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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr.

4/2010

CAPACITATEA DE EXERCIIU A NATURAL PERSONS LEGAL


PERSOANEI FIZICE N CONCEPIA COMPETENCE IN THE CONCEPTION
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CODULUI CIVIL ASUMAT OF THE ASSUMED CIVIL CODE
Prof. univ. dr. MOISE BOJINC Professor Ph.D. Moise BOJINC

Facultatea de tiine Juridice i Litere Faculty of Juridical Sciences and Letters


Universitatea Constantin Brncui din Tg-Jiu Constantin Brncui University of Tg-Jiu

Abstract: Capacitatea civil a persoanei avnd Abstract The persons civil ability, having as
ca elemente constitutive capacitatea de folosin i constitutive elements the capacity to have rights and
capacitatea de exerciiu desemneaz capacitatea obligations and the legal competence, assigns the
juridic specific dreptului civil. juridical capacity specific to the civil law.
Pe cnd, capacitatea de folosin civil reprezint While the civil capacity to have rights and
aptitudinea general i abstract a persoanei de a avea obligations represents the general and abstract
drepturi i obligaii i se dobndete pe data naterii i aptitude of a person to have rights and obligations and
uneori nc de la concepiune, capacitatea de exerciiu se it is gained at birth date and sometimes even since the
acord n considerarea discernmntului care se conception, the legal competence is granted in
formeaz treptat i presupune aptitudinea persoanei de a considering the discernment gradually formed and it
exercita drepturi i de a executa i ndeplini obligaii supposes the persons aptitude to exert and accomplish
civile prin ncheierea de acte juridice civile. Ca atare, civil obligations by contracting civil juridical
capacitatea de exerciiu privete exclusiv actele juridice documents. As such, the legal competence regards
civile ale persoanei i nu are niciun fel de legtur cu exclusively the persons juridical documents and has no
faptele juridice stricto sensu. connection to the stricto sensu juridical facts.
n funcie de stadiul dezvoltrii discernmntului, Depending on the stage of the discernment
Codul civil asumat categorisete persoanele fizice n patru development, the Civil Code classifies natural persons
clase i anume: persoane lipsite de capacitatea de in four classes, namely: persons missing the legal
exerciiu, persoane cu capacitate de exerciiu restrns, competence, persons having a restrained legal
persoane cu capacitate de exerciiu anticipat i persoane competence, persons having an anticipated legal
cu capacitate deplin de exerciiu. competence and persons having full legal competence.
Persoanele fizice aflate n una din respectivele Natural persons placed in one of the respective
clase fie nu pot ncheia acte juridice civile, fie pot ncheia classes either cannot contract civil juridical
singure doar anumite acte juridice civile, fie pot ncheia documents, or can contract by themselves only certain
unele acte juridice cu ncuvinarea ocrotitorului legal, iar civil juridical documents, or can contract certain
altele i cu autorizarea anumitor organisme protectoare, juridical documents with the permission of the legal
fie pot ncheia singure orice acte juridice civile permise de protector, and others even with the authorization of
legislaia n vigoare la un moment dat. certain protecting organisms, or can contract by
themselves any civil juridical documents allowed by the
Cuvinte cheie: capacitate juridic, capacitate valid legislation at a certain time.
civil, capacitate restrns de exerciiu, capacitate .
deplin de exerciiu, discernmnt, acte juridice civile. Key-words: juridical capacity, civil capacity,
restrained exertion ability, full legal competence,
1. Corelaia capacitate juridic (de discernment, civil juridical documents.
drept) capacitate civil. Noiunea de
capacitate civil, elementele sale 1. The correlation between juridical
constitutive, reglementare. (legal) capacity civil capacity. The civil
capacity notion, its constitutive, regular
Aptitudinea persoanelor fizice sau elements.
juridice de a fi subieci de drept, adic titulari
Natural or legal persons aptitude of
de drepturi i obligaii desemneaz
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2 being legal subjects, namely holders of


personalitatea juridic , sau capacitatea
juridic ori capacitatea de drept. rights and obligations assigns the juridical
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Personalitatea (capacitatea) juridic personality , or the juridical capacity or the
nu trebuie confundat cu noiunea de legal capacity.
persoan juridic ntruct vocaia de a fi The juridical personality (capacity)
subiect de drept este recunoscut deopotriv should not be mistaken by the legal person
persoanelor juridice ct i persoanelor fizice. notion whereas the vocation of being a legal
Personalitatea (capacitatea) juridic este subject is acknowledged both to the legal
unic pentru fiecare subiect de drept. De lege persons and to the natural ones. The legal
lata, capacitatea juridic a unei persoane este personality (capacity) is unique for every
3
determinat de art. 16 din Constituie i legal subject. De lege lata, a persons
reglementat de normele juridice generale juridical capacity is determined by art. 16 of
20
(art. 4 din Decretul nr. 31/1954, privitor la the Constitution and regulated by the
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persoanele fizice i juridice , precum i de general juridical norms (art. 4 of Decree no.
5
normele juridice ale fiecrei ramuri de drept . 31/1954, regarding the natural and legal
21
Capacitatea juridic reprezint genul proxim persons , and also by the juridical norms of
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al capacitilor de ramur, desemnnd every legal branch . The juridical capacity
aptitudinea persoanei (fizice sau juridice) de represents the close type of the branch
a participa n nume propriu sau pentru altul, capacities, assigning the (natural or legal)
ca titular de drepturi i obligaii n raporturile persons aptitude to participate in his own
juridice. name or for another, as a holder of rights and
La rndul su, ntr-un enun sintetic, obligations in juridical relations.
capacitatea civil reprezint o specie a At their turn, in a synthetic
capacitii juridice fiind o parte constitutiv a enunciation, the civil capacity represents a
acesteia i desemneaz capacitatea specific species of the juridical capacity, being a
dreptului civil ca ramur a sistemului constitutive part of it and assigns the
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juridic . capacity specific to the civil law as a branch
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Codul civil asumat, asemenea of the juridical system .
Decretului nr. 31/1954, nu definete The assumed Civil Code, such as
capacitatea civil, ci se mulumete n art. 28 Decree no. 31/1954, does not define the civil
alin 1 s reproduc textul art. 4 alin 1 din capacity, but it is content in art. 28,
Decretul premenionat, stipulnd faptul c paragraph 1 to reproduce the text of art. 4,
aceasta, respectiv capacitatea civil este paragraph 1 of the above mentioned Decree,
recunoscut tuturor persoanelor. Tot astfel, stipulating the fact that this, namely the civil
alin 2 al art. 28 al Codului civil asumat este capacity is acknowledged to all the
reproducerea aproape identic a art. 5 alin 1 persons. In the same way, paragraph 2 of
din precitatul Decret statund c Orice art. 28 of the assumed Civil Code is the
persoan are capacitate de folosin i, cu almost identical reproduction of art. 5,
excepia cazurilor prevzute de lege, paragraph 1 of the above mentioned Decree,
capacitate de exerciiu stating that Any person has capacity to have
Din aceast formulare se desprinde rights and obligations, except for the cases
explicit faptul c elementele constitutive ale stipulated by the law, legal competence
capacitii civile sunt capacitatea de folosin From this wording, it explicitly
i capacitatea de exerciiu. results the fact that the constitutive elements
of the civil capacity are the capacity to have
rights and obligations and the legal
competence one.

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2. Capacitatea de exerciiu a 2. The Natural persons legal


persoanei fizice: reglementare, definire, competence: regulation, definition, types.
feluri.
The assumed Civil Code treats the
Codul civil asumat trateaz capacitatea natural persons legal competence in Title II
de exerciiu a persoanei fizice n Titlul al II- named - Natural Person, Chapter I named
lea intitulat - Persoana fizic, Capitolul I Natural Persons Civil Capacity, Second
denumit Capacitatea civil a persoanei Section having the title, Legal
fizice, Seciunea a II-a cu titlul , competence, art. 37-48.
Capacitatea de exerciiu, art. 37-48. Even if this chapter is named
Cu toate c acest capitol poart Natural Persons Civil Capacity in all its
denumirea de Capacitatea civil a persoanei three sections it makes no reference to this.
fizice n toate cele trei seciuni ale sale nu se Naturally, the civil capacity as a
face nici un fel de vorbire despre aceasta. branch institution, proper both to natural
Firesc, capacitatea civil ca instituie and legal persons, makes the object of art.
de ramur, proprie att persoanelor fizice i 28 placed in Title I General Stipulations,
juridice face obiectul art. 28 situat n Titlul I but it is not defined.
Dispoziii generale numai c nu este We also consider that in this title,
definit. not in the one regarding the natural person,
Considerm, de asemenea, c n acest there should be the regulation, the definition
titlu i nu n cel privitor la persoana fizic and also the constitutive elements of the
trebuia s-i gseasc att reglementarea ct i civil capacity since they are proper both to
definirea i elementele constitutive ale natural and legal persons.
capacitii civile de vreme ce ele sunt proprii Comparing the definition of the legal
deopotriv att persoanelor fizice ct i celor competence worded by art. 37 of the assumed
juridice . Civil Code to the one accomplished by art. 5
Comparnd defini ia capacit ii de of Decree no. 31/1954, we consider the one in
exerciiu formulat de art. 37 C. civ. asumat cu the Code as being incomplete whereas the
cea realizat de art. 5 din Decretul nr. 31/1954 Code only expresses its concretization way
o socotim incomplet pe cea din Cod ntruct contracting civil juridical documents a fact
acesta se mulumete doar s exprime that is also spotlighted by Decree no.
modalitatea sa de concretizare ncheierea de 31/1554, without making the difference for
acte juridice civile lucru pe care l the use capacity, like the old regulation.
evideniaz i Decretul nr. 31/1554, fr s From the way the texts in the assumed
realizeze distincia fa de capacitatea de Civil Code are worded, it results the fact that,
folosin, aa cum face vechea reglementare. depending on the legal competence, natural
Din modul n care sunt formulate persons are classified in four classes, namely:
textele n Codul civil asumat desprindem - Persons missing their legal
faptul c n funcie de capacitatea de exerciiu competence. This class contains persons
persoanele fizice sunt categorisite n patru aged between 0-14 years old, and also the
clase i anume: ones under interdiction;
- persoane lipsite de capacitatea - Persons having a restrained legal
de exerciiu. Intr n aceast clas persoanele competence. This category contains persons
cu vrsta cuprins ntre 0-14 ani, precum i aged between 14-18 years old;
cele puse sub interdicie; - Persons having an anticipated legal
- persoane cu capacitatea competence. This category contains persons
restrns de exerciiu. Sunt incluse n aceast who have reached 16 years old and for which
categorie persoanele cuprinse ntre 14-18 ani; the guardianship court, for strong reasons

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- persoane cu capacitatea de and after listening to the minors parents or


exerciiu anticipat. Formeaz aceast clas guardian and by taking, when it is needed,
persoanele care au mplinit vrsta de 16 ani i the notice of the family council,
crora instana de tutel pentru motive acknowledges their full legal competence.
temeinice i n urma ascultrii i a prinilor - Persons having full legal
sau a tutorelui minorului i prin luarea, atunci competence. This is the class formed by the
cnd este cazul, i a avizului consiliului de major persons who are not under
familie le recunoate capacitatea deplin de interdiction, naturally.
exerciiu. Comparing the stipulations of the
- persoane cu capacitate deplin assumed Civil Code to the current regulation
de exerciiu. Este clasa format de persoanele regarding the persons classification depending
care depesc vrsta majoratului i, firesc, on the legal competence, it results the fact that
care nu sunt puse sub interdicie. the new legislation spotlights a new category
Comparnd prevederile Codului civil of persons, namely the category of persons
asumat cu actuala reglementare n privina having an anticipated legal competence.
categorisirii persoanelor n funcie de However, in establishing this class, the
capacitatea de exerciiu desprindem faptul c legislator only specified that the persons who
noua legiuire evideniaz o nou categorie de had reached 16 years old may gain a full legal
persoane i anume categoria persoanelor cu competence for strong reasons without
capacitate de exerciiu anticipat. Cu toate saying what these strong reasons are, at least
acestea, n stabilirea acestei clase, legiuitorul as an example.
se mulumete s precizeze c pot dobndi From our viewpoint, we consider this
capacitate deplin de exerciiu n mod class as being useless since it is granted the
anticipat, persoanele care au mplinit vrsta de possibility to gain full legal competence also
16 ani pentru motive temeinice fr s before reaching 18 years old as a consequence
spun care ar fi mcar cu titlu exemplu astfel of marriage. We do not see another strong
de motive temeinice. reason able to offer it in advance a full legal
Din punctul nostru de vedere competence.
considerm inutil aceast clas, de vreme ce 3. Premises of the natural persons
se acord posibilitatea dobndirii capacitii
depline de exerciiu i nainte de mplinirea legal competence
vrstei de 18 ani ca urmare a cstoriei. Nu
mai vedem un alt motiv temeinic de natur From the definition of the natural
a-i conferi anticipat capacitate deplin de persons civil legal competence, it results that,
exerciiu. in order to exert the rights and to assume the
3. Premisele capacitii de exerciiu civil obligation by contracting civil juridical
documents, we need two necessary and
a persoanei fizice mandatory premises, namely:
-The existence of the natural persons
Din definiia capacitii civile de capacity to have rights and obligations
exerciiu a persoanei fizice rezult c pentru -The existence of the natural persons
exercitarea drepturilor i asumarea obligaiilor discernment24
civile prin ncheierea de acte juridice civile The first premise has a legal feature, it
este nevoie de dou premise necesare i is provided to all the natural persons and it
obligatorii i anume: comes from the universality of the capacity to
- existena capacitii de have rights and obligations.
folosin a persoanei fizice The second premise the existence of
- existena discernmntului discernment is a factual one as it is

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7 conditioned by a certain state of the


persoanei fizice
25
Cea dinti premis are caracter legal, individuals mental development .
este asigurat tuturor persoanelor fizice i Discernment represents the persons capacity
decurge din universalitatea capacitii de to realize the juridical consequences of his will
folosin. manifestation.
Cea de-a doua premis existena The absence of discernment in general,
discernmntului este una de fapt fiind especially of the juridical one, may be the
condiionat de o anumit stare a dezvoltrii consequence either of the age, or of a mental
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mentale a individului . Discernmntul disease.
reprezint capacitatea persoanei de a-i da As such, if, for the use capacity, the
seama de consecinele pe plan juridic ale only necessary condition is the existence of the
manifestrii sale de voin. human being, for the legal competence, it is
Absena discernmntului n general, a necessary the existence of the human power to
celui juridic n special, poate fi consecina fie represent the consequences of its will
a vrstei, fie a unei maladii psihice. manifestation expressed in order to produce
Ca atare, dac pentru capacitatea de juridical effects.
folosin singura condiie necesar o Discernment is formed gradually,
reprezint existena fiinei umane, pentru while the human knows a natural and mental
capacitatea de exerciiu este necesar existena development and gains life experience.
puterii omului de a-i reprezenta consecinele Considering the social-medical researches, the
manifestrii sale de voin exprimate n scopul law institutes a discernment presumption for
producerii de efecte juridice. the minors who have reached 14 years old.
Discernmntul se formeaz gradual, Starting with that moment, they may
pe msur ce omul cunoate o dezvoltare participate personally, but not by themselves
fizic i psihic i dobndete experien de to civil juridical operations.
via. Avnd n vedere cercetrile socio- In this sense, art. 41, paragraph 1 of the
medicale, legea instituie o prezumie de assumed Civil Code states as follows: The
discernmnt pentru minorii care au mplinit minor who had reached 14 years old has a
14 ani. Din acel moment ei pot participa n restrained legal competence. Per a contrario,
mod personal, dar nu singuri la operaiuni it results that, according to the law, the minors
juridice civile. younger than 14 years old miss their legal
n acest sens, art. 41 alin 1 C. civ competence. Also, even the major person may
asumat statueaz c: Minorul care a mplinit miss his legal competence if he has no
vrsta de 14 ani are capacitate de exerciiu discernment because of the insanity or mental
restrns. Per a contrario, rezult c, potrivit debility, being under judicial interdiction.
legii, minorii cu vrst sub 14 ani sunt lipsii The reason of missing the legal
de capacitate de exerciiu. De asemenea, chiar competence of these person categories is based
persoana major poate fi lipsit de capacitate on the need to protect them, since the
de exerciiu dac nu are discernmnt din discernment absence may determine them to
cauza alienaiei sau debilitii mintale, fiind contract juridical documents harmful
pus sub interdicie judectoreasc. (damaging) for them.
Raiunea lipsirii de capacitatea de Moreover, even the discernment
exerciiu a acestor categorii de persoane se existence is insufficient for granting the full
ntemeiaz pe necesitatea ocrotirii lor, ntruct legal competence, whereas, when reaching 14
absena discernmntului poate s-i determine years old, the minor, even if he has
s ncheie acte juridice prejudiciante discernment, has no experience of the juridical
(lezionare) pentru ei. life. This is why the legislator has established
Mai mult, chiar i existena for the minors aged between 14 and 18 years

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discernmntului este insuficient pentru old a restrained legal competence, regarded as


acordarea deplinei capaciti de exerciiu, a transitory situation from the lack of the legal
ntruct la mplinirea vrstei de 14 ani minorul competence to the full legal competence.
dei are discernmnt nu are experiena vieii In this lapse of time, they may
juridice. De aceea, legiuitorul a stabilit pentru participate to the civil juridical circuit by
minorii cu vrsta cuprins ntre 14 i 18 ani personally contracting juridical documents but
capacitate restrns de exerciiu, privit ca o by needing approvals and even authorization
situaie tranzitorie de la lipsa capacitii de from the protecting persons or institutions for
exerciiu la deplina capacitate de exerciiu. certain documents.
n acest interval de timp, ei pot s Finally, when reaching 18 years old, it
participe la circuitul juridic civil prin is considered they have gained enough
ncheierea de acte juridice n mod personal experience so that the legislator offers them
dar, avnd nevoie pentru anumite acte de the full legal competence, being able to
ncuviinri i chiar de autorizri din partea contract any juridical document allowed by the
persoanelor sau instituiilor ocrotitoare. valid legislation.
n fine, la mplinirea vrstei de 18 ani, In this sense, art.38 of the assumed
se consider c au dobndit i experien Civil Code shows in paragraph 1 that the full
suficient astfel c legiuitorul le confer legal competence starts when the person
capacitatea deplin de exerciiu, putnd s becomes major and paragraph 2 shows that
ncheie orice act juridic care este permis de the person becomes major when he reaches
legislaia n vigoare. 18 years old.
n acest sens, art.38 C.civ. asumat 4. The juridical features of the legal
arat n alin 1 ca deplin capacitate de
exerciiu ncepe la data cnd persoana devine competence
major, iar alin 2 arat c persoana devine
major la mplinirea vrstei de 18 ani. From the quality of the natural
4. Caracterele juridice ale persons legal competence of being a
component of the civil capacity, and also from
capacitii de exerciiu its correlation to the use capacity, it results that
the legal competence also has certain juridical
26
Din calitatea capacitii de exerciiu a features , namely: legality, generality,
27
persoanei fizice de a fi o component a inalienability, intangibility and equality .
capacitii civile, precum i din corelaia ei cu a) The legality of the natural persons
capacitatea de folosin rezult c i legal competence supposes its regulation by
capacitii de exerciiu i sunt proprii anumite the law and not by the human individual will.
9
caractere (trsturi) juridice i anume: In this sense, the assumed Civil Code
legalitatea, generalitatea, inalienabilitatea, establishes the date and the ways of gaining
10
intangibilitatea i egalitatea . the legal competence, its content and
a) Legalitatea capacitii de exerciiu a cessation. The juridical norms by means of
persoanei fizice presupune reglementarea sa which these aspects are regulated have an
prin lege i nu prin voina individual a imperative feature, meaning that the natural
omului. n acest sens Codul civil asumat persons may not derogate from them.
stabilete data i modurile de dobndire a b) The generality of the natural
capacitii de exerciiu, coninutul i ncetarea persons legal competence regards its content,
acesteia. Normele juridice prin care sunt considering the persons aptitude to exert the
reglementate aceste aspecte au caracter civil subjective rights and to assume civil
imperativ, ceea ce nseamn c persoanele obligations by contracting any juridical
fizice nu pot deroga de la ele. documents, except for the ones forbidden by

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b) Generalitatea capacitii de the law. The generality degree of the legal


exerciiu a persoanei fizice privete coninutul competence is different depending on the legal
acesteia, fiind considerat aptitudinea competence, either it is full or restrained 28.
persoanei de a exercita drepturile subiective 29
The doctrine considered and the
civile i de a-i asuma obligaii civile prin assumed Civil Code consecrated
30
that,
ncheierea oricror acte juridice, cu excepia neither in the situation of missing the legal
celor interzise de lege. Gradul de generalitate competence, we cannot speak of the
al capacitii de exerciiu difer dup cum este inexistence of the respective content,
vorba de11capacitate de exerciiu deplin sau whereas the law allows the persons missing
restrns . the legal competence to validly and
12 personally contract, with no permission,
Doctrina a considerat i Codul civil
13 certain civil juridical documents having a
asumat a consacrat c nici n situa ia lipsei
small value that cannot be harmful.
capacitii de exerciiu nu se poate vorbi de
inexistena coninutului respectiv, ntruct c) The inalienability of the natural
legea permite i persoanelor lipsite de persons legal competence results from the
capacitate de exerciiu s ncheie, n mod stipulations of art. 29, paragraph 2 of the
valabil, personal i fr ncuviinare anumite assumed Civil Code that expressly
acte juridice civile de mic valoare care nu pot stipulates that: Nobody can partially or
fi lezionare. totally give up the capacity to have rights
c) Inalienabilitatea capacitii de and obligations or the exertion one.
exerciiu a persoanei fizice rezult din Considering the imperative feature
prevederile art. 29 alin. 2 C. civ. asumat care of these stipulations, it results that the civil
prevede n mod expres c: Nimeni nu poate juridical documents of giving up or
renuna, n tot sau n parte, la capacitatea de alienating the capacity to have rights and
folosin sau la capacitatea de exerciiu. obligations and the exertion one are hit by
Avnd n vedere caracterul imperativ an absolute and total nullity.
al acestor dispoziii rezult c actele juridice d) The intangibility of the natural
civile de renunare sau de nstrinare a persons legal competence is regulated in art.
capacitii de folosin i a celei de exerciiu 29, paragraph 1 of the assumed Civil Code
sunt lovite de nulitate absolut i total. stipulating that: Nobody can be limited in
d) Intangibilitatea capacitii de the capacity to have rights and obligations or
exerciiu a persoanei fizice este reglementat totally or partially missed by the legal
n art. 29 alin. 1 C. civ. asumat care stipuleaz competence, except for the cases and
c: Nimeni nu poate fi ngrdit n capacitatea conditions expressly stipulated by the law.
de folosin sau lipsit, n tot sau n parte, de From the content of this article, it
capacitatea de exerciiu, dect n cazurile i results that, if nobody can be limited in their
condiiile expres prevzute de lege. use capacity, in exchange it is possible for
Din coninutul acestui articol rezult c them to partially or totally miss the natural
dac nimeni nu poate fi ngrdit n capacitatea persons legal competence, but only in the
de folosin, n schimb este posibil lipsirea n cases and conditions established by the law.
tot sau n parte, a persoanei fizice de We consider that the norm contained
capacitatea de exerciiu, ns numai n cazurile in art. 29, paragraph 1, second thesis,
i n condiiile stabilite de lege. constitutes an exception from the rule in the
Considerm c norma cuprins n art. matter, representing the natural persons legal
29 alin. 1 teza a II-a constituie o excepie de la competence, either it is restrained or full.
regul n materie care o reprezint capacitatea e) The equality of the natural persons
de exerciiu a persoanei fizice, fie ea restrns legal competence is consecrated in art. 30 of
sau deplin. the assumed Civil Code stating that: Race,

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e) Egalitatea capacitii de exerci iu a colour, nationality, ethnical origins,


persoanei fizice este consacrat n art. 30 din language, religion, age, sex or sexual
C. civ. asumat care afirm c: Rasa, culoarea, orientation, opinion, personal convictions,
naionalitatea, originea etnic, limba, religia, political, union membership to a social
vrsta, sexul sau orientarea sexual, opinia, category or to a disadvantaged category,
convingerile personale, apartenena politic, fortune, social origins, culture level and any
sindical, la o categorie social ori la o other similar situation has no influence on
categorie defavorizat, averea, originea the civil capacity.
social, gradul de cultur, precum i orice alt
situaie similar nu are nici o influen asupra 5. Juridical documents that may
capacitii civile. be contracted by different classes of
natural persons that are distinguished in
5. Actele juridice ce pot fi ncheiate relation to the legal competence
de diversele clase de persoane fizice ce se 5. 1. Preliminaries
disting n raport de capacitatea de exerciiu Placing the natural person in different
5. 1. Preliminarii classes depending on the legal competence
Situarea persoanei fizice n diverse presents juridical significance from the
clase n funcie de capacitatea de exerciiu viewpoint of the categories of juridical
prezint importan juridic din punctul de documents that can be validly contracted in
vedere al categoriilor de acte juridice ce pot fi certain conditions by these classes of persons.
ncheiate n mod valabil n anumite condiii de 5. 2. Contracting the juridical
aceste clase de persoane. documents regarding the persons missing
5. 2. ncheierea actelor juridice care their legal competence
privesc persoanele lipsite de capacitate de Natural persons missing their legal
exerciiu competence cannot personally contract by
Persoanele fizice lipsite de capacitate themselves civil juridical documents, even
de exerciiu nu pot ncheia personal i singure if, by being civil law subjects, they have use
acte juridice civile, cu toate c fiind subiecte capacity, a fact that potentially offers them
de drept civil au capacitate de folosin, ceea the aptitude to gain rights and to assume
ce le confer potenial aptitutidea de a dobndi obligations, in any way, including by
drepturi i de a-i asuma obligaii, n orice contracting juridical documents.
mod, inclusiv ncheind acte juridice. From the stipulations of art. 43,
Din prevederile art. 43 alin. 2 C. civ. paragraph 2 of the assumed Civil Code, it
asumat se desprinde regula potrivit creia results the rule according to which the
actele juridice pentru persoanele care nu au juridical documents for the persons with no
capacitate de exerciiu se ncheie n numele legal competence is contracted in their
acestora de reprezentanii lor legali, n name by their legal representatives, in the
condiiile prevzute de lege. conditions stipulated by the law.
Conform art. 43 alin 1 C. civ. asumat, According to art. 43, paragraph 1 of
n afara altor cazuri prevzute de lege, nu au the assumed Civil Code, beside other cases
capacitate de exerciiu: stipulated by the law, the following ones
a) minorul care nu a mplinit vrsta de have no legal competence:
14 ani; a) The minor who has not reach 14
b) interzisul judectoresc; years old;
Analiznd motivele pentru care b) The one having a judicial
leguitorul a considerat necesar lipsirea de interdiction;
capacitate de exerciiu a acestor dou categorii By analysing the reasons for which
putem conchide c n ce privete minorii de the legislator considered as being necessary

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sub 14 ani, neacordarea capacitii de the lack of legal competence of these two
exerciiu are n vedere lipsa discernmntului categories, we may conclude that, regarding
datorit vrstei lor fragede, pe cnd n cazul the minors younger than 14 years old, the
interzisului judectoresc lipsa non-granting of the legal competence
discernmntului este datorat alienaiei sau considers the lack of discernment due to their
debilitii sale mintale. fragile age, while, in case of the one having a
Lipsirea de capacitatea de exerciiu a judicial interdiction, the lack of discernment
celor dou categorii de persoane reprezint o is due to his insanity or to his mental debility.
msur de protecie. The lack of legal competence of the
Ca atare i sfritul strii lipsei two categories of persons represents a
capacitii de exerciiu se produce n moduri i protecting measure.
cazuri diferite dup cum este vorba de minorul As such, the end of the lack of the
sub 14 ani sau interzisul judectoresc. legal competence is produced in different
Astfel, n situaia minorului de sub 14 ways and cases, as it is about the minor
ani, ceea ce genereaz ncetarea strii juridice younger than 14 years old or the one having a
de lips a capacitii de exerciiu este judicial interdiction.
mplinirea vrstei de 14 ani, cnd acesta Therefore, in the case of the minor
dobndete capacitatea de exerciiu restrns, younger than 14 years old, what generates the
sau decesul fizic constatat sau judectorete cessation of the juridical state of lack of the
declarat. n cazul persoanei puse sub legal competence is reaching 14 years old,
interdicie, starea lipsei capacitii de exerciiu when he gains the restrained legal
ia sfrit fie prin ridicarea interdiciei competence, or naturally found or judicially
judectoreti, ca urmare a ncetrii cazurilor declared natural death. In case of the person
care au necesitat luarea unei asemenea msuri, having a judicial interdiction, the state of the
situaie n care persoana fizic i recapt, lack of the legal competence is ended either
dup caz, capacitatea restrns sau deplin de by annulling the judicial interdiction, as a
exerciiu, fie prin moartea acesteia. consequence of the cessation of the cases that
Fa de aceast realitate i innd cont had needed to take such a measure, a situation
de finalitile existeniale precum i de where the natural person regains, depending
contribuia constant a doctrinei i on the case, the restrained or full legal
jurisprudenei n aceast materie art. 43 alin. 3 competence, or by means of his death.
C. civ. asumat confer persoanelor lipsite de In relation to this reality and
capacitate de exerciiu posibilitatea de a considering the existential endings and also
ncheia personal i singure actele anume the constant contribution of the doctrine and
prevzute de lege, actele de conservare, of the jurisprudence in this matter, art. 43,
precum i actele de dispoziie de mic valoare, paragraph 3 of the assumed Civil Code offers
cu caracter curent i care se execut la to the persons missing their legal competence
momentul ncheierii lor. the possibility to personally contract by
5.3. ncheierea actelor juridice de themselves the documents stipulated by the
persoanele cu capacitate restrns de law, the conservation documents and also the
exerciiu small value stipulation documents having a
5.3.1. Preliminarii current feature and that are executed at the
Capacitatea de exerciiu restrns se time of their ending.
prezint ca o etap intermediar i pregtitoare 5.3. Contracting juridical
situat ntre lipsa de capacitate de exerciiu i documents by the persons having a
capacitatea deplin de exerciiu. restrained legal competence
14
n literatura de specialitate s-a 5.3.1. Preliminaries
apreciat c termenul de capacitate restrns The restrained legal competence is

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de exerciiu nu denot aspectul cantitativ al presented like an intermediary and preparing


capacitii, ci reprezint o deosebire calitativstage placed between the lack of legal
fa de lipsa capacitii de exerciiu, ce se competence and the full legal competence.
31
materializeaz n regula conform creia In the special literature it was
minorul poate s ncheie personal toate actele appreciated that the term of restrained legal
juridice, dar pentru valabilitatea lor este competence does not denote the quantitative
nevoie de ncuviinarea sau autorizarea feature of capacity, but it represents a
ocrotitorilor si legali. qualitative difference from the lack of the
Ca atare, minorul ntre 14 i 18 ani nu legal competence that is materialized in the
15
mai este reprezentat la ncheierea actelor rule according to which the minor could
juridice civile, ca n perioada lipsei capacitii
personally contract all the juridical
de exerciiu, ci este doar asistat de ctre documents, but for the validity it is needed
ocrotitorul su legal care i asigur ndrumarea the approval or the authorization of his legal
necesar n aceast perioad de tranziie. protectors.
Capacitatea retstrns de exerciiu se As such, the minor aged between 14
dobndete de ctre minor pe data mplinirii and 18 years old is not represented anymore 32
vrstei de 14 ani, potrivt art. 41 alin 1 C. civ when contracting the civil juridical
asumat. documents, like during the time of the lack of
Din coroborarea art. 41 alin 1 i art. the legal competence, but he is only assisted
164 C. civ. asumat rezult c minorul by his legal protector that leads him to the
dobndete capacitate restrns de exerciiu guidance necessary during this transition
odat cu mplinirea vrstei de 14 ani, dac mai time.
nainte de aceast dat nu a fost pus sub The restrained legal competence is
interdicie judectoresc. n situaia n care gained by the minor when reaching 14 years
aceast msur de ocrotire a intervenit pn la old, according to art. 41, paragraph 1 of the
mplinirea vrstei de 14 ani i se ridic prin assumed Civil Code.
hotrre judectoreasc definitiv n perioada Of the corroboration of art. 41,
de timp ntre 14 i 18 ani, capacitatea de paragraph 1 and art. 164 of the assumed Civil
exerciiu restrns va ncepe n momentul Code, it results that the minor gains a
ridicrii interdiciei. restrained legal competence when reaching
Stabilirea coninutului capacitii de 14 years old if, before this date, he was put
exerciiu restrnse presupune mprirea under no judicial interdiction. If this
actelor juridice civile, n funcie de cerinele protecting measure had interfered until
de validitate impuse de lege, n urmtoarele reaching 14 years old and has been annulled
categorii: by a definitive judicial decision, the restrained
1. acte juridice civile pe care legal competence would start when annulling
minorul ntre 14 i 18 ani le poate ncheia the interdiction.
valabil personal i singur, fr vreo The establishment of the content of the
ncuviinare sau autorizare; restrained legal competence supposes the
2. acte juridice civile pe care minorul classification of the civil juridical documents,
ntre 14 i 18 ani le poate ncheia valabil depending on the validity demands imposed
personal cu ncuviinarea ocrotitorului legal; by the law, in the following categories:
3. acte juridice civile pe care minorul 1. Civil juridical documents the
ntre 14 i 18 ani le poate ncheia valabil minor aged between 14 and 18 years old
personal cu ncuviinarea ocrotitorului legal i may validly and personally contract by
cu autorizarea organismelor abilitate de lege; himself, with no approval or authorization;
4. acte juridice civile interzise 2. Civil juridical documents the
minorului ntre 14 i 18 ani, dar permise minor aged between 14 and 18 years old may

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majorului. validly and personally contract with the


Din enumerarea acestor categorii de approval of his legal protector;
acte se poate observa c primele trei clase de 3. The civil juridical documents the
acte juridice civile desemneaz coninutul minor aged between 14 and 18 years old may
capacitii restrnse de exerciiu, iar cea din validly and personally contract by the
urm coninutul capacitii depline de approval of the legal protector and by the
exerciiu. authorization of the organisms recovered by
5.3.2. Actele juridice pe care le poate the law;
ncheia personal i singur minorul cu 4. Civil juridical documents
capacitate de exerciiu restrns forbidden to the minor aged between 14 and
Potrivit art. 41 alin. 3 ...minorul cu 18 years old, but allowed to the major.
capacitate de exerciiu restrns poate face From the enumeration of these
singur acte de conservare, acte de administrare categories of documents, we may notice that
care nu l prejudiciaz i acte de dispoziie de the first three classes of civil juridical
mic valoare cu caracter curent i care se documents assign the content of the
execut la data ncheierii lor restrained legal competence and the last one,
Observm c, spre deosebire de the content of the full legal competence.
minorul lipsit de capacitate de exerciiu, cel cu 5.3.2. The juridical documents the
capacitate restrns de exerciiu poate face minor having a restrained legal competence
singur i acte de administrare care nu au may contract by himself
pentru el un caracter lezionar. According to art. 41, paragraph 3
Potrivit doctrinei actele de ...the minor having a restrained legal
administrare pot viza un singur bun (ut competence may contract by himself
singuli) sau pot avea n vedere patrimoniul conservation documents, administration
minorului. documents that does not harm him and
Actul juridic civil de administrare al stipulating documents of small value with a
unui bun este acela prin care se urmrete current feature and that is executed at the date
realizarea unei normale puneri n valoare a of their ending
unui bun cum ar fi, de pild, culegerea We notice that, unlike the minor
fructelor sau asigurarea unui bun, iar actele de missing the legal competence, the one having
administrare a patrimoniului sunt actele care a restrained legal competence may contract
n raport cu un anumit bun au caracter de by himself administration contracts that are
dispoziie, dar privite n raport cu ntregul not damaging for him.
patrimoniu vizeaz o judicioas punere n According to the doctrine, the
valoare a acestuia. administration documents may refer to only
Considerm c n sens larg n categoria one good (ut singuli) or they may consider
actelor de administrare a patrimoniului intr i the minors patrimony.
actele de administrare ut singuli. The civil administration document of
Observm c aceast categorie de acte a good is the one by means of which we
a fost trecut din categoria actelor care se follow the accomplishment of a normal
fceau cu ncuviinarea prealabil a putting forward of a good, such as picking the
ocrotitorului legal n categoria actelor care se fruits or providing a good, and the
pot realiza n mod personal i singur de ctre administration documents of the patrimony
minorul avnd vrsta cuprins ntre 14 i 18 are the documents that, in relation to another
ani. good, have a stipulation feature, but regarded
n ce ne privete suntem sceptici n in relation to the entire patrimony, refer to its
legtur cu caracterul benefic al acestei judicious putting forward.
reglementri pentru minorii cuprini n aceast We largely consider that in the

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categorie de vrst. category of administration documents of the


5.3.3. Acte juridice civile pe care le patrimony, there are also the ut singuli
poate ncheia minorul cu capacitate administration documents.
restrns de exerciiu cu ncuviinarea We notice that, this document
prinilor sau, dup caz, a tutorelui. category was passed from the category of
Potrivit art. 146 C. civ. asumat, the documents that were contracted by the
minorul care a mplinit vrsta de 14 ani prior approval of the legal protector in the
ncheie acte juridice cu ncuviinarea scris a category of thee documents that may be
tutorelui sau, dup caz, a curatorului. personally accomplished by the minor
Corobornd aceste aceste prevederi cu himself aged between 14 and 18 years old.
cele ale art. 144 alin 4 C. civ. asumat rezult Regarding us, we are sceptical
c minorul va putea cu ncuviinarea referring to the beneficial feature of this
ocrotitorului legal nstrina bunurile supuse regulation for the minors contained in this
pieirii, degradrii, alterrii ori deprecierii, age category.
precum i cele devenite nefolositoare lui. 5.3.3. Civil juridical documents the
De asemenea, minorul care a mplinit minor having a restrained legal
vrsta de 15 ani va putea ncheia, tot cu competence may contract with the parents
ncuviinarea priniilor ori a tutorelui, acte approval or, depending on the case, with
juridice referitoare la munc, la ndeletnicirile the guardians approval.
artistice i sportive ori la profesie conform
16 According to art. 146 of assumed
prevederilor art. 42 alin 1 C. civ asumat . Civil Code, the minor who has reached 14
5.3.4. Acte juridice pe care le poate years old contracts juridical documents with
ncheia minorul cu capacitate de exerciiu the written approval of the guardian or,
restrns cu ncuviinarea prinilor sau a depending on the case, of the curator.
tutorului, dup caz, cu avizul de familie i cu By corroborating these stipulations
autorizarea instanei de tutel to the ones of art. 144, paragraph 4 of the
Intr n aceast categorie acele acte pe assumed Civil Code, it results that the
care tutorele nu le poate face dect cu avizul
consiliului de familie i cu autorizarea minor will be able to alienate, by the legal
17 protectors approval, the goods submitted to
instanei de tutel . ncheierea acestor acte
disappearance, degradation, alteration or
presupune att avizul consiliului ct i
autorizarea instanei de tutel. depreciation, and also the ones that become
Intr n aceast categorie, potrivit art. useless for him.
144 alin. 2 C. civ. asumat, acte de nstrinare, Also, the minor who has reached 15
acte de mpreal, de ipotec ori de grevare years old will be able to contract, still with
the parents or tutors approval, juridical
cu alte sarcini reale ale bunurilor sale, documents referring to the work, the artistic
renunarea la drepturile sale, alte acte care and sports jobs or to the profession
depesc dreptul de administrare. according to the stipulations of art. 42,
5.3.5. Acte juridice civile interzise paragraph 1 of the assumed Civil Code .
33
minorului de 14 18 ani, ns permise 5.3.4. Juridical documents the
majorului minor having a restrained legal
Astfel de acte interzise minorului ntre competence may contract with the parents
14 18 ani, dar permise persoanei cu or guardians approval, depending on the
capacitate deplin de exerciiu sunt prevzute case, with the family notice and the
de art. 146 alin. 3 i art 147 C. civ. asumat. authorization of the guardian court
Potrivit art. 146 alin. 3 C. civ. asumat This category contains the documents
minorul nu poate s fac donaii, altele dect the guardian may contract only with the
darurile obinuite potrivit strii lui materiale, notice of the family council and with the

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i nici s garanteze obligaia altuia, iar 34


authorization of the guardian court .
conform art. 147 alin. 1 C. civ. asumat este Contracting these documents supposes both
interzis, ncheierea de acte juridice ntre the council notice and the authorization of
tutore sau soul, o rud n linie dreapt ori the guardian court.
fraii sau surorile tutorelui, pe de o parte, i This category contains, according to
minor, pe de alta. art. 144, paragraph 2 of the assumed Civil
Persoana care dobndete capacitate Code, alienating documents, sharing
deplin de exerciiu poate s ncheie personal documents, mortgage documents or
i singur cu excluderea reprezentrii, documents striking with other real targets of
ncuviinrii i autorizrii orice act juridic civil their goods, giving up to their rights, other
de conservare, de administrare, de dispoziie. documents crossing the administration right.
Evident, n principiu poate ncheia astfel de 5.3.5. Civil juridical documents
acte att personal ct i prin reprezentare. forbidden to the minor aged between 14-18
years old, but allowed to the major
6. Sanciunea nerespect rii Such documents forbidden to the
dispoziiilor legale privind capacitatea de minor between 14 18 years old, but allowed
exerciiu a persoanei fizice. to the persons having a full legal competence
are stipulated by art. 146, paragraph 3 and art
Potrivit art. 44 C. civ. asumat, actele 147 of the assumed Civil Code.
fcute de persoana lipsit de capacitate de According to art. 146, paragraph 3 of
exerciiu sau cu capacitate de exerci iu the assumed Civil Code, the minor cannot
restrns , altele dect cele prevzute la art. 41 make donations different from the gifts
alin. (3) i art. 43 alin. (3) sunt lovite de ordinary for his material status, or guarantee
nulitate relativ, chiar fr dovedirea unui anothers obligation, and, according to art.
prejudiciu. 147, paragraph 1 of the assumed Civil Code,
it is forbidden to contract juridical documents
Bibliografie between the guardian or the husband, a
straight line relative or the brothers or sisters
Beleiu, Gh., Drept civil. Persoanele, of the guardian, on one hand, and the minor,
Bucureti, 1982 on the other hand.
Bojinc, M., (coordonator), Drept civil The person gaining a full legal
romn. Persoana juridic, Editura Helios, competence may personally contract by
Craiova, 2000 himself, by excluding the representation,
Boroi, G., Drept civil. Partea general. the approval and the authorization of any
Persoanele, Edi ia a II a, Editura All Beck, civil juridical document of conservation,
Bucureti, 2002 administration, stipulation. Obviously, he
Costin, M. N., Marile instituii ale dreptului may mainly contract such documents both
civil romn. Persoana fizic i persoana personally and by representation.
juridic, Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1984
Sttescu, C., Drept civil. Persoana fizic. 6. The sanction for disrespecting
Persoana juridic. Drepturile reale, Editura the legal stipulations regarding natural
Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1970 persons legal competence.
Vonica, R. P., Drept civi. Partea general,
Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 2001 According to art. 44 of the assumed
Civil Code, the documents contracted by
the persons missing the legal competence or
having a restrained legal competence,
different from the ones stipulated at art. 41,

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paragraph (3) and art. 43, paragraph (3) are


hit by a relative nullity, even without
proving a prejudice.

Bibliography

Beleiu, Gh., Civil Law. Persons, Bucharest,


1982
Bojinc, M., (coordinator), Romanian Civil
Law. Juridical Person, Helios Press,
Craiova, 2000
Boroi, G., Civil Law. General Part. Persons,
Second Edition, All Beck Press, Bucharest,
2002
Costin, M. N., Great Institutions of the
Romanian Civil Law. Physical Person and
Legal Person, Dacia Press, Cluj-Napoca,
1984
Sttescu, C., Civil Law. Physical Person.
Juridical Person. Real Rights, Didactic and
Pedagogical Press, Bucharest, 1970 Vonica,
R. P., Civil Law. General Part, Lumina Lex
Press, Bucharest, 2001

1
Codul civil asumat reprezint coninutul Legii nr. 287/2009 publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea
I, nr. 511 din 24 iulie 2009. Potrivit prevederilor art. 2664 acest cod va intra n vigoare la data care va stabilit n
legea pentru punerea sa n aplicare. Prin alin 2 al acestui articol s-a instituit obligaia Guvernului de a supune
Parlamentului spre adoptare proiectul de lege pentru punerea n aplicare a Codului Civil n termen de 12 luni de
la data publicrii sale. Proiectul de lege pentru punerea n aplicare a Legii nr. 287/2009 privind Codul civil
conine un numr de 216 articole din care cea mai mare parte conin modificri ale acestuia.
2
A se vedea, Gabriel Boroi, Drept civil. Partea general. Persoanele, Ediia a II a, Editura All Beck, Bucureti,
2002, p. 355.
3
Este vorba de art. 16 din Constituia Romniei din 1991, revizuit n 2003, care stipuleaz: (1) Cetenii sunt
egali n faa legii i a autoritilor publice, fr privilegii i fr discriminri. (2) Nimeni nu este mai presus de
lege. (3) Funciile i demnitile publice civile sau militare pot fi ocupate n condiiile legii de persoanele care
au cetenie romn i domiciliul n ar. Statul roman garanteaz egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai pentru
ocuparea acestor funcii i demniti . (4) n condiiile aderrii Romniei la Uniunea European, ceenii Uniunii
care deplinesc cerinele legii organice au dreptul de a alege i de a fi alei n autoritile administraiei publice
locale
4
Articolul 4 din Decretul nr. 31/1954 prevede: Capacitatea civil este recunoscut tuturor persoanelor. Sexul,
rasa, naionalitatea, religia, gradul de cultur sau originea nu au nici o nrurire asupra capacitii.
5
A se vedea, Romul Petru Vonica, Drept civi. Partea general, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 2001, p. 181.
6
Pentru argumentarea tezei potrivit creia capacitatea civil este o capacitate de ramur, respectiv de drept civil,
a se vedea Gheorghe Beleiu, Drept civil. Persoanele, Bucureti, 1982, p. 44-46.
7
A se vedea, Moise Bojinc (coordonator), Drept civil romn. Persoana juridic, Editura Helios, Craiova, 2000,
p. 55.
8
A se vedea, Mircea N. Costin, Marile instituii ale dreptului civil romn. Persoana fizic i persoana juridic,
Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1984, p. 11.
9
A se vedea Moise Bojinc, op. cit., p. 58-61;
10
Capacitatea de exerciiu spre deosebire de capacitatea de folosin nu se caracterizeaz i prin universitate,
ntruct aceasta nu este acordat tuturor persoanelor fizice. Dup cum am vzut unele personae sunt lipsite de

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capacitate de exerciiu, iar altele au doar capacitate restrns de exerciiu i numai unele au capacitate deplin
de exerciiu.
11
A se vedea, Gabriel Boroi, op. cit., p. 367.
12
Constantin Sttescu, Drept civil. Persoana fizic. Persoana juridic. Drepturile reale, Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1970, p. 233, Gheorghe Beleiu, op. cit., p. 114-115.
13
n acest sens, art. 43 alin. 3 din C. civ. asumat prevede c: persoana lipsit de capacitate de exerciiu poate
ncheia singur actele anume prevzute de lege, actele de conservare, precum i actele de dispoziie de mic
valoare, cu caracter curent i care se execut la momentul ncheierii lor.
14
A se vedea, Gheorghe Beleiu, op. cit., p. 46.
15
Avem n vedere imposibilitatea reprezentrii legale, nu i convenionale.
16
Aceast prevedere vine s coreleze textul C. civ. asumat cu prevederile art. 13 alin. 2 din Codul muncii
actualmente n vigoare care precizeaz c: Persoana fizic poate ncheia un contract de munc n calitate de
salariat i la mplinirea vrstei de 15 ani, cu acordul prinilor sau al reprezentanilor legali, pentru activiti
potrivite cu dezvoltarea fizic, aptitudinile i cunotinele sale, dac astfel nu i sunt periclitate sntatea,
dezvoltarea i pregtirea profesional.
17
Potrivit art. 144 alin. 2 C. civ. asumat: Tutorele nu poate, fr avizul consiliului de familie i autorizarea
instanei de tutel, s fac acte de nstrinare, mpreal, ipotecare ori de grevare cu alte sarcini reale a bunurilor
minorului, s renune la drepturile patrimoniale ale acestuia, precum i s ncheie n mod valabil orice alte acte
ce depesc dreptul de administrare.
18
The assumed Civil Code represents the content of Law no. 287/2009 published in the Romanian Official
Gazette, Part I, no. 511 since July, 24th 2009. According to the stipulations of art. 2664, this code will be valid at
the date established by the law for its application. By means of paragraph 2 of this article, it was instituted the
Government obligation to submit to the Parliament in order to adopt the law project for applying the Civil Code
in a 12 months term since it was published. The law project for the application of Law no. 287/2009 regarding
the Civil Code contains 216 articles, most of them containing its changes.
19
See, Gabriel Boroi, Civil Law. General Part. Persons, Second Edition, All Beck Press, Bucharest, 2002, p.
355.
20
It is about art. 16 of the Romanian Constitution since 1991, reviewed in 2003, stipulating: (1) The citizens
are equal in front of the law and of the public authority, with no privileges and discriminations. (2) Nobody is
above the law. (3) The civil or military public functions and dignities may be occupied in the conditions of the
law by the persons having a Romanian citizenship and the residence in the country. The Romanian state
guarantees the chance equality between women and men for the occupancy of these functions and dignities. (4)
In the conditions of Romanias accession to the European Union, the Unions citizens accomplishing the
demands of the organic law have the right to elect and to be elected in the authorities of the local public
administration
21
Article 4 of Decree no. 31/1954 stipulates: The civil capacity is acknowledged to all the persons. Sex, race,
nationality, religion, culture level or origins have no influence on the capacity.
22
See, Romul Petru Vonica, Civil Law. General Part, Lumina Lex Press, Bucharest, 2001, p. 181.
23
For stating the thesis according to which the civil capacity is a branch capacity, respectively of civil law, see
Gheorghe Beleiu, Civil Law. Persons, Bucharest, 1982, p. 44-46.
24
See, Moise Bojinc (coordinator), Romanian Civil Law. Juridical Person, Helios Press, Craiova, 2000, p. 55.
25
See, Mircea N. Costin, Great Institutions of the Romanian Civil Law. Physical Person and Legal Person,
Dacia Press, Cluj-Napoca, 1984, p. 11.
26
See, Moise Bojinc, op. cit., p. 58-61;
27
The exertion capacity, unlike the use capacity is not featured by university, whereas it is not granted to all the
physical persons. As we have seen, certain persons miss their exertion capacity, and others have only a restrained
exertion capacity, and only some of them have a full exertion capacity.
28
See, Gabriel Boroi, op. cit., p. 367.
29
Constantin Sttescu, Civil Law. Physical Person. Juridical Person. Real Rights, Didactic and Pedagogical
Press, Bucharest, 1970, p. 233, Gheorghe Beleiu, op. cit., p. 114-115.
30
In this sense, art. 43, paragraph. 3 of the assumed Civil Code, stipulates that: the person missing the
exertion capacity may contract by himself the documents specifically stipulated by the law, the conservation
documents and also the small value stipulation documents, having a current feature and that are executes at the
time of their contracting.
31
See, Gheorghe Beleiu, op. cit., p. 46.
32
We consider the impossibility of the legal representation, not of the conventional one.

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33
This stipulation correlates the text of the assumed Civil Code with the stipulations of art. 13, paragraph 2 of
the currently valid Work Code specifying that: The physical person may contract a work contract as a wage-
earner also when reaching 15 years old, with the parents or the legal representatives agreement, for activities
adequate to their physical development, aptitudes and knowledge if that does not harm their health, development
and professional training.
34
According to art. 144, paragraph 2 of the assumed Civil Code: Without the notice of the family council and
the authorization of the guardian court, the guardian cannot contract alienating documents, sharing documents,
mortgage documents or documents striking with other real targets of the minors goods, give up their patrimonial
rights, and also validly contract any other documents crossing the administration right.

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