

where

D

n

are constants

u

(

xt ,

)

A

nn

AD

nn

c

n

,

u

n

cos

(

xt ,

)

n

x

L

c

n

De

n

n

2

2

kt

L 2

cos

n

x

L

e

n

2

2

kt

2

L

Using the cosine Fourier series:

(

uxt

,

)

1

2

c

0

n

1

c

n

cos

n

x

L

e

n

2

2

kt

2

L

The coefficients in the series solution are

So

(

uxt

,

)

c

0

2

L

L

0

Bdx

2 B

2 n x c L B cos dx n L 0 L L 2 BL
2
n
x
c
L
B cos
dx
n L
0
L
L
2 BL
Ln
n
x
sin
0
L
0
2
2
n
kt
1 n
x
1
2
c
c
n cos
e
L
2
0
L
2
n
1

2

B

0

B