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SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SARAWAK

MEE40004-Fluid Mechanics
2
Lab 1: Wind Tunnel Experiment

Date:

David Tionge Ngambi (4309448)


Contents
1 Introduction........................................................................................................ 3
2 Objective............................................................................................................ 3
3 Theory................................................................................................................ 3
4 Experimental Apparatus..................................................................................... 4
5 Experimental Procedures.................................................................................... 7
6 Results and calculations..................................................................................... 7
6.1 Stagnation and Static Pressure.....................................................................7
6.2 Pressure distribution around Cylinder...........................................................8
6.3 Equating Dynamic pressure, Reynolds number and Wind Velocity...............9
6.4 Pressure coefficient On Cylinder.................................................................10
6.4.1 Theoretical Pressure Coefficient...........................................................10
6.4.2 Experimental Pressure Coefficient........................................................11
7) Discussions (3 marks)...................................................................................... 13
Comparing theoretical and experimental results..............................................13
Experimental error............................................................................................ 13

List of Figure

Figure 1: LS-18 013 Wind Tunnel............................................................................5


Figure 2: 16 way PDU - displays the various pressure readings from nodes placed
on the cylinder....................................................................................................... 5
Figure 3: Internal shot showing the pressure cylinder, clamp, stand and pitot tube
.............................................................................................................................. 6
Figure 4: Pitot Tube................................................................................................ 6
Figure 5: Pressure Cylinder.................................................................................... 6
Figure 6: Average Pressure vs Pressure on Cylinder Node.....................................9
Figure 7: Graph of Experimental Vs Theoretical Pressure Coefficients.................12

List of Table

Table 1: Static and Stagnation Pressure.................................................................7


Table 2: Pressure (bar) values for p1 to p10..........................................................8
Table 3: Pressure(Pa) values for p1 to p10.............................................................8
Table 4: Values of Equated Dynamic Pressure, Wind Velocity and Reynolds
Number.................................................................................................................. 9
Table 5: Theoretical Pressure Coefficient.............................................................10
Table 6: Graph of Theoretical Pressure coefficient vs Angle.................................11
Table 7: Experimental coefficient of pressure at pressure points 1 to 10.............11

1 Introduction
In numerous engineering applications, it is increasingly necessary to understand
how a material behaves when it is inserted in a fluid in motion. One example of
this is the analysis of an aircraft wing during flight. In order to achieve this, the
wing is placed in a stationary position with a moving fluid, usually air, being
driven across the wing. In the same vein, the flow of fluid across a object such as
a cylinder can also be analysed. Unlike the wing of a plane, a cylinder will not
experience lift when the fluid flows across it but instead will experience a force
known as drag. The drag force and the lift force are resultant of pressure
differences that occur on an object when it is stationary and a fluid moves across
it. Another factor that can affect the amount of drag is the skin friction on the
object which in some cases can be neglected. This experiment seeks to measure
the pressure distribution on a stationary cylinder with a fluid flowing across it and
subsequently find the drag force.

2 Objective
The aim of this experiment is to analyse and measure pressure, distributed along
the surface of a perpendicularly placed smooth cylinder and after which to
calculate the drag coefficient of the cylinder, determine the relationship between
pressure and velocity in a moving medium and finally to compare the results to a
theoretical and predicted frictionless flow. By inserting the cylinder in a closed
circuit wind tunnel and finding the pressure distribution acting on the object at
different speeds the investigation can be carried out. The experimental results
will further be compared to the theoretical results for frictionless flow and finally
the drag coefficient will be calculated. By gathering data from the 12 cylindrical
tapings around the cylinder. The theoretical and experimental results and graphs
will ultimately be compared.

3 Theory
The study of the airflow around a body or object is of widespread study. In the
study of how it interacts with a cylinder, it is expected to produce a drag force
parallel to that of the air flow velocity. This is a result of pressure accumulation
and interaction around the cylinder body which will differ at various sections and
points on the cylinder. In order to fully understand these effects in the
experiment and the results, the following equations will be needed

Air Velocity Equation

V=
2 ( P P )
t

Dynamic Pressure Equation


2
Pdp=0.5 V

Gage Pressure Equation


||P
ref
Pgage =P

||=P
gage + Patmospheric
P

Reynolds Number Equation


VL
R ex=
v
Pressure Coefficient Equation
PP0
Cp=
0.5 V 2
Variables in the equation are:
V representing Velocity
v Represents the kinematic viscosity
L Represents the characteristic linear dimension

4 Experimental Apparatus

1. LS-18013 Educational wind tunnel A large tubular/cylindrical device


which is capable of propelling high velocity air inside with added ability of placing
an object inside for analysis

2. Pressure Cylinder A cylinder with 12 holes each at 30 degree angles to


each other connected to a multi-tube manometer.

3. Test model holder stand. A clamp to hold the object, in this case a cylinder.
4. 16 way pressure display unit An electronic display unit to show the
relevant conditions around the cylinder at different operating speeds of the wind
tunnel.

5. Pitot Tube A tube with two holes. One side faces the air stream direction
and the other faces the opposite direction. It functions to give readings for the
static and dynamic pressure.

Figure 1: LS-18 013 Wind Tunnel


Figure 2: 16 way PDU - displays the various pressure readings from nodes placed on the cylinder

Figure 3: Internal shot showing the pressure cylinder, clamp, stand and pitot tube
Figure 4: Pitot Tube

Figure 5: Pressure Cylinder

5 Experimental Procedures
1. The Pressure cylinder was set up on the stand in the wind tunnel and
the 16-unit pressure display was set up
2. The connections that brought together the Pressure display unit and
the pressure cylinder were checked again to make sure they were
properly connected
3. The wind tunnel was switched on via a switch on the side of the
machine
4. The reference pressures were taken while the fan remained off
5. The run button was pressed and the fan frequency was increased to
15Hz
6. At the 15 Hz mark, the readings for point 1 to point 12 were taken once
again using the 16 way pressure display unit
7. The fan frequency increased by an increment of 5 HZ to 20 Hz and
once again the readings were taken from the 16 way display unit
8. The increase of speed and recording procedure was repeated with
speed increments of 5Hz until an optimal speed of 45Hz
6 Results and calculations

6.1 Stagnation and Static Pressure


Pressure Point (Pa)
Fan Frequency
(Hz) P11 P12
(Stagnation) (Static)
0 1480 1490
15 -20 -100
20 -30 -160
25 -30 -240
30 -50 -340
35 -60 -450
40 -70 -580
45 -80 -720
Table 1: Static and Stagnation Pressure

The static pressure and the stagnation pressure differ in that the static
pressure has a lower absolute pressure that the stagnation. As a result of
P11 having a lower pressure than P12, it is assumed that P11 is the
stagnat8ion pressure while P12 is the static pressure. The initial pressure
obtained from the pressure display unit was in Bar but for the sake of this
experiment has been converted to Pa beforehand using the following
calculation

Sample Calculation

Absolut Pressure=Psystem P atm

( 0.01460.0148 ) 105

20 Pa

6.2 Pressure distribution around Cylinder

Fan Pressure Point (Bar)


Frequen P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10
cy (Hz)
0 0.016 0.008 0.014 0.013 0.014 0.015 0.008 0.014 0.014 0.014
1 8 3 5 6 6 9 8 9
15 0.015 0.008 0.013 0.012 0.012 0.013 0.006 0.012 0.012 0.013
7 3 5 2 8 4 5 8 1 4
20 0.015 0.008 0.013 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.005 0.011 0.011 0.012
5 1 1 5 5 8 7 3 1 3
25 0.015 0.007 0.012 0.010 0.010 0.01 0.005 0.009 0.009 0.011
2 9 6 5 1 7 5 7 1
30 0.019 0.007 0.012 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.005 0.007 0.008 0.009
9 6 2 2 9 7 8 9 9
35 0.014 0.007 0.011 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.007
5 2 2 7 9 7 8 8 9
40 0.014 0.006 0.010 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
1 9 2 2 8 9 7 8 8 9
45 0.013 0.006 0.009 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
7 8 2 8 8 9 7 8 8 8
Table 2: Pressure (bar) values for p1 to p10

Fan Pressure Point (pa)


Frequen
cy (Hz) P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10
0 1610 880 1430 1350 1460 1560 890 1480 1400 1490
15 -40 -50 -80 -130 -180 -220 -240 -200 -190 -150
20 -60 -70 -120 -200 -310 -380 -320 -350 -290 -260
25 -90 -90 -170 -300 -450 -560 -320 -530 -430 -380
30 380 -120 -230 -430 -640 -770 -320 -700 -510 -500
35 -160 -160 -310 -580 -860 -970 -320 -900 -720 -700
40 -200 -190 -410 -730 -880 -970 -320 -900 -820 -900
45 -240 -200 -510 -770 -880 -970 -320 -900 -820 -910
Table 3: Pressure(Pa) values for p1 to p10

Average Pressure (Pa) vs. Pressure on Cylinder Node


0
-200
-400
-600
Average Pressure (Pa)
-800
-1000
-1200
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Pressure Point

15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Figure 6: Average Pressure vs Pressure on Cylinder Node


6.3 Equating Dynamic pressure, Reynolds number and Wind
Velocity
Fan Pressure Point (Pa) Dynami Wind Reynold
Freque P11 c Velocit s
ncy (Stagnation P12 Pressur y Number
(Hz) ) (Static) e (Pa) (m/s) (Re)
67945.
15 -20 -100 80 11.5 36
86613.
20 -30 -160 130 14.7 68
110084
25 -30 -240 210 18.7 .07
129364
30 -50 -340 290 21.9 .11
150019
35 -60 -450 390 25.5 .29
171553
40 -70 -580 510 29.1 .63
192178
45 -80 -720 640 32.6 .50
Table 4: Values of Equated Dynamic Pressure, Wind Velocity and Reynolds Number

Sample Calculation

Reynolds number

V d
=
v

11.5 0.089
5
1.51 10

67945.36

Wind Velocity

V=
2( Pstagnation Pstatics )


2(20(100))
1.204

11.5 m/s
Dynamic Pressure

Dynamic Pressure=( P stagnation P statics )

(20(100))

80 Pa

Predefined Parameters

kg
=1.204 2
, d=0.089m , v=1.51 105
m

6.4 Pressure coefficient On Cylinder


6.4.1 Theoretical Pressure Coefficient
Pressure Point Angle (degree) Pressure Coefficient, Cp
P1 13.5 0.7820
P2 27 0.1756
P3 40.5 -0.6871
P4 54 -1.6180
P5 67.5 -2.4142
P6 81 -2.9021
P7 94.5 -2.9754
P8 108 -2.6180
P9 121.5 -1.9080
P10 135 -1
Table 5: Theoretical Pressure Coefficient
Pressure Coefficient vs. Angle ()
1

-1
Pressure Coefficient
-2

-3
27 54 81 108 135
13.5 40.5 67.5 94.5 121.5
Angle ()

Table 6: Graph of Theoretical Pressure coefficient vs Angle

Sample Calculation

C p =14 sin2 ()

14 sin2 (135)

6.4.2 Experimental Pressure Coefficient

Wind Coefficient of Pressure (Cp)


Fan
Veloci
Frequen
ty
cy (Hz)
(m/s) P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10
- - - - - - - - - -
15 11.5 0.250 0.375 0.750 1.375 2.000 2.500 2.750 2.250 2.125 1.625
- - - - - - - - - -
20 14.7 0.231 0.308 0.692 1.308 2.154 2.692 2.231 2.462 2.000 1.769
- - - - - - - - - -
25 18.7 0.286 0.286 0.667 1.286 2.000 2.524 1.381 2.381 1.905 1.667
- - - - - - - - - -
30 21.9 0.207 0.241 0.621 1.310 2.034 2.483 0.931 2.241 1.586 1.552
- - - - - - - - - -
35 25.5 0.256 0.256 0.641 1.333 2.051 2.333 0.667 2.154 1.692 1.641
- - - - - - - - - -
40 29.1 0.255 0.235 0.667 1.294 1.588 1.765 0.490 1.627 1.471 1.627
- - - - - - - - - -
45 32.6 0.250 0.188 0.672 1.078 1.250 1.391 0.375 1.281 1.156 1.297
Table 7: Experimental coefficient of pressure at pressure points 1 to 10

Experimental vs. Theoretical Coefficient of pressure


0.800
0.300
-0.200
-0.700
-1.200
Coefficient of Pressure
-1.700
-2.200
-2.700
-3.200
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Pressure Points

15 20 25 30
35 40 45 Theoretical

Figure 7: Graph of Experimental Vs. Theoretical Pressure Coefficients

Sample Calculation

kg
=1.204
m2

PP0
Cp=
1
V2
2

40(20)

1
(1.204)(11.5)2
2

0.250
7) Discussions (3 marks)

7.1 Comparing theoretical and experimental results


In order to compare this experiment to its theoretical equivalent, the Coefficient
of pressure for the cylinder and its point was calculated and subsequently
compared to a referenced theoretical coefficient of pressure. A comparison
between the theoretical and experimental results are depicted in figure 7 shows
that the experimental and the theoretical pressure coefficients exhibit the same
trend line with exception at pressure point 7. There is a clear anomaly at this
pressure point at which, the theoretical pressure deviates from the expected
theoretical trend line and settles at a value significantly higher than expected.
One explanation for this deviation may be the formation of vortices at these
points. This would account for the sudden change in pressure at that point.
Another explanation for the anomaly may be equipment fault or a fault in the
connection between the cylinder and the display machine. Another factor to be
considered with regards to the experiment is the heat that may be generated
due to skin friction. In the experiment, this factor may not be accounted for
adequately and therefore may factor into some of the differences between the
expected and the tabulated results. Skin friction would result in some of the fluid
velocity around the cylinder being converted into heat energy.

7.2 Experimental error


7.2.1 Equipment error
The most noticeable error in the experiment is at the pressure point 7 in the
pressure cylinder. The values that were taken from this point showed a complete
deviation from the trend line. This error is possibly a result of internal
malfunction in the cylinder or a result of the cylinder being improperly connected
to the display unit at this point. In addition to this, there was noticeable
unwanted rotation of the cylinder in the wind tunnel once the fluid flow began
which was likely a result of improperly fixing the cylinder. In addition to this,
when reading values from the display unit, the values were fluctuating and
therefore averaged out values were used when taking down the readings. These
fluctuations in reading, depending slightly on magnitude, could affect the trend
lines that were deduced from the experiment. Finally, it was noticed that some
air could be felt around the machine, which could be a result of a leak in the
pressure chamber. If this indeed was the case, it would mean that the air velocity
recorded and tabulated would be inconsistent and therefore would be a source of
error.

Solution

By having multiple individuals check the apparatus for proper connections (such
as making sure the cylinder is sufficiently tight) and errors of this nature, it would
ensure that all apparatus are connected properly and would eliminate the
assumption that this would be a source of error. Checking for leaks prior around
the wind tunnel and attempting to fix them would be a viable option even though
the chances of a leak are small.

7.2.2 Human Error


Human error in the experiment played a small yet consequential role in the
recording of results. Because of the size of the display unit, it meant that some
values had to be called out by a single individual that was reading the values
from the display unit, in order for the experiment to be more efficient. In addition
to this, values read out by individual students may have been heard wrongly or
unclearly due to the large amount of background noise that the fan made. As a
result, even when the value is called out correctly, it may come out distorted and
therefore may be read wrong by other individuals relying on this information for
their results. As a result, it is possible that some readings were heard and
therefore recorded wrong, which would be increasingly likely due to high levels of
background noise emanating from the wind tunnel.

Solution

By using electronic reading devices and perhaps computer software, it would be


able to better average out the values that would be given rather than the
fluctuating reading. Subsequently, by repeating the experiment multiple times
and averaging out the values from multiple attempts, it may bring readings
closer to a true value. In addition, having fewer individuals perform the
experiment would reduce the misinformation or miscommunication caused by
reading out the values. They individuals who carry out the readings and
recording can then disseminate the information to other students.

7.2.3 Alternative sources of error


A source of error could also be vibration caused by the apparatus once turned
on. If the magnitude of the vibrations was high enough, it could destabilize the
readings in the pressure cylinder and thus give incorrect readings.

Solution

Using damping materials such as foam or dampening springs to reduce the


amount of vibration transferred to the cylinder may be able to reduce the
amount of error as a result of vibration.
Conclusion
From the experiment we can conclude that our objective of comparing
experimental and theoretical air flow around a cylinder was a success. The
experiment shows a clear correlation between the two sets of data and therefore
we can conclude that this experiment is a good representation oh what one
would expect. The graphs obtained from the experiment can be considered
accurate since they are similar in both shape and scale.

References

Crowe, C. T.; Elgar, D. F.; Williams, B. C. & Roberson, J. A., 2010, Engineering Fluid
Mechanics,9th Edn., John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Asia

Lab Sheet: Wind Tunnel Experiment (Aerofoil and Pressure Cylinder Test),
Swinburne university of Technology Sarawak

Bertin, JJ & Cummings, RM 2008, Aerodynamics for engineers, 5th ed, Prentice
Hall, Indianapolis, IN.

Davenport W.J, Experiment 3 - FLOW PAST A CIRCULAR CYLINDER, 2007 <


http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~devenpor/aoe3054/manual/expt3/>