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# A well defined collection of objects is called a set and each object is called a member or

## element of the set

A set is denoted by a capital letter and is expressed by:
Listing its elements, e.g. = , , , ,
A set builder notation
set of real numbers
+ set of positive real numbers
set of natural numbers
set of integers
+ set of positive integers
e.g. {: is a prime number and < 30}

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For any finite set , () denotes the number of elements in
A null or empty set is denote by { } or
For any two sets and :
= if they have the same elements
if
= {: and }
= then and are disjoint sets
= {: or }
For any set and universal set
and 0
= {: and }
=
=
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Simultaneous linear equations can be solved either by substitution or elimination
Simultaneous linear and non-linear equations are generally solved by substitution as follows:
Step 1: obtain an equation in one unknown and solve this equation
Step 2: substitute the results from step 1 into the linear equation to find the other
unknown
The points of intersection of two graphs are given by the solution of their simultaneous
equations

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Indices:
Definitions:
for > 0 and positive integers and
1
0 = 1 =
1

= =

Rules:
for > 0, > 0 and rational numbers and
= + =

= =

=

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Logarithms:
Definition
for > 0 and 1
= = log
For log to be defined
> 0 and > 0, 1
When the logarithms are defined
log 1 = 0 log + log log

log = 1 log log log

log
log log log
log
When solving logarithmic equations, check solution with original equation and discard
any solutions that causes logarithm to be undefined

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Solution of = where 1, 0, 1
If can be easily written as , then
= =
Otherwise take logarithms on both sides,
log
i.e. log = log and so =
log
log log10
ln log
Exponential graphs:

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To sketch = 2 + + 0
Use the turning point:
Express = 2 + + as = 2 + by completing the square
2 2
2 + +
2 2
+ 2+
Where the vertex is (, )
> 0 u-shaped minimum point
< 0 n-shaped maximum point
Find the -intercept:
Factorize or use formula
Type of root by calculating discriminant 2 4
If 2 4 = 0, real and equal roots
If 2 4 > 0, real and distinct roots
If 2 4 < 0, no real roots
Intersections of a line and a curve: if the simultaneous equations of the line and curve leads
to a simultaneous equation then:
If 2 4 = 0, line is tangent to the curve
If 2 4 > 0, line meets curve in two points
If 2 4 < 0, line does not meet curve
<0 < <
> 0 < or >

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Polynomials:
2 + + is a polynomial of degree 2 (quadratic)
3 + 2 + + is a polynomial of degree 3 (cubic)
Identities:
= for all values of
To find unknowns in an identity:
a. Substitute suitable values of , or
b. Equate coefficients of like powers of
Factor theorem:
is a factor of = 0
Remainder theorem:
If a polynomial () is divided by , the remainder is R =
DIVIDEND = DIVISOR QUOTIENT + REMAINDER
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Solution of cubic equation 3 + 2 + + = 0 with an integer root
Step 1: Obtain one factor ( ) by trial and error
Step 2: Factorize 3 + 2 + + = 0 as 2 + + = 0
Step 3: Solve 2 + + = 0 for the other roots

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Order of a matrix: a matrix with rows and columns, Order =
Scalar multiplication: to multiply a matrix by , multiply each element by
Multiplying matrices: multiply row by column
Identity matric:
1 0
= = and =
0 1
Calculating the determinant:

= = ( )

Inverse of a 2 by 2 matrix:
Switch leading diagonal, negate secondary diagonal
1
Multiply by

1
= 1 = 1 = 1 =

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Solving simultaneous linear equations by a matrix method:
+ = + =
Equation can be written as:

=
Rearrange it and solve:
1
=
For a matrix to give unique solutions:

0

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Equation of a straight line:
= +
1 = ( 1 )
2 1
=
2 1
Length of a line segment:
Length = (2 1 )2 +(2 1 )2
Midpoint of a line segment:
1 + 2 1 + 2
,
2 2
Parallelogram:
ABCD is a parallelogram diagonals AC and BD have a common midpoint
Special parallelograms = rhombuses, squares, rectangles

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Parallel lines: 1 = 2
Perpendicular lines: 1 2 = 1
Perpendicular bisector: line passes through midpoint
To work out point of intersection of two lines/curves, solve equations simultaneously

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= 180 2 = 360
180
180
Arc length:
=
Area of a sector:
1
= 2
2

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Trigonometric ratio of special angles:

## SINE CURVE COSINE CURVE

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TANGENT CURVE

CAST Diagram:

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Trigonometric ratios:
1 1 1
sec = cosec = cot =
cos sin tan

Trigonometric identities:
sin
tan = sin2 + cos2 = 1
cos
cot 2 + 1 = cosec 2 tan2 + 1 = sec 2

## Sketching trigonometric graphs:

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One-to-one functions: each value maps to one distinct value
e.g. = 3 1
Many-to-one functions: there are some () values which are generated by more than one
value
e.g. = 2 2 + 3
Domain = values Range = values
To find range:
Complete the square
2 2 + 3 1 2 +2
Work out min/max point
Minimum point = (1,2)
all values are greater than or equal to 2. () 2

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One-to-many functions do not exist
Domain of = Range of 1 ()
Solving functions:
(2): substitute = 2 and solve for ()
: substitute = ()
1 : let = () and make the subject
Transformation of graphs:
(): reflection in the -axis
: reflection in the -axis
+ : translation of units parallel to -axis
+ : translation of units parallel to -axis
1
(): stretch, scale factor parallel to -axis

: stretch, scale factor parallel to -axis
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Modulus function:
Modulus of a number is its absolute value
Never goes below -axis
Makes negative graph into positive by reflecting negative part into -axis
Solving modulus function:
Sketch graphs and find points of intersection
Square the equation and solve quadratic
Relationship of a function and its inverse:
The graph of the inverse of a function is the reflection of a graph of the function in =

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of () ()

Increasing function, > 0 Decreasing function, <0

Stationary point: = 0

2nd Derivative : differentiate the differential

Finds nature of the point: substitute -value and check
If value +ve, min. point negative stationary point
If value ve, max. point positive stationary point

Chain rule: =

Product rule: = +

Quotient rule: =
2

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Special Differentials:

sin = cos

cos = sin

tan = sec 2

+ = +

1
ln =

If = ln( ) then =

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Related rates of change:

If and are related by the equation = (), then the rates of change and are

related by:

=

Small changes:
If = () and small change in causes a small change in , then

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+1
= +
( + 1)

+ +1
+ = +
( + 1)

## Definite integral: substitute coordinates/values and find

Integrating by parts:
=

What to make :
L A T E
Logs Algebra Trig

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To find area under the graph (curve and -axis):
Integrate curve
Substitute boundaries of
Subtract one from another (ignore c)

To find volume under the graph (curve and -axis):
Square the function
Integrate and substitute
Multiply by
2

To find area/volume between curve and -axis:
Make subject of the formula
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Special integrals:
1
sin + = cos + +

1
cos + = sin + +

1
sec 2 + = tan + +

1 1
= ln + +
+

1
+ = + +

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Basic Counting Principle: to find the number of ways of performing several tasks in
succession, multiply the number of ways in which each task can be performed:
e.g. 5 4 3 2
Factorial: ! = 1 2 3 2 1
Permutations:
The number of ordered arrangements of r objects taken from n unlike objects is:
=
!

!
Order matters
Combinations:
The number of ways of selecting objects from unlike objects is:
=
!

! !
Order does not matter
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DIFFERENTIATE

displacement velocity acceleration

INTEGRATE

## Particle at instantaneous rest, = 0

Maximum displacement from origin, = 0
Maximum velocity, = 0

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The binomial theorem allows expansion of any expression in the form +

+ = 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 2 + +
e.g. Expand 2 1 4

2 1 4 = 40 (2)4 + 41 2 3 (1) + 42 2 2 1 2 + 43 2 1 3 + 44 1 4

= 1(2)4 +4 2 3 (1) +6 2 2 1 2 + 4 2 1 3 + 1 1 4

= 16 4 32 3 + 24 2 8 + 1

## The powers of are in descending order

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Position vector: position of point relative to origin,

Forms of vector: i j

Parallel vectors: same direction but different magnitude
Generally, =
Magnitude = i2 + j2
Unit vectors: vectors of magnitude 1
e.g. = 2i + 3j = 13
1
Unit vector = 2i + 3j
13
Collinear vectors: vectors on the same line
Dot product: + . + = +
Angle between two diverging vectors:
.
cos =

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Motion in the water:
VW = true velocity of W (water)
VP/W = velocity of P relative to W still water
Course take by P is direction of VP/W
Motion in the air:
VW = true velocity of W (wind or air)
VP/W = velocity of P relative to W still air/wind
Course take by P is direction of VP/W

/ =

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