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A Practical Guide

To Build

Electronics Projects!

By

A Practical Guide To Build Electronics Projects! By www.edgefxkits.com You https://twitter.com/edgefxtech
A Practical Guide To Build Electronics Projects! By www.edgefxkits.com You https://twitter.com/edgefxtech
A Practical Guide To Build Electronics Projects! By www.edgefxkits.com You https://twitter.com/edgefxtech
A Practical Guide To Build Electronics Projects! By www.edgefxkits.com You https://twitter.com/edgefxtech
A Practical Guide To Build Electronics Projects! By www.edgefxkits.com You https://twitter.com/edgefxtech

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Introduction We are living in the world of individual self identity making, self empowering and

Introduction

We are living in the world of individual self identity making, self empowering and self motivation. By considering all these aspects, Edgefx Technologies has come out with a practical guide for self building of the electronics projects. This eBook will serve as a practical guide for most of the students or graduates who lack the practical skills for developing even simple electronic circuits.

a in
a
in

This eBook is intended to provide a practical reference for all practicing professionals, students and experienced technicians. This eBook presents the overall information in a concise and precise manner. Ranging from the basic components, circuits to the more complex equipments and devices, this book deals with them all.

equipments and devices, this book deals with them all. This eBook revolves around the implementation of
equipments and devices, this book deals with them all. This eBook revolves around the implementation of
equipments and devices, this book deals with them all. This eBook revolves around the implementation of
equipments and devices, this book deals with them all. This eBook revolves around the implementation of
equipments and devices, this book deals with them all. This eBook revolves around the implementation of

This eBook revolves around the implementation of electronic projects, such as electronics and electrical components’ working, their selection, and assembly in

power circuit including testing, cautions and precautions to consider, in addition to the programming concepts.

This eBook also emphasizes more on the practical application-based examples

order to enhance the knowledge of the reader. In the concluding sections of

this book, some of the questions and answers are discussed that are relevant to the topic to ensure that the reader thinks in an unusual way about various concepts.

- Edgefx Technologies

Table of Contents Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Components Usage and Their Testing Resistors Types of

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Basic Electronic Components Usage and Their Testing

Resistors

Types of Resistors

Methods to Measure Resistance Values

Use of Resistors in Electronic Circuits

Capacitors

Types of Capacitors

How to Know the Value of Capacitors?

Inductors

1.2.1

1.2

1.1.3

1.1.2

1.1.1

1.1

1.2.2

1.3

1.3.1

1.4

1.4.1

1.4.2

1.5

1.5.1

1.5.2

1.6

1.6.1

1.6.2

1.6.3

1.6.4

1.7

1.7.2

1.7.3

1.8

Types of Inductors Diodes Types of Diodes Testing of Diodes
Types of Inductors
Diodes
Types of Diodes
Testing of Diodes

Transistors

Types of Transistors

Testing of Transistors

Introduction to Integrated Circuits (ICs)

Operational Amplifiers

OPAMP Applications

555 Timers

Modes of Operation of a Timer

Switching Devices

Relays

Relay Operations in a Practical Circuit

DC Motors

1

2

4

5

7

7

8

10

10

12

12

15

18

18

19

22

22

22

25

25

33

26

29

29

1.8. 1 Ways to Control the Speed of a DC Motor   29 1.9 Indicating

1.8.

1 Ways to Control the Speed of a DC Motor

 

29

1.9

Indicating Meters

30

1.9.1

Multimeter

30

1.9.2

Types of Multimeters

31

1.10

Microcontroller

32

1.11

Display Systems

33

1.11.1

Types of Display Systems

 

33

1.12

Circuit Designing Boards

35

Chapter 2

 
Soldering procedure while assembling the Components
Soldering procedure while assembling the Components

Soldering procedure while assembling the Components

Soldering procedure while assembling the Components
Soldering procedure while assembling the Components
 

2.1 Soldering

 

36

2.2 Forms of Soldering

2.2 Forms of Soldering
2.2 Forms of Soldering 37

37

2.3 Soldering Tools

 

37

2.4 Entire Soldering Course of Action

 

39

2.5 Steps to Keep in Mind for Soldering Safely?

40

2.6 Tips & Tricks for Soldering

41

Chapter 3

 

Steps for Building an Electronic Circuit

 

3.1 Introduction

 

42

3.2 Regulated DC Power Supply to Run an LED Circuit Design

 

42

3.3 More Examples for Practice

 

49

Chapter 4 Steps for Building Microcontroller based Electronic Circuits 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Steps Involved in

Chapter 4

Steps for Building Microcontroller based Electronic Circuits

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Steps Involved in Developing the Project

4.3 More Examples for Practice on Microcontroller Projects

Chapter 5

A few Common Mistakes While Working on Electronics Workbench

5.1

Common Mistakes While Working on Electronics Workbench 5.1 Common Mistakes while Handling Electronic Circuits Chapter 6
Common Mistakes While Working on Electronics Workbench 5.1 Common Mistakes while Handling Electronic Circuits Chapter 6
Common Mistakes While Working on Electronics Workbench 5.1 Common Mistakes while Handling Electronic Circuits Chapter 6
Common Mistakes While Working on Electronics Workbench 5.1 Common Mistakes while Handling Electronic Circuits Chapter 6

Common Mistakes while Handling Electronic Circuits

Chapter 6

Common Mistakes while Handling Electronic Circuits Chapter 6 57 57 58 64 71 71 Troubleshooting and

57

57

58

64

71

71

Troubleshooting and Testing of an Unhealthy Electronic Circuit

6.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Testing

6.2 Troubleshooting Tools

6.3 Tips for Troubleshooting the Electronics Circuit

Chapter 7

Question and Answers

74

75

75

77

Ending Stuff

86

Ending Stuff 86 • About the Authors • Rights to the Readers • Legal Information •

• About the Authors

• Rights to the Readers

• Legal Information

• Correspondence

Ending Stuff 86 • About the Authors • Rights to the Readers • Legal Information •
Introduction Electronic Project It’s our previlage to introduce this document with some practical examples to

Introduction

Electronic

Project

It’s our previlage to introduce this document with some practical examples to show exactly what electronics projects are all about. The following figure depicts several electrical and electronic components that are assembled in a way to obtain a desired output, and the components include resistors, capacitors, diodes, LEDs and so on.

Push Buttons LED’S IC’s Main Controller Capacitors Diodes Cables/Chords Transformer Resistors
Push Buttons
LED’S
IC’s
Main Controller
Capacitors
Diodes
Cables/Chords
Transformer
Resistors
Multimeter/Indicator
Cables/Chords Transformer Resistors Multimeter/Indicator By observing all these components in this project, one will

By observing all these components in this project, one will acknowledge that before initiating to start, develop, and build any electronic project, the first and foremost thing is to know about all these components – their usage, the way in which they are assembled and tested, their soldering process, trouble shooting methods, results cross checking methods, and so on.

Electronic Project

Furthermore, the way of implementing the project has to come across various levels of platforms like simulation, bread board and printed circuit boards (PCBs). All these levels produce an efficient and reliable end circuit – the one you will find in this document as well.

Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Components’ Usage and Their Testing 1.1 Resistors Resistors are the most

Chapter 1

Basic Electronic Components’ Usage and Their Testing

1.1

Resistors

Components’ Usage and Their Testing 1.1 Resistors Resistors are the most commonly used components in

Resistors are the most commonly used components in electronic circuits and devices. The main purpose of a resistor is to maintain specified values of voltage and current in an electronic circuit. A Resistor works on the principle of Ohm’s law and the law states that the voltage across the terminals of a resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it.

Surface Mount Resistors Wire Wound Resistors Thick film Resistors SIP Network Resistor Thin film resistors
Surface Mount
Resistors
Wire Wound
Resistors
Thick film Resistors
SIP Network Resistor
Thin film resistors
Variable Resistors

1.1.1

Types of Resistors

Wire-wound Resistors

These resistors vary in physical appearance and size. These wire-wound resistors are commonly a length of wires usually made of an alloy such as nickel, chromium, or copper-nickel -manganese alloy. These resistors are the oldest type of resistors with excellent properties like high-power ratings and low-resistive values. During their use, these resistors could become very hot, and for this reason, they are housed in a finned metal case.

and for this reason, they are housed in a finned metal case. Metal-Film Resistor These resistors

Metal-Film Resistor

These resistors are made from metal oxide or small rods of ceramic-coated metal. These are similar to carbon-film resistors, and their resistivity is controlled by the thickness of the coating layer. The properties like reliability, accuracy and stability are all considerably better for these resistors. These resistors can be obtained in a wide range of resistance values (from a few Ohms to millions of Ohms).

2

Thick-film and Thin-film Thin-film resistors are made by sputtering some resistive material on to an

Thick-film and Thin-film

Thin-film resistors are made by sputtering some resistive material on to an insulating substrate (a method of vacuum deposition), and are therefore more expensive than the thick-film resistors. The resistive element of these resistors is approximately 1000 Angstroms. Thin-film resistors possess better temperature coefficients, lower capacitance, low parasitic inductance and low noise. Usually thick-film resistors are made by mixing ceramics with powered glass, and these films have tolerances ranging from 1 to 2%, and a temperature coefficient between + 200 or +250 and -200 or -250, respectively. These are widely available as low-cost resistors and compared to the thin-film, the thick-film resistive element is thousands times thicker.

Surface Mount Resistors

Surface mount resistors come in a variety of packages, sizes and shapes agreed by the EIA (Electronic Industry Alliance). These are made by depositing a film of resistive material and thus lack enough space for color-code bands, owing to their small size.

space for color-code bands, owing to their small size. The tolerance may be as low as

The tolerance may be as low as 0.02%, and consists of 3 or 4 letters as an indication. The smallest size of the 0201 package is a tiny 0.60mm x 0.30mm resistor, and this three-number code works in a similar way to the color-code bands on wire-ended resistors.

similar way to the color-code bands on wire-ended resistors. Network Resistors Network resistors are a combination
similar way to the color-code bands on wire-ended resistors. Network Resistors Network resistors are a combination
similar way to the color-code bands on wire-ended resistors. Network Resistors Network resistors are a combination

Network Resistors

color-code bands on wire-ended resistors. Network Resistors Network resistors are a combination of resistances that give

Network resistors are a combination of resistances that give identical value to all pins. These resistors are available in dual inline and single inline packages. Network resistors are commonly used in applications such as ADC and DAC, pull up or pull down.

Variable Resistors

Most commonly used types of variable resistors are potentiometers and presets. These resistors consist of fixed value of resistance between two terminals and are mostly used for setting the sensitivity of sensors and voltage division. A wiper (moving part of the potentiometer) changes the resistance that can be rotated with the help of a screw driver.

A resistor’s value is calculated in terms of its resistance. Resistance is the opposition to the flow of current.

3

1.1.2 Methods for Measuring Resistance Values To find out the color code of a resistor,

1.1.2 Methods for Measuring Resistance Values

To find out the color code of a resistor, this standard mnemonic is helpful: B B Roy of Great Britain has a Very

Good Wife (BBRGBVGW). This sequential color code helps us to find out the resistor value by merely seeing

the colors on the resistors.

Using color code:

¦ Each resistor consists of a 4, 5, or 6 color bands on its surface. The first three (two) colors represent the resistor value, whereas the 4th (third) color represents the multiplier value, and the last one represents the tolerance.

multiplier value, and the last one represents the tolerance. ¦ The trick here for the easy

¦ The trick here for the easy finding of the value of the resistor is this: remember the third band value. If the third band is black, then ignore that band because it is a multiple of one, and the value of the resistor in terms of two digits is 10,20,50Ohms,respectively.

¦ If the third band is brown, then the value of the resistor is in terms of hundreds, and if it is orange it is something like kilo Ohms. In this way, you can easily find out the value of the resistor by remembering color codes and their numeric values.

Resistors color code

4

Using Multimeter: A simple way to measure resistance is by using a multi-meter. A multi-meter

Using Multimeter:

A simple way to measure resistance is by using a multi-meter. A multi-meter measures the resistance value in

Ohms. There are different types of multi-meters available in the market, which we will discuss in the subsequent pages of this eBook. There are some rules, as mentioned below, that need to be followed prior to testing resistance by using a multi-meter.

followed prior to testing resistance by using a multi-meter. ¦ Put the pointer of the multi-meter

¦ Put the pointer of the multi-meter in Ohms mode.

¦ Place the resistor between the two probes of multi-meter.

¦ If you want a precise resistor value, then change the pointer to a different range, which is indicated in the multimeter as 200, 2k, 200k, etc. Therefore, based on the range of the resistor value, you can change the pointer to get precise value of the resistor.

can change the pointer to get precise value of the resistor. Resistance Testing 1.1.3 Use of
can change the pointer to get precise value of the resistor. Resistance Testing 1.1.3 Use of
can change the pointer to get precise value of the resistor. Resistance Testing 1.1.3 Use of

Resistance Testing

1.1.3 Use of Resistors in Electronic Circuits

1. To limit the current to a circuit operating

range: In the below circuit, the current to the LED

is limited by this resistor because full voltage cannot

be applied to the LED, which may result in burning of the LED when the current reaches to infinite levels.

of the LED when the current reaches to infinite levels. SW1 SW-SPST 1k B1 D1 12V
SW1 SW-SPST 1k B1 D1 12V LED-YELLOW Current Limiting with Resistor
SW1
SW-SPST
1k
B1
D1
12V
LED-YELLOW
Current Limiting with Resistor

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2. As a potential divider: Sometimes the circuit components require reduced voltage levels than the

2. As a potential divider:

Sometimes the circuit components require reduced voltage levels than the actual supplied voltage. At that time, these resistors act as voltage dividers, as shown in the figure. In this combination, the 8K and 4K resistors deliver load voltage (4V) from the actual supplied voltage (12V).

There is also a possibility of connecting the above diagram with some simple modifications for varying the voltage across the load.

modifications for varying the voltage across the load. Resistance as Potential Divider Variable Potential Divider

Resistance as Potential Divider

the voltage across the load. Resistance as Potential Divider Variable Potential Divider In the above diagram,

Variable Potential Divider

In the above diagram, a 4K variable resistor is connected in two configurations: in the first configuration, the

voltage across the load varies between 0 to 4 V, by changing the slider from bottom to top. Similarly, in the second

configuration, the voltage range is same, but the precision of these values is changed because the 4K is by passed from 4K to zero Ohms while the wiper is moved from top to bottom.

portion of the

This is how one can use the resistors in electronic circuits by knowing their values by color codes or by a multimeter placing in accordance with the load requirement.

6

1.2

Capacitors

1.2 Capacitors Capacitor is one of the most widely used components in electronic circuit design. It

Capacitor is one of the most widely used components in electronic circuit design. It plays an important role in many of the embedded applications. It is available at different ratings. It consists of two metal plates separated by a non-conducting substance, or dielectric. A capacitor is a linear passive component used to store electrical charge and provides reactance to the flow of current. Basically, a capacitor consists of a pair of electrodes, between which is an insulated dielectric material. The unit of capacitance is farad.

1.2.1 Types of Capacitors

1. Film Capacitors

FilmFilm CapacitorsCapacitors
FilmFilm CapacitorsCapacitors

Film Capacitors are the most explicitly ready among the numerous types of capacitors, comprising of a generally expansive group of capacitors with the distinction of being in their dielectric properties. They are available in almost any value, and voltages as high as 1500 volts. They come in any tolerance ranging from 10% to 0.01%. The Film

come in any tolerance ranging from 10% to 0.01%. The Film capacitors come with a combination
come in any tolerance ranging from 10% to 0.01%. The Film capacitors come with a combination
come in any tolerance ranging from 10% to 0.01%. The Film capacitors come with a combination
come in any tolerance ranging from 10% to 0.01%. The Film capacitors come with a combination

capacitors come with a combination of shapes and case styles. There are two types of film capacitors: radial lead type and axial lead type. The electrodes of the film capacitors may be metalized aluminum or zinc, applied on one or both sides of the plastic film, resulting in metalized film capacitors called film capacitors.

in metalized film capacitors called film capacitors. 2. Ceramic Capacitors: Ceramic capacitors are used in
in metalized film capacitors called film capacitors. 2. Ceramic Capacitors: Ceramic capacitors are used in

2. Ceramic Capacitors:

Ceramic capacitors are used in high-frequency circuits, such as audio to RF. These are also the best choice for high-frequency compensation in audio circuits. These capacitors are also called as disc capacitors. Ceramic capacitors are made by coating two sides of a small porcelain or ceramic disc with silver, and are then stacked together to make a capacitor. One can make both low-capacitance and high-capacitance in ceramic capacitors by changing the thickness of the ceramic disc used.

CeramicCeramic CapacitorsCapacitors
CeramicCeramic CapacitorsCapacitors

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3.

Electrolytic Capacitors:

3. Electrolytic Capacitors: These are the most prevalently used capacitors possessing a wide tolerance capacity.

These are the most prevalently used capacitors possessing a wide tolerance capacity. Electrolytic capacitors are available with working voltages up to 500V; although the highest capacitance values are not available at high voltage, higher temperature units are available, but uncommon. There are two types of electrolytic capacitors:

tantalum and aluminum.

4. Variable Capacitors

A Variable Capacitor is one whose capacitance may be intentionally and repeatedly changed mechanically. These types of capacitors are used to set the frequency of resonance in LC circuits, for instance, to adjust the radio for impedance matching in antenna tuner devices.

1.2.2 How to Know the Value of Capacitors?

tuner devices. 1.2.2 How to Know the Value of Capacitors? Capacitors value can be found depending
tuner devices. 1.2.2 How to Know the Value of Capacitors? Capacitors value can be found depending
tuner devices. 1.2.2 How to Know the Value of Capacitors? Capacitors value can be found depending
tuner devices. 1.2.2 How to Know the Value of Capacitors? Capacitors value can be found depending
tuner devices. 1.2.2 How to Know the Value of Capacitors? Capacitors value can be found depending

Capacitors value can be found depending on the types of capacitors whether they are color-coded or numbered. In the color-coded capacitors, the values are represented as color bands, and by using a capacitor’s color-code chart, it is easy to identify the capacitor, as shown in the figure.

is easy to identify the capacitor, as shown in the figure. ? 1. shown in the
is easy to identify the capacitor, as shown in the figure. ? 1. shown in the

?

1.

shown in the figure. The first digit indicates first value, the second digit indicates the second value, the third digit is the multiplier, and the fourth alphabet shows the tolerance value.

By identifying the numbers on the capacitor’s body, the value of the capacitor can be known, as

identifying the numbers on the capacitor’s body, the value of the capacitor can be known, as

2.

By the capacitance indicating meters like capacitor meter and LCR meters, the value of

meters like capacitor meter and LCR meters, the value of the capacitor can be known. Capacitor

the capacitor can be known.

and LCR meters, the value of the capacitor can be known. Capacitor Number Identification These capacitors

Capacitor Number Identification

the capacitor can be known. Capacitor Number Identification These capacitors can be used for several functions
the capacitor can be known. Capacitor Number Identification These capacitors can be used for several functions
the capacitor can be known. Capacitor Number Identification These capacitors can be used for several functions
the capacitor can be known. Capacitor Number Identification These capacitors can be used for several functions

These capacitors can be used for several functions like filtering, storing, time-constant-based applications, power-factor-correction equipments, etc. These capacitors are available in different ratings and sizes. The polarization of these capacitors is known by their leads wherein the longer lead is positive and the shorter one is negative.

the longer lead is positive and the shorter one is negative. Precaution: Don’t touch the leads
the longer lead is positive and the shorter one is negative. Precaution: Don’t touch the leads

Precaution: Don’t touch the leads of the capacitor immediately after switching off the circuit as it may cause shock. As the energy is stored in the capacitor, it takes time to discharge. Therefore, it is better to short those terminals for a while to immediately discharge the capacitor.

This is all about the capacitor types and finding their values with simple techniques.

is all about the capacitor types and finding their values with simple techniques. Capacitance Testing with

Capacitance Testing with LCR meter

9

1.3 Inductors An inductor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form

1.3 Inductors

An inductor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of a magnetic field. It generally consists of a conductor coil, which offers resistance to the applied voltage. It works on the basic principle of Faraday’s law of inductance – according to which, a magnetic field is created when a current flows through the wire – and, the electromotive force developed opposes the applied voltage.

1.3.1 Types of Inductors

Air Core Inductors

In this type of inductor, core is completely absent. Air Core Inductors offer high reluctance path for the magnetic flux, thus less inductance. Air core inductors have larger coils to produce higher flux densities. These are used in high-frequency applications including TV and radio receivers.

applications including TV and radio receivers. Ferro Magnetic or Iron Core Inductors Due to their higher

Ferro Magnetic or Iron Core Inductors

and radio receivers. Ferro Magnetic or Iron Core Inductors Due to their higher magnetic permeability, these
and radio receivers. Ferro Magnetic or Iron Core Inductors Due to their higher magnetic permeability, these
and radio receivers. Ferro Magnetic or Iron Core Inductors Due to their higher magnetic permeability, these
and radio receivers. Ferro Magnetic or Iron Core Inductors Due to their higher magnetic permeability, these

Due to their higher magnetic permeability, these inductors have high inductance property. These are high- power inductors but limited in higher frequency capacity due to the hysteresis and eddy current losses.

capacity due to the hysteresis and eddy current losses. Ferrite Core Inductors Types of Inductors These

Ferrite Core Inductors

Types of Inductors

These are the different types of inductors that are advantageous due to decreased cost and low core losses at high frequencies. Ferrite is a ceramic-based metal oxide around a mixture of Ferric Oxide Fe2O3. Soft ferrites are used for the core construction to reduce the hysteresis losses.

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Toroidal Core Inductors In these inductors, a coil is wounded on a toroid circular former.

Toroidal Core Inductors

In these inductors, a coil is wounded on a toroid circular former. Flux leakage is very low in this type of inductor.

However, special winding machines are required to design this type of inductor. Sometimes ferrite core is also used to decrease the losses in the design.

Bobbin based Inductors

In this type, coil is wound on the bobbin. Bobbin wound inductor designs vary widely in terms of power rating,

voltage and current levels, operating frequency, etc. These are mostly used in switch-mode power supplies and power-conversion applications.

Multi Layer Inductors

A multilayer inductor contains two conductive coil patterns that are arranged in two layers in the upper part of a

multi-layered body. The coils are connected electrically in a consecutive manner in series to two more conductive

in a consecutive manner in series to two more conductive coil patterns disposed in the lower
in a consecutive manner in series to two more conductive coil patterns disposed in the lower
in a consecutive manner in series to two more conductive coil patterns disposed in the lower
in a consecutive manner in series to two more conductive coil patterns disposed in the lower

coil patterns disposed in the lower part of the multi-layered body. These are mainly used in mobile communication systems and noise suppression applications.

communication systems and noise suppression applications. Thin Film Inductors These are completely different from the
communication systems and noise suppression applications. Thin Film Inductors These are completely different from the

Thin Film Inductors

These are completely different from the conventional chip-type inductors, and are wound with a copper wire.

In this type, tiny inductors are formed using thin-film processing to create the chip inductor for high-

frequency applications, which ranges from nano Henry.

These are available in different sizes and ratings and the functions of these inductors include filtration, storing of magnetic energy, flux creation, high-voltage building and opposing sudden changes in current. These inductors can be tested by using inductance meters or LCR meters.

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1.4

Diodes

1.4 Diodes A Diode is a device that restricts a current flow only in one direction.

A Diode is a device that restricts a current flow only in one direction. A diode is generally a combination of two

differently doped regions forming a junction at the intersection such that the junction controls the flow of the charge through the device. These are the main diodes: P-N junction diodes, Photo-sensitive diodes, Zener diodes, Schottky diodes, Varactor diodes, Photo- sensitive diodes including LEDs, Photo diodes and Photo-voltaic cells.

1.4.1 Types of Diodes

I. P-N Junction Diode

A P-N junction is a semiconductor device, which is formed by a P-type and an N-type semiconductor material. The

P-type has high concentration of holes and the N-type has high concentration of electrons. Holes diffusion is from P-type to N-type, and electron diffusion is from N-type to P-type. P-N Junction diode can be used as a rectifier which allows the current to flow in one direction through proper connection. The applications of these diodes

include:

Rectifiers in DC power supply Demodulation circuits
Rectifiers in DC power supply
Demodulation circuits

Clipping and clamping networks

Rectifiers in DC power supply Demodulation circuits • • • Clipping and clamping networks Rectifier Circuit

Rectifier Circuit

12

II.

Zener Diode:

II. Zener Diode: It is a diode made up of heavily doped P region compared to

It is a diode made up of heavily doped P region compared to the N-region, such that it not only allows current flow

in one direction, but also allows the current flow in the opposite direction as well, on the application of sufficient

voltage crossing its breakdown region.

Zener Diode as a voltage regulator: In a DC circuit, a Zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator, or as a

voltage reference. The main use of a Zener diode lies in the fact that the voltage across a Zener diode remains

constant for a larger change in input voltage. This makes it possible to use a Zener diode as a constant voltage

device or a voltage regulator.

Zener Diode as a voltage reference: In power supplies and many other circuits, a Zener diode is applicable as a

constant voltage provider, or as a voltage reference. The only condition is that the input voltage should be greater

than the Zener voltage, and the series resistor should have a minimum value such that the maximum current

should have a minimum value such that the maximum current flows through the device is limited
should have a minimum value such that the maximum current flows through the device is limited
should have a minimum value such that the maximum current flows through the device is limited
should have a minimum value such that the maximum current flows through the device is limited

flows through the device is limited to its rated wattage.

flows through the device is limited to its rated wattage. Zener Diode as a voltage clamper:

Zener Diode as a voltage clamper: In a circuit involving

AC input source, which is different from the normal P-N diode clamping circuit, a Zener diode can also be used. The

diode can be used to limit the peak of the output voltage to

Zener voltage at one side and to nearly about a 0V at the other side of the sinusoidal waveform.

a

Applications of Zener Diode

13

III.

Light Emitting Diode: It is a special type of P-N junction diode made from the semiconductors like

type of P-N junction diode made from the semiconductors like Gallium Arsenide, which emits light when

Gallium Arsenide, which emits light when a suitable voltage is applied. The light emitted by the LED is monochromatic, i.e., of single color, corresponding to a particular frequency in the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum.

in the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Applications of Zener Diode Miniature LEDs Miniature LEDs

Applications of Zener Diode

of the electromagnetic spectrum. Applications of Zener Diode Miniature LEDs Miniature LEDs are available in the

Miniature LEDs

spectrum. Applications of Zener Diode Miniature LEDs Miniature LEDs are available in the market with a
spectrum. Applications of Zener Diode Miniature LEDs Miniature LEDs are available in the market with a
spectrum. Applications of Zener Diode Miniature LEDs Miniature LEDs are available in the market with a

Miniature LEDs are available in the market with a standard size and shape. These LEDs have less than 3mm diameter, and come with a ready to fit mode; with that they can be directly mounted on the circuit boards. These LEDs don’t need support of any additional cooling systems. In the range of 5v and 12v, different companies manufacture these LEDs.

of 5v and 12v, different companies manufacture these LEDs. LED Stripes These LED stripes consist of
of 5v and 12v, different companies manufacture these LEDs. LED Stripes These LED stripes consist of

LED Stripes

These LED stripes consist of high-powered LEDs that are placed on a thin-flexible circuit board and the backside of the strip is coated with an adhesive material. Once the power is applied to the LED strip, the whole length of the strip is illuminated producing a forward light.

High-power LEDs come with different sizes and shapes and a very high output. These LEDs have heat dissipation so they need to be mounted along with a cooling system (heat sinks), and they can run over 60,000 burning hours.

Applications of Specific LEDs

As the name indicates these are exclusively manufactured for a particular application only. These applications include digital display boards in various annunciation systems, digital bill boards, bi color and tri-color LEDs. A bicolor LED consists of two diodes mounted on a single frame with two pins, in which one pin is anode or cathode. At different times, this LED can produce two colors while it is in a forward-bias or reverse-bias condition. Similar to a bicolor diode, a tri color LED consists of two diodes mounted on a single frame, but with three pins.

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IV.

Photo Diode: It is a special type of P-N junction diode whose resistance decreases when light falls

junction diode whose resistance decreases when light falls on it. It consists of a P-N junction

on it. It consists of a P-N junction diode placed inside a plastic enclosure.

The P-N junction may be exposed or packaged with a window to allow light to enter into the P-N junction. Under the forward-biased state, current passes from the anode to the cathode, while in the reverse-biased state, the current flows in the reverse direction only if it faces light.

V. Tunnel Diode: It is a heavily doped P-N junction diode wherein the current decreases with

increasing forward voltage. The junction width is reduced with increasing impurity concentration. It is made from Germanium or Gallium Arsenide.

1.4.2 Testing of Diodes

In multimeter apart from the resistance, current, voltage modes, there is also a diode mode to check various active components working like P-N junction, Zener, LEDs, etc.

components working like P-N junction, Zener, LEDs, etc. PN Diode: ¦ Identify the anode and cathode
components working like P-N junction, Zener, LEDs, etc. PN Diode: ¦ Identify the anode and cathode
components working like P-N junction, Zener, LEDs, etc. PN Diode: ¦ Identify the anode and cathode
components working like P-N junction, Zener, LEDs, etc. PN Diode: ¦ Identify the anode and cathode

PN Diode:

working like P-N junction, Zener, LEDs, etc. PN Diode: ¦ Identify the anode and cathode terminals

¦ Identify the anode and cathode terminals of the diode in which the white-band side terminal is cathode and the remaining is anode. Therefore, connect red probe to the anode and a black to the cathode, and thus it remains in a forward-biased mode.

¦ If the display shows some resistance value, it means that the diode is functioning properly. If it does not show anything, such as 1, it may to be defective. Similarly, interchange the probes by connecting the diode in a reverse-bias mode; if it shows some value of resistance, the diode is defective because the diode should not conduct in reverse bias. If it does show anything, which means it is not a good one.

diode should not conduct in reverse bias. If it does show anything, which means it is

15

Testing of Diode

LED: ¦ Similar to a P-N diode, LED polarities are also recognized by its leads

LED:

¦ Similar to a P-N diode, LED polarities are also recognized by its leads like longer and shorter for the anode and cathode terminals, respectively. However, some more methods include flat surface structure that indicates the cathode, and while in a transparent mode, the bigger terminal is a cathode and the smaller one is an anode.

terminal is a cathode and the smaller one is an anode. LED Terminals Identification ¦ In

LED Terminals Identification

the smaller one is an anode. LED Terminals Identification ¦ In this way, one can recognize
the smaller one is an anode. LED Terminals Identification ¦ In this way, one can recognize

¦ In this way, one can recognize the terminals of the LED. For testing the LED, connect it in the forward-biased mode with a multimeter by placing it in the diode mode. If this glow, it means that it functions properly, or else it is a defective one. These LEDs are very sensitive to heat; therefore, take precaution while soldering them onto the PCB.

take precaution while soldering them onto the PCB. The IR LEDs look like white LEDs, but
take precaution while soldering them onto the PCB. The IR LEDs look like white LEDs, but
take precaution while soldering them onto the PCB. The IR LEDs look like white LEDs, but
take precaution while soldering them onto the PCB. The IR LEDs look like white LEDs, but

The IR LEDs look like white LEDs, but while these are connected to a circuit board they emit infrared light, which can be sensed by the sensor placed opposite to them. Therefore, the testing is similar to a normal P-N diode which is in a forward-bias condition, and thus shows some reading in multimeter, while in the reverse-bias condition, it doesn’t show anything. Moreover, it doesn’t glow in either of the case.

Photo Diode

¦ Testing of photo diode is not simple because only light falling on it makes photo diode to conduct. So with multi meter in diode mode it is not possible to test this but another method is placing the multimeter in high resistance mode approximately that is selecting the 2000K.

¦ Afterwards connect the diode in reverse bias condition and allow some light on it, if multimeter reading changes with changes in light falling on it indicates that the diode works fine otherwise it is defective.

reading changes with changes in light falling on it indicates that the diode works fine otherwise

16

Zener Diode ¦ Testing of the Zener diode with the multimeter is not simple because

Zener Diode

¦ Testing of the Zener diode with the multimeter is not simple because the diode needs extra circuitry to know its rating. In most of the circuits, many technicians get confused to find whether the diode is a normal one or a Zener diode because the Zener diode looks like a normal diode.

¦ The figure depicted below shows how the Zener diode can be tested with a multimer. In this setup, the Zener diode is connected in series with a resistance to the main DC power supply. The measured output voltage across this diode must be, to a certain extent, somewhat less than the main Dc voltage because the Zener diode conducts only in a reverse-biased condition. If an entire main power is indicated across the Zener diode, then it could be a normal diode or the rated voltage is less than the supply voltage or the Zener is open.

is less than the supply voltage or the Zener is open. Zener Diode Testing ¦ In

Zener Diode Testing

¦ In this setup the testing is simulated, wherein 12V from the battery is applied to the Zener diode through a resistor. The voltage across the zener diode is approximately 6.2V because the rating of the Zener diode is 6V. So, this diode is functioning properly.

6.2V because the rating of the Zener diode is 6V. So, this diode is functioning properly.

Testing of Zener Diode

17

1.5

Transistors

1.5 Transistors Transistors are the devices that generally transform resistance from one part of the circuit

Transistors are the devices that generally transform resistance from one part of the circuit to another. Transistors can be voltage-controlled or current-controlled. A transistor can work as an amplifier or as a solid state switch.

1.5.1 Types of Transistors

1. BJT or Bipolar Junction Transistor:

A BJT is a current-controlled device consists of a layer of N-type semiconductor material sandwiched between

two layers of P-type semiconductor material. It consists of three terminals: an emitter, a base and a collector. The

collector-base junction is less doped compared to the emitter-base junction. The emitter-base junction is forward-biased, whereas the collector base junction is reverse biased in normal transistor operation. Bipolar Junction Transistors comes as two types, P-N-P and N-P-N.

Junction Transistors comes as two types, P-N-P and N-P-N. P-N-P transistor consists of a layer of

P-N-P transistor consists of a layer of N-doped semiconductor material between the two layers of P-doped material. The base current entering in the collector is amplified at its output. That is when the PNP transistor is on wherein its base is pulled low relative to the emitter. The arrows of the P-N-P transistor symbol the direction of current flow when the device is in the forward-active mode.

current flow when the device is in the forward-active mode. N-P-N transistor consists of a layer
current flow when the device is in the forward-active mode. N-P-N transistor consists of a layer
current flow when the device is in the forward-active mode. N-P-N transistor consists of a layer
current flow when the device is in the forward-active mode. N-P-N transistor consists of a layer
current flow when the device is in the forward-active mode. N-P-N transistor consists of a layer

N-P-N transistor consists of a layer of P-doped semiconductor between the two layers of N-doped material. By

amplifying the current at the base, we get the high collector and emitter current. That is when the N-P-N transistor

is on wherein its base is pulled low relative to the emitter.

When the transistor is in on state, the current

flow is in between the collector and the emitter

of

the transistor. Based on the minority carriers

in

the P-type region, the electrons move from

the emitter towards the collector. It allows greater current and faster operations; Owing to this single reason, most of the bipolar transistors in use today are NPN.

operations; Owing to this single reason, most of the bipolar transistors in use today are NPN.

Types of Transistors

18

2.

FET or Field Effect Transistor

2. FET or Field Effect Transistor A FET is a voltage controlled device. The Ohmic contacts

A FET is a voltage controlled device. The Ohmic contacts are taken from the two sides of the N type bar. It

consists of three terminals: a Gate, a Drain and a Source. The voltage applied across the Gate-Source and the Drain-Source terminal controls the flow of the current through the device.

is generally a high-resistance device. It can be a JFET (junction Field effect transistor), which consists of an N- type substrate, on the side of which a bar of the opposite type, or a MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET) is

It

deposited,

which consists of an insulated layer of silicon oxide between the metallic Gate contact and the

substrate.

Including the above transistors, some of the switching devices used in the electronic circuits are given below.

TRIACS or SCR

An SCR or Silicon Controlled Rectifier is a three terminal device which is generally used as a solid

a three terminal device which is generally used as a solid state switch in power electronics.

state switch in power electronics. It is a combination of two back-to-back diodes having 3 junctions. The current through the SCR flows because of the voltage applied across the anode and cathode, and it

is

controlled by the voltage applied across the Gate

terminal. It is also used as a rectifier in AC circuits.

1.5.2 Testing of Transistors BJT

Transistor Terminals Identification

¦ Before testing a transistor we have to identify the terminal of it, and to know that, turn the flat surface of the transistor up, so the extreme left one is a collector, the middle is base and the right one is an emitter, as shown in the figure. For the N-P-N and P-N-P transistor’s identification, we should know the series numbers such as BC547, 548, 549, which are all NPN transistors in which the arrow represents downwards. Though this is a very common configuration, many special types have a different configuration.

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¦ Before testing a transistor we have to identify the terminal of it, and to

¦ Before testing a transistor we have to identify the terminal of it, and to know that, turn the flat surface of the transistor up, so the extreme left one is a collector, the middle is base and the right one is an emitter, as shown in the figure. For the N-P-N and P-N-P transistor’s identification, we should know the series numbers such as BC547, 548, 549, which are all NPN transistors in which the arrow represents downwards. Though this is a very common configuration, many special types have a different configuration.

¦ For testing a transistor, one must have to imagine that the diodes are connected between the base to the collector and the base to the emitter pins, but there is no diode in between the emitter and the collector.

¦ Similarly, it shows some value for the base to the emitter, but nothing for the collector to the emitter,

and if this happens for an N-P-N transistor, then it works fine, otherwise it is defective. Repeat the same process for a P-N-P transistor by connecting probes in a reversed order to the process done for P-N transistor.

¦ We can thus use these transistors for several functions, but most of the projects use transistors as switches. The way in which these transistors are connected to the electronic projects is described below.

are connected to the electronic projects is described below. Transistor Testing ¦ In the above circuit,

Transistor Testing

¦ In the above circuit, if the base to the emitter path is closed, which means, the current passes only from

the collector to the emitter while the LED glows. This means that when the base is high, then the LED is turned on because it is then grounded via emitter. In this way, a transistor is used as a switch in most of the cases.

20

is then grounded via emitter. In this way, a transistor is used as a switch in

Transistor as Switch

MOSFET ¦ The terminals are identified by placing the flat surface to the ground, and

MOSFET

¦ The terminals are identified by placing the flat surface to the ground, and then starting from the left these are represented as a gate, a drain and a source, as shown in the figure. For testing an N-chanel MOSFET with a multimeter, put the red probe at the gate, and the black at the source by putting the multimeter in a resistance mode. The multimeter then shows some low resistance between the drain and the source.

shows some low resistance between the drain and the source. MOSFET Testing ¦ Next, reverse the

MOSFET Testing

¦ Next, reverse the probes, this time the multimeter shows very-high resistance. If these conditions are satisfied, then the MOSFET is healthier. However, if both cases show same or very-low value, then it is defective. The MOSFETs are of N and P types, but most popularly the N-type is preferred for high-frequency switching operations.

N-type is preferred for high-frequency switching operations. Thyristor or SCR ¦ For testing a thyristor, we
N-type is preferred for high-frequency switching operations. Thyristor or SCR ¦ For testing a thyristor, we
N-type is preferred for high-frequency switching operations. Thyristor or SCR ¦ For testing a thyristor, we
N-type is preferred for high-frequency switching operations. Thyristor or SCR ¦ For testing a thyristor, we
N-type is preferred for high-frequency switching operations. Thyristor or SCR ¦ For testing a thyristor, we

Thyristor or SCR

¦ For testing a thyristor, we have to identify the terminals from the figure, and the testing involves keeping the meter in resistance mode because we have to apply some current to it. Then short the anode and gate terminals because without triggering by gate it cannot conduct. Therefore, we can observe some reading on the meter due to its conduction even after the short is removed, otherwise the Thyristor is defective.

¦ Right side circuit shows the thyristor conduction test wherein shorting the anode and gate for a moment causes the lights to

the anode and gate for a moment causes the lights to Thyristor Testing turn on. The

Thyristor Testing

turn on. The light can be turned off either by removing the power supply or by applying a reverse voltage across the thyristor as shown in the other switch of the figure.

¦ Follow the same procedure for finding the terminals and testing of TRIAC.

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1.6 Introduction to Integrated circuits (Ics) 1.6.1 Operational Amplifiers Operational amplifiers are the basic building

1.6 Introduction to Integrated circuits (Ics)

1.6.1 Operational Amplifiers

Operational amplifiers are the basic building blocks of analogue electronic circuits. They are linear devices with all properties of a DC amplifier. We can use external resistors or capacitors to the Op Amp in many different ways to make different forms of amplifies such as Inverting amplifier, Non-inverting amplifier, Voltage follower, Comparator, Differential amplifier, Summing amplifier, Integrator, etc. Op Amps may be single, dual, quad, and so on.

1.6.2 OPAMP applications

1.

Amplification

The amplified output signal from the Op Amp is the difference between the two input signals.

the Op Amp is the difference between the two input signals. The diagram shown above is

The diagram shown above is the Op-Amp simple connection. If both the inputs are supplied with the same voltage, the Op Amp then takes the difference between the two voltages and it becomes 0. The Op Amp multiplies this with its gain 1,000,000 so the output voltage is 0. When 2 volts is given to one input and 1 volt to the other, then the Op Amp takes its difference and multiplies it with the gain – that is, 1 volt x 1,000,000. But this gain is very high, so to reduce the gain, the feedback from the output to the input is usually done through a resistor.

the output to the input is usually done through a resistor. Vcc + Output - Gnd
the output to the input is usually done through a resistor. Vcc + Output - Gnd
the output to the input is usually done through a resistor. Vcc + Output - Gnd
the output to the input is usually done through a resistor. Vcc + Output - Gnd
the output to the input is usually done through a resistor. Vcc + Output - Gnd
Vcc + Output - Gnd
Vcc
+
Output
-
Gnd

Operational Amplifier

The diagram shown above is the Op-Amp simple connection. If both the inputs are supplied with the same voltage, the Op Amp then takes the difference between the two voltages and it becomes 0. The Op Amp multiplies this with its gain 1,000,000 so the output voltage is 0. When 2 volts is given to one input and 1 volt to the other, then the Op Amp takes its difference and multiplies it with the gain – that is, 1 volt x 1,000,000. But this gain is very high, so to reduce the gain, the feedback from the output to the input is usually done through a resistor.

22

Inverting Amplifier Inverting Amplifier Two resistors R1 and R2 are connected in the circuit in

Inverting Amplifier

Inverting Amplifier Inverting Amplifier Two resistors R1 and R2 are connected in the circuit in such

Inverting Amplifier

Two resistors R1 and R2 are connected in the circuit in such a fashion that R1 feeds the input signal while R2 returns the output to the Inverting input. Here, when the input signal is positive the output remains negative and vice versa. The voltage change at the output relative to the input depends on the ratio of the resistors R1 and R2. R1 is selected as 1K and R2 as 10K. If the input receives 1 volt – and, due to voltage gain R2/R1, which is 60K/10K = 6 – the output becomes 6V.

gain R2/R1, which is 60K/10K = 6 – the output becomes 6V. Non-inverting Amplifier The circuit
gain R2/R1, which is 60K/10K = 6 – the output becomes 6V. Non-inverting Amplifier The circuit
gain R2/R1, which is 60K/10K = 6 – the output becomes 6V. Non-inverting Amplifier The circuit
gain R2/R1, which is 60K/10K = 6 – the output becomes 6V. Non-inverting Amplifier The circuit
gain R2/R1, which is 60K/10K = 6 – the output becomes 6V. Non-inverting Amplifier The circuit
gain R2/R1, which is 60K/10K = 6 – the output becomes 6V. Non-inverting Amplifier The circuit

Non-inverting Amplifier

The circuit shown above is a Non-inverting amplifier. Here, the Non-inverting input receives the signal while the Inverting input is connected between R2 and R1. When the input signal moves either positive or negative, the output will be in phase and keeps the voltage at the inverting input same as that of Non-inverting input. The voltage gain in this case will be always higher than 1 so (1+R2/R1).

Vcc Input + Output - R2 R1 Gnd Non-inverting Amplifier
Vcc
Input
+
Output
-
R2
R1
Gnd
Non-inverting Amplifier

23

2.

Voltage Follower

2. Voltage Follower Here, it provides high-input impedance and low-output impedance for the signal .When the

Here, it provides high-input impedance and low-output impedance for the signal .When the input voltage changes, the output and the inverting input will change equally. These are also used as buffers in logic circuits.

equally. These are also used as buffers in logic circuits. Voltage Follower 3. Comparator Operational amplifier

Voltage Follower

3. Comparator

Operational amplifier compares the voltage applied at one input to the voltage applied at the other input. When the voltages supplied to both the inputs are of the same magnitude and the same polarity, then the Op- Amp output is 0Volts. In the below circuit, the voltage at non -inverting terminal “+” is +3V, and at the inverting terminal “-”is 2.5V. So the output is high, and therefore, the LED glows. In this way, one can use this Op-Amp as comparator in electronic circuits. Most of the digital applications and electronic projects use this Op-Amp mainly as a comparator circuit.

projects use this Op-Amp mainly as a comparator circuit. Some of the Op-Amps are internally pulled
projects use this Op-Amp mainly as a comparator circuit. Some of the Op-Amps are internally pulled
projects use this Op-Amp mainly as a comparator circuit. Some of the Op-Amps are internally pulled
projects use this Op-Amp mainly as a comparator circuit. Some of the Op-Amps are internally pulled
projects use this Op-Amp mainly as a comparator circuit. Some of the Op-Amps are internally pulled
projects use this Op-Amp mainly as a comparator circuit. Some of the Op-Amps are internally pulled

Some of the Op-Amps are internally pulled up and some are not. LM324 is internally pulled up, where as LM339 is not. So without the resistor R2, as shown in the above figure, it will not work.

as LM339 is not. So without the resistor R2, as shown in the above figure, it

Op Amp as a Comparator

24

1.6.3 555 Timers 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit used in a variety of

1.6.3 555 Timers

555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit used in a variety of applications like Timer, multi-vibrator, pulse generation, oscillators, etc. It is a stable timer capable of producing fairly accurate timing pulses. With a mono-stable operation, the delay is controlled by one external resistor and one capacitor. With a stable operation, the frequency and duty cycles are accurately controlled by two external resistors and one capacitor.

1.6.4 Modes of Operation of Timer

555 timers possess three operating modes: mono-stable, a stable, and bi-stable. Each mode represents a different type of circuit that has a particular output.

Astable Mode (Free Running Mode)

An a stable mode has no stable state, and therefore, referred to as astable mode. The output continuously switches state between high and low without any invention from the user, called wave. This mode of operation can be used for controlling the speed of a motor by continuously switching the motor on and off at regular intervals of time, as used in flash lamps and LEDs. It can be used as a clock pulse for the digital IC circuits. It can also be used as a frequency divider and as a pulse with modulator also.

as a frequency divider and as a pulse with modulator also. In astable multi-vibrator mode, the
as a frequency divider and as a pulse with modulator also. In astable multi-vibrator mode, the
as a frequency divider and as a pulse with modulator also. In astable multi-vibrator mode, the
as a frequency divider and as a pulse with modulator also. In astable multi-vibrator mode, the
as a frequency divider and as a pulse with modulator also. In astable multi-vibrator mode, the
as a frequency divider and as a pulse with modulator also. In astable multi-vibrator mode, the

In astable multi-vibrator mode, the pin2 and pin6 are shortened. The connections remaining constant for pin no 4 and 8, reset pin is connected to positive power supply and pin3 is the output. Capacitor c1 charges via R2 and R3. When the voltage across the capacitor is 2/3 of the supply, the threshold comparator senses this and flips the internal circuitry to the other state.

the threshold comparator senses this and flips the internal circuitry to the other state. Astable Mode

Astable Mode of 555 Timers

25

Then the output becomes low and discharge transistor turns on. The capacitor now discharges through

Then the output becomes low and discharge transistor turns on. The capacitor now discharges through resistor R2 voltage drops to 1/3 of the supply voltage. At this instant, the ’trigger’ comparator senses the capacitor voltage and flips the circuit back to its initial state. The cycle continuously repeats, and the output is a rectangular waveform. The output is high while the capacitor charges and low while the capacitor discharges, and also the charging period is more compared to the discharging period as charging involves two resistors, but for discharging one resistor is involved, which is shown in the figure.

Mono-Stable Mode (One-Shot)

In this mode of operation, the output stays in low state until it gives a low-trigger input. This type of operation is used in “push to operate” systems. When a triggering input is given by the push button, as shown in the below figure, then the output goes a high state and comes back to its original state after the RC time constant of R6C3.

Monostable multi vibrators have only one stable state that remains as such until an input pulse occurs, and if the pin no. 6 and 7 are shorted, it is called a monostable multi vibrator. It produces a single pulse when it is in triggering state, and then goes back to its normal state after RC period of time. The output is high while the input is low, and the output is low while the input is high.

input is low, and the output is low while the input is high. Mono-Stable Mode of

Mono-Stable Mode of Timer

Bistable Mode (Schmitt Trigger)

In the bi-stable state it has two stable states. Taking the trigger input low, makes the output of the circuit high; taking the reset input low, makes the output of the circuit to go into a low state. This mode can be used in automated railway system.

These are the timer based operations, and we normally use monostable and astable operations while implementing projects. Therefore, the readers have to understand these circuits while facing complex circuits.

25

1.7 Switching Devices Switch is an electro-mechanical component that can make or break an electrical

1.7 Switching Devices

Switch is an electro-mechanical component that can make or break an electrical circuit automatically or manually. A switch mainly works with on (open) and off (closed) mechanism. Numerous circuits hold switches that control how the circuit works or actuate different characteristics of the circuit. The classification of switches depends on the connection they make. Two vital components that confirm what sorts of connections a switch makes are pole and throw.

The terms pole and throw are also used to describe switch contact variations. The number of “poles” is the number of separate circuits that are controlled by a switch. The number of “throws” is the number of separate positions that the switch can adopt. A single-throw switch has one pair of contacts that can either be closed or opened. A double-throw switch has a contact that can be connected to either of the two other contacts; a triple-throw has a contact that can be connected to one of the three other contacts.

that can be connected to one of the three other contacts. SPST A two terminals. The
that can be connected to one of the three other contacts. SPST A two terminals. The
that can be connected to one of the three other contacts. SPST A two terminals. The
that can be connected to one of the three other contacts. SPST A two terminals. The
that can be connected to one of the three other contacts. SPST A two terminals. The

SPST

A

two terminals. The power supply to a circuit is switched by the SPST switch. These types of switches are also called as toggle switches. A toggle switch has two contacts: one is input and the other, output. From the typical light switch diagram, it controls one wire (pole) and makes one connection (throw). This

Single Pole Single throw (SPST) is a basic on or off switch that just connects or breaks the connection between

switch that just connects or breaks the connection between is an on or off switch. When

is an on or off switch. When the switch is closed or on, then the current flows through the terminals and the bulb in the circuit glows.

the switch is closed or on, then the current flows through the terminals and the bulb

SPST Switch

26

SPDT The single pole double throw (SPDT) switch is a three terminal switch: one for

SPDT

The single pole double throw (SPDT) switch is a three terminal switch: one for input and the other two for the outputs. It connects a common terminal to one or the other to two other terminals. For using the SPDT as SPST switch, just use the COM terminal instead of other terminals.

just use the COM terminal instead of other terminals. SPST Switch The above circuit diagram clearly

SPST Switch

The above circuit diagram clearly demonstrates the process when the SPDT switch is moved back and forth. This type of switches is used in a three-way circuit to turn a light on or

off from two locations: one from the top and the other from the bottom of a stairway. When the switch A is closed, then the current flows through the terminal and only the light A remains on, and the light B remains off. When the switch B is closed, then the current flows through the terminal and only the light B remains on and the light A goes off. In this setup, the two circuits or paths are controlled by one way or source.

two circuits or paths are controlled by one way or source. And, the other types of
two circuits or paths are controlled by one way or source. And, the other types of
two circuits or paths are controlled by one way or source. And, the other types of
two circuits or paths are controlled by one way or source. And, the other types of

And, the other types of switches include DPST, DPDT and reed switches, but most of the projects use the above discussed two basic switches.

of the projects use the above discussed two basic switches. 1.7.2 Relays Relays are the primary

1.7.2 Relays

Relays are the primary protection as well as switching devices in most of the control processes or equipments. All the relays respond to one or more electrical quantities like voltage or current such that they open or close the contacts or circuits.

Classification or the types of relays depend on the function for which they are used. Some of the categories include protective, reclosing, regulating, auxiliary and monitoring relays.

27

include protective, reclosing, regulating, auxiliary and monitoring relays. 27 Attraction Type Electromagnetic Relay

Attraction Type Electromagnetic Relay

Attraction Type Electromagnetic Relays These relays can work with both AC and DC supply and

Attraction Type Electromagnetic Relays

These relays can work with both AC and DC supply and attract a metal bar or a piece of metal when power is supplied to the coil. This can be a plunger being drawn towards the solenoid or an armature being attracted towards the poles of an electromagnet, as shown in the figure. These relays don’t have any time delays so these are used for instantaneous operation.

time delays so these are used for instantaneous operation. Induction Type Relays Induction Type Relay These

Induction Type Relays

Induction Type Relay

These are used as protective relays in AC systems alone and are usable with DC systems. The actuating force for contacts movement is developed by a moving conductor that may be a disc or a cup, through the interaction of electromagnetic fluxes due to fault currents. These are of several types like shaded pole, watt-hour and induction cup structures and are mostly used as directional relays in power-system protection and also for high-speed switching operation applications.

and also for high-speed switching operation applications. Solid State Relays Solid State uses solid state components
and also for high-speed switching operation applications. Solid State Relays Solid State uses solid state components
and also for high-speed switching operation applications. Solid State Relays Solid State uses solid state components
and also for high-speed switching operation applications. Solid State Relays Solid State uses solid state components
and also for high-speed switching operation applications. Solid State Relays Solid State uses solid state components
and also for high-speed switching operation applications. Solid State Relays Solid State uses solid state components

Solid State Relays

Solid State uses solid state components to perform the switching operation without moving any parts. The control energy required is much lower compared to the output power to be controlled by this relay that results in the power gain, which is higher when compared to the electromagnetic relays.

These are of different types: reed relay coupled SSR, transformer coupled SSR, photo-coupled SSR, and so on.

relays. These are of different types: reed relay coupled SSR, transformer coupled SSR, photo-coupled SSR, and

28

1.7.3 Relay Operation in practical circuit In most of the electronic circuits relays are used

1.7.3 Relay Operation in practical circuit

In most of the electronic circuits relays

are used as isolation devices for isolating a signal level circuit from the power level circuit. In the below figure, a relay is used to switch the load as well as to isolate this load from the electronic circuit due to different voltage levels. When the switch SW1 is closed, the relay coil gets the supply from a battery through a transistor. This coil emerging attracts the contact which moves from NC to NO such that a

lamp glows.

contact which moves from NC to NO such that a lamp glows. 1.8 DC Motor Relay

1.8 DC Motor

Relay Operation
Relay Operation

DC motor speed control is one of the most useful features of the motor. By controlling the speed of the motor, you

can vary the speed of the motor according to the requirements and can get the required operation. Most of the projects use this motor for performing mechanical actions.

1.8.1 Ways to Control the Speed of a DC Motor

1. Flux Control Method

In this method, the magnetic flux due to the field

windings is varied in order to vary the speed of the motor.

As the magnetic flux depends on the current flowing

through the field winding, it can be varied by varying the current through the field winding. This can be achieved

by using a variable resistor in a series with the field

winding resistor.

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This can be achieved by using a variable resistor in a series with the field winding

Flux Control of DC motor

2

Armature Control Method

2 Armature Control Method With this method, the speed of the DC motor can be controlled

With this method, the speed of the DC motor can be controlled by controlling the armature resistance to control the voltage drop across the armature. This method also uses a variable resistor in series with the armature.

When the variable resistor reaches its minimum value, the armature resistance is at normal one, and therefore, the armature voltage drops. When the resistance value is gradually increased, the voltage across the armature decreases. This in turn leads to decrease in the speed of the motor.

This in turn leads to decrease in the speed of the motor. Armature Control of DC

Armature Control of DC motor

in the speed of the motor. Armature Control of DC motor 3. Voltage Control Method Both
in the speed of the motor. Armature Control of DC motor 3. Voltage Control Method Both
in the speed of the motor. Armature Control of DC motor 3. Voltage Control Method Both
in the speed of the motor. Armature Control of DC motor 3. Voltage Control Method Both

3.

Voltage Control Method

Both the above mentioned methods cannot provide speed control in the desirable range. Moreover, the flux control method can affect commutation, whereas the armature control method involves huge power loss due to its usage of resistor in series with the armature. Therefore, a different method is often desirable – the one that controls the supply voltage to control the motor speed.

that controls the supply voltage to control the motor speed. In such a method, the field
that controls the supply voltage to control the motor speed. In such a method, the field

In such a method, the field winding receives a fixed voltage, and the armature gets a variable voltage.

1.9 Indicating meters

1.9.1 Multimeter

A Multimeter is an electronic instrument, every electronic technician and engineer widely uses this piece of test

equipment. Multimeter is mainly used to measure the three basic electrical characteristics of voltage, current and resistance. It can also be used to test continuity between two points in an electrical circuit. The following description mainly describes the basic information of a multimeter, its applications and types.

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1.9.2 Types of Multimeters There are different types of multimeter like Analog, Digital and Fluke

1.9.2 Types of Multimeters

There are different types of multimeter like Analog, Digital and Fluke multimeters.

Digital Multimeter

The most widely used multimeter is a digital multimeter (DMM). A DMM performs many functions from AC to DC. It has two probes: positive and negative that are indicated with black and red color, as shown in the figure. The black probe is connected to a COM JACK and the red probe is connected by user requirement to measure ohm, volt or amperes. The jack marked Vand the COM jack on the right of the picture are used for measuring voltages, resistance and for testing a diode. The two jacks are used when a LCD display shows what is being measured (volts, ohms, Dc amps, etc.). An overload protection prevents damage to the meter and the circuit, and thus protects the user.

to the meter and the circuit, and thus protects the user. Digital Mulitmeter Analog Multimeter An
to the meter and the circuit, and thus protects the user. Digital Mulitmeter Analog Multimeter An
to the meter and the circuit, and thus protects the user. Digital Mulitmeter Analog Multimeter An
to the meter and the circuit, and thus protects the user. Digital Mulitmeter Analog Multimeter An
to the meter and the circuit, and thus protects the user. Digital Mulitmeter Analog Multimeter An

Digital Mulitmeter

the circuit, and thus protects the user. Digital Mulitmeter Analog Multimeter An Analog Multimeter or VOM

Analog Multimeter

An Analog Multimeter or VOM (Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter) is constructed using a moving coil meter and a pointer to indicate the reading on the scale. The moving coil meter consists of a coil wound around a drum placed between two permanent magnets.

As current passes through the coil, a magnetic field is induced in the coil which reacts with the magnetic field of the permanent magnets and the resultant force causes the pointer attached to the drum to deflect on the scale, indicating the current reading. It also consists of springs attached to the drum which provides an opposing force to the motion of the drum to control the deflection of the pointer.

which provides an opposing force to the motion of the drum to control the deflection of

Analog Multimeter

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Fluke Multimeter Fluke multimeters are protected against the transient voltage. It is a small portable

Fluke Multimeter

Fluke multimeters are protected against the transient voltage. It is a small portable device used to measure voltage, current and test diodes. This multi meter has multi selectors to select a desired function. The fluke MM automatically ranges to select most measurements and also measures an AC current.

This means that the magnitude of the signal need not have to be known or determined to take an accurate reading; it directly moves to the appropriate port for the desired measurement. A fuse attached with this multimeter prevents damages if the multimeter is connected to a wrong port.

damages if the multimeter is connected to a wrong port. Fluke Multimeter 1.10 Microcontroller A microcontroller

Fluke Multimeter

1.10 Microcontroller
1.10 Microcontroller
to a wrong port. Fluke Multimeter 1.10 Microcontroller A microcontroller is a small, low-cost and self

A microcontroller is a small, low-cost and self contained computer-on-a- chip that can be used as an embedded system. A few microcontrollers may utilize four-bit expressions and work at clock rate frequencies, which usually include:

¦ An 8 or 16-bit microprocessor

¦ A little measure of RAM

¦ Programmable ROM and flash memory

¦ Parallel and serial I/O

¦ Timers and signal generators

¦ Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog conversion

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Microcontrollers usually must have low-power requirements since many devices they control are battery- operated.

Microcontrollers usually must have low-power requirements since many devices they control are battery- operated. Microcontrollers are used in many consumer electronics, car engines, computer peripherals and test or measurement equipment. And these are well suited for long lasting battery applications. The dominant parts of microcontrollers being used nowadays are implanted in other apparatus.

These microcontrollers are the heart of the projects in many microcontroller based projects. For more information about the microcontroller types and their programming, you can refer our first eBook that covers this topic in detail.

1.11 Display systems

Display devices are the output devices for presentation of information in text or image form. An output device is a device that provides a way to depict information to the outside world. For displaying information in an appropriate manner, display devices need to be controlled by some other external devices. Controlling can be done by interfacing these displays with the controlling devices.

by interfacing these displays with the controlling devices. 1.11.1 Types of Display Systems Display Using LED
by interfacing these displays with the controlling devices. 1.11.1 Types of Display Systems Display Using LED
by interfacing these displays with the controlling devices. 1.11.1 Types of Display Systems Display Using LED
by interfacing these displays with the controlling devices. 1.11.1 Types of Display Systems Display Using LED

1.11.1 Types of Display Systems

the controlling devices. 1.11.1 Types of Display Systems Display Using LED Light emitting diode (LED) is
the controlling devices. 1.11.1 Types of Display Systems Display Using LED Light emitting diode (LED) is

Display Using LED

Light emitting diode (LED) is the most commonly used device for displaying the status of microcontroller pins. These display devices are commonly used for the indication of alarms, inputs and timers. There are two ways in which we can connect LEDs to a microcontroller unit. These two ways are active high logic and active low logic. Active high logic means LED will be on if the port pin is 1 and LED will be off if the pin is 0. Active high means LED will be ‘off’ when the port pin is 1 and LED will be ‘on’ when the port pin is 0.

means LED will be ‘off’ when the port pin is 1 and LED will be ‘on’
means LED will be ‘off’ when the port pin is 1 and LED will be ‘on’

Display Using LED

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7-Segment LED Display 7-Segment LED display can be used for displaying digits and a few

7-Segment LED Display

7-Segment LED display can be used for displaying digits and a few characters. A seven-segment display consists of 7 LEDs arranged in the form of Square ‘8’ and a single LED as dot character. Different characters can be displayed by selecting the required LED segments. A 7-seven segment display is an electronic display, which displays 0-9 digital information. They are available in common cathode mode and common anode mode. There are state lines in the LED, anode is given to the positive terminal and cathode to the negative terminal, and then the LED glows.

In a common cathode, the negative terminals of all LEDs are connected to the common pins to the ground, and a particular LED glows when its corresponding pin is given high. The cathodes of all LEDs are connected together to a single terminal, and the anodes of all LEDs are left alone.

single terminal, and the anodes of all LEDs are left alone. In a common anode arrangement,
single terminal, and the anodes of all LEDs are left alone. In a common anode arrangement,

In a common anode arrangement, the common pin is given a high logic and the LED pins are given low to display a number. In common anode, all the anodes are connected together and all the cathodes are left alone. Thus when we give, the first signal is high or 1, then only, there is a lean in the display, if not, there is no lean in the display.

in the display, if not, there is no lean in the display. 7-Segment LED Display Dot

7-Segment LED Display

not, there is no lean in the display. 7-Segment LED Display Dot Matrix LED Display A

Dot Matrix LED Display

A Dot matrix LED display contains a group of LEDs as a two-dimensional array. They can display different types of characters or a group of characters. Dot matrix display is manufactured in various dimensions. Arrangement of LEDs in the matrix pattern is made in either of the two ways: Row anode-column cathode or Row cathode-column anode. By using this dot matrix display, we can reduce the number of pins required for controlling all the LEDs.

this dot matrix display, we can reduce the number of pins required for controlling all the

Dot Matrix LED Display

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A dot matrix is a two-dimensional array of dots used to represent characters, symbols and

A dot matrix is a two-dimensional array of dots used to represent characters, symbols and messages. Dot matrix is

used in displays. It is a display device used to display information on many devices like machines, clocks, railway departure indicators, etc.

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

Liquid crystal display (LCD) has a material that joins together the properties of both liquid and crystals. They have

temperature range within which the particles are essentially as mobile as they might be in a liquid; however, they are gathered together in an order form similar to a crystal.

a

gathered together in an order form similar to a crystal. a Liquid Crystal Display An LCD

Liquid Crystal Display

an order form similar to a crystal. a Liquid Crystal Display An LCD is much more

An LCD is much more informative output device than a single LED. An LCD is a display that easily shows characters on its screen. It has a couple of lines to large displays. Some LCDs are specially designed for specific applications to display graphic images. 16×2 LCD (HD44780) module is

to display graphic images. 16×2 LCD (HD44780) module is commonly used. These kinds of modules are
to display graphic images. 16×2 LCD (HD44780) module is commonly used. These kinds of modules are
to display graphic images. 16×2 LCD (HD44780) module is commonly used. These kinds of modules are

commonly used. These kinds of modules are being replaced by 7-segments and other multi-segment LEDs.

LCD can be easily interfaced with a microcontroller to display a message or status of the device. It can be operated in two modes: 4-bit mode and 8-bit mode. This LCD has two registers: command register and data register. It has three selection lines and 8 data lines. By connecting the three selection lines and data lines with the microcontroller, the messages can be displayed on the LCD.

microcontroller, the messages can be displayed on the LCD. 1.12 Circuit Designing Boards PCBs Printed Circuit
microcontroller, the messages can be displayed on the LCD. 1.12 Circuit Designing Boards PCBs Printed Circuit

1.12 Circuit Designing Boards

PCBs

Printed Circuit Board is essential for building a circuit. A PCB is used to arrange the components and connect them with the electrical contacts. Generally preparing a PCB requires a lot of effort like designing the PCB layout, fabricating and testing the PCB. Commercial type of PCB design is a complicated process involving the drawing using PCB design software like ORCAD, EAGLE, making mirror sketch, etching, tinning, drilling, etc.

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the drawing using PCB design software like ORCAD, EAGLE, making mirror sketch, etching, tinning, drilling, etc.

PCBs

These are of different types: single-sided, double-sided and multilayer types. In order not to confuse

These are of different types: single-sided, double-sided and multilayer types. In order not to confuse readers further, the circuit boards designing concept is not being dealt in-depth. However, these boards are very important to do the projects in an effective and best manner. Bread board implementation is a bit complex process and involves usage of lots of wires for making connections, as shown below in the figure. For a simple circuit implementation and learning, it is better to use a bread board.

and learning, it is better to use a bread board. Bred board It is our suggestion

Bred board

It is our suggestion to use the simulation software wherever possible to test these electronic circuits first, and then go for a real-time implementation by using a breadboard or PCBs.

Chapter 2
Chapter 2
implementation by using a breadboard or PCBs. Chapter 2 Soldering Procedure while Assembling the Components
implementation by using a breadboard or PCBs. Chapter 2 Soldering Procedure while Assembling the Components

Soldering Procedure while Assembling the Components

2 Soldering Procedure while Assembling the Components Soldering Process, Tools, Tips & Tricks 2.1 Soldering

Soldering Process, Tools, Tips & Tricks

2.1 Soldering

Soldering Process, Tools, Tips & Tricks 2.1 Soldering Soldering Procedure A procedure in which two or

Soldering Procedure

A procedure in which two or more metal products are fixed as one by liquefying and running a space-filler metal (solder) in the joint is known as Soldering. The space filler metal has lower liquefying or melting temperature than the working piece. Soldering is applied in electronics, plumbing and meta-work from flashing to ornaments.

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2.2

Forms of Soldering

2.2 Forms of Soldering Soldering is differentiated into two forms: 1. Soft Soldering: It is a

Soldering is differentiated into two forms:

1. Soft Soldering: It is a procedure for fixing very minute complex parts possessing low melting temperature, which have been damaged during the soldering procedure performed at high temperature. In the soft soldering process, a tin-lead alloy is used as space filler metal. The liquefying temperature of the space filler alloy must not be less than 400oC or 752oF. As a heat source, a gas torch is used for the process. A few examples of the soft- soldering metals include: tin-lead for common usage; cadmium-silver for strength at higher temperature; tin-zinc for bonding aluminum; lead-silver for strength above room temperature; zinc-aluminum for aluminum and deterioration confrontation; and tin-silver and tin-bismuth for electrical products.

2. Hard Soldering: In this procedure, a hard solder unites two parts of metals by spreading out into the holes of

the work-piece that are opened due to high temperature. The space filler metal holds higher temperature more than 450oC or 840oF. It consists of two elements: brazing & silver soldering.

Silver Soldering: It is an unsoiled procedure helpful to fabricate tiny equipments, carrying out odd maintenance and manufacturing tools. It makes use of an alloy including silver as space filler metal. Though silver gives free running distinctiveness, yet silver soldering is not recommended for space filling, and therefore, different flux is suggested for precise silver soldering.

different flux is suggested for precise silver soldering. Brazing: Brazing is a procedure for uniting two
different flux is suggested for precise silver soldering. Brazing: Brazing is a procedure for uniting two
different flux is suggested for precise silver soldering. Brazing: Brazing is a procedure for uniting two
different flux is suggested for precise silver soldering. Brazing: Brazing is a procedure for uniting two
different flux is suggested for precise silver soldering. Brazing: Brazing is a procedure for uniting two
different flux is suggested for precise silver soldering. Brazing: Brazing is a procedure for uniting two

Brazing: Brazing is a procedure for uniting two parts of the base metals by creating liquefied metallic space filler, which runs by vessel attraction through the joints and cools down to give a hard union via atomic magnetism and diffusion. It generates a very sturdy joint. It makes use of a brass metal as a space filler agent.

2.3 Soldering Tools

1. The Soldering Iron or Gun: The primary thing you need here is a soldering iron, which is used as a heat source

for melting solder. Soldering guns of 15W to 30W series are fine for the majority of electronics or printed circuit board job. For soldering heavy pieces and thick cable, you need to spend on an iron of higher wattage approx 40W and above or a larger solder gun.

The major distinction between an iron and a gun is that an iron looks like a pencil and comprises a pin-point heat supply for exact job, whereas a gun is in a common gun shape with a higher wattage point heated by running electrical current straightforward through it.

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For a hobbyist’s electrical usage, a soldering iron is usually a device of choice as

For a hobbyist’s electrical usage, a soldering iron is usually a device of choice as it has pointed tip, and its low temperature facility is best suited for a printed-circuit-board job (like putting together kits). A solder gun is normally applied in hardware soldering like fixing heavy measure cables, soldering band to a chassis or stain glass job.

2. Solders: Solder space filling materials are available in the form of several different alloys forvarious

applications. In an electrical gathering, the eutectic alloy of 37% lead & 63% tin or 60 by 40, which is nearly equal in liquefying temperature is the filling material of choice. Other filling material alloys are used for mechanical assembly, plumbing and for many more applications.

Regular soldering formulations are based on tin and lead, they are mentioned below. The division symbolizes fraction of tin initially, and then lead adding up to 100%.

¦ 63/37: dissolves at 183 °C or 361 °F (eutectic: the mere mix that dissolves at a point, instead of over a range)

mere mix that dissolves at a point, instead of over a range) ¦ 60/40: dissolves amid
mere mix that dissolves at a point, instead of over a range) ¦ 60/40: dissolves amid

¦ 60/40: dissolves amid 183–190 °C or 361–374 °F

¦ 50/50: dissolves amid 185–215 °C or 365–419 °F

°F ¦ 50/50: dissolves amid 185–215 °C or 365–419 °F Other ordinary solders comprise low-temperature formulations
°F ¦ 50/50: dissolves amid 185–215 °C or 365–419 °F Other ordinary solders comprise low-temperature formulations

Other ordinary solders comprise low-temperature formulations (habitually bismuth), which are regularly applied to join previously soldered joints, without unsoldering former links; and the high-temperature formulations (habitually contain silver), which are applied for high-temperature process, or for initial fixing of pieces – that are not capable of turning into unsoldered pieces during further processing.

Alloying silver together with new metals alters the liquefying temperature, bondage, wet characteristics, and tensile potency. Of the entire brazing alloys, silver-solder alloys possess maximum strength and are widely applicable. Special alloys exist with characteristics like- high strength, improved electrical conductivity and higher deterioration confrontation.

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A few of the other soldering associated objects are given below: ¦ Soldering Iron: A

A few of the other soldering associated objects are given below:

¦ Soldering Iron: A solder iron is a device used for soldering by hands. It delivers heat to soften the solder so that it can run into the gaps amid two work pieces. Soldering irons are frequently brought into play for setting up, maintenance, and limited fabrication work in electrical assembly.

¦ Solder Flux: A flux is a chemical clean-up material, pouring agent, or distilling agent. In soldering metals, flux serve in three-fold function: it eradicates rust from the objects to be soldered; it shuts air out as a result stopping extra rust, and by facilitating mix improves dripping uniqueness of the fluid solder.

mix improves dripping uniqueness of the fluid solder. Soldering Tools ¦ Soldering Paste: Soldering cream or

Soldering Tools

dripping uniqueness of the fluid solder. Soldering Tools ¦ Soldering Paste: Soldering cream or solder paste
dripping uniqueness of the fluid solder. Soldering Tools ¦ Soldering Paste: Soldering cream or solder paste
dripping uniqueness of the fluid solder. Soldering Tools ¦ Soldering Paste: Soldering cream or solder paste
dripping uniqueness of the fluid solder. Soldering Tools ¦ Soldering Paste: Soldering cream or solder paste

¦ Soldering Paste: Soldering cream or solder paste is employed to join the leads of incorporated chip packages to connection ends (lands) in the circuit blueprint on a printed circuit panel.

(lands) in the circuit blueprint on a printed circuit panel. 2.4 Entire Soldering Course of Action

2.4 Entire Soldering Course of Action

The fundamental soldering process is executed by the following steps:

1. Tin the Soldering Tip: Prior to bringing into play a fresh solder tip or a previous grimy tip, we should tin that tip. The procedure of covering a soldering tip in the midst of a thin cover of solder is known as tinning. This helps in transferring heat amid the tip and the part you’re soldering. It also provides the solder a foundation from which it flows.

2. Heat up the Iron: Heat up the solder iron or gun carefully. Make certain that it has completely reached to a temperature as you are about to liquefy loads of solder on it. This is particularly vital because if the solder iron is new it possibly will be enclosed within some sort of covering to put off rust.

3. Set Up a Little Space: As the soldering gun is heating up, set up a small space to toil. Get a small piece of wet sponge and put it in the bottom of your soldering gun’s stand, or in a bowl close at hand. Put down a portion of cardboard in situation you drop solder iron (you possibly can) and make certain you have space to toil at ease.

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4. Coat the Tip of the Solder Gun Thoroughly: Thoroughly cover the tip of the

4. Coat the Tip of the Solder Gun Thoroughly: Thoroughly cover the tip of the soldering gun in a soldering cream. It is extremely vital to coat the complete tip. You will make use of a significant amount of solder cream throughout this procedure and it will ooze, so be prepared. If you leave any point of the tip exposed, it develops a tendency to gather flux remainders and will not conduct temperature splendidly. Therefore,coat the solder gun tip up and down entirely around it to completely wrap it in a liquefied solder.

5. Clean the Soldering Gun Tip: As you are sure that the solder tip is completely covered in the solder, clean up the tip on the damp piece of a sponge to get rid of the entire flux remainder. Carry out this activity without delay ensuring that there is no instance for the flux to dry off and go hard.

You are done! You just have tinned your soldering iron tip. This ought to be done anytime you substitute the tip or wipe it so that the soldering iron retains the first-class heat transferring abilities.

2.5

retains the first-class heat transferring abilities. 2.5 Steps to keep in mind for soldering safely? As
retains the first-class heat transferring abilities. 2.5 Steps to keep in mind for soldering safely? As
retains the first-class heat transferring abilities. 2.5 Steps to keep in mind for soldering safely? As

Steps to keep in mind for soldering safely?

As soldering in general is not a dangerous activity, but still there are some points that should be kept in mind. The primary and the most evident thing is that soldering is done at high temperatures. Soldering guns have a temperature of approx 3500 F or more, and can cause serious burns, very rapidly. Therefore, ensure and make use of a stand to hold the solder iron and keep the wire away from highly crowded areas. Solder iron itself can drop; therefore, evade soldering above uncovered parts of the body.

Make sure to work in a properly lit room or region where you have ample space to spread out different scattered parts all around. Make sure that your face is never over and above the soldering points because smokes from the flux and other coverings will disturb your respiratory system and eyes. Most of the soldering comprises lead; therefore, you must evade touching your face while operating with a solder iron, and at all times, rinse your hands prior to eating anything.

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What is Solderability? Solderability of a substrate is an evaluation of the easiness with which

What is Solderability?

Solderability of a substrate is an evaluation of the easiness with which a solder assembly can be crafted to that bits and pieces.

2.6 Tips & Tricks for Soldering

Soldering is the process that requires practicing the most. These tips must assist you to become successful in your endeavor, and if anything goes wrong, you can stop practicing it, and get ready to do some serious tasks.

¦ Use Heat sinks: Heat sinks are a necessity for the wires of sensitive gears like transistors & ICs. If you do not have a clip on heat sink, then a couple of pliers are an excellent alternative.

¦ Keep the solder iron tip neat: A neat iron tip signifies improved heat conductivity and an improved joint. Make use of a damp piece of sponge to wipe off the tip amid joints. Maintain the tip of solder well tinned.

the tip amid joints. Maintain the tip of solder well tinned. ¦ Double check joints: When
the tip amid joints. Maintain the tip of solder well tinned. ¦ Double check joints: When
the tip amid joints. Maintain the tip of solder well tinned. ¦ Double check joints: When
the tip amid joints. Maintain the tip of solder well tinned. ¦ Double check joints: When

¦ Double check joints: When complicated circuits are being assembled, it is a fine practice to verify joints after soldering them. Bring into play a magnifying glass to visually scrutinize the joint and a measuring device to test resistance.

the joint and a measuring device to test resistance. ¦ Solder minute parts initially: Solder jumper
the joint and a measuring device to test resistance. ¦ Solder minute parts initially: Solder jumper

¦ Solder minute parts initially: Solder jumper leads, resistors, diodes and all other minute parts prior to moving ahead to solder bigger parts such as transistors & capacitors. This formulates assembling much effortless.

¦ Fit sensitive parts at the end: Put in MOSFETs, CMOS, ICs and other stagnant sensitive parts at the end to evade damaging them while assembling the other components.

¦ Use sufficient aeration: The majority of soldering fluxes must not suck in air. Evade breathing the fumes formed and make certain that the region you are functioning in has sufficient aeration to put a stop to buildup of toxic smoke.

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Chapter 3 Steps to Build Electronic Circuits 3.1 Introduction There can be many reasons why

Chapter 3

Steps to Build Electronic Circuits

3.1 Introduction

There can be many reasons why we need to build a circuit. At times we may need to glow a lamp, run a motor, etc. All these devices: a lamp, a motor, and a LED are what we call as loads. Each load requires a certain current or voltage to start its operation. This voltage may be a constant DC voltage or an AC voltage. However, it is not possible to build a circuit just with a source and a load. We need a few more components that help in proper flow of charge, and process the charge supplied by the source such that appropriate amount of charge flows to the load.

The common circuit in every electronic project is power supply block. Maximally all the projects use this block to get regulated DC power supply. So, here is the designing process of this circuit:

supply. So, here is the designing process of this circuit: 3.2 Regulated DC Power Supply to
supply. So, here is the designing process of this circuit: 3.2 Regulated DC Power Supply to
supply. So, here is the designing process of this circuit: 3.2 Regulated DC Power Supply to
supply. So, here is the designing process of this circuit: 3.2 Regulated DC Power Supply to
supply. So, here is the designing process of this circuit: 3.2 Regulated DC Power Supply to

3.2 Regulated DC Power Supply to run an LED Circuit Design

designing process of this circuit: 3.2 Regulated DC Power Supply to run an LED Circuit Design

Regulated DC Power Supply

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Theory behind the circuit AC voltage from the supply at 230V is first stepped down

Theory behind the circuit

AC voltage from the supply at 230V is first stepped down to a low voltage AC using a step-down transformer. A transformer is a device with two windings: primary and secondary, wherein the voltage applied across the primary winding appears across the secondary winding by the virtue of inductive coupling. As the secondary coil has lesser number of turns, the voltage across the secondary coil is less than the voltage across the primary for a step- down transformer.

1. This low AC voltage is converted to a pulsating DC voltage using a bridge rectifier. A bridge rectifier is an

arrangement of 4 diodes placed in bridged form in such a way that the anode of one diode and the cathode of another diode are connected together to a positive terminal of the voltage source; and, in the same way, the anode and cathode of another two diodes are connected to the negative terminal of the voltage source. Also, the cathodes of two diodes are connected together to the positive polarity of the voltage, and the anode of two diodes is connected together to the negative polarity of the output voltage. For each half cycle, the opposite pair of diodes conducts, and a pulsating DC voltage is obtained across the bridge rectifiers.

DC voltage is obtained across the bridge rectifiers. 2. filter is needed which filters out the
DC voltage is obtained across the bridge rectifiers. 2. filter is needed which filters out the
DC voltage is obtained across the bridge rectifiers. 2. filter is needed which filters out the
DC voltage is obtained across the bridge rectifiers. 2. filter is needed which filters out the
DC voltage is obtained across the bridge rectifiers. 2. filter is needed which filters out the

2.

filter is needed which filters out the ripples from the DC voltage. A capacitor is placed in parallel to the output such that the capacitor (because of its impedance) allows high- frequency AC signals to pass through by getting bypassed to the ground and a low-frequency or DC signal is blocked. Thus the capacitor acts as a low-pass filter.

The pulsating DC voltage thus obtained contains ripples in the form of AC voltage. To remove these ripples a

ripples in the form of AC voltage. To remove these ripples a 3. The output produced
ripples in the form of AC voltage. To remove these ripples a 3. The output produced

3. The output produced from a capacitor filter is the unregulated DC voltage. To produce a regulated DC voltage, a regulator that develops a constant DC voltage is used.

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Step 1: Circuit Designing To design a circuit, we need to have an idea about

Step 1: Circuit Designing

To design a circuit, we need to have an idea about the values of each component required in the circuit. Let us now see how we can actually design a regulated DC-power-supply circuit.

Decide the regulator to be used and its input voltage

Here our requirement is to have a constant voltage of 5V at 20mA with the positive polarity of the output voltage. For this reason, we need a regulator that will provide a 5V output. An ideal and efficient choice for this purpose would be the regulator IC LM7805. Our next step is to calculate the input voltage requirement for the regulator. For a regulator, the minimum input voltage should be the output voltage added by a value of three. In that case, to have a voltage of 5V, we need a minimum input voltage of 8V. Let us settle down for an input of

12V.

input voltage of 8V. Let us settle down for an input of 12V. Regulator IC Decide
input voltage of 8V. Let us settle down for an input of 12V. Regulator IC Decide

Regulator IC

of 8V. Let us settle down for an input of 12V. Regulator IC Decide the value
of 8V. Let us settle down for an input of 12V. Regulator IC Decide the value
of 8V. Let us settle down for an input of 12V. Regulator IC Decide the value

Decide the value of the filter capacitor

The value of the filter capacitor depends on the amount of the current drawn by the load; the quiescent current (ideal current) of the regulator; the amount of allowable ripple in the DC output; and, the time period.

For the peak voltage across the transformer, the primary to be 17V (12*sqrt2), and the total drop across the diodes to be (2*0.7V) 1.4V, and the peak voltage across the capacitor is about 15V approx. We can calculate the amount of allowable ripple by the formula below:

V = VpeakCap- Vmin

the

minimum voltage input for the regulator. Thus, V is (15- 7) = 8V.

As

calculated,

VpeakCap

15V,

and

Vmin

is

=

is (15- 7) = 8V. As calculated, VpeakCap 15V, and Vmin is = Filter Capacitor Now,

Filter Capacitor

= 8V. As calculated, VpeakCap 15V, and Vmin is = Filter Capacitor Now, the Capacitance, C

Now, the Capacitance, C = (I*t)/ V,

Diodes

44

Now, I is the sum of the load current plus the quiescent current of the

Now, I is the sum of the load current plus the quiescent current of the regulator, and I = 24mA (Quiescent current is about 4mA and load current is 20mA). Also, t = 1/100Hz = 10ms. The value of t depends upon the frequency of the input signal, and here the input frequency is 50Hz.

Thus, substituting all the values, the value of the C comes to be around 30microFarad. So, let us select a value of 100microFarad to be on a safer side.

Decide the Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) of the diodes to be used

Since the peak voltage across the transformer secondary is 17V, the total PIV of the diode bridge is about (4*17), i.e., 68V. So, we have to settle down for diodes with PIV rating of 100V each. Remember, the PIV is the maximum voltage that can be applied to the diode in its reverse-biased condition, without causing breakdown.

Step 2. Circuit Drawing and Simulation

causing breakdown. Step 2. Circuit Drawing and Simulation Now that you have the idea of the
causing breakdown. Step 2. Circuit Drawing and Simulation Now that you have the idea of the
causing breakdown. Step 2. Circuit Drawing and Simulation Now that you have the idea of the
causing breakdown. Step 2. Circuit Drawing and Simulation Now that you have the idea of the

Now that you have the idea of the values for each component and the whole circuit diagram, let us get into drawing the circuit using circuit building software and simulate it.

the circuit using circuit building software and simulate it. Circuit Drawing and Simulation Here, our choice
the circuit using circuit building software and simulate it. Circuit Drawing and Simulation Here, our choice
the circuit using circuit building software and simulate it. Circuit Drawing and Simulation Here, our choice

Circuit Drawing and Simulation

Here, our choice of the software is Multisim.

45

The following are the steps to draw a circuit using Multisim and simulate it. 1.

The following are the steps to draw a circuit using Multisim and simulate it.

1. On your windows panel, click on the following link: Start -> Programs –> National –> Instruments –> Circuit design suite 11.0 –> multisim 11.0.

2. A multisim software window appears with a menu bar and a blank space resembling a breadboard, to draw the circuit.

3. On the menu bar, select place, and then Components.

4. A window appears with the title: ‘select the components’.

5. Under the heading ‘Database’, select ‘Master Database’ from the drop-down menu.

6. Under the heading ‘group’- select the required group. If you want to go for a voltage or current source or ground. If you want to go for any basic component like a resistor, a capacitor etc. Here, first you have to place the input AC supply source, and therefore, select Source –>Power Sources –> AC power. After the component is placed (by clicking the ‘ok’ button), set the value of RMS voltage to 230 V and frequency to

set the value of RMS voltage to 230 V and frequency to 50Hz. 7. Now, again
set the value of RMS voltage to 230 V and frequency to 50Hz. 7. Now, again
set the value of RMS voltage to 230 V and frequency to 50Hz. 7. Now, again
set the value of RMS voltage to 230 V and frequency to 50Hz. 7. Now, again

50Hz.

7. Now, again under the components window, select basic, then transformer, and then select TS ideal. Since for an ideal transformer, the inductance of both the coils is same, to achieve our output, we have to change the secondary coil’s inductance. Now, we know that the ratio of the inductance of the transformer coils is equal to the square of the ratio of turns. As the turns ratio required in this case is 19, therefore we have to set the secondary coil inductance to 0.27mH. (Primary coil inductance is at 100mH).

inductance to 0.27mH. (Primary coil inductance is at 100mH). 8. Under the components window, select basic,
inductance to 0.27mH. (Primary coil inductance is at 100mH). 8. Under the components window, select basic,

8. Under the components window, select basic, then diodes, and then select the diode IN4003. Select 4 such diodes and place them in a bridge rectifier arrangement.

9. Under the components windows, select basic, then Cap _Electrolytic and select the value of the capacitor to be 20microFarad.

10. Under the components window, select power, then Voltage_ Regulator, and then select ‘LM7805’ from the drop-down menu.

11. Under the components window, select diodes, then select LED, and from the drop-down menu, select LED green.

12. Using the same procedure, select a resistor with the value of 100 Ohms.

46

13. As we have known all the components, and have an idea about the circuit

13. As we have known

all the components, and have an idea about the circuit diagram, let us get

into drawing the circuit diagram on the multisim platform.

14. To draw the circuit, we have to make proper connections between the components using wires. To select wires, go to Place, and then to wire. Remember to connect the components only if a junction point appears. In multisim, the connecting wires are indicated by red color.

15. To

get an indication of

the voltage across the output, follow the given steps. Go

to

Place ->

Components - > Indicator, and to Voltmeter, and then select the first component.

16. Now your circuit is ready to be simulated.

17. Now click on ‘Simulate’ then select ‘Run’.

18. can see

Now you

the

LED

at the output blinks, which is indicated by

the green-color moving

arrows.

19. You can verify whether you are getting the correct value of the voltage across each component by placing a Voltmeter in parallel.

the correct value of the voltage across each component by placing a Voltmeter in parallel. Simulation
the correct value of the voltage across each component by placing a Voltmeter in parallel. Simulation
the correct value of the voltage across each component by placing a Voltmeter in parallel. Simulation
the correct value of the voltage across each component by placing a Voltmeter in parallel. Simulation
the correct value of the voltage across each component by placing a Voltmeter in parallel. Simulation

Simulation of Circuit

47

Step 3: Place the Components in the PCB After going through this process, one can

Step 3: Place the Components in the PCB

After going through this process, one can start building the above circuit on a PCB by careful soldering as we have discussed earlier. Place the components in a desired position on the PCB after testing them to know whether they are working properly or not.

them to know whether they are working properly or not. Assembling Components in PCB Step 4:

Assembling Components in PCB

Step 4: Test the Circuit

Test this power supply block with a multimeter by placing it in different positions like transformer, diode output, capacitor side and also across the regulator.

diode output, capacitor side and also across the regulator. Testing the Circuit Based on this simple

Testing the Circuit

Based on this simple concept, you can get the basic idea of simulating, assembling and testing of the simple circuit. For further practice with the basic concepts, you can start doing the following simple electronic circuits that are simulated in MultiSim software.

48

3.3 More Examples for Practice 1. Overload protection of the transformer Many of the electronic

3.3 More Examples for Practice

1. Overload protection of the transformer

Many of the electronic circuits function improperly due to the overloading of a transformer connected to the respective circuit. Due to the overloading of the transformer, the current drawn by the circuit will be very high to increase the heat which in turn causes insulation failure and other problems. This simple circuit operates with the relay turning off the load when the overload occurs.

Circuit Diagram

Overload protection of the Transformer
Overload protection of the Transformer

Circuit description

This circuit consists of a capacitor that is charged to the voltage given after being rectified from the secondary of a transformer. Double-pole single-through switch operates the relay contacts. SCR is connected across the load such that when the current flow is increased to the load, it causes to open the contacts of the relay so that the circuit is prevented from overvoltage. Relay with two contacts (NO and NC) are connected such that a normal operating condition blub glows through the NC contact, and when the load current increases, the NO is operated to indicate the over current by the LED.

Operation

The current starts flowing to the load through the NC contact of the relay when the DPST switch is closed. As the SCR is still a cutoff region, the relay coil doesn’t get energized. This load current can be varied by varying the potentiometer across the load. This current prompts to trigger the SCR, so that it starts conducting resulting in the coil to get energized. So the power to the load is interrupted when the current across the load is increased. In this way, the circuit which is connected to the secondary of the transformer is protected against overloads.

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2.

Fuse failure indication

2. Fuse failure indication If any fault occurs in the electric circuit, we cannot predict the

If any fault occurs in the electric circuit, we cannot predict the fault area without observing inner parts of the circuit, so we have to unscrew all the parts. Moreover, if it is a fuse failure, which means, it reduces the time to unscrew all those parts so fuse failure indication is a primary fault indication.

Circuit Diagram

indication is a primary fault indication. Circuit Diagram Fuse failure indication Circuit Description It is a

Fuse failure indication

Circuit Description

Circuit Diagram Fuse failure indication Circuit Description It is a simple circuit comprises of simple diodes
Circuit Diagram Fuse failure indication Circuit Description It is a simple circuit comprises of simple diodes
Circuit Diagram Fuse failure indication Circuit Description It is a simple circuit comprises of simple diodes
Circuit Diagram Fuse failure indication Circuit Description It is a simple circuit comprises of simple diodes

It is a simple circuit comprises of simple diodes and LEDs. Green and red LEDs are used to indicate the fuse normal and blown conditions, respectively. Zener diode is connected in such a way that both the LEDs shouldn’t be conducting at a time. This circuit is designed in such a way that it operates even with the mains power supply. Here, a lamp is connected as a load.

Operation

In normal operating conditions, the fuse is in active or working condition due to the normal current flowing to the load. So the green LED glows to indicate that the fuse is in an active state. For the fuse to be in a blown off condition, there is a simple SPST switch, which is operated so that the current starts flowing through the other parallel path of this circuit and indicates the fuse blown off state by the red LED.

50

3.

DC Motor Control using 555 IC Timer

3. DC Motor Control using 555 IC Timer By using a 555 IC Timer is the

By using a 555 IC Timer is the simple way of controlling a DC motor. It is the economical way of controlling low-rated motors. In this simple circuit, the duty cycle of a motor is varied by the timer so that the motor speed can be changed.

Circuit Diagram

so that the motor speed can be changed. Circuit Diagram DC motor control using 555 IC
so that the motor speed can be changed. Circuit Diagram DC motor control using 555 IC
so that the motor speed can be changed. Circuit Diagram DC motor control using 555 IC
so that the motor speed can be changed. Circuit Diagram DC motor control using 555 IC
so that the motor speed can be changed. Circuit Diagram DC motor control using 555 IC

DC motor control using 555 IC Timer

Circuit Description

In this circuit, timer is connected as astable multivibrator. Variable resistor is connected between the seventh and sixth pins of the timer so as to vary the pulse time period at the output of the timer. The output from the timer drives the N-P-N transistor to switch the motor on. Here, a lamp is used in place of the motor to observe the voltage being varied by the intensity of the light. We can place the DPDT switch at the supply contacts of the motor to control the motor in either direction.

of the motor to control the motor in either direction. Operation Timer starts generating the timing
of the motor to control the motor in either direction. Operation Timer starts generating the timing

Operation

Timer starts generating the timing pulses according to the RC values when the circuit is switched on. These pulses drive the N-P-N transistor that acts as switch to the path of the motor load. If a duty cycle is more, the average voltage applied to the motor is also high, so the motor runs at a high speed; and, if this duty cycle is low, eventually the motor speed becomes low. In this way, we can control the speed of the motor by simply varying the potentiometer of the timer.

In addition to the multisim, we will discuss a simulation software used to simulate several electronic circuits, and has the facility & provision to do the projects on several microcontrollers.

51

3.4 Circuit Simulation using PROTEUS Software PROTEUS is one of the most famous simulation and

3.4 Circuit Simulation using PROTEUS Software

PROTEUS is one of the most famous simulation and PCB designing softwares. It is integrated with the simulation and basic SPICE simulation capability to make a complete electronics design system. It reduces development time when compared to the other embedded designing process. Let us see with an example how to use the PROTEUS software for simulation.

The Following steps are involved in the simulation process using PROTEUS :

STEP 1: Select the device from the display bar by typing the device name (Ex: Logic gates, switches and basic electronic devices).

PROTEUS Software
PROTEUS Software

STEP 2: Placing the components

gates, switches and basic electronic devices). PROTEUS Software STEP 2: Placing the components Components Library 52

Components Library

52

STEP 3: Place <<register>> on the drawing area and right-click on the resistor, and then

STEP 3: Place <<register>> on the drawing area and right-click on the resistor, and then select <<edit properties>>

and then select <<edit properties>> Component Range Selection STEP 4: Component reference: This
and then select <<edit properties>> Component Range Selection STEP 4: Component reference: This
and then select <<edit properties>> Component Range Selection STEP 4: Component reference: This
and then select <<edit properties>> Component Range Selection STEP 4: Component reference: This
and then select <<edit properties>> Component Range Selection STEP 4: Component reference: This

Component Range Selection

STEP 4: Component reference: This is assigned automatically.

Selection STEP 4: Component reference: This is assigned automatically. Component value: Editable Component Placing 53
Selection STEP 4: Component reference: This is assigned automatically. Component value: Editable Component Placing 53

Component value: Editable

Selection STEP 4: Component reference: This is assigned automatically. Component value: Editable Component Placing 53

Component Placing

53

STEP 5: Source selection Source Library STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing

STEP 5: Source selection

STEP 5: Source selection Source Library STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing area,
STEP 5: Source selection Source Library STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing area,
STEP 5: Source selection Source Library STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing area,
STEP 5: Source selection Source Library STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing area,

Source Library

STEP 5: Source selection Source Library STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing area,
STEP 5: Source selection Source Library STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing area,
STEP 5: Source selection Source Library STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing area,

STEP 6: Place voltage source (VSOURCE) in a drawing area, and then right-click on VSOURCE; next select <<edit properties>>, and then click <<OK>>

next select <<edit properties>>, and then click <<OK>> Circuit Designing by Proteus 54

Circuit Designing by Proteus

54

STEP 7: Wire connection, click on the wire auto router, and then connect the component

STEP 7: Wire connection, click on the wire auto router, and then connect the component terminal as required by the topology.

connect the component terminal as required by the topology. Making Connections in Proteus STEP 8: Adding
connect the component terminal as required by the topology. Making Connections in Proteus STEP 8: Adding
connect the component terminal as required by the topology. Making Connections in Proteus STEP 8: Adding
connect the component terminal as required by the topology. Making Connections in Proteus STEP 8: Adding
connect the component terminal as required by the topology. Making Connections in Proteus STEP 8: Adding

Making Connections in Proteus

as required by the topology. Making Connections in Proteus STEP 8: Adding terminal/Ground: Click on
as required by the topology. Making Connections in Proteus STEP 8: Adding terminal/Ground: Click on

STEP 8: Adding terminal/Ground: Click on <<Terminal>>, Select <<ground>>, and then place <<Ground>> in the drawing area.

and then place <<Ground>> in the drawing area. Circuit Connecting with Ground 55

Circuit Connecting with Ground

55

STEP 9: Output could be the voltage or current of any element in the circuit.

STEP 9: Output could be the voltage or current of any element in the circuit. Measurements in PROTEUS mostly the voltage or current probes. The Current probe should be on a horizontal wire.

probes. The Current probe should be on a horizontal wire. Circuit simulating in Proteus There are

Circuit simulating in Proteus

be on a horizontal wire. Circuit simulating in Proteus There are two types of simulations: Interactive
be on a horizontal wire. Circuit simulating in Proteus There are two types of simulations: Interactive
be on a horizontal wire. Circuit simulating in Proteus There are two types of simulations: Interactive
be on a horizontal wire. Circuit simulating in Proteus There are two types of simulations: Interactive

There are two types of simulations: Interactive simulation - mostly used for digital signals, and the other Graph based simulation - mostly used for analog signals.

Graph based simulation - mostly used for analog signals. STEP 10: <<analogue prospice>>. Click
Graph based simulation - mostly used for analog signals. STEP 10: <<analogue prospice>>. Click

STEP 10:

<<analogue prospice>>.

Click on<<Graph node>>, and select <<Analogue>>, and then place the graph window on the drawing area

and select <<Analogue>>, and then place the graph window on the drawing area Results on Proteus

Results on Proteus

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STEP 11: <<Edit Transient Graph>>start/stop time <<Add Transient Trace>> • Already

STEP 11: <<Edit Transient Graph>>start/stop time

<<Add Transient Trace>>

• Already placed probe waveforms are chosen

• Different <<left/right>> y-axis scale could be selected

Then start<<Simulation Run>>

be selected Then start<<Simulation Run>> Output Waveforms Chapter 4 Steps to Build Microcontroller

Output Waveforms

Chapter 4
Chapter 4

Steps to Build Microcontroller based Electronic Circuits

4.1 Introduction

As we have discussed about the microcontroller earlier, it is a single chip with a processor, memory along with the

input/output pins embedded inside it. We often use microcontrollers for embedded applications, and as a controller to control any actuators such as motors or displays. So let’s look at a step-by-step procedure to build microcontroller-based projects.

Consider this simple project: designing a LED flash light system using a Microcontroller.

A LED flash-light system can produce light through a light-emitting diode. The incandescent lights used in

traditional flash lights consume more energy and have very less life time. The LED lights on the other hand, consume less energy and have long life.

57

Basic Idea behind the Design A Microcontroller generates output logic pulses so that the LED

Basic Idea behind the Design

A Microcontroller generates output logic pulses so that the LED light is switched on and off at frequent intervals.

It is a 40-pin microcontroller. The Crystal interfaced to the input pins of the microcontroller provides accurate clock signals at the crystal frequency.

4.2 Steps for Developing the Project

Step1: Circuit Designing

A 8051 microcontroller crystal operates at 11.0592 MHz frequency as it can give exact clock pulses for data

synchronizing. Two capacitors are connected to the crystal oscillator with a range of 20pf to 40pf, which is used to stabilize the clock signals. The 8051 microcontroller at times goes to block the state or missing time

calculation.

At that time we need to reset the microcontroller. When the microcontroller is reset, it takes some time delay with the help of the 10k resistor and 10uf capacitor.

delay with the help of the 10k resistor and 10uf capacitor. Circuit Components Hardware Components ¦
delay with the help of the 10k resistor and 10uf capacitor. Circuit Components Hardware Components ¦
delay with the help of the 10k resistor and 10uf capacitor. Circuit Components Hardware Components ¦
delay with the help of the 10k resistor and 10uf capacitor. Circuit Components Hardware Components ¦

Circuit Components

of the 10k resistor and 10uf capacitor. Circuit Components Hardware Components ¦ Yellow LED ¦ Crystal

Hardware Components

¦ Yellow LED

¦ Crystal

¦ Reset

¦ 8051 microcontroller

¦ Capacitors

¦ Resistors

Software Components

¦ Keil compiler

¦ Proteus software

¦ Embedded C language

58

Circuit Connections The 5v DC supply is given to the 40-pin of the microcontroller which

Circuit Connections

The 5v DC supply is given to the 40-pin of the microcontroller which drives the circuit. The crystal is connected to the 18 and 19 pin of the microcontroller. The reset circuit is interfaced at the 9-pin of the microcontroller. The Yellow LED is connected to the pin P 0.2 of the microcontroller.

Step 2: Microcontroller Program Coding

ü First open the Kiel uVison2 software. This shows the menu bar with file, edit, view, project and tools option.

ü Select the project option, and then select the New Project Option from the drop-down menu. Give a name to the project and click ‘Save’ button to save the project. A folder named ‘target’ is created.

ü Select a microcontroller for your project. For instance, we are selecting ‘Atmel’. Select the exact type of the Atmel microcontroller from the drop-down menu. Here 89C51 microcontroller is selected. A folder with the name ‘source group’ is created in the ‘target’ folder.

‘source group’ is created in the ‘target’ folder. ü Click on the ‘File’ menu from the
‘source group’ is created in the ‘target’ folder. ü Click on the ‘File’ menu from the
‘source group’ is created in the ‘target’ folder. ü Click on the ‘File’ menu from the
‘source group’ is created in the ‘target’ folder. ü Click on the ‘File’ menu from the

ü Click on the ‘File’ menu from the menu bar. Select New file from the drop-down menu.

ü Write the code on the blank space.

bar. Select New file from the drop-down menu. ü Write the code on the blank space.

Microcontroller Program Coding

59

The LED Flash Light program #include<reg51.h> sbit LED= P0^2; void delay( unsigned int a); void

The LED Flash Light program

#include<reg51.h>

sbit LED= P0^2;

void delay( unsigned int a);

void main()

{ LED=0;

While (1)

{ LED=0;

delay(600);

LED=1;

delay(600);

}

}

void delay (unsigned int b)

{ unsigned int k;

for(k=0;k<b;k++);

}

ü Save this code with ‘.C’ extension.

ü Right-click on the ‘source group’ folder icon and select ‘add files to group’ option.

ü A window appears. Select the ‘C’ file to be added.

ü Select the ‘debug’ menu. It checks the program for any errors.

the ‘debug’ menu. It checks the program for any errors. ü ü Right click on the
the ‘debug’ menu. It checks the program for any errors. ü ü Right click on the
the ‘debug’ menu. It checks the program for any errors. ü ü Right click on the
the ‘debug’ menu. It checks the program for any errors. ü ü Right click on the
ü ü
ü
ü

Right click on the ‘target’ folder icon.

Select the ‘option for Target’ option.

ü
ü

A target window opens with a menu bar. Click on the ‘Target’ menu.

ü Set the crystal frequency for the microcontroller.

ü Click on the ‘Output’ menu. A window appears.

ü Click on the ‘create hex file’ button. A hex file is created.

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Step 3: Circuit Drawing This circuit is designed with the help of Proteus software. It

Step 3: Circuit Drawing

This circuit is designed with the help of Proteus software. It is circuit designing software having a database of components which can be used to build the circuit. Each and every component is available in the components library.

Circuit Drawing
Circuit Drawing

ü Open the Proteus software. A window with a menu bar appears.

ü Click on the file menu.

ü Select ‘new design’ from the drop down menu.

ü Click on the library menu.

ü Select ‘pick devices/symbol’ from the drop-down menu.

ü Select the relevant comment by double clicking on it, so that the component appears on the window.

ü Add all the components and draw the circuit with proper connections.

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Simulating the Circuit Code Dumping Step 4: Code Dumping Loading the code to the microcontroller
Simulating the Circuit Code Dumping Step 4: Code Dumping Loading the code to the microcontroller

Simulating the Circuit

Simulating the Circuit Code Dumping Step 4: Code Dumping Loading the code to the microcontroller is

Code Dumping

Step 4: Code Dumping

Loading the code to the microcontroller is called dumping. Microcontrollers understand only binary language. So we need to load the hex code into the microcontroller. There are lots of softwares available in the market for loading the code to the microcontroller. Here, we are using Willer programmer software to dump the code to the 8051 microcontroller. The programmer kit comes with a software, along with the hardware kit.

This software needs to be installed onto the computer. The hardware kit comes with a socket, on which the microcontroller is placed. Here are the steps to load the code onto the microcontroller:

62

ü The hardware (programmer kit) is interfaced to the computer through a serial cable. ü

ü The hardware (programmer kit) is interfaced to the computer through a serial cable.

ü The microcontroller is placed on the socket of the hardware kit. Press the lock button to ensure the microcontroller is connected to the board.

ü Open the software installed in the computer. It will display some operating modes.

ü Select any mode. A window with a menu bar appears.

ü Click on the ‘file’ menu and select ‘load file’ option from the drop-down menu.

and select ‘load file’ option from the drop-down menu. Code Dumping Procedure ü Click on the

Code Dumping Procedure

ü Click on the ‘auto’ button so that the hex file is loaded to the microcontroller.

so that the hex file is loaded to the microcontroller. Step 5: Simulating the Circuit ü
so that the hex file is loaded to the microcontroller. Step 5: Simulating the Circuit ü

Step 5: Simulating the Circuit

to the microcontroller. Step 5: Simulating the Circuit ü Open the project in the proteus software.

ü Open the project in the proteus software.

ü Click on the Debug menu.

ü Select the Start debugging option. The LED starts blinking, which indicates the circuit is running.

ü After some time, select the Stop debugging option. The LED will then stop blinking.

If the above circuit works good, then go for the hardware implementation on the PCB as we have previously discussed about assembling, soldering and testing the circuit. For further practice with different microcontroller based projects, you can follow the below circuits.

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4.3 More Examples for Practice on Microcontroller Projects 1. LED Interfacing to Microcontroller Description LEDs

4.3 More Examples for Practice on Microcontroller Projects

1. LED Interfacing to Microcontroller

Description

LEDs are most commonly used in many applications for indicating output. They find huge range of applications as indicators during test to check the validity of the results at different stages. They are very cheap and easily available in a variety of shapes, colors and sizes.

The principle of operation of LEDs is very easy. A simple LED also serves as a basic display

device as its on and off state expresses meaningful information about a device.

common available LEDs have a 1.7v voltage drop, which means, when we apply above 1.7V, the diode conducts. The diode needs 10mA current to glow with full intensity.

The

conducts. The diode needs 10mA current to glow with full intensity. The +5v LED R LED
+5v LED R
+5v
LED
R
conducts. The diode needs 10mA current to glow with full intensity. The +5v LED R LED

LED Interfacing to Microcontroller

64

Source code: #include<reg51.h> void main() { unsignedint I; while(1) { P0=0x00; for(i=0;i<30000;i++);

Source code:

#include<reg51.h> void main() { unsignedint I; while(1) { P0=0x00; for(i=0;i<30000;i++); P0=0xff;
#include<reg51.h>
void main()
{
unsignedint I;
while(1)
{
P0=0x00;
for(i=0;i<30000;i++);
P0=0xff;
for(i=0;i<30000;i++);
}
}

2. 7-Segment Display Interfacing Circuit

A Seven-segment display is the most basic electronic display. It consists of eight LEDs that are associated in a sequential manner so as to display digits from 0 to 9 when proper combinations of LEDs are switched on. A 7- segment display uses seven LEDs to display digits from 0 to 9 and the 8th LED is used for dot.

uses seven LEDs to display digits from 0 to 9 and the 8th LED is used

7-Segment Display interfacing circuit

65

Source code: #include<reg51.h> sbit a= P3^0; void main() { unsigned char n[10]=

Source code:

#include<reg51.h>

sbit a= P3^0; void main()

{

unsigned char n[10]= {0x40,0xF9,0x24,0x30,0x19,0x12,0x02,0xF8,0xE00,0x10}; unsignedinti,j;

a=1;

while(1)

{

for(i=0;i<10;i++)

{

P2=n[i];

for(j=0;j<60000;j++);

}

}

}

unsignedinti,j; a=1; while(1) { for(i=0;i<10;i++) { P2=n[i]; for(j=0;j<60000;j++); } } } 66
unsignedinti,j; a=1; while(1) { for(i=0;i<10;i++) { P2=n[i]; for(j=0;j<60000;j++); } } } 66
unsignedinti,j; a=1; while(1) { for(i=0;i<10;i++) { P2=n[i]; for(j=0;j<60000;j++); } } } 66
unsignedinti,j; a=1; while(1) { for(i=0;i<10;i++) { P2=n[i]; for(j=0;j<60000;j++); } } } 66
unsignedinti,j; a=1; while(1) { for(i=0;i<10;i++) { P2=n[i]; for(j=0;j<60000;j++); } } } 66

66

3.

LCD Interfacing to Microcontroller

3. LCD Interfacing to Microcontroller LCD stands for a liquid crystal display that displays the characters

LCD stands for a liquid crystal display that displays the characters per line. Here 16 by 2 LCD display can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5*7 pixel matrix.

In this LCD each character is displayed in 5*7 pixel matrix. LCD Interfacing to Microcontroller #include<reg51.h>
In this LCD each character is displayed in 5*7 pixel matrix. LCD Interfacing to Microcontroller #include<reg51.h>

LCD Interfacing to Microcontroller

in 5*7 pixel matrix. LCD Interfacing to Microcontroller #include<reg51.h> #define kam P0 sbitrs= P2^0;
in 5*7 pixel matrix. LCD Interfacing to Microcontroller #include<reg51.h> #define kam P0 sbitrs= P2^0;

#include<reg51.h>

#define kam P0 sbitrs= P2^0; sbitrw= P2^1; sbit en= P2^2; voidlcd_initi(); voidlcd_dat(unsigned char );

voidlcd_cmd (unsigned char ); void delay(unsigned int ); void display(unsigned char *s, unsigned char r); void main()

{

lcd_initi();

lcd_cmd(0x80);

delay(100);

r); void main() { lcd_initi(); lcd_cmd(0x80); delay(100); voidlcd_initi() { display("EDGEFX TECHLNGS", 15);
r); void main() { lcd_initi(); lcd_cmd(0x80); delay(100); voidlcd_initi() { display("EDGEFX TECHLNGS", 15);
voidlcd_initi()
voidlcd_initi()

{

{ lcd_initi(); lcd_cmd(0x80); delay(100); voidlcd_initi() { display("EDGEFX TECHLNGS", 15); lcd_cmd(0x01);

display("EDGEFX TECHLNGS", 15);

lcd_cmd(0x01);

delay(100);

lcd_cmd(0x38);

delay(100);

lcd_cmd(0x06);

delay(100);

lcd_cmd(0x0c);

delay(100);

}

voidlcd_dat(unsigned char dat)

{

kam = dat; rs=1;

rw=0;

en=1;

delay(100); en=0; }

voidlcd_cmd(unsigned char cmd)

{

kam=cmd;

rs=0;

rw=0;

en=1;

delay(100);

en=0;

}

void delay( unsigned int n)

{

unsigned int a;

for(a=0;a<n;a++);

}

lcd_cmd(0xc0);

display("KITS & SOLTIONS",15);

while(1);

}

void display(unsigned char *s, unsigned char r)

{

unsignedint w;

for(w=0;w<r;w++)

{

lcd_dat(s[w]);

}

}

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4.

Stepper Motor Interfacing Circuit

4. Stepper Motor Interfacing Circuit A stepper motor is one of the most commonly used motors

A stepper motor is one of the most commonly used motors for precise angular movement. The advantage of using

a stepper motor is that the angular position of the motor can be controlled without any feedback mechanism. The

stepper motors are widely used in industrial and commercial applications. They are also commonly used as in

drive systems such as robots, washing machines, etc.

as in drive systems such as robots, washing machines, etc. Source code: #include<reg51.h> sbit a=P3^0; sbit
Source code: #include<reg51.h> sbit a=P3^0; sbit b=P3^1; sbit c=P3^2; sbit d=P3^3; void delay(); void
Source code:
#include<reg51.h>
sbit a=P3^0;
sbit b=P3^1;
sbit c=P3^2;
sbit d=P3^3;
void delay();
void main()
{
while(1)
{

Stepper motor interfacing circuit

a=0;

b=1;

c=1;

d=1;

delay();

a=1;

b=0;

c=1;

d=1;

delay();

a=1;

b=1;

c=0;

d=1;

d=1;

delay();

delay();

a=1;

a=1;

b=1;

b=1;

c=1;

c=1;

d=0;

d=0;

} }

} }

void delay()

{

unsigned char i,j,k;

for(i=0;i<6;i++)

for(j=0;j<255;j++)

for(k=0;k<255;k++);

}

d=0; } } } } void delay() { unsigned char i,j,k; for(i=0;i<6;i++) for(j=0;j<255;j++) for(k=0;k<255;k++); } 68
d=0; } } } } void delay() { unsigned char i,j,k; for(i=0;i<6;i++) for(j=0;j<255;j++) for(k=0;k<255;k++); } 68

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5.

Matrix Keypad Interfacing to 8051

5. Matrix Keypad Interfacing to 8051 Keypad is a widely used input device with lots of

Keypad is a widely used input device with lots of applications such as telephone, computer, ATM, electronic lock,

etc. A keypad is used to take input from the user for further processing. Here a 4 by 3 matrix keypad consisting of

switches arranged in rows and columns is interfaced to the microcontroller. A 16 by 2 LCD is also interfaced for

displaying the output.

Matrix keypad interfacing to 8051
Matrix keypad interfacing to 8051

Source code:

void main()
void main()

{

}

keypad interfacing to 8051 Source code: void main() { } { lcd_initi(); lcd_cmd(0x80); delay(100);

{

lcd_initi();

lcd_cmd(0x80);

delay(100);

display("0987654321", 10);

while(1);

void display(unsigned char *s, unsigned char r)

{

unsigned int w;

for(w=0;w<r;w++)

lcd_dat(s[w]);

}

}

#include<reg51.h>

#define kam P0

sbitrs=P2^0;

sbitrw=P2^1;

sbit en=P2^2; sbit c1=P1^4; sbit c2=P1^5; sbit c3=P1^6; sbit r1=P1^0; sbit r2=P1^1; sbit r3=P1^2; sbit r4=P1^3; voidlcd_initi(); voidlcd_dat(unsigned char ); voidlcd_cmd (unsigned char ); void delay(unsigned int ); void display(unsigned char *s, unsigned char r);

char ); voidlcd_cmd (unsigned char ); void delay(unsigned int ); void display(unsigned char *s, unsigned char

69

voidlcd_initi() en=1; { delay(100); lcd_cmd(0x01); en=0; delay(100); } lcd_cmd(0x38); delay(100); {
voidlcd_initi() en=1; { delay(100); lcd_cmd(0x01); en=0; delay(100); } lcd_cmd(0x38); delay(100); {
voidlcd_initi()
en=1;
{
delay(100);
lcd_cmd(0x01);
en=0;
delay(100);
}
lcd_cmd(0x38);
delay(100);
{
lcd_cmd(0x06);
kam=cmd;
delay(100);
rs=0;
lcd_cmd(0x0c);
rw=0;
delay(100);
}
en=1;
delay(100);
voidlcd_dat(unsigned char dat)
en=0;
{
kam = dat;
}
rs=1;
rw=0;
{
unsignedint a;
for(a=0;a<n;a++);
}
}

voidlcd_cmd(unsigned char cmd)

void delay( unsigned int n)

70

Chapter 5 A Few Common Mistakes While Working on Electronics Workbench 5.1 Common Mistakes while

Chapter 5

A Few Common Mistakes While Working on Electronics Workbench

5.1 Common Mistakes while Handling Electronic Circuits

1. Attaching Batteries

Batteries are the most common source of power supply for most of the electronic projects. Often in many projects, batteries are preferred to be used as DC power supplies than using the complex way of converting the AC supply to DC power. We often see many people joining batteries head on playfully, sometimes - without even noticing what they have done. If you give two PP3 batteries to a person and leave him for a while, most probably, he will have a curiosity to join them together due to their symmetrical nature. But never allow such thing to happen as it could damage your batteries.

such thing to happen as it could damage your batteries. Attaching Batteries for Projects 2. Leaving
such thing to happen as it could damage your batteries. Attaching Batteries for Projects 2. Leaving
such thing to happen as it could damage your batteries. Attaching Batteries for Projects 2. Leaving
such thing to happen as it could damage your batteries. Attaching Batteries for Projects 2. Leaving
such thing to happen as it could damage your batteries. Attaching Batteries for Projects 2. Leaving

Attaching Batteries for Projects

2. Leaving Wire Joints Open

Leaving electrical wire joints open can cause short circuits and the consequences can be very dangerous. It can lead to a short circuit damaging not only your circuit but also predisposing it to a great disaster. You might be well aware of how disastrous a short circuit can really be. Also, if you dare to hold the uncovered wire joint with bare hands, it may cause current to pass through your body (Remember your body is a perfect conductor) and you would be at a greater risk of getting an electric shock and endangering your life. So, always cover the open joints with an insulating tape. One more tip is that make joints at unequal lengths so that it can reduce the probability of getting shortened.

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tip is that make joints at unequal lengths so that it can reduce the probability of

Open Wire Joints

3. Misplacing Soldering Iron Misplacing the soldering iron can cause a lot of damage. If

3. Misplacing Soldering Iron

Misplacing the soldering iron can cause a lot of damage. If you put it beside any circuit or wire by mistake, you may cause the wire to short circuit or the circuit to burn. The solder is actually a molten metal, and if it comes in connection with the wires accidently, it can short circuit the wires and also the hot-molten metal can burn the circuit. We strictly recommend you to use a good soldering iron stand and never forget to place your iron in the stand. And also, never ever try to hold the soldering iron tip with bare hands.

ever try to hold the soldering iron tip with bare hands. Misplacing Soldering Iron Overheating Of

Misplacing Soldering Iron

iron tip with bare hands. Misplacing Soldering Iron Overheating Of Soldering Iron 4. Soldering for a
iron tip with bare hands. Misplacing Soldering Iron Overheating Of Soldering Iron 4. Soldering for a
iron tip with bare hands. Misplacing Soldering Iron Overheating Of Soldering Iron 4. Soldering for a
iron tip with bare hands. Misplacing Soldering Iron Overheating Of Soldering Iron 4. Soldering for a

Overheating Of Soldering Iron

4.

Soldering for a Long Time at the Same Place

Never solder a single pin for a long time. Components get overheated and may get burnt. Also for your circuit to look presentable, remember to solder the pin in an effective way so that the solder doesn’t spread to nearby places, i.e., to the other holes on the PCB. If you feel that the joint is not getting soldered properly, then try applying some flux. If you are soldering any heat sensitive component, then it is recommended to use a socket for it. If you need to solder it directly, then use a heat sink at the soldering point so that the heat is dissipated quickly and prevents the component from overheating. A simple crocodile clip will also work as a heat sink.

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5. Reversing Power Supply Polarity Most of us might have applied the power supply with

5. Reversing Power Supply Polarity

Most of us might have applied the power supply with wrong polarity at-least once in a while erroneously. This can damage the circuit sometimes. To avoid this, we recommend you to use elements instead of berg sticks, as shown in the figure below, for connecting power supply, and also use naps for the batteries. For protecting your circuit from damage when reverse polarity is applied, you can use a diode with sufficient power ratings in the reverse-bias condition connected to the source pins.

in the reverse-bias condition connected to the source pins. Power Supply Polarity reversing 6. Touching CMOS

Power Supply Polarity reversing

6. Touching CMOS ICs with a Charged Hand

CMOS ICs are very sensitive to static charge. They may get damaged when static charge is applied. Our hands are usually charged when they get rubbed with other materials like clothes. If we touch CMOS ICs with our charged hands, it may damage the ICs as our hands are conductors and a static charge passes through our body. So, the next time when you are touching a CMOS IC, it is recommended to first touch a grounded metal like legs of an iron table, so that the static charge is discharged. These days, some ICs have inbuilt protection against static charge, but still it is recommended to earth your hands before touching as the static voltage buildup on our body can be unbelievably high.

static voltage buildup on our body can be unbelievably high. Touching CMOS ICs with a Charged

Touching CMOS ICs with a Charged Hand

6. Removing ICs from the Socket without Using a Lever

Removing an IC from its socket with our hands can cause the pins to bend or break. If you want to remove an IC, it is recommended to use a lever like a screwdriver, as shown in the figure. You can use any other sophisticated tools if available but never pluck the ICs with hand.

73

in the figure. You can use any other sophisticated tools if available but never pluck the

Removing Ics

8. Soldering ICs without Using Sockets It is not a good practice to solder an

8. Soldering ICs without Using Sockets

It is not a good practice to solder an IC by hand. If it is soldered for a long time, then the IC can get damaged due to overheat. So, first solder the IC socket and then insert the IC after the socket gets cooled. One more mistake that may be possible is soldering the socket when the IC is still inserted in the socket. If that happens, then the socket solves no purpose. We need to solder the empty socket first and insert the IC after soldering. So, remember never to solder the IC directly on the circuit board, without using the socket.

Chapter 6

Troubleshooting and Testing of Unhealthy Electronic Circuit

Troubleshooting and Testing of Unhealthy Electronic Circuit 6.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Testing It is very
Troubleshooting and Testing of Unhealthy Electronic Circuit 6.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Testing It is very

6.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Testing

Circuit 6.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Testing It is very common for the hobbyists and circuit
Circuit 6.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Testing It is very common for the hobbyists and circuit
Circuit 6.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Testing It is very common for the hobbyists and circuit
Circuit 6.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Testing It is very common for the hobbyists and circuit

It is very common for the hobbyists and circuit designing learners to anticipate the desired or actual results after completion of the circuit at once. The unexpected results of the electronics circuit may require some troubleshooting and testing procedures for making it a ready to use project.

Troubleshooting is the process that determines the cause of the problem in the electronic circuit by examining the affected area of it, and then by taking appropriate action. For minor problems, troubleshooting requires a little knowledge about the circuit and its components’ working because it involves checking the connections only. However, the major problems of these circuits require deeper knowledge of circuit operation and the way of using various troubleshooting tools.

circuit operation and the way of using various troubleshooting tools. Troubleshooting and Testing of Electronic Circuit

Troubleshooting and Testing of Electronic Circuit

74

6.2

Troubleshooting Tools

6.2 Troubleshooting Tools Troubleshooting process involves checking the terminal voltage across different components and

Troubleshooting process involves checking the terminal voltage across different components and devices in the circuit; checking the continuity of the current for open circuit faults, components like resistor, capacitor, transistors and their status checking whether they are functioning or not and so on. For doing all these things, some tools are necessary, which we have already discussed above .Some of these include:

¦ Digital or Analog multimeter

¦ Oscilloscope

¦ LCR meters

¦ Variable Power supply with a metered indication

6.3 Tips to Troubleshoot the Electronics Circuit

Before starting to do the troubleshooting process, some safety and precautionary measures must be taken to prevent the shocks against the live circuits. This troubleshooting process can be a visual or physical inspection. Start this process only after confirming the problem in the circuit, which may be about the desired results or improper working conditions of the circuit.

results or improper working conditions of the circuit. Visual Inspection ¦ Remove the power supply to
results or improper working conditions of the circuit. Visual Inspection ¦ Remove the power supply to
results or improper working conditions of the circuit. Visual Inspection ¦ Remove the power supply to
results or improper working conditions of the circuit. Visual Inspection ¦ Remove the power supply to

Visual Inspection

working conditions of the circuit. Visual Inspection ¦ Remove the power supply to the circuit and

¦ Remove the power supply to the circuit and wait for some time to discharge current in some components so that you can hold it without fearing.

¦ Check for the exploded or burnt parts of the circuit by seeing and smelling them.

¦ Look for the loose, bad connections and also check the ground paths.

¦ Check for the overlapped traces in the PCB.

¦ Observe the soldered points whether they are correctly soldered or not. And also, check for the shorts or touches on the adjacent soldered points.

for the shorts or touches on the adjacent soldered points. Shorts on the adjacent soldered points

Shorts on the adjacent soldered points