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78 Revist teoretico-tiinific / Theoretical and scientifical journal

ANALIZA DEZVOLTRII TURISMULUI THE ANALYSIS OF WINE TOURISM


VITI-VINICOL N LUME DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD

Tatiana COLESNICOVA, dr., cercet. t. superior, INCE Tatiana COLESNICOVA, PhD, senior researcher, NIER
Tatiana IAIIN, drd., cercet. t., INCE Tatiana IAIIN, PhD Student, researcher, NIER

n acest articol este redat analiza situaiei n sectorul The situation with wine sector and wine tourism
viti-vinicol i turismul viti-vinicol (enotourism) n multe ri (enotourism) in many countries of the world is analyzed
ale lumii. De asemenea, unele cifre ale Indexului al in the given article. Also, some figures from the Travel &
competitivitii sectorului de Cltorii i Turism i opiniile Tourism Competitiveness Index and opinions of the
experilor bine cunoscute n lume din acest domeniu sunt world known experts from this sphere are done.
efectuate. Key words: wine tourism, enotourism, wine sector,
Cuvinte cheie: turismul viti-vinicol, enoturism, sectorul international experience, the Travel & Tourism
viti-vinicol, experiena internaional, Index al competitivitii Competitiveness Index.
sectorului de Cltorii i Turism. JEL Classification: L66, L83, Q1

Introducere. Pentru multe ri din lume, turismul a Introduction. At present tourism has become one of
devenit una din cele mai importante, profitabile i prospere the most important, profitable, and prosperous sectors of
ramuri ale economiei. Dezvoltarea turismului internaional the economy for many countries in the world. The
este condiionat de scopul pe care i-l propune turistul, international tourism development is conditioned by the
dorind vizitarea unei anumite ri sau a unei anumite destinaii destinations that it proposes to tourists wanting to visit a
turistice. Din acest considerent, rile de destinaie turistic particular country or a particular place. For this reason,
promoveaz acele obiective turistice sau acele valori cultural- countries promote through these attractive cultural and
turistice, care sunt recunoscute pe plan mondial i reprezint touristic destinations those values that are recognized
cartea de vizit a rii respective. Astzi, turismul este unul worldwide and represent the country. Today tourism is
dintre sectoare cu cea mai rapid cretere a economiei one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economy.
mondiale. Din cauza acestei creteri, acest sector a fost numit Because of this growth, the touristic industry has been
fenomenul economic al secolului. called economic phenomenon of the century.
rile europene, Lumea Veche, cu o tradiie ndelungat European countries, the Old World have a long
n ceea ce privete viticultura, au neles, c vinul nu este doar tradition in the vineyard, they understand that wine is not
o licoare ntr-o sticl, dar este o poveste, este istorie i just a drink in a bottle, but it is a story, history and
civilizaie, este tradiie rural i farmec urban. Turism civilization, it is the rural tradition and urban charm. The
viti-vinicol s-a format la hotarele viticulturii tradiionale i a wine tourism was formed at the boundaries of traditional
industriei turismului ca o form popular de odihn, ca o viticulture and tourism industry as a popular form of
form specializat de cltorie, care devine una dintre cele recreation, as a specialized form of travel, which is
mai promitoare direcii de dezvoltare a pieei turismului becoming one of the most promising directions of
mondial. n ultimele decenii, vinul s-a poziionat ca development of the world tourism market. In recent
parte component a culturii, regiunii la nivel global i decades, the wine itself as part of the culture of the
individual. region globally and individually.
Conexiunea dintre cultura viei de vie, vin i om, cu The connection between vines, wine and people, with
rdcini adnci n istorie, a dat permanent satisfacia their deep historical roots, gave to generations
generaiilor de a releva i dezlega semnificaia acesteia. Pe permanently accomplishment to reveal and unravel its
baza acestei conexiuni s-a nscut un tip de turism turism meaning. Based on this connection, a special type of
desfurat pe baza viticulturii, turism viti-vinicol sau tourism was born tourism developed basing on
enoturism [1]. viticulture: or the wine tourism, or enoturism [1].
Turismul viti-vinicol sau turismul vinului este o form The grape and wine tourism or "wine tourism" is a
de turism de interes special, cu un rol n continu cretere, form of special interest tourism, with a growing role,
devenind o component important a turismului, pentru multe becoming an important component of tourism, many
regiuni productoare de vin. Dezvoltarea turismului vinului wine producing regions. The development of wine
a devenit, o preocupare esenial att pentru cei implicai n tourism has become a key concern for both those
turism ct i pentru cei din industria vinului. involved in tourism and those in the wine industry.
Turism vinicol sau cum mai este numit de specialiti The wine tourism, or enotourism (as called by
enoturism este o varietate gastronomic i mai larg, turism experts) is a variety of gastronomic, and, moreover,
educaional-cultural. Ca varietate a turismului educaional educational and cultural tourism. As the variety of
cultural, turismul vinicol este strns legat de o anumit educational and cultural tourism, wine tourism is closely
regiune, de istorie i cultura naional. Iar conform unor linked to a particular region, history, and national
dicionare, turismul viticol, combin descoperirea de peisaje culture. According to some dictionaries, wine tourism
noi cu vizitarea cramelor i experimentarea de senzaii noi "combines the discovery of new pictures visiting
pentru plcerea simurilor: vz, miros, gust. wineries and experiencing new experiences for the
Cuvntul enoturism este alctuit din dou cuvinte, onios pleasure of the senses: sight, smell, taste".

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ECONOMIE I SOCIOLOGIE / ECONOMY AND SOCIOLOGY 79

(din limba greac), ceea ce nseamn vin i oeno (din latin) The word enotourism consists of two words, onios
turism [2]. (from Greek), which means wine, and no (from Latin)
Scopul principal al turismului viti-vinicol este de a face meaning tourism.
cunotin cu modul de producere a vinului i, totodat, s The main purpose of the wine tourism is to get
descopere tradiionalul zonei sau arealului respectiv. El acquainted with how wine production and also to
include n sine vizitarea locurilor unde are loc producerea discover the traditional area or that area. It includes the
vinului, degustarea i n final procurarea lui. Din punct de visits to places where there is wine tasting and finally
vede istoric, putem spune c via de vie crete n locurile cu o buying it. As seen historically, we can say that the vine
cultur i istorie bogat. grows in places with a rich culture and history.
n Frana, nc din perioada interbelic, existau mugurii In France, since the interwar period, there were buds
unui turism viticol n special datorit faptului c multe of wine tourism in particular because many vineyards
podgorii erau asociate unor domenii nobiliare importante. n were associated with areas important noble. In 1953, in
1953, n Alsacia, a aprut primul drum al vinului. Acest Alsace, there was the "first wine route". This wine route
drum al vinului nc mai exist i astzi, are o lungime de 170 still exists today, has a length of 170 km and passes
km i strbate inutul colinar dintre localitile Marlenheim i through hilly land between settlements Marlenheim and
Thann. Evident, Alsacia nu a strlucit foarte mult, deoarece n Thann. Obviously, Alsace did not shine very much,
scurt timp, n Bordeaux, pe Valea Loirei, pe Valea Ronului si because in a short time in Bordeaux, the Loire Valley,
n Burgundia apreau zeci de drumuri ale vinului. Germania, the Rhone Valley and Burgundy wine appeared dozens
Italia sau Spania au urmat imediat exemplul i au trasat noi of roads. Germany, Italy and Spain soon followed suit
rute turistice pe valea Rinului, n Toscana sau n Castilia. and have set new tourist routes on the Rhine valley in
Lumea Nou s-a aliniat i ea acestui trend, iar in cele din urm Tuscany or Castile. New World has aligned itself with
drumurile vinului au devenit destinaii turistice propriu zise i this trend, and in the end the wine roads became actual
n Europa de Est n Ungaria sau Slovenia. tourist destinations in Eastern Europe in Hungary and
Conceptul a fost dezvoltat n timp, att n lumea veche Slovenia.
(Frana, Italia, Spania), ct i n lumea nou (California The concept was developed both in the "old world"
Napa Valley, Chile, Australia). Vinurile sunt caracterizate prin (France, Italy, Spain) and in the "new world" (Napa
originalitate i autenticitate, att datorit respectrii unor Valley of California, Chile, Australia). The wines are
tradiii strmoeti, dar i prin utilizarea metodelor moderne characterized by originality and authenticity, both due
de viticultur i vinificaie. observance of ancient traditions, but also by using
n California (SUA) turismul vitivinicol a aprut n anii modern methods of viticulture and winemaking.
1970-80, mai trziu n Australia i cu timpul a nceput s se Wine tourism has emerged in California (USA) in the
dezvolte n toate regiunile viti-vinicole din lume [3]. years 1970 to 1980, later it comes to Australia, and later
Drumul vinului reprezint de fapt un traseu turistic bine began to develop in all wine-growing regions in the
marcat i delimitat ntr-o zon cu potenial viticol i cu world [3].
suficiente atracii turistice naturale i antropice ce poate fi The Wine Route is actually a tourist route well
urmat de ctre turiti, n mod organizat sau individual, n marked and delineated in an area with potential wine and
anumite perioade ale anului. Aceste drumuri, n funcie de enough natural attractions. The may be followed by
lungimea lor dar i de densitatea obiectivelor, pot fi parcurse organized or individual tourists at certain seasons. These
pe jos, cu bicicleta cu autoturismul i chiar cu trsura. routes, depending on their length and density of targets,
Astzi, iubitorii i experii n vin, cu ajutorul ageniilor de can be covered on foot, by car and even by bicycle.
turism, pot selecta acelea ri i regiuni, care au evaluat cu Today wine amateurs and experts with the help of
vinuri de calitate. Tur de vin obinuit dureaz aproximativ o travel agencies can select those countries and regions
sptmn, i pe lng vizitarea evenimentelor vinicole, that have assessed wines of quality. Ordinary wine tour
include n sine i vizitarea obiectelor turistice locale. takes about a week and in addition to visiting the winery
Turismul viti-vinicol face cunotin cu metodele i events, including itself and visiting local tourist objects.
obiceiurile de producere i de consum a vinului. Turitii pot fi The wine tourism acquainted with the methods and
atrai nu numai de frumuseea peisajului viti-vinicol, foarte habits of production and consumption of wine. Tourists
diversificat, ci i de raporturile excelente calitate/pre ale are attracted not only by the beauty of the wine
serviciilor i produselor, precum i stimularea interesului landscape, very diversified, but also excellent
pentru locuri mai puin cunoscute, mai neobinuite, prin relationship price/quality of services and products, and to
strbaterea unor drumuri ale vinului i cunoaterea unor stimulate interest in lesser known places, unusual, by
obiective mai noi i interesante, mai puin solicitate n turism, crossing the roads of wine and knowledge some new
mai apropiate de natura primar. interesting targets, required less travel, closer to the
Coninutul de baz. n ultimii douzeci de ani, tendina primary nature.
general a fost ctre o reducere a suprafeelor plantate cu vi de The basic content. In the last twenty years, the
vie, cu o scdere de 10% ntre 1986 i 2004. Aceast diminuare general trend has been towards a reduction in the area
global mascheaz dou tendine distincte i contrastante: UE a planted with vines, with a decrease of 10% between 1986
cunoscut o reducere limitat, dar constant (de 15%) a and 2004. This overall decline masks two distinct and
suprafeelor, n timp ce concurenii si au nregistrat o dezvoltare contrasting EU has experienced a reduction in limited,
surprinztoare a capacitii de producie. but constant (15%) areas, while its competitors have seen

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80 Revist teoretico-tiinific / Theoretical and scientifical journal

n anul 2012, situaia sectorului vitivinicol din lume, an astonishing growth in production capacity.
conform datelor Indicele competitivitii sectorului Cltoriei In 2012 the situation with the grape and wine sector
& Turismului (The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness in the world is as follows, according to "The Travel &
Index, TTCI), care a fost prezentate la Forumul Economic Tourism Competitiveness Index" (TTCI) presented at the
Mondial de la Davos, din Elveia, artau n felul urmtor: World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland:

Tabelul 1 / Table 1
Indicele competitivitii sectorului de cltorii i turism,
n rile cu specializare preponderent spre sectorul viti-vinicol, anul 2012 /
The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in wine oriented countries, 2012
Economie / Economy Rangul / Rank Punctaj / Score
Germania / Germany 2 5,39
Austria / Austria 3 5,39
Spania / Spain 4 5,38
Regatul Unit / United Kingdom 5 5,38
SUA / USA 6 5,32
Frana / France 7 5,31
Australia / Australia 11 5,17
Noua Zeland / New Zealand 12 5,17
Portugalia / Portugal 20 5,01
Italia / Italy 26 4,90
Cipru / Cyprus 29 4,84
Grecia / Greece 32 4,75
Ungaria / Hungary 39 4,51
China / China 45 4,45
Turcia / Turkey 46 4,44
Bulgaria / Bulgaria 50 4,38
Chili / Chile 56 4,29
Argentina / Argentina 61 4,17
Africa de Sud / South Africa 64 4,13
Romnia / Romania 68 4,04
Ukraina / Ukraine 76 3,98
Iran / Iran, Islamic Republic 98 3,64
Republica Moldova / Republic of Moldova 102 3,60
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autori n baza datelor Report TTCI-2013/ Elaborated by the authors on the dates from
Report TTCI-2013 [4, p.120].

Scopul acestui indice, care cuprinde circa 140 de ri The TTCI aims to measure the factors and policies
ale lumii, include n sine dezvoltarea unui instrument that make it attractive to develop the T&T sector in
strategic global pentru msurarea factoriilor i politicilor different countries. The Index was developed in close
care ar putea ajuta la dezvoltarea sectorului turismului viti- collaboration with our Strategic Design Partner Booz &
vinicol n diferite ri. Acest indice a fost elaborat n strns Company and our Data Partners Deloitte, the International
cooperare cu Strategia Design Partner Booz & Company i Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Union
cu Data Partners Deloitte, Asociaia Internaional de for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the World Tourism
Transport Aerian (IATA), Uniunea Internaional pentru Organization (UNWTO), and the World Travel & Tourism
Conservarea Naturii (IUCN), Organizaia Mondial a Council (WTTC).
Turismului (UNWTO), i Consiliul Mondial al Cltoriilor The TTCI is based on three broad categories of
i Turismului (WTTC). variables that facilitate or drive T&T competitiveness.
Acest indice include n sine trei blocuri principale cum These categories are summarized into the three subindexes
ar fi: Cadrul de reglementare cltorii i turism; Mediul de of the Index: the T&T regulatory framework subindex; the
afaceri i infrastructura n cltorii i turism; Resurse T&T business environment and infrastructure subindex;

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ECONOMIE I SOCIOLOGIE / ECONOMY AND SOCIOLOGY 81

umane, culturale i naturale n cltorii i turism. and the T&T human, cultural, and natural resources
La rndul su fiecare bloc cuprinde un ir de indicatori subindex. Each of these three subindexes is composed in
cum ar fi: 1. Politici i regulamente; 2. Sustenabilitatea turn by a number of pillars of T&T competitiveness, of
mediului ambiant; 3. Siguran i securitate; 4. Sntate which there are 14 in all. These are: 1. Policy rules and
i igien; 5. Prioritatea Cltorii & Turism; 6. Infrastructura regulations; 2. Environmental sustainability; 3. Safety and
de transport aerian; 7. Infrastructura transportului de security; 4. Health and hygiene; 5. Prioritization of Travel
teren; 8. Infrastructura turismului; 9. Infrastructura & Tourism; 6. Air transport infrastructure; 7. Ground
Tehnologiei Informaiei i Comunicaiilor; 10. Competiti- transport infrastructure; 8. Tourism infrastructure; 9. ICT
vitatea preurilor n industria Cltorii & Turism; 11. infrastructure; 10. Price competitiveness in the T&T
Resurse umane; 12. Afinitate pentru Turism i Cltorii; 13. industry; 11. Human resources; 12. Affinity for Travel &
Resurse naturale; 14. Resurse culturale; 15. Schimbri Tourism; 13. Natural resources; 14. Cultural resources;
climaterice. 15. Climate change.

Compe

Indicele Competitivittii Cltorii & Turism / Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index

Sub-indice C / Subindex C :
Sub-indice B / Subindex B :
Sub-indice A / Subindex A : Resurse umane, culturale si
Mediul de afaceri si infrastructura in
Cadrul de reglementare Cltorii & naturale in Cltorii & Turism /
Cltorii & Turism / T&T business
Turism / T&T regulatory framework T&T human, cultural and natural
environment and infrastructure
resources

Politici si regulamente / Policy rules Infrastructura de transport aerian / Air Resurse umane / Human
and regulations transport infrastructure resources

Afinitate pentru Cltorii &


Sustenabilitatea mediului ambiant / Infrastructura transportului de teren /
Turism / Affinity for Travel &
Environmental sustainability Ground transport infrastructure
Tourism

Sigurant si securitate / Safety and Infrastructura turismului / Tourism Resurse naturale / Natural
security infrastructure resources

Sntate si igien / Health and Infrastructura Tehnologiei Informatiei si Resurse culturale / Cultural
hygiene Comunicatiilor / ICT infrastructure resources

Competitivitatea preturilor in industria


Prioritizarea Cltorii & Turism / Schimbri climaterice / Climate
Cltorii & Turism / Price
Prioritization of Travel & Tourism change
competitiveness in the T&T industry

Fig. 1. Compoziia sub-indicilor ale TTCI /


Fig. 1. Composition of the three subindexes of the TTCI
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autori n baza datelor Report TTCI-2013/ Elaborated by the authors on the dates from
Report TTCI-2013 [4, p.40].

n anul 2012, Europa a fost printre primele regiuni In 2012, Europe was among the first regions in the
n domeniul cltorilor i a turismului datorit domain Travel & Tourism due to enoturism
dezvoltrii enoturismului. Printre primele cinci ri au intrat ri development. Among the first countries there are five
din UE. Aadar, din celea 140 de ri locul doi l ocup countries of EU. Thus, from the 140 countries
Germania, locul trei Austria, locul patru Spania i locul cinci Germany occupies second place, Austria third place,
Marea Britaniei. Spain fourth place, and Great Britain fifth place.
Germania, ocup locul doi n lume n clasamentul mondial. Germany occupies the second place in the world
Din punct de vedere turistic, infrastructura din aceast ar este ranking. From the tourism point of view, the
una atractiv: ocup locul ase la infrastructura drumurilor i infrastructure of the country is an attractive one: The
locul apte la infrastructura transporturilor, care faciliteaz sixth rank in road infrastructure and the seventh rank in

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82 Revist teoretico-tiinific / Theoretical and scientifical journal

legturile de transport, att din ar ct i din strintate; transport infrastructure facilitates transport links from
ocup locul cinci n lume dup numrul obiectelor culturale both home and abroad; fifth rank in the world by number
motenite. of inherited cultural objects.
Germania a adoptat o serie de acorduri internaionale n Germany adopted a number of international
domeniul cltoriilor i al turismului. De asemenea se agreements in the field of travel and tourism. It also
organizeaz expoziii internaionale, iarmaroace n domeniu organizes international exhibitions, fairs in the field (the
(ocup locul doi). Preurile pentru hoteluri sunt relativ second place). Prices for hotels are relatively competitive
competitive (locul 55 la acest indicator). (ranked 55th on this indicator).
Austria ocup locul trei n lume. Drumul vinului din Austria ranks the third in the world. Wine Route in
Austria de Jos Weinstrae Niedersterreich, are peste 830 Lower Austria called Weinstrae Niedersterreich has
de km lungime, fiind astfel unul din cele mai lungi drumuri ale over 830 km long making it one of the longest routes in
vinului din lume. Drumul ne poart prin Wachau, Kremstal, the world of wine. The route takes us through the
Traisental, Kamptal, Wagram, Weinviertel i Carnuntum, prin Wachau, Kremstal, Traisental, Kamptal, Wagram,
peste 150 de localiti i adun pe toat lungimea sa peste 1700 Weinviertel and Carnuntum, in over 150 towns, and
de puncte de interes legate de vinuri (de la cochetele heurigen gathers its entire length over 1700 points of interest
pn la elegante i sofisticate restaurante gourmet, de la crame related to wine (from the cozy "Heurigen" to elegant and
minuscule pn la domenii viticole mari, de la muzee ale sophisticated gourmet restaurants, wineries from the tiny
vinului pn la mici repere istorice). Acest drum trece nu numai to the large wine areas, the wine museums to small
printre podgorii i crame, dar i pe lng magnifice mnstiri historic landmarks). This route passes not only through
precum Gttweig or Klosterneuburg, cu ceti i fortree vineyards and wineries, but also to the magnificent
medievale sau cu castele si palate n stil baroc. monasteries like Gttweig or Klosterneuburg with
Frana ocupa locul sapte in clasament, dup ce a pierdut medieval castles and fortresses or castles and baroque
patru poziii, din 2011. In Bordeaux 75% din circulaia turistic palaces.
este legat de viticultur, Pe Valea Ronului, a doua zon France ranks as the seventh in the rankings after
viticol a Franei, exist o adevat industie turistic orientat losing four positions in 2011. In Bordeaux, 75% of
spre viticultur 25.000 de locuri de cazare n uniti tourist traffic is related to viticulture. The Rhone Valley,
specializate cu o cifr de afaceri anual de peste 150 de the second wine region of France, has a true tourism
milioane de euro [5]. Topul celor mai populare regiuni: oriented to industrial wine fabrication: 25,000 beds in
Bordeaux (21%), Alsacia (17%), Champagne (12%), specialized units with an annual turnover of over 150
Languedoc-Roussillon (8%), Valea Ronului (6%), Valea Loarei million.
(5%), Provence(3%) s.a. Frana continu s atrag turiti din The most popular regions are: Bordeaux (21%),
ntreaga lume, cu un bogat patrimoniu cultural, inclusiv prin Alsace (17%), Champagne (12%), Languedoc-
facilitile de vinificaie i enoturismului. Ea, ocup locul patru Roussillon (8%), Rhone Valley (6%), Loire Valley (5%),
dup numrul obiectelor cultural motenite; locul cinci dup Provence (3%), etc. France continues to attract tourists
numrul expoziiilor, iarmaroacelor internaionale organizate. from around the world with a rich cultural heritage,
Conform estimrilor experilor francezi din cei 30 mlm decalitri including wine and enoturismului facilities. It ranks the
de vin produs n regiunea Provance, 10 milioane de decalitri fourth in the number of inherited cultural objects; the
sunt procurate de turisti [6]. fifth in the number of exhibitions, international fairs
n Italia dup ultimele date exist aproximativ cinci organized. According to expert estimates of the 30 mln.
milioane de turiti viti-vinicoli; 140 de rute viti-vinicole pentru dal French wine produced in the Provance, 10 mln. dal
enologi i gurmanzi [6]. are purchased by tourists.
Toscana este una dintre cele mai romantice destinaii din In Italy, the latest figures show approx. five million
lume. Farmecul Florenei sau al Siennei se mbin perfect cu tourists for wine, over 140 routes for enotourists and
cldura i blndeea zonelor rurale. Podgoriile din Chianti sau gourmets.
Montalcino reprezint cadrul ideal pentru o vacan de neuitat. Tuscany is one of the most romantic destinations in
n Toscana sunt deschise 14 drumuri ale vinului, numite i the world. Florence or Sienna charm blends perfectly
strade del vino. Acestea sunt foarte bine structurate, astfel with the warmth and kindness of rural areas. Vineyards
dac vrei s te axezi pe o anumit categorie de vinuri poi alege of Chianti or Montalcino is the ideal setting for an
un anume itinerariu. De exemplu pentru Vinurile Nobile di unforgettable holiday. The roads of Tuscany are open 14
Montalcino putei alege La Strada del Vino Nobile di wine called "Strada del Vino". They are very well
Montepulciano. Drumul este suficient de scurt 35 km pentru structured, so if you want to focus on a specific wine you
a fi parcurs n 2 zile cu bicicleta o oportunitate extraordinar can choose a specific itinerary. For example Nobile di
de a v bucura pe ndelete de farmecul Toscanei, ns este Montalcino wines can choose La Strada del Vino Nobile
foarte concentrat n ceea ce privete densitatea obiectivelor di Montepulciano. The road is short enough 35 km to
turistice. De-a lungul acestui drum sunt mai puin de 44 de be covered in two days cycling a great opportunity to
podgorii, de 30 de ferme agroturistice, 75 de obiective turistice enjoy leisurely charm of Tuscany, but is highly
i 45 de restaurante sau taverne [5]. concentrated in terms of density sightseeing. Along this
n ultimii 10 ani, n ara s-a dublat numrul turitilor cei road are more than 44 wineries, 30 private farms, 75
care doresc s viziteze tururile gastronomice, inclusiv i cele de attractions and 45 restaurants and taverns [5].
vin, 16% din achiziiile fcute de turiti n Italia, sunt produse In the past 10 years, the country has doubled the

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tradiionale italiene: brnza, vin, produse din carne [6]. number of tourists who want to visit gastronomic tours
Romnia ocup locul 68 n clasamentul mondial, Ucraina including wine and 16% of purchases made by tourists in
locul 76 i Republica Moldova ocup locul 102. Italy are Italian traditional products: cheese, wine, meat
Concluzii: La nivel internaional se acordat o deosebit products [6].
atenie pentru dezvoltarea turismului viti-vinicol. La conferina Romanias rank is 68 in the world rankings,
internaional a turismului cultural care a avut loc n Ucraina Ukraines rank is 76, and Moldovas rank is 102.
oraul Odesa pe 23 mai 2013, dna Madelena Grossman, Conclusions: Particular attention is given at the
secretarul general a Asociaiei Internaionale pentru schimburi international level to the wine tourism development.
culturale i turistice pe lng Consiliul Europei (), care Cultural tourism at the international conference held in the
este i reprezentantul dinastiei spaniole de vinificaie Santiago Ukrainian city of Odessa on May 23, 2013, Ms. Grossman
Vivanco a prezentat un nou Proiect al UE cu denumirea harta Madelena, general secretary of the International Association
drumurilor vinicole, care cheam la unirea oportunitilor de for cultural exchanges and tourism of the Council of
turism a 7 ri: Turcia, Grecia, Italia, Ucraina, Frana, Spania, Europe (), which is the representative of the Spanish
Romnia. dynasty wine Santiago Vivanco presented a new draft EU
Conform dnei Madelena Grossman, turismul cultural este designation "wine road map" that calls for union tourism
unul de perspectiv i cu o dezvoltare rapid n industria opportunities of 7 countries: Turkey, Greece, Italy, Ukraine,
serviciilor. Se pune accent pe originalitatea i unicitatea locului, France, Spain, Romania.
pe care le reprezint. Cu alte cuvinte, turismul cultural aduce According to Ms Madelena Grossman, cultural
faima regiunii, cu care se deosebete de altele regiuni. tourism is one of perspective and rapidly growing service
Turismul si cultura au fost mereu foarte apropiate n Europa, industry. The focus is on originality and uniqueness of
aceasta fiind tot timpul o destinaie important pentru cei atrai the place, which they represent. In other words, cultural
de cultura sa bogat i de motenirile istorice. Ba mai mult tourism brings fame region, which is different from other
motenirea cultural a Europei reprezint una din cele mai regions. Tourism and culture have always been very
vechi i mai importante mosteniri producatoare de turism. close in Europe, which is always an important
Potrivit unui studiu al Comisiei Europene, turismul cultural destination for those drawn to its rich culture and
atrage un numar din ce n ce mai mare de turisti, 20% dintre historical heritage. Moreover Europe's cultural heritage
vizitele din Europa au motivaie cultural, n timp ce 60% is one of the oldest and most important legacies
dintre turitii europeni sunt ntr-adevar interesai n producing tourism. According to a European
descoperirea culturala n timpul calatoriei lor. Commission study, cultural tourism attracts a number of
Consiliul Europei a elaborat dou proiecte n domeniul increasingly more tourists, 20% of visits in Europe
turismului cultural: primul proiect, Zilele europene ale cultural motivation, while 60% of European tourists are
patrimoniului. Acest domeniu de turism este specializat n really interested in cultural discovery during trip them.
studierea patrimoniului cultural al Europei, n care este implicat The Council of Europe has developed two projects in
50 de ri. Succesul Zilelor europene ale patrimoniului se cultural tourism. The first project is European Heritage
datoreaz organizrii la nivel local, de ctre comunitile Days3. This area of tourism specializes in studying the
municipale i regionale. n fiecare an, comunitile din ntreaga cultural heritage of Europe and involve 50 countries. The
Europ devin parte a familiei culturale care srbtoresc success of the European Heritage Days is due to their
patrimoniul european extraordinar de bogat. Evenimentele organization by local municipal and regional
culturale aduc n prim-plan meteugurile i tradiiile, precum i communities. Each year communities across Europe
arhitectura i arta local, i vizeaz, totodat, promovarea make themselves part of the "cultural family" presenting
nelegerii reciproce ntre cetenii europeni. extraordinarily rich European heritage. Cultural events
Al doilea proiect este Harta vinului din Uniunea bring to the fore local crafts, traditions, art, and
European. La ndeplinirea acestui proiect, au fost folosite architecture aiming to promote mutual understanding
tehnologii noi informaionale, pentru a ajuta turitii n between EU citizens.
elaborarea rutelor viti-vinicole, iar pentru reprezentanii din The second project is Wine Map of the European
sfera serviciilor pentru a fi localizai mai uor. Studiind Union. In carrying out this project, information
experiena istoric, sa dovedit c, pe o perioad de mai multe technologies have been used to help in drawing tourists
generaii rutele viti-vinicole, treceau din Turcia, prin 'routes in wine" and representatives of the services sector
Romnia la vest i sudul Europei. Prin aceste fluxuri au avut loc to be located more easily. Studying historical experience
o colaborare strns ntre vinificatorii europeni. has proven that over a period of several generations
Aceast hart va fi de folos att turitilor ct i 'routes in wine" went from Turkey through Romania to
vinificatorilor. Acest proiect a pus baz pentru o cooperarea the west and south of Europe. These flows have been a
mai strns ntre viticultori i ntreprinderile vinicole din 7 ri, close collaboration between European winemakers.
care fac parte din regiunea european. This map will be useful both for tourists and
Pe aceast hart interactiv se va putea plasa informaii winemakers. This project has laid the foundation for
att despre viticultori, vinificatori, ct i despre closer cooperation between vine growers and wineries in

3
http://pjp-eu.coe.int/en/web/ehd-jep/home
Nr. 2 / 2014
84 Revist teoretico-tiinific / Theoretical and scientifical journal

cafenelele, hoteluri, toat informaia legat de regiunea dat, seven countries in Europe.
poate fi inclus informaii ct i fotografii. La moment On this interactive map will be able to place
pe harta interactiv sunt incluse locuri unice, care au fost information about both the growers, winemakers and
cunoscute doar de localnici, dar care prezint un mare interes about cafes, hotels, all information related to this region
pentru strini. may be included as information and photos. Currently on
n cele din urm, turitii singuri i pot crea harta the interactive map includes single seats, which were
drumurilor vinicole, pot face comandat prin internet, a known only to locals, but of great interest to foreigners.
hotelurilor i excursiilor, sau adresndu-se la ageniile de Finally, guests can create their own wine road map,
turism. Operatorii de turism prezint un interes deosebit pentru can order by internet hotels and tours, or contact travel
proiect, realiznd, c prin promovarea colectiv a rutelor agents. Tour operators are of particular interest for the
vitivinicole europene pot fi obinute beneficii. project understanding benefits at promoting collective
Generaliznd cele expuse, se poate meniona c turismul European wine routes.
viti-vinicol reprezint o form de turism orientat spre vizitarea Generalizing the above, we may mention that wine
agenilor economici viti-vinicoli i a regiunilor vinicole cu tourism is a form of tourism oriented to visits to wine
scopul de a mbina plcerea degustrii produselor respective cu regions and wine producers in order to combine the
cunoaterea stilului de via local, a mediului rural i a pleasure of tasting products with the knowledge of local
activitilor culturale. lifestyle, rural and cultural activities.

Referine bibliografice / References


1. SOARE, I. Turism: tipologii i destinaii. Trgovite: Ed. Transversal, 2007. 452 p. ISBN 978-973-7798-56-5.
2. , . . 2012, 6 [accesat 17 iunie 2014]. Disponibil: http://o-
svobode.ru/2012/enoturizm-dlya-nachinayuschih.htm
3. - . :
. 2011, 28 [accesat 17 iunie 2014]. Disponibil: http://wine-expert.org/ru/publications/22/
4. WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 [accesat 17 iunie 2014].
Disponibil: http://www.weforum.org/reports/travel-tourism-competitiveness-report-2013
5. Drumurile vinului. In: Travel Advisor. 2012, no. 11 [accesat 24 iunie 2014]. Disponibil: http://www.vinland.ro/prin-
lumea-vinurilor/drumurile-vinului/
6. , . : . : .
2013, , . 48-49 [accesat 21 iulie 2014]. Disponibil: http://library.nuft.edu.ua/inform/mirprod48.pdf

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