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of the IEEE International Conference on Smart Instrumentation, Measurement and Applications (ICSIMA)

25-27 November 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Anomaly Using Singular Value Decomposition

Algorithm

Arya Dwi Candra #1, Wahyu Srigutomo*2, Sungkono#3, Bagus Jaya Santosa#4

#

Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

1arya13@mhs.physics.its.ac.id

*

Physics of Earth & Complex System Research Division, Institut Teknologi Bandung

Bandung 40116, Indonesia

2

wahyu@fi.itb.ac.id

potential anomaly related to geometric-shaped models such as

horizontal cylinder, vertical cylinder, and sphere object has been

proposed in this paper. This method is based on the concept of

solving least-squares algorithm with singular value

decomposition approach which is designed and implemented to

calculate the depth, the electric dipole moment, the polarization

angle, and the geometric shape factor of self potential anomaly.

This approach uses singular value decomposition algorithm to

solve non-linear inversion of self potential anomaly. The singular

value decomposition algorithm was randomly tested on

theoretical synthetic data which was generated by a chosen

statistical distribution from a known model with different

random noise level. The result shows there is a close agreement Fig. 1. Cross-sectional view of the vertical cylinder, the horizontal cylinder,

and the sphere models.

between the assumed and calculated parameters. Finally the

method validity is tested on the real self potential data anomaly decomposition (SVD) algorithm is proposed to overcome

which is obtained from a cylindrical object that was buried at almost all the drawbacks of all the above methods, particularly

certain depth. the disadvantage of handling random errors and noisy data.

KeywordsSelf-potential anomaly, non-linear inversion, In the other hand, calculation problem sometimes find

singular value decomposition algorithm, non-intrusive during the inversion process when the matrix is singular. If the

measurement matrix has a singular solution, then we will get a very small

eigenvalues which can lead to errors in the calculation. To

overcome these problems, then we have to develop a new non-

I. INTRODUCTION

linear inversion technique using the SVD algorithm. This

Self-potential (SP) method is one of the oldest geophysics algorithm is effective to calculate the depth (z), the electric

methods. This method is firstly used by Robert Fox in 1830 to dipole moment (K), the polarization angle (), and the

find sulphide deposit in Cornwall, USA. The principle of this geometric shape factor (q) of SP data. The fitting between

method is to measure the static natural voltage which is located observed and calculated SP anomaly represent the accuracy of

at specific points on the ground surface. SP method is one of the result.

the simplest methods of geophysics that is inexpensive, non-

intrusive and fast deployment among other geophysical

II. THEORETICAL FORMULATION

methods. Further, the quantitative interpretation of SP

anomalies has been widely applied in field measurement such A. Self Potential

as mining exploration [1], cave investigation [2], volcanic

activity and geothermal [3], archeological surveying [4], and The general SP anomaly mathematical expression triggered

embankment seepage control [5]. by most polarized structures along a principal profile in a

Cartesian coordinate system is given by the following equation

Several methods have been developed to calculate the SP (Fig. 1) [7]:

parameters, such as curves matching [6], characteristic points

[7], least-squares [8], Levenberq-Marquardt [9], derivatives xi cos + z sin

V ( xi , z , , q ) = K

and gradient analysis [10]. However, most of these methods are

strongly affected by the noise in the measured data. In this

(x 2

i + z2 ) (1)

paper, a new least-squares method using singular value (i = N ,..., 1, 0,1,..., N )

Where K is the electric dipole moment, z is the depth, xi is a 1

J T J J T = V 1U T (10)

discrete point where there are anomalies, is the polarization

angle between the axis of polarization and the horizontal, and

q is a shape factor which are 0.5 for vertical cylinder object, 1.0 Where J is Jacobi matrix, U and V are eigenvector of the

for horizontal cylinder object and 1.5 for sphere objects. matrix, and is eigenvalue of the matrix. Finally, SVD

algorithm is expressed by the equation:

Standard error () is used as a statistical criterion and

applied on field examples to demonstrate the efficiency and mn +1 = mn + V 1U T ( dobs dcal ) (11)

accuracy of the proposed interpretation technique.

Calculation using non-linear inversion has a disadvantage,

(V ( obs ) V ( cal ) )

m 2

= i =1 i i

(2) when invers of Jacobi matrix has a singular solution or

mn approach to singular so the eigenvalues of the matrix become

very small then the solution has gone beyond the linear region

Where is the standart error, Vi(cal) is the calculated SP (overshoot). Although the Jacobi matrix inversion is not

anomaly, and Vi(obs) is the observed SP anomaly at discrete singular matrix, the iteration result is diverging or very slowly

point xi. converging. SVD method is proposed to overcome the

disadvantage of the inversion process, particularly to perform

B. Singular Value Decomposition Algorithm more stability on matrix inversion.

SVD algorithm is derived from least-squares method that To test the stability of our method in dealing with noise,

expressed by the equation: each SP anomaly is calculated by adding 5% and 10% noise

1

level using the following equation:

mn +1 = mn + J T J J T ( dobs dcal ) (3)

Vrand ( xi ) = V ( xi ) + k (randn(i ))V ( xi ) (12)

Where m is the calculated solution at nth iteration, dobs is Where Vrand(xi) is the contaminated anomaly value at xi, k

observed data, dcal is calculated data, and J is Jacobi matrix that is the noise level, and randn(i) is a random normal number

can be shown in the equation below: which range is (0,1). The random normal number interval does

not include the extremes value, 0 and 1.

Vi Vi Vi Vi

z K q

III. CASE STUDY

J = # # # # (4)

A. Theoretical Synthetic Example

VN VN VN VN

z Theoretical synthetic examples of SP anomaly has been

K q

used to study the SP anomalies across geometric models

shaped like a sphere, cylinder horizontal, and vertical cylinders

Where i is the number of iteration, V is the SP function and using following parameters assumptions: z= 5 m, = 10 , and

J is the Jacobi matrix. K= -600 mV. Parameter assumptions have been used in

The first derivative expression of eq. (1) is given by: equation (1) to produce the appropriate theoretical curves. A

new random data is produced by applying a continuous

V ( K sin( ) ) uniform distribution with maximum random error 5% and 10%

= (5)

z (2 zKq( z sin( ) + xi cos( ))) respectively, see Table 1. The real purpose of adding random

(z + x )

2 2 q

noise is to create data that is very close to the field

( z 2 + xi2 ) q +1

i

measurements. This allows the addition of random noise to

V ( z sin( ) + xi cos( )) validate the method that is developed according to the results

= (6)

K ( z 2 + xi2 ) q of synthetic data interpretation in Table 1. It shows that the

( K ( z cos( ) xi sin( ))) SVD method has the ability to solve non-linear equations very

V

= (7) well, which is characterized by the value of the inversion

( z 2 + xi2 ) q results in accordance with the assumed parameters.

V ( K log( z 2 + xi2 )( z sin( ) + xi cos( ))) In the 5% noise addition indicates that the data inversion

= (8)

q ( z 2 + xi2 ) q results still give a value corresponding to the model parameters

assumptions. The same inversion result of 10% noise addition

If the Jacobi matrix has a singular solution, so SVD still show a corresponding value to the parameter assumptions.

algorithm is expressed as follows: Based on Table 1, we can also see that the error percentage of

each parameter is less than random noise. Similarly, curve

J = U VT (9) fitting result of the synthetic data shows very good results for

each noise addition. Furthermore, the result of each subject

Therefore we obtain shape also shows very good result, which are shown in Fig. 2.

This is suggests that the SVD method is able to process

inversion data more accurately.

TABLE I. THEORETICAL SYNTHETIC EXAMPLE OF SP ANOMALY WITH 5% AND 10% RANDOM NOISE

Synthetic data Calculated parameters

Geophysical Assumed No noise % of error 5% random % of error 10% random % of error

parameter parameter noise noise

Case 1

z 5.0000 5.0000 0.0000 4.9586 -0.8278 4.9896 -0.2075

k -600.0000 -599.9999 0.0000 -597.9330 -0.3445 -624.1518 4.0253

10.0000 9.9660 -0.3400 10.3626 3.6257 10.5793 5.7927

q 0.5000 0.5000 0.0000 0.5004 0.0891 0.5082 1.6335

Case 2

z 5.0000 5.0000 0.0000 4.9584 -0.8317 4.9027 -1.9456

k -600.0000 -599.9999 0.0000 -585.3769 -2.4372 -619.7067 3.2844

10.0000 9.9663 -0.3370 10.1900 1.9001 9.9300 -0.7004

q 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.9934 -0.6597 1.0083 0.8272

Case 3

z 5.0000 5.0000 0.0000 5.0144 0.2886 4.9905 -0.1896

k -600.0000 -599.9999 0.0000 -615.0901 2.5150 -571.2692 -4.7885

10.0000 9.9655 -0.3450 9.9200 -0.7997 9.4804 -5.1958

q 1.5000 1.5000 0.0000 1.5050 0.3329 1.4944 -0.3762

r

Fig. 2. A SP anomaly curve fitting profile on synthetics data buried at depth z= 5 m with polarization angle = 40 and electric dipole moment K= -600 mV.

(a)(b)(c) shows SP anomaly profile at the surface over a vertical cylinder model (q= 0.5) with no noise, 5% and 10% respectively. (d)(e)(f) shows SP anomaly

profile at the surface over a horizontal cylinder model (q= 1) with no noise, 5% and 10% respectively. (g)(h)(i) shows SP anomaly profile at the surface over a

sphere model (q= 1.5) with no noise, 5% and 10% respectively.

TABLE II. COMPARISON OF SELF-POTENTIAL ANOMALY CALCULATION RESULTS DERIVED BY DIFFERENT METHODS

Methods of Srigutomo et al Proposed method

Parameter Derivative analysis Least-squares Levenberg- Singular Value Decomposition

method method Marquardt method method

z 1.75 0.57 1.234 1.2325

k -18.20 -6.15 -10.733 -10.7308

38.34 67.91 45.780 44.3241

q 1.05 0.56 0.916 0.9225

% of error 1.115 0.748 0.537 0.587

sum, the present algorithm works very well in both theoretical

synthetic and field example data. The advantage of this method

is efficient in computational, and rapidly convergence to the

optimal estimation of the SP parameters. Therefore, the

proposed method can be recommended for routine analysis of

SP field data to determine the geophysical parameters

associated with the studied structures. Furthermore, this

method can be used to obtain subsurface geological

information, as described by the examples of the SP field data.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We would like to thank reviewers and editors for improving

the quality of the article. The main author greatly

acknowledges the Directorate General of the Higher Education

of the Republic of Indonesia (DIKTI) for supporting him

through DIKTI Graduate Scholarship grant. We also thank

Fig. 3. A curve fitting SP anomaly profile on field data. Alwi Husein and Yekti Widyaningrum for refining the English

used in this paper.

B. Field data example

REFERENCES

To validate the applicability, the proposed method was

applied in SP field data from Srigutomo et al [9]. This SP [1] M. Sato and H. M. Mooney, The electrochemical mechanism of sulfide

self-potentials, Geophysics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 226249, Feb. 1960.

anomaly obtained from a buried cylindrical conductive object [2] Y. Vichabian and F. Morgan, Self potentials in cave detection, Lead.

at certain depth. The observed and calculated parameters for Edge, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 866871, Sep. 2002.

implementation of the SVD method in real SP field data are [3] K. Yasukawa, T. Ishido, and I. Suzuki, Geothermal reservoir

shown in Fig. 3. From the Fig. 3, it can be seen that the curve monitoring by continuous self-potential measurements, Mori geothermal

fitting results of SVD method is better than the method field, Japan, Geothermics, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 551567, Oct. 2005.

[4] M. G. Drahor, Application of the self-potential method to

developed by Srigutomo et al [9]. According to the result of archaeological prospection: some case histories, Archaeol. Prospect.,

Table 2, SVD method is an efficient and accurate method to vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 77105, 2004.

analyze SP anomaly. Therefore, as long as we consider the [5] J. R. Moore, A. Boleve, J. W. Sanders, and S. D. Glaser, Self-potential

fitting between the observed parameters and the calculated investigation of moraine dam seepage, J. Appl. Geophys., vol. 74, no.

parameters, the SVD methods provides best overall accuracy in 4, pp. 277286, Aug. 2011.

[6] B. V. S. Murty and P. Haricharan, Nomogram for the complete

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IV. CONCLUSION 11271135, Jul. 1985.

[7] S. H. Yungul, Interpretation of spontaneous polarization anomalies

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vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 15691576, Nov. 2008.

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