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Answers to Biology for IGCSE Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Summary Questions page 166.


(Suggested marks are given in square brackets)

1 (a) drug - any substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical reactions
in the body [1]

(b) drug tolerance - condition that occurs when the body gets used to a drug so that
more of the drug needs to be taken to achieve its original effects [1]

(c) antibiotic type of chemical made by microorganisms (or made artificially) used to
kill bacterial and fungal pathogens or stop their growth [1]

note: there is no completely satisfactory definition of antibiotic but it should include


reference to derivation from microorganisms and used to kill or stop the growth of bacterial
and fungal pathogens

(d) addiction repeated regular use of a drug [1]

2 depressant - slows down the activity of the nervous system [1]


3 (a) the first few times the person feels euphoria (warm rush and feeling of contentment);
acts as a painkiller [2]
(b) individual dependence / addiction; natural painkillers are not produced; so feel
intense pain (when not taking the drug); have to continue to take heroin; as
unpleasant withdrawal symptoms; danger of injections; damage to blood veins;
transmission of blood-borne diseases if needles are shared; e.g. HIV / hepatitis
society drug may be expensive; illegal; addicts turn to crime to give then money to
buy drugs; family breakdown; homelessness; social isolation of addict; drug
subculture [5]
(c) withdrawal symptoms [1]

4 (a) answers should be based on the table on page 163

blood alcohol effects of alcohol on behaviour


concentration /
mg per 100 cm3
blood
one 20 50 reduced tension, relaxed feeling, increase in confidence
50 80 euphoria, impaired judgment, loss of fine motor control,
loss of inhibitions
80 120 slurred speech, impaired coordination, walking in a
staggered way, slow reaction times
120 260 loss of control of voluntary actions, loss of balance,
erratic behaviour, signs of emotion and aggression
260 400 total loss of coordination, difficulty remaining upright,
extreme confusion
>400 coma, depression of breathing control centres in the
brain, death
mark for each effect given; preferably starting with effects at low blood alcohol
concentration better answers will give the relevant blood alcohol concentrations for
the effects given [5]
(b) alcohol slows reaction time; takes longer to respond to stimuli; judgment may be
poor; may be overconfident and take risks; e.g. risky overtaking, driving too fast [3]
(c) excess fat stored (fatty liver); liver cells replaced by scar tissue; nodules develop;
cirrhosis; liver less effective at detoxification (breaking down toxins and making them
harmless) [4]

5 (a) more mucus produced; cilia stop beating; mucus accumulates; bronchi become
blocked; phlegm builds up [3]
(b)(i) chronic bronchitis; emphysema; lung cancer [3]
(ii) effects on the gas exchange system:
chronic bronchitis cilia destroyed; ciliated cells replaced by scar tissue
emphysema alveoli burst / loss of alveoli; less surface area for gas exchange
lung cancer tumour develops in epithelium ; blocks airways; blocks blood vessels;
may spread into other organs [5]

6 choose correct antibiotic (see photograph on page 159); the bacteria that cause
some diseases are naturally resistant to some antibiotics; some strains of bacteria
are resistant to some antibiotics; must use antibiotic to which strain of bacteria
causing infection is susceptible; take regularly over period of time; finish the dose
(even if feel better); use for bacterial and fungal diseases; not for viral diseases [4]

7 antibiotics are effective against cells; stop cell wall growth; stop protein synthesis;
stop metabolism; viruses have no cell wall; do not have any metabolism of their
own; rely on host cells metabolism for their reproduction [3]

Chapter 13 Exam-Style Questions page 166-167.

Multiple Choice Questions (1 mark each)

1 A
2 C
3 A
4 D

Short Answer Questions

5 (a)(i) antibiotics are substances taken into the body; that alter the metabolism of
the pathogen / bacteria inside the body; [2]
(ii) kill / stop growth of, pathogen / bacteria; which harms the body / causes
disease; [2]

(b)(i) e.g. heroin / ecstasy / amphetamine / cocaine / LSD / marijuana / alcohol /


nicotine; [1]
(ii) any two suitable points, e.g.
addictive; withdrawal symptoms; risk transmission of disease; social effects;
damage to organs, e.g. liver; [2]

6 (a) number of injecting drug users decreased between 2002 and 2004; from 29 139 to
21 272 / by 7867 / 27% or by about a quarter; then increased from 2004 to 2006;
from 21 272 to 24 102 / by 2830 / by 13.3% or by 13% or just over by a tenth; [4]

(b) 5037/29 139 x 100; 17.3 / 17%; [2]

(c) take heroin by injection; share needles; blood from first person remains inside needle
so pathogen is transmitted to others who use the same needle; HIV is transmitted in
blood; [2]

7 (a) increase in deaths from 1991 to 2006; in both males and females; more steeply in
males than in females; death rate in males higher than for females; rate of increase
in deaths is constant (for both males and females);
figures used to support any of these points; e.g.

figures used to compare death rates of males or females over time (read vertically in
this table) or to compare death rates of males with death rates of females for one
year (read horizontally in this table)

year deaths per 100 000 population


males females
1991 9 5
2006 18.5 / 19 9
[3]

(b) 18.5 9 = 9.5/18.5 x 100; 51.4 / 51%; [2]


accept 19 instead of 18.5 to give 52.6 / 53%

(c) ask each person who is diagnosed as having cirrhosis about their alcohol
consumption; and for other information about, health / drinking habits; study alcohol
consumption and number of cases of cirrhosis over time; look for correlation; [2]
note that any correlation could be coincidental it does not prove cause and effect

(d) alcohol slows reaction time; takes longer to respond to stimuli; judgment may be
poor; may be overconfident and take risks; e.g. risky overtaking, driving too fast; [3]

8 (a)(i) 1938; accept 1937 or 1939 [1]


(ii) 1965; accept 1964 or 1966 [1]

(b) as there are no gridlines on the graph, accept approximate readings from the three
scales on the graph
(i) increased steeply from 1910 to 1938; to (nearly) 5000 cigarettes per person per year;
other use of figures; fluctuated to 1970; decreased steeply from 1970 to 1980;

(ii) low and unchanging death rate until 1920; increase from 1000 per year to 28 000 per
year in mid 1960s; decreased to 20 000 in 1980; [5]
(c) smoking reached a peak in 1940s; highest death rate was 30 years later; lung cancer
takes a long time to develop; so increase in death rate suggests a link; but does not
prove it; [3]

9 (a) danger of selling antibiotics, over the counter / without prescription / by unqualified
people; doctors (should) know which antibiotics are appropriate; have up to date
information about suitable antibiotics to use; some antibiotics do not work on some
pathogens; dangers of using in excess (e.g. resistance); some people are allergic to
some antibiotics; may interfere with other drugs a person is taking; [2]

(b) e.g. viral disease / person allergic to antibiotic(s); [1]


antibiotics are prescribed for bacterial infections that follow a viral infection
(known as secondary infections)

(c) examples of points about dangers of overuse of antibiotics also see page 219
overuse may lead to resistance of pathogens to antibiotics; antibiotic kills all
susceptible bacteria; some bacteria have a mutation that makes them resistant; e.g.
have an enzyme to breakdown penicillin; these survive and reproduce; they are
selected; maybe no effective antibiotics left; few new ones are being discovered;
some bacteria have become resistant to several antibiotics; e.g. multi-drug resistant
TB; some antibiotics should, be kept to be used as a last resort / not be used very
often so resistance does not evolve; [4]