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# Introduction to

TRANSPORT
PHENOMENA
Momentum, Heat and Mass

Bodh Raj
Introduction to Transport Phenomena
Introduction to
Transport Phenomena
Momentum, Heat and Mass

Bodh Raj
Formerly Professor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and
Technology (JMIT)
Haryana

New Delhi-110001
2012
INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORT PHENOMENAMomentum, Heat and Mass
Bodh Raj

book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without
permission in writing from the publisher.

ISBN-978-81-203-4518-8

The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.

Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus,
New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Raj Press, New Delhi-110012.
To my beloved students
Contents

Preface ...................................................................................................................... xi

## Section A: Momentum Transfer

1 Introduction to Momentum Transfer ....................................... 312
1.1 Newtons Law of Viscosity (Molecular Momentum Transfer) ......... 5
1.2 Convective Momentum Transfer ......................................................... 7
1.3 Shell Momentum Balances and Boundary Conditions ....................... 8
1.3.1 Boundary Conditions ................................................................. 9
Solved Examples ........................................................................................... 10
Problems ....................................................................................................... 11

## 2 Shell Momentum Balance and Velocity Distribution

in Laminar Flow (Typical Cases) ............................................ 1335
2.1 Flow of a Liquid Falling Film........................................................... 13
2.2 Flow through a Circular Tube (Gravity Flow) ................................. 18
2.3 Laminar Flow in a Narrow Slit ......................................................... 22
2.4 Flow through an Annulus .................................................................. 26
2.5 Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids ........................................................ 30
Problems ....................................................................................................... 35

## 3 Equations of Change for Isothermal System ........................ 3645

3.1 Equation of Continuity ....................................................................... 36
3.2 Equation of Motion (NavierStokes Equation) ................................ 38
3.2.1 NavierStokes Equations ........................................................ 42
Solved Examples ........................................................................................... 43
Problems ....................................................................................................... 45

vii
viii CONTENTS

## 4 Momentum Transfer in Turbulent Flow ............................... 4654

4.1 Time-Smoothed Equation of Change for Turbulent Flow
(Incompressible Fluid) ........................................................................ 47
4.1.1 Time-Smoothed Equation of Change for
Incompressible Fluids for Turbulent Flow ............................. 48
4.2 Boundary-Layer Thickness for Flow Near a Solid Surface ........... 50
4.3 Prandtl Mixing Length Model ............................................................ 53

## 5 Unsteady-State Flow of Newtonian Fluids ............................. 5558

5.1 Flow Near a Wall Suddenly Set in Motion ...................................... 55

## Section B: Heat Transfer

6 Heat Transfer............................................................................. 6167
6.1 Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction
(Molecular Energy Transport)............................................................ 61
6.2 Convective Energy Transport ............................................................ 63
6.3 Shell Energy Balances and Boundary Conditions ............................ 65
Solved Examples ....................................................................................... 66
Problems ....................................................................................................... 67

## 7 Shell Energy Balances and Temperature Distribution

in Heat Conduction in Solids (Typical Cases) ....................... 6898
7.1 Heat Conduction with an Electrical of Heat Source ........................ 69
7.2 Heat Conduction with a Nuclear Heat Source ................................. 72
7.3 Heat Conduction through Composit Walls ....................................... 76
7.4 Heat Conduction in a Cooling Fin .................................................... 79
7.5 Heat Conduction from a Sphere to a Stagnant Fluid ...................... 82
7.6 Heat Conduction with a Viscous Heat Source ................................. 85
7.7 Heat Conduction with a Chemical Reaction Heat Source ............... 88
Solved Examples ........................................................................................... 94
Problems ....................................................................................................... 97

## 8 The General Energy Equation .............................................. 99102

8.1 Special Cases for Energy Equation ................................................. 102

## 9 Temperature Distribution in Turbulent Flow ................... 103110

9.1 Time-Smoothed Equations for Energy for
Incompressible Fluids in Turbulent Flow ....................................... 103
CONTENTS ix

## 9.2 Boundary-Layer Thickness for Heat Transfer Near

the Solid Surface .............................................................................. 105
9.3 Prandtl Mixing Length Model in Heat Transfer ............................ 109

## 10 Unsteady-State Heat Conduction in a

Semi-Infinite Slab .................................................................. 111113

## Section C: Mass Transfer

11 Mass Transfer ........................................................................ 117127
11.1 Ficks Law of Binary Diffusion (Molecular Mass Transport) ...... 117
11.1.1 Some Features of Ficks Law of Diffusion ....................... 119
11.2 Convective Mass Transport .............................................................. 120
11.2.1 Mass and Molar Fluxes ...................................................... 121
11.3 Shell Mass Balances and Boundary Conditions ............................. 122
Solved Examples ......................................................................................... 124
Problems ..................................................................................................... 127

## 12 Shell Mass Balances and Concentration Distribution for

Laminar Flow ........................................................................ 128146
12.1 Diffusion through a Stagnant Gas Film .......................................... 129
12.2 Diffusion with a Heterogeneous Chemical Reaction
(Instantaneous Reaction) .................................................................. 133
12.3 Diffusion with a Heterogeneous Chemical Reaction
(Slow Reaction) ................................................................................ 136
12.4 Diffusion with a Homogeneous Chemical Reaction ...................... 138
12.5 Diffusion through a Spherical Stagnant Gas Film Surrounding
a Droplet of Liquid .......................................................................... 141
Solved Examples ......................................................................................... 143
Problems ..................................................................................................... 145

## 14 Concentration Distribution in Turbulent Flow ................. 150158

14.1 Time-Smoothed Concentration in Turbulent Flow ......................... 150
14.2 Boundary-Layer Thickness for Mass Transfer ............................... 152
14.3 Prandtl Mixing Length Model in Mass Transfer ............................ 156

x CONTENTS

## Section D: Analogies among Momentum,

Heat and Mass Transfer
16 Analogies among Momentum, Heat and
Mass Transfer ........................................................................ 165190
16.1 Analogy among Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer .................. 166
16.2 Reynolds Analogy ............................................................................ 173
16.3 Prandtl Analogy ................................................................................ 177
16.4 Von Krmn Analogy ...................................................................... 182
16.5 ChiltonColburn Analogy ................................................................ 184
Solved Examples ......................................................................................... 187
Problems ..................................................................................................... 190

Appendices
Appendix A: Conversion Factors and Fundamental Units ............................ 193
Appendix B: Gas Law Constant R ................................................................. 198
Appendix C: Properties of Water (Liquid) .................................................... 199
Appendix D: Properties of Liquids ................................................................. 202
Appendix E: Properties of Gases .................................................................... 204
Appendix F: Properties of Solids ................................................................... 207
Appendix G: The Equation of Continuity ...................................................... 209
Appendix H: Equation of Motion for a Newtonian Fluid with
Constants r and m ..................................................................... 210
Appendix I: The Equation of Energy for Pure Newtonian Fluids
with Constants r and k ............................................................. 212
Appendix J: Ficks (First) Law of Binary Diffusion ................................... 213
Appendix K: The Equation of Continuity for Species a in Terms of ja .... 215

## Index ................................................................................................. 217218

Introduction To Transport Phenomena :
Momentum,Heat And Mass

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