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Ayrton Senna is celebrated as the most influential driver in the history of FormulaOne.
He was never intimidated by the expectations of others, because his were even
higher. He forever embodies the TAGHeuer motto Dont Crack Under Pressure.

Like a plane that circles an airport waiting for
clearance to land, F1 finds itself in a holding
pattern as the 2015 season comes to a close.

There are always plenty of things going on in this That said, there were some real positives in 2015,
most dynamic of sports, with political battles, with huge, passionate crowds at Silverstone
technical innovation and commercial power plays and Mexico City and the dramatic arrival of Max
constantly figuring in the mix. The sport still has Verstappen. The Dutch teenager looks like another
iconic brands, like Ferrari and Mercedes as well multiple champion in the making. We also saw
as superstar drivers, like Lewis Hamilton, who Ferrari winning again, led by Vettel. His victory
became a three time world champion in 2015, as in Singapore was a real highlight of the season.
well as Sebastian Vettel and Fernando Alonso. There was also some superb racing particularly
at venues like Silverstone, Budapest and Austin.
But many aspects of Formula One just dont line
up at the moment; such as the unfair schedule of
payments to teams, which is the cause of many As long as the teams, commercial
of the sports current woes, and which in turn
undermines the current hybrid turbo formula.
rights holder and the FIA are
divided rather than united, F1
The sport has certainly failed to tell the story of the will remain in a holding pattern.
hybrid turbo technology and after two seasons
with it fans remain unconvinced. The cost became
a serious issue this year, triggering a process Among other insightful content in this review,
whereby the governing body the FIA proposed a Verstappens impressive team-mate Carlos Sainz
budget engine to a different specification, which answers fans questions about his own rookie
brought the manufacturers to the table in search year and life alongside the teenage sensation.
of a cheaper and simpler version engine. As long We assess Hamiltons three world titles and we
as the teams, commercial rights holder and the run the rule over this seasons chassis in order to
FIA are divided rather than united, F1 will remain determine, when power units are removed from
in a holding pattern for the foreseeable future. the equation, just who built the best platform.

F1 2015
P8 P11



P44 P38



8 The Power of Three Red Dawn 30

Lewis Hamiltons third title sees him join Ferrari bounced back from a turbulent 2014 to
the list of all-time F1 greats but where does take three wins this season. But can they rise
the superstar racer go from here? even higher in 2016?

Ciao Jules 36
11 Triple Head-to-Header
Formula One was this year rocked by the tragic
Hamilton has joined a select club of three-time
loss of Jules Bianchi, who succumbed to injuries
champions, but how does his performance
sustained at the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix
stack up against his fellow club-members?

Evolving Enstone 38

14 In the Hot Seat: Carlos Sainz Charting Lotus long and winding road back
At the end of a highly successful rookie season, to manufacturer status with Renault
Carlos Sainz sits down to answer your questions
on everything from fast food to fast team-mates
Making Connections 40

Now in its second year, F1s crowdsourcing

18 Tale of the Tape initiative, the Connectivity Innovation Prize, again
This seasons year-ending stats reveal brought out the best in fans technical knowhow
some interesting winners and losers

Five-star Fighters 44
20 Power Struggles From title-winners to tyros to competitors
How the dominance of power unit manufacturers triumphing over adversity, we chooses our
is threatening to upset the Formula One grid top five drivers of the 2015 season

24 Red Bull find New Motivation The American Dream 46

Red Bull Racing team principal Christian Horner The background behind the most anticipated
on the engine crisis and finding new power F1 debut for years that of Haas F1 in 2016

28 Car Wars JA on F1 in 2015 50

Take away Mercedes power advantage and who Its been a big year for the JA on F1 website.
won the chassis battle? JA on F1 investigates Here are the sites vital statistics


Max power
Teen sensation Max Verstappens arrival
into F1 was a revelation. With 49 points
on the board at the end of his debut
season and with two fourth places in
Budapest and Austin to show for his
efforts, the Dutch driver silenced the
doubters and announced himself as a
champion in the making in emphatic style.



By becoming Formula One champion for the third By contrast, in 2015 Rosberg didnt get a look in
time, Lewis Hamilton was fulfilled. He had not only until the title was done and dusted. The German
equalled his hero Ayrton Senna, but, like Senna he did end the season on a high, having unlocked
transcended the sport to enter the realms not only more speed in qualifying, particularly in the braking
of the all-time greats, but of global superstardom. phase. Rosberg improved his touch in the final
phase of braking and hit the sweet spot, reaching
He has been F1s main box office attraction since the optimum speed for the turn-in to the corner.
Michael Schumacher retired and in 2015 he took
his life outside of the race track to a new level. Hamilton gave the impression that he was
unconcerned by this turn of events and by his
Cynics say that this is more of a reflection of the team-mates return to form from Japan onwards,
poor job done by his team-mate Nico Rosberg this even when Rosberg beat him with back-to-
season, that Hamilton was able to criss-cross the back wins from pole in Mexico and Brazil.
globe between races, partying with A-list stars and
still win the world title with three races to spare. The impression was that Hamilton wasnt working
as hard, having already got the championship
Hamilton had Rosberg in his pocket for most job done in Austin. The question now is whether
of the season, taking an early lead in the Rosberg can maintain momentum and build
championship, with three wins from the first four in 2016 from where he left off this year?
races, thanks to raising his game in qualifying
and then leading from the front on race day. There is also the question of how Hamiltons
motivation will be affected by achieving everything
Last year, Hamiltons life was complicated by he set out to achieve in life by the young age of 30.
being outqualified by Rosberg more often than
not and although he managed to get past the I have now reached my lifes goal; to win three
German on occasions something Rosberg world championships, said the Briton after the title
was unable to do to him it delayed his march was sealed at the US circuit in October. Im now
to the 2014 title. It was only after their collision in a phase of reflection, discovery and of figuring
in Spa, that Hamilton gained the upper hand. out my next goals. I am in discovery mode.


Triple champion, all-time great, global
superstar the 2015 season took
Lewis Hamilton to new levels of success,
and some would say celebrity distraction.
James Allen looks back on the Britons
achievement and asks what next for
a driver entering discovery mode

LEWIS HAMILTON Fear is not what drives me.
THE POWER OF THREE There are only things to win, not
to lose. There are only things to be
learned. I have achieved everything
I always wanted to achieve.

That is a trajectory he has been on for some everything I always wanted to achieve. Everything
time, assiduously courting celebrity in other from now on is a bonus. There will be races Im
walks of life, attending high-profile events in going to lose. There will be races where I will
fashion and music and looking for fulfillment and make mistakes. But everything will build on the
happiness beyond racing. This was one of the great foundation that I have as a racing driver.
most notable aspects of Hamiltons 2015 and
there was no doubt that, although tiring, the It reflects the journey of the boy who entered the
peripatetic travel made him happier in himself sport as the most exciting driver of his generation
and therefore more effective as a racer. and who has now lived up to that billing.

There was a period, while he was at McLaren If he follows Schumacher, who achieved
between 2009 and 2012, when he could clearly his lifes goals in 2000 by winning not only
be seen to be unhappy in many aspects of his own third title, but also the elusive world
his personal life; he talked enviously about the title Ferrari had been desperately seeking
happy bubble around his team-mate Jenson for over 20 years, then he will relax now and
Button, of the 09 champions supportive be even more devastating than before.
friends and Jensons late father John.
Next year he will face not only a fired-up
Hamilton addressed these feelings in a revealing Rosberg, but also a tougher battle with
interview during the Brazil Grand Prix weekend, Sebastian Vettel, who is looking to write his
where he admitted that his focus had been lacking. own chapter in Ferraris history, by bringing
glory back to Maranello after eight lean years.
There were ups and downs. There were years in
which, to me, the correct focus was lacking. Even In all honesty, 2015 was rather a dull
when I tried to get it, I couldnt find it, he said. season, thanks to Hamiltons domination.
But 2016 promises to be more exciting
But fear is not what drives me, he added. and it will be fascinating to see what effect
There are only things to win, not to lose. There being a three-time world champion has
are only things to be learned. I have achieved on Hamiltons competitive spirit.



Lewis Hamilton has joined a select
club of three-time F1 champions,
but how does his performance
stack up against other drivers
who hold three titles or more?
Will Saunders investigates

Of the 817 drivers who have entered a Formula

One World Championship event since 1950,
only 10 have won three or more titles. After
winning his third World Championship in
2015, Lewis Hamilton is in elite company,
alongside Jack Brabham, Jackie Stewart, Niki
Lauda, Nelson Piquet, and his idol, Ayrton
Senna, in the three-time champions club.

But how does Hamilton compare to the other

drivers to have clinched a hat-trick of titles? Do
the statistics of his career show a man on a par
with his triple world champion predecessors,
or a driver destined to perhaps go on to
match the achievements of the sports very
best by claiming further championships?

While comparing driver statistics across

different eras of F1 is fraught with problems,
the fundamental ingredients of championship
success have remained constant: pole positions,
wins, podiums, and beating ones team-mate.

We have assessed Hamiltons career to date by

these metrics against the full careers of the five
other drivers to have claimed three championships.


Hamilton v Brabham (86 53), with the respective percentages

Given the greater number of races Hamilton corroborating his superior record. Any
has started (167126), he unsurprisingly has comparison should carry the caveat of Laudas
higher numbers of poles (4913), wins (4114) staggering 49.1% retirement rate almost four
and podiums (8631) than Brabham, but times Hamiltons DNF percentage (13.8%).
crucially Hamiltons ratios in each of these
categories are also significantly higher Lauda was also more closely matched by his
although they are helped by his vastly superior team-mates than Hamilton, and the Austrian has
DNF rate to Brabham (13.8%47.6%). the highest team-mate win rate (76%) and point
ratio (93.8%) against him. This perhaps explains
While Hamilton and Brabham show similar Laudas 66 career championship record against
margins of supremacy over their team-mates his team-mates, a figure that contrasts starkly
in terms of wins and points, surprisingly with Hamiltons 81 career record to date.
Brabham only outscored his team-mate in
four of his 12 full seasons in Formula One. Hamilton v Piquet
Nelson Piquet is the only three-time champion
Hamilton has only been beaten once across to have started more than 200 races, but
a season, by Jenson Button in 2011, and has despite his greater sample size, the Brazilian still
never seen a team-mate win the championship trails Hamilton in the figures for poles (4924),
an outcome witnessed by Brabham in 1967 wins (4323) and podiums (8660) with the
when Denny Hulme beat him to the title. respective ratios backing up Hamiltons statistical
advantage. Like Lauda and Brabham, Piquets
Hamilton v Stewart career was marred by a 40%+ DNF rate,
By virtue of the number of races entered with Piquet particularly hamstrung by volatile
(16799), Hamilton heads fellow Briton Jackie Brabham-BMWs at the dawn of the turbo era.
Stewart on number of poles (4915), wins
(4327), and podiums (8643), but interestingly Piquets performance compared to his team-
Stewart has a higher win ratio (27.3%) than mates is comparatively strong. Although drivers
Hamilton (25.7%), despite a 37.4% DNF rate. such as Hector Rebaque, Marc Surer and
Satoru Nakajima didnt always offer Piquet the
While Hamilton has scored twice as many sternest test, Piquets team-mates win (56.5%)
podiums as wins, Stewart only took 16 second and points (49.4%) ratios compare favourably
or third places compared to 27 wins. Stewarts to Hamiltons figures (61% and 89.2%). Piquets
wins compared to his team-mates (273) also points record against his team-mates is the most
leap out, with no other triple champion enjoying dominant of any of the triple champions.
such supremacy. Stewarts record of almost
double the points of his team-mates contrasts Hamilton v Senna
with Hamilton, whose team-mates have scored Hamiltons record against Senna makes for
1641 to his 1839, (89.2%) of his points total. fascinating reading, with the almost identical
sample size of Hamiltons career to date and
Hamilton v Lauda Sennas full career offering a striking comparison.
Hamiltons sample size against his current
boss is highly analogous (167 171 starts) Sennas 65 pole positions from 161 races
allowing a more direct comparison. and 40.4% pole percentage are quite
remarkable and demonstrate significantly
Hamilton heads Laudas numbers across every stronger qualifying stats than Hamilton.
metric: poles (4924), wins (4325) and podiums


The win, podium numbers and ratios are Due in part to the modern calendar, Hamilton
surprisingly similar, although Senna produced required the highest number of races (165) to
these results despite a 39.1% DNF rate secure his third title. Perhaps of more relevance
(compared to Hamiltons 13.8%), suggesting is the number of full seasons taken to reach the
that the Brazilian was able to maximise his race three-championship mark, headed by Fangio and
oppotunities to a greater extent than Hamilton. Vettel (5). Hamiltons nine full seasons is the mode
Sennas figures also demonstrate a much greater of this metric, but only Prost (10) and Lauda (11)
degree of superiority over his team-mates than took more full seasons to clinch their third title.
Hamilton, although even Senna lost out over the
course of a season with Alain Prost beating the Equally importantly in terms of Hamiltons legacy
Brazilian to the championship in 1989. building is the fact that at 30 years of age he is the
second youngest driver, after Vettel (25), to reach
Hamilton v all 3+ title-winners at three world titles. While Vettel fell into Red Bull just
the point of winning their third titles as the team began an era of dominance, allowing
The natural evolution for this assessment is him to achieve more at a younger age than any
to consider the statistics of each driver to driver in the history of the sport, Hamilton has
have won three or more championships at had to patiently collate all of the ingredients
the point at which they won their third title. needed to enjoy his own era of supremacy.

Senna (poles), Schumacher (wins) and Hamilton Hamiltons pole, win and podium ratios, as
and Schumacher (podiums) still head the most well as his career performance relative to his
numbers for all drivers at the point of winning team-mates, compare favourably to almost
their third title, but Fangio, as a consequence all of F1s three-time plus champions, and
of devastating success and surprising demonstrate that Hamilton has the statistical
reliability across a small sample size, enjoys foundation to support the notion that he belongs
substantial advantages in all three categories. in any discussion of the sports greats.



NUMBER OF RACES (STARTS): 167 126 99 171 204 161

POLE POSITIONS: 49 13 15 24 24 65

POLE POSITIONS (%): 29.3% 10.3% 15.2% 14.0% 11.8% 40.4%

WINS: 43 14 27 25 23 41

WINS (%): 25.7% 11.1% 27.3% 14.6% 11.3% 25.5%

TOTAL PODIUMS: 86 31 43 53 60 80

TOTAL PODIUMS (%): 51.5% 24.6% 43.4% 31.0% 29.4% 49.7%

DNFs**: 23 60 37 84 85 63

DNFs (%): 13.8% 47.6% 37.4% 49.1% 41.7% 39.1%







At the end of a successful first season in F1,
Carlos Sainz reveals his new-found appreciation
for a Nando other than Alonso, how his
longest chat with Kimi Raikkonen was almost
five years ago and why hes confident he can
come back in 2016 as an even better driver...

Q: Nosh: do you find it difficult to eat A: The longest chat Ive had with Kimi was when
healthily when youre on the road all I was 16 and we had a Red Bull event together
the time? Also, do you like Nandos, when he was rally driving and I was in Formula
now that you live in London? Renault 2.0. We were at the Red Bull Ring and we
did a race on the track. We had a fun battle on the
A: How do they know? Im in love with Nandos! last lap and after the race we started talking. In the
Generally, eating healthily is tough because I am F1 paddock, we havent spoken as much, [but] I
also a very big fan of hamburgers, so my diet and imagine its like that for all of us here youre more
my weight have gone up a bit since the beginning focused and its not such a chilled out atmosphere.
of the season because of all the travelling. Its
difficult I love eating. I could eat for a whole day Q: Jon Wilde: which of the calendars
and never be satisfied, so its quite a tough thing. circuits are you most looking forward to
racing at again next season ?
Q: David Cooper: how far ahead
are you thinking on a lap? A: Suzuka has also become one of my
favourite tracks, along with Silverstone and
A: I never think about a corner, it comes very Spa. I really got on well with the Japanese
automatically. When there is a succession of people and I just loved that weekend.
corners then you dont have time to think, you just
do it very instinctively. My first time in a Formula Q: Alan Kay: what has it been like to have
One car, which was at Silverstone, was the only Max Verstappen as your team-mate
time I had to think about gears and the only time this season?
I had to anticipate a little bit, because the car
had so much downforce and so much reactivity A: Every time we have both had the same
that I was getting up onto the kerbs too much. chance, with the same reliability, we have been
very close. This is very positive for me because
Q: Stephen Taylor: which approach people rate him so highly and if he really is as
to your racing do you prefer: fast and good as everybody says he is and I personally
calculated, or fast and aggressive? think he is very good this means that I must
not be very far off. It puts a smile on my face
A: I prefer to use all of those terms, but at the to see that I am on a level and up there.
right moments. Being calculated is more for when
you are going for a championship, while driving Q: Tabatha Smith: are you feeling confident
aggressively is more useful when you are going for 2016 after your rookie season?
for an overtake or putting in a good qualifying
lap. But if you use all of those three approaches A: Oh yes! If I look at my personal performances, I
in the right way, they make you a good driver. am confident and optimistic. I always do big steps
in the winter and I made another big step last year,
Q: Stephen Taylor: whats the most Kimi so Im confident. I just cannot wait to see what
Rikknen has ever spoken to you? car Toro Rosso has prepared for us next year.


Leading lights
Mercedes might have led 936 of the 1149
laps raced during 2015 but Williams got
in on the act in Silverstone, with Felipe
Massa and Valtteri Bottas jumping ahead
at the start. Massa led for 19 thrilling laps
and Bottas for one, demonstrating that it
was possible to occasionally take the fight
to the all-conquering Brackley squad.




3 13
Wins for Sebastian Vettel, who was Podium finishes for Vettel, the most
the only man to win a grand prix apart of any non-Mercedes works driver.
from the works Mercedes drivers. The The four-time world champion placed
German won in only his second race third on his Ferrari debut and finished
for Ferrari before going on to claim off the podium only once in his first
victory in a dramatic race in Hungary six races for the Scuderia. Indeed, Pole position for Vettel
and again with a commanding Vettel only finished outside the top The German was the only man to beat
performance in Singapore. three on six occasions all season. Mercedes in qualifying this season.

Kilometres were completed in total during the 2015
season by the 10 teams taking part. That figure is 32,483
fewer than in 2014, a shortfall caused by the absence of
the now defunct Caterham team and also by restricted
running during the rain-affected races in Japan and the US.


Points for McLaren, which represents the
worst performance by the Woking-based
team since 1980 when it also finished ninth
in the Constructors Championship.

The margin by which Romain Grosjean beat
Pastor Maldonado in qualifying, the most
dominant qualifying performance of the season. The
only times Maldonado started ahead of his Lotus
team-mate were in Monaco where Maldonado
qualified in P9 to Grosjeans P11 and Abu Dhabi
(P13-P15). Vettel vanquished Rikknen 15-4 on
8 Fastest laps to Lewis Hamilton and five for his
Mercedes team-mate, Rosberg. Daniel Ricciardo
was best-of-the-rest with three, while Rikknen
Saturday afternoons, while Lewis Hamilton was the
and Vettel chalked up two and one respectively.
third on the list after beating Nico Rosberg 127.

Podiums for Ferrari, the second most successful
team after Mercedes. Vettel accounted for the bulk of
that figure but Rikknen chipped in with one second-
place finish and two thirds. Williams was third best, as
the British team made four visits to the podium in 2015.

Race laps completed by Vettel, the most of any
driver across the 2015 season. Vettel only failed to
make it to the chequered flag twice, after his tyre
failure in Belgium and when he crashed out in Mexico.
Sergio Perez was second best with 1123, while world
18Points finishes for Hamilton. The only time the
Mercedes driver failed to finish in the points was when
he was forced to retire from the Singapore Grand
champion Hamilton came third third with 1120.
Prix when his car suffered a freak engine failure.


James Allen analyses how the
dominance of two power unit
manufacturers is threatening to
unbalance the Formula One grid



The bald facts of 2015 were that Mercedes Scuderia head-on in a battle of wills. Ferrari has
and Lewis Hamilton steamed to the most the right of veto over F1 regulations it doesnt like
dominant season in Formula One history. The and it used this to block a cost cap on engine
story was familiar from the season before. supply to customer teams. The FIA was asking
the manufacturers to drop the price from well
Although the chassis was class leading, the secret over 20m euros a season, to 12m euros for
once again lay in the Mercedes hybrid turbo power new engines and 8m euros for year-old units.
unit, which has been peerless since the new rules
were introduced at the start of 2014. Across two After Ferrari exercised the veto the situation
seasons the Mercedes engine only failed to take escalated in November as the FIA issued a tender
pole position once in Singapore this year, when document for a commercially available alternative
Ferrari grabbed pole courtesy of Sebastian Vettel. engine for F1 from 2017 onwards. It would be
available to all teams for around 6m euros, but
The hybrid turbos continue to have strong critics would be based on a V6 2.5 litre engine, without
inside and outside the sport for three main Energy Recovery System, of the kind commercially
reasons: due to the way that the competition available and running today in other series. This
has been so heavily skewed towards one team, would effectively create a two-tier F1, as there
due to the lack of noise, and also due to cost. would need to be additional rules to balance
The smaller teams were crippled by engine performance across the two classes of engine.
bills well in excess of 20m euros per season. Many considered this a slippery slope for F1.

After keeping a low profile in 2014, this year the There were a few interested parties, one of which
FIA stepped in to try to get prices lowered and was Mario Ilien, who originally set up the Ilmor
this led to the seasons major confrontation. firm in Brixworth, England, that has since become
Mercedes High Performance Powertrains.
FIA president Jean Todt, a former team principal
and General Manager of Ferrari tackled the Ilien worked with Red Bull in 2015, trying to


F1 cars go nowhere
without power units.
But at the end of
2015, the sport
remains locked in
a power struggle.

improve the Renault engine, which let the Meanwhile, the FIA and Bernie Ecclestone,
team down so badly on both performance the sports commercial supremo, had
and reliability. In the end, Renault chose its an ulterior motive for challenging the
own development path, but the firms updated might of the existing manufacturers.
engine, used by Daniel Ricciardo in Brazil,
was something of a disappointment. The power of the power unit manufacturers
had already become an unexpected and
Red Bull and Renault had already fallen out by significant threat and over the coming
then and the engine debate was further polarised years looked set to become a bigger one if
in the second half of the season by the refusal unchecked. The current bilateral agreements
of Ferrari and Mercedes to supply Christian with the teams are to the end of 2020.
Horners team with an engine for 2016.
Among the sports stakeholders there was a
In essence, F1 had a situation common feeling that the powerbrokers needed to
clip the wings of Ferrari and Mercedes and that
where two of the most it needed to be done sooner rather than later.
powerful teams were deciding
whether another rival could be Meanwhile, Honda endured an excruciating
return to the sport, suffering multiple failures
competitive or not, which was and often embarrassingly poor performance.
clearly a failure of governance. The rules mandate four power units only per
driver for the season. In Brazil, the McLaren
The contrasting view was that Red Bull had acted Honda drivers were both on their 11th.
arrogantly and their decision to seek a new engine
partner after they had decided to split with Renault F1 cars go nowhere without power
was akin to a man jumping out of an aeroplane units. But at the end of 2015, the sport
expecting to buy a parachute on the way down. remains locked in a power struggle.




Red Bull Racing boss Christian Horner tells
James Allen that F1s rules need to be changed
in order to avoid a repeat of the engine supply
woes that dogged the team this year
Q: Given Renaults history as an innovator in A: All eventualities were considered and we
F1, you had every right to expect that theyd hope that our conclusion will help us to move
perfect hybrid turbo technology and improve forward next season. The good thing is that we
from 2014 to 2015, as Ferrari did with theirs. are committed to be in F1 next year and for the
But of course they didnt. So now you future and we are working hard to put forward as
have Ferrari and Mercedes telling you they competitive a proposition as we can for next year.
wont supply you and thereby controlling
who is and who is not competitive in F1. Q: You are not a motor manufacturer;
How can that be allowed to happen? you are an energy drinks company that
owns a Formula One team. But surely,
A: Good question. Its been an interesting looking ahead, you must want to take
journey these past two years. The situation we the situation under your own control?
find ourselves in now and the question of where
the sport is heading are going to be subject A: It goes beyond that. You can see that there
to intense scrutiny over the closed season. is a situation with the governing body, which
wanted to introduce a cost-effective engine,
Q: On the other hand, its your job to channel but thats not happening at the moment. So
Red Bulls considerable resources into they are looking at extreme measures.
putting together a winning team. And not
having a competitive engine is like a football You also have a situation where certain
manager failing to sign any defenders. manufacturers do not want to supply
certain teams and there is nothing in the
A: From a team perspective we have one of the regulations that says they have to.
strongest teams on the grid. You can see that,
as a chassis constructor, weve done a great job, So you have several different factors going
as have all the departments at the racetrack. on here. The commercial rights holder and
the governing body recognise that they
Now, as an independent team we dont make have to protect the sport for the future,
our own engine. So we are beholden to the otherwise it could force teams such as
supplier. When you have a big engine change, Red Bull Racing out of Formula One.
like the one weve seen over the last couple of
years, some will get it wrong and unfortunately When the regulations were written it was omitted
we were on the side that didnt get it right. that [the manufacturers] had to supply a certain
minimum number. And when these engine
Q: And that led to the dissolution of rules were put together nobody remembered
your partnership with Renault and to think about the price and that is what is so
then a difficult period in which there crippling for the smaller teams. Engines are
was the possibility of the team exiting being quoted at 30 million euros per season
the sport. Now youve worked out a thats an enormous amount of cash.
temporary solution with them?



Seb shines on
Sebastian Vettel had already won twice
in 2015 by the time the F1 circus swung
into Singapore, but the Ferrari drivers
victory under the floodlights was the pick
of the bunch. After taking a sensational
pole position, Vettel controlled an incident-
packed race to hold off Daniel Ricciardo
after Lewis Hamiltion retired from the race.


CAR Mercedes may have

dominated, but take away
the Brackley squads power

advantage and who won
the battle of the chassis?
Dominic Harlow goes
in search of a winner

The three best chassis in Formula One in 2015 In designing their cars for 2015 the teams
were the Mercedes W06, the Ferrari SF15T and were challenged by the fact that there were
the Red Bull RB11. Each of them obviously used actually relatively few changes to the Technical
different Power Units, but if they had possessed Regulations from the previous year and so
equal motivation which would have been the best? improvements had to be incremental rather
than revolutionary. There were, however, three
The relative merits of the PUs are well known: elements that played a part in the way the
Mercedes remained the benchmark, Ferrari teams got to grips with their new packages.
were much improved in 2015, especially in race
conditions, and Renault continued to struggle. The most visually obvious was the change
Speed trap data is not always the best measure that forced a more aesthetically pleasing
of power output, as small changes in drag play nose, eliminating the proboscis-like impact
a part and power is also about acceleration, structure solutions seen in 2014.
but consistently over repeated measurements
the Renault was 7-10 km/h adrift of its rivals. This suddenly placed the nose and front wing
This is a significant chunk of horsepower and pillars in a volume that conflicted with the
combined with less refined torque delivery it Y250 vortices, flow structures shed from the
could regularly have cost more than 1s per lap. transitions between the prescribed section of
front wing and the lift generating outer sections.
At mid-season the statistics showed that Ferrari This had a knock-on effect on the aerodynamics
were around 1%, (8 or 9 tenths of a second on of the bargeboards, floor and diffuser.
average), per lap adrift of Mercedes in qualifying,
whereas for Red Bull this figure was a little over Teams dealt with this problem in a variety of
1.5%. Over the second half of the year Ferrari ways, but probably the most successful was
and Red Bull edged a little closer, but not by the trend, started in 2014 by Mercedes, for
much, leaving the overall order unchanged. shortening the nose as much as possible.


Subtler, but occasionally spectacular was the and was a bonus for Mercedes and a driver like
mandatory use of titanium alloy skids for the plank. Hamilton who could use this surfeit of rear grip
Ostensibly to enhance the show and supported by by carrying masses of speed to the apex and
some teams more than others prior to adoption, using the traction to drag him out of the corner.
this rule change hurt Red Bull considerably.
In order to make a conclusion its worth looking
Titanium alloys, although extremely strong, are at how things played out at the Hungaroring,
nowhere near as hard as tungsten, which was probably the most chassis sensitive circuit of the
previously used to make the skids. The end season. In 2014 Red Bull qualified within 0.5s of
result was the need to raise the front ride height the Mercedes and went on to win the race. This
of the car, where the skids contact the ground, year Ferrari (who eventually won) and Red Bull
by 1-2 mm to avoid finishing the race with an only managed to get within 0.75s of Mercedes.
illegally thin plank. For Red Bull, who typically
rely on a higher rake angle than other teams, the The Red Bull was probably the best chassis
resulting loss of aerodynamic performance meant of 2014, but this season perhaps on balance
they had to work much harder to recover the the RB11 was only ever the equal of the W06.
downforce and the front-end grip that was lost. Hungary was the culmination of Red Bull Racings
biggest in-season development push and in the
Compounding these issues at the front of the way it used tyres the RB11 was arguably the car
car was the final change made by Pirelli to its a race-strategist would most like to work with.
tyres for the 2015 season. As well as more
conservative compounds, Pirelli altered the rear Both were just a fraction ahead of the SF15T
tyre construction to enlarge the contact patch especially at the higher downforce circuits that
and therefore deliver more rear grip. Until they constitute the majority of the Championship; when
began to mandate higher tyre pressures later low drag was a requirement and with harder tyres
in the year this made life difficult for Red Bull the Ferrari, particularly in Vettels hands, came alive.


DAWN Ferrari bounced back from a troubled and
turbulent 2014 to take three wins and second
place in the 2015 Constructors Championship.
Alex Kalinauckas looks at how an injection
of new blood reinvigorated a sleeping giant



I am the leader of the orchestra, but

we have our president who is writing
the music. We try to have a theatre that
is happy with what we are doing!
Maurizio Arrivabene

For Ferrari, 2015 was mission accomplished. team achieved Arrivabenes minimum target
At the start of the campaign recently appointed before the summer break. The German driver
team principal Maurizio Arrivabene set a target of then won again in superb style in Singapore
two race wins as the minimum his outfit should before pushing Nico Rosberg hard for second
achieve and with three victories and second place in the drivers championship.
place in the Constructors Championship, the
team surpassed the new boss modest goal. Arrivabene is quick to point out that he feels the
Ferraris improvement is down to the whole team
Arrivabene arrived at the helm of the Scuderia from company President Sergio Marchionne
shortly after the end of the teams disastrous to the factory employees pushing each other
2014 season, which yielded just fourth place on to better results, which largely stemmed
in the team standings. As a result, Arrivabene from producing a better engine for 2015.
immediately set about shaking up the teams
management, with several senior engineers I am the leader of the orchestra, Arrivabene said
leaving the team before Christmas. earlier this year, but we have our president [Sergio
Marchionne] who is writing down the music and
With technical director James Allison given we try to do our jobs in the best way and to have
more control of the engineering department, a theatre that is happy with what we are doing!
results improved almost immediately. First, new
signing Sebastian Vettel won in Malaysia and Last year we were struggling a bit, but this
then Kimi Rikknen returned to the podium in year the guys are doing a good job, he
Bahrain, narrowly missing out on victory. Vettel added. We are all together doing a good job
also won a dramatic race in Hungary as the and we have gained a lot of horsepower.


If we do a good job over the
winter, its believable that we
could come back next year and
fight from the start.
James Allison

Its not only related to investment, its also be a factor in the 2015 title battles, although
related to knowledge, to the people that were it proved too much to topple Mercedes at the
investing their hours and passion and their head of the F1 field. But at the penultimate
technical abilities to solve the problem. race of the season, the Brazilian Grand Prix,
Vettel finished 15 seconds adrift of race-winner
As with Ferraris resurgence, Vettel seems to have Nico Rosberg with a deficit of just 0.2s per lap,
rediscovered his form and is clearly enjoying life at a small enough gap for Allison and his team
Maranello. Arrivabene noted that the three wins to be confident of bridging over the winter.
have galvanised the four-time world champion
and that the team appreciates his efforts. If we do a good job over the winter, its
believable that we could come back next year
Sebastian has enthusiasm, he said. And with and fight from the start, said Allison, and
the results that he was able to get, together with thats what were all focused on doing.
the team, he has even more commitment.
Theres a lot of people working on it. Luckily
In a move that surprised many observers, Ferrari is a team with a lot of power and a lot of
Ferrari opted to retain Rikknen for the engineering skill. We hope that we can bring that
2016 season, but although the decision gives car next year and that we can fight from the start.
the team the consistency it craves, it will
expect the Finn to up his game next year. The 2016 Ferrari will be the first car on which
Allison has had full technical control and if the
Vettels Malaysian win and consistent results Scuderia can close the gap to Mercedes, F1 can
elsewhere brought hopes that the team would look forward to an exciting battle for supremacy.



Magical Mexico
The return of the Autdromo Hermanos
Rodrguez to the calendar after a 23-year
absence was a stunning, celebratory
reminder that when the series visits
locations with a strong racing constituency
and a historic connection to grand
prix racing, then there are few sports
than can match F1 for pageantry and
passion. It was a truly memorable
weekend, for all the right reasons.


James Allen reflects on the
tragic loss of Jules Bianchi, who
in July succumbed to injuries
sustained nine months earlier at
the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix


Mercifully the obituary writers have had a Rosberg, Sebastian Vettel, Jenson Button,
lean time of it over the past 20 years where Daniel Ricciardo,Romain Grosjean, Daniil Kvyat,
Formula One drivers are concerned. Nico Hulkenberg, Roberto Mehri and Marcus
Ericsson, while Felipe Massa and Pastor
So it was all the more distressing to this year lose Maldonado, who shared Nicolas Todt as a
Jules Bianchi at the age of 25, nine months after manager with Bianchi were also present.
he sustained terrible head injuries in an accident
during the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix. It was the Bianchis former Marussia team-mate Max Chilton
first time a driver had died from injuries sustained was also there, as were GPDA stalwarts Alex Wurz
in an F1 race since Ayrton Senna in May 1994. and Pedro de la Rosa. Adrian Sutil, whose car was
being recovered by the mobile crane that Bianchi
This in itself shows how far the sport has come hit and Jean Eric Vergne were also present.
in making the cars and drivers as safe as
possible. But it also served as a reminder that After the ceremony the drivers got together
a sport such as F1 can never be completely for a drink in Bianchis memory.
safe. There is always that element of risk.
In a moving ceremony at the next race in Hungary
This generation of F1 drivers have luckily the drivers formed a circle on the grid, placing
had little experience of death among its their helmets around his on the ground. Many
peers. As a measure of how much safer the drivers struggled to balance their emotions
sport has become, Sir Jackie Stewart lost when the race started a few minutes later.
57 colleagues during his 11-year career.
Bianchis chosen race number, 17, has been
Most of the leading drivers attended Bianchis permanently retired by the FIA as a mark of respect
funeral in Nice, including Lewis Hamilton, Nico to the enormously talented young French driver.


Lotus long and winding road is reaching
an end as Renault prepares to once again
take over at Enstone. Alex Kalinauckas
charts the venerable outfits often tortuous
route back to manufacturer status


Team Enstone. The squad has been involved in very frustrating. You want to improve the car and
Formula One for 34 years and has gone through it does not happen. But you adapt quickly, find
four iterations: Toleman, Benetton, Renault and new ways of working and you try to find lap time
Lotus. In 2016, the Oxfordshire team is set to in other areas. For example, we had a new front
revert to Renault ownership after the French wing, which did not work as expected. Previously,
manufacturer announced its intentions to buy back we would have said forget the wing, its not
the outfit and revive its works F1 programme. doing what it should. Now we are forced to really
understand it. And so we found the time in the end.
Its been a whirlwind five years since a majority
stake in the team was sold to Genii Capital, Grosjean is departing the team at the end of the
with arguably its best year being 2013 when it season, but Enstone will have some continuity as
finished fourth in the Constructors Championship Pastor Maldonado and 2015 reserve driver, Joylon
and ended the season with the second fastest Palmer, have already been confirmed for 2016.
car in F1. First technical director James Allison, But Grosjean had fond words to say of the only
who produced the squads race-winning team he has driven for in his F1 career so far.
cars in 2012 and 2013 departed for Ferrari,
then Renaults 2014 V6 turbo was not up to Enstone is quite a particular team, the people
scratch and the team languished in eighth stayed united and very strong, he said. The people
place in the constructors championship with at Enstone are the strongest group of people ever to
just 10 points and three top-10 finishes. keep pushing, no matter what the circumstances.

Lotus switched to Mercedes power units for 2015 Renault has also faced a turbulent time since F1
and it has moved up to sixth in the teams standings adopted the V6 hybrid engines. The breakdown
as well as returning to the podium thanks to Romain of its relationship with Red Bull was acrimoniously
Grosjeans heroic drive in the Belgian Grand Prix. played out in public and in September Renault
revealed its intention to buy back Lotus.
But behind the scenes, things have been tough.
This year the team has frequently found itself It was not always an easy path, however, and
locked out of its hospitality units because of prior to the Abu Dhabi GP, Renault CEO Carlos
unpaid bills; wages have been delayed and the Ghosn had still not signed off on the deal, with
team faced a HM Revenue and Customs court sources indicating that the decision still hung in the
order over an outstanding income tax payment. balance right up until the 11th hour in Abu Dhabi as
The most visible sign of its woes is that the E23 disagreements over the finances involved dragged
is largely the same car as in Melbourne,. on, though a resolution was eventually reached.

Despite these problems, the engineers at Despite the delays, Renaults former F1 boss
Enstone have found ways to make a difference Bob Bell was already back at Enstone and set
on a shoestring budget according to Lotus to become the teams technical chief, while
trackside operations director, Alan Permane. ART GP boss Frederic Vasseur is tipped to
be team principal. Once all the elements are
You always have to adapt and learn from the in place, the manufacturer aims to recapture
situation, he explained earlier this year. At first it is its championship heyday of 2005-2006.


Now in its second year,

F1s crowdsourcing

initiative, the Connectivity
Innovation Prize, again
brought out the best in
fans technical knowhow



The Signals and Streams
app stood out for its creative
yet viable approach to data.
Paddy Lowe, Mercedes

Its always great when fans get to interact with The panel selected Paul Clarke (top left with
the sport. One of the most exciting initiatives, Martin Brundle), an IT specialist from Australia
which JA on F1 has been proud to support, as the grand prizes winner. Clarke developed
is the crowdsourcing challenge know as the a novel way for Mercedes to make faster
F1 Connectivity Innovation Prize, which poses decisions between factory and racetrack.
real-world challenges to engaged fans around
the world and gives them a chance to make The solution, called Signals and Streams,
a difference within the F1 ecosystem. combines traditional web technologies
with state-of-the-art protocols that
That was especially true this year, the second for consolidate data insights in real time.
the F1CIP. A three-way initiative from Formula
One Management, the Mercedes F1 team The opportunity provided by
and Tata Communications, it asked F1 fans to the F1 Connectivity Innovation
submit ideas for two challenges with a $50,000
grand prize on offer for the overall winner.
Prize to combine my technology
expertise with my passion for the
A wide range of entries was received from across sport was a dream come true.
the world and three of the winners found out about
the Challenge from the JA on F1 site, including
Paul Clarke, overall winner
the overall winner, Paul Clarke from Australia.
Ive been a huge F1 fan since the late 1980s,
Ravi Sawhney and Svetlana Sawhney from the said Clarke. So the opportunity provided
UK made up one of the three winning teams in by the F1 Connectivity Innovation Prize to
the first challenge with their data visualisation combine my technology expertise with my
app, Databricks. Predictive analysis and gaming passion for the sport was a dream come true.
app, The Formula 1 Virtual Championship My aim was to use modern approaches to
(F1VC), designed by American duo, Sandrine data visualisation to provide clear, intuitive and
Partridge and John A Vasilakos, was one of instant information to engineers and drivers.
three winning entries in the second challenge.
Morrison hinted that Clarkes idea could soon
A judging panel made up of a number of racing become reality, while Lowe was also impressed.
drivers and F1 technologists including John We received incredibly strong entries this
Morrison, chief technical officer of Formula year from around the world, said Lowe. The
One Management; Lewis Hamilton, Mercedes Signals and Streams application stood out for
technical chief Paddy Lowe, James Vowles, its creative yet viable approach to harnessing
Mercedes chief strategist, David Coulthard, the huge volumes of data we generate during
Martin Brundle, and Mehul Kapadia, managing each Grand Prix and during practice sessions.
director of F1 business at Tata Communications,
assessed the six winning entries.


Sitting it out
McLarens 2015 woes were perfectly
captured in Fernando Alonsos resigned
response to his car expiring at the start
of Q1 at the Brazilian Grand Prix. The
Spaniards decision to relax and watch
the rest of the action from a marshals
deck chair became an overnight
internet meme, with hundreds of fans
photoshopping Alonso into unlikely
locations he might enjoy more.



From title-winners to tyros
to competitors triumphing
over adversity, James Allen
chooses his top five drivers
of the 2015 season.

For the second year in a row Lewis is world champion and fully deserves to be considered
the best driver of the season. Unlike last year, he started the 2015 season on the front foot,
with three wins from pole position in the opening four rounds. Thereafter, he built the points
gap to Rosberg with apparent ease. Highlights were the wins in Silverstone and Suzuka,
lows were Monaco, where he lost out on victory due to a strategy mix-up with his team
and Hungary, where he made a hash of the opening lap. Now feeling fulfilled as a three-
time champion, he may hit a comfortable sweet spot in 2016 and go up another level.


Not a perfect season for the four-time champion, with off days in Bahrain and Mexico, but
otherwise he was outstanding, leading Ferrari back to the winners circle. As always, his
qualifying was class leading, with 11 top-three grid slots and a pole position in Singapore,
Ferraris first since 2012. Ferrari love Vettel for his seriousness, his work ethic and his
enthusiasm. The signs were clear at the end of the year that they are closing up on Mercedes.
Vettel knows what it takes to win and if anyone can lead Ferrari back to glory its him.

This may be a bit controversial, but Id argue that Verstappen should be in the Top 5 because
he faced a unique challenge. No one has ever come into F1 at the age of 17, with one year
in single seaters and had to deal with the pressure of hype associated with that. Verstappen
truly made his mark in his debut season and delivered some outstanding drives, especially
in Hungary and Austin, where he scored breakthrough fourth-place finishes. Although there
were some errors, his peaks were as high as anyones this year and his overtakes on Ericsson
in China and Nasr in Spa were among the best seen in recent times. Hes the future of F1.

After a patchy start to the season, in transition from Toro Rosso to Red Bull Racing, the young
Russian really came good, managing to outperform 2014s star driver Daniel Ricciardo on
numerous occasions. Its hard to judge both drivers, as the Renault engine was unreliable as well
as underpowered and the Red Bull chassis only really came good from Silverstone onwards.
But stepping up to the top team after only one season with Toro Rosso put Kvyat under a lot of
pressure and he acquitted himself very well in both qualifying and races. His career-first podium,
with second place in Hungary, and a stunning drive to fifth in Russia were among the highlights.

A tough call between Rosberg, Sergio Perez and Valtteri Bottas for the final spot. Nico put in some
brilliant drives in 2015, but the problem was that he didnt deliver them often enough and that
allowed Hamilton to run away with the championship. Qualifying gave Nico a chance last year, but
at the start of this season his touch deserted him, which began with two second places and two
thirds in the opening rounds, twice beaten by a Ferrari. He maybe lost his edge around the time of
his daughters birth in the summer, but once he rediscovered his touch in qualifying, from Suzuka
onwards, he gave Hamilton something to reflect on over the winter. Which Nico will return in 2016?



The Formula One grid, the harshest
of sporting environments, has long
been a graveyard for passionate
ambition, but has Gene Haas found
a new way of turning wide-eyed
F1 fantasy into competitive reality?
Alex Kalinauckas investigates


We came up with a different

plan that has a strong focus on
collaboration with established
[companies], and therefore we
dont start from zero. You cannot
do more of the same if the recent
past has shown that more of the
same doesnt work.
Guenther Steiner, team principal


We have [Ferraris] material,
we make use of their wind
tunnel, which was refurbished
three years ago, and we can
count on their technicians.
Romain Grosjean

Formula 1 has tried to crack America 10 times, entrance than recent F1 debutants. The American
with races being held at various different circuits recently said he feels his squads chassis could
across the US throughout the history of the even be better than Ferraris own 2016 design.
championship. American teams have been thinner
on the ground, but next year, the first American I think our chassis is going to be substantially
team for a generation will join the grid: Haas F1. different in construction to the Ferrari one,
because were just doing it separately, he
Gene Haas eponymous outfit secured its F1 said. We think our chassis in some ways will
slot back in 2014 (eyeing a grid slot the following be better than a Ferrari chassis because were
season), but opted to defer for an extra year in using some more, I wont say state-of-the-art,
order to ensure it is fully ready to hit the track but were taking a different approach to Ferrari
running competitively in 2016. It secured power and we think its probably a better design.
units from Ferrari and a technical partnership with
the Scuderia, leaving the US outfit to build only Many expected Haas F1 to sign an American driver
its chassis, which is has undertaken via another to boost its standing at home, but instead the
partnership, with Dallara. Its a unique approach team has poached Romain Grosjean from Lotus
and one that is extended further by the team being and will partner him with former Sauber driver,
split across three countries: its headquarters, and 2015 Ferrari reserve, Esteban Gutierrez.
CFD technology and machine tooling is in North
[Haas F1] doing this agreement with Ferrari,
Carolina, the race team is based in the UK and
is a great move, said Grosjean. To work with
the design and aero departments are in Italy.
one of the two best teams on the grid should
help us to start at a level of good continuity.
We believe we have such a good plan in place,
We have their material, we make use of their
said Haas F1s team principal, Guenther Steiner.
wind tunnel, which was refurbished three years
We came up with a different plan that has a
ago, and we can count on their technicians.
strong focus on collaboration with established
[companies], and therefore we dont start from zero. Haas wanted an experienced driver to lead
You cannot do more of the same if the recent past his team in 2016 and he pulled off something
has shown that more of the same doesnt work. of a coup in signing Grosjean. The 29-year-
old clearly has ambitions of replacing Kimi
Haas reckons that his team will be competitive Rikknen in 2017 and signing with Haas means
on its F1 debut. Although the team has stopped Ferrari has access to all the data it needs to
short of saying it will be fighting at the sharp end determine if the Frenchman has what it takes
of the grid, he firmly believes it will make a better to replace the Finn in the years to come.


The James Allen on F1 website is one of F1 personalities, technology and business.

the leading sites for F1 insight, analysis and
interaction with fans, with over 120,000 Principal audience markets are the UK, USA,
comments left each year by some of the Australia, Canada, Spain, Germany and India,
2.4 million active unique users world wide. but there are active users from 232 countries.

It is an influencer in both the mainstream Site traffic grew at 22% for the year 2015.
media and the Formula One Paddock.
The main development of this 2015 season
The site brings fans closer to the sport via was the launch of a new mobile-responsive
content strands such as the UBS Race Strategy version of the site, responding to the growing
Report as well as behind the scenes stories on shift towards mobile users online behaviour.

Thanks for help and support throughout the season to:

Dominic Harlow, Pip Calvert, Bill Allen, Alex Kalinauckas, Justin Hynes, Kapadia, Amit Sharma, Bijaya Basu, Nav Siddhu, Bjorn Waspe, Jonas
Declan Quigley, Susan Williamson, Alex Salter, Mike Hendon, Darren Karpf, Preethi Nair, Julie Woods-Moss, Richard Fairs, Fiona McHugh,
Odam, Jamie Mason, Ali Peate, Russel Batchelor at XPB Images, Darren Matteo Bonciani, Olivier Fisch and Mark McCartney at the FIA.
Heath, Holly Samos, Sara Linney at GP Legends, Mandy Scott Johnson, Thanks also to our partners:
Ian Leigh and Iain Taylor, Tim Bampton, Zak Brown, Simon Drake, Aled UBS, Tata Communications, Shell and TAG Heuer.
Rees, Robin Fenwick, Steve Wright, Rob Biagioni, Andrew Hirsch, Mehul A Speed Merchants Media Production Copyright 2015


How can we
win three in
a row?
What do we have to change?
Can we stay focused as a team?

Congratulations to Lewis Hamilton and all of the


For some of lifes questions, youre not alone.

Together we can find an answer.

UBS 2015. The key symbol and UBS are among the registered and unregistered trademarks of UBS.
related marks are trade marks of Formula One Licensing BV, a Formula One group company. All rights reserved.
Congratulations to the MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS Formula One Team
on their second consecutive FIA Formula One World Constructors
Championship. Were proud to be their Official Managed Connectivity
Supplier, delivering three-times faster trackside connectivity, via our
wholly-owned, round-the- world, fibre-optic ring. This enables the team
to transfer crucial race data from the car to the factory back in the UK
in less than a quarter of a second for analysis in time for the next lap.
Thats the competitive edge you get with the Speed To Lead.
How would you use the power of Tata Communications?

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