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# Chapter 3

Pulse Width
Modulator
Pulse Width Modulator

## 3-1: Curriculum Objectives

1. To implement the pulse width modulator by using A741.
2. To understand the characteristics and basic circuit of LM555.
3. To implement the pulse width modulator by using LM555.
4. To measure and analyze the pulse width modulation circuit.

## 3-2: Curriculum Theory

Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a modulation method in between the digital and analog,
which can be used to process the digital and analog data transmission. The amplitude of pulse width
modulator is fixed, but the pulse width will be varied and controlled by the input audio
signal amplitude. If we control the time variation of the electric level, then this means that we can
control the width of the pulse. When the amplitude of the audio signal is getting larger, then the
pulse width will become wide; on the' other hand, when the amplitude of the audio is getting
smaller, then the pulse width will become narrow. Therefore, the PWM can be applied in the fast
and slow of the rotation rate of the motor, the strong and weak of the light source of the light
bulb and so on. The relationship between audio and pulse width modulation signal is shown in
figure 3-1.

Generally, pulse wave modulation can be classified as pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), pulse
position modulation (PPM), pulse width modul ation (PWM) and so on. Table 3-1 shows the
comparison between each modulations and figure 3-2 shows the output characteristics diagram of
PAM, PPM and PWM modulations.

Figure 3-3 is a square wave oscillation circuit, the output signal pulse width is controlled by R 2 ,
C 2 and V in (+) input terminal voltage. The op-amplifier A741 is the comparator in this circuit.
The Vin(+) input (pin 3) reference voltage is decided by the resistor R 1 and variable resistor VR1. R2
and C2 are constructed to become a charge/discharge path. When no signal supply to the audio signal
input terminal, if we adjust VR1, then the Vin(+) input terminal operation voltage will change,
which means the reference voltage of comparator will change, thus, the output signal of pulse
width will also change too.

## Modulation Features Pulse Pulse Pulse

Types Amplitude Width Interval
Pulse amplitude will be varied Constant
PAM with the amplitude of the input Varied Width Changeless
signal.
Pulse position will be varied Constant Constant
PPM with the amplitudeof the input Amplitude Width Varied
signal.
Pulse width will bevaried with Constant
PWM the amplitudeof the input signal. Amplitude Varied Changeless
Figure 3-2 Output characteristics diagram of PAM, PPM and PWM modulations.

## Figure 3-3 Circuit diagram of PWM by using A741.

Figure 3-4 Waveforms diagram of the charge and discharge of uA741.

If the VR1 is fixed, it means that the operation voltage of Vin(+) input terminal is fixed. If input an
audio signal to the audio signal input terminal, then the audio signal voltage will add to the
operation voltage of the Vin(+) input terminal. Besides, by following the path of charge and
discharge of Rand C 2, the operation voltage of V in (-)will change as well, as shown in figure
3-4. However, when we change the bias point by tuning the variable resistor VR1, we can change
the level and the width of the output square wave of Vin(+) and Vin(-) at the same time. At this
moment, the reference voltage of the comparator will be varied and controlled by the voltage of the
audio signal. Therefore, the output signal of pulse width will also change with respect to the voltage
of input audio signal,then the pulse width modulation signal is produced.

The circuit diagram of LM555 astablemultivibrator is shown in figure 3-5. In figure 3-4, the circuit
can be divided into 5 important parts, which are lower comparator, upper comparator, flip-flop
(FF), discharge transistor and output driver. If the controlled voltage terminal (pin 5) does not input
any signal, then the upper comparator reference voltage is 2V CC/3 and the lower comparator
reference voltage is V CC /3. If we add the controller voltage to the control voltage terminal (pin
5), the comparator reference voltage can be externally controlled. When the controlled voltage
termingdoes not use, then we can make the controlled voltage terminal connects with a capacitor
0.01 F to the ground to avoid the interference of noise.

## Figure 3-5 Circuit diagram of LM555 astablemultivibrator.

Figure 3-5 is the circuit diagram of astablemultivibrator by using LM555 IC. The output signal of
this circuit is a square wave. The oscillation frequency is determined by R1, R2 and C1. The charge
time (t1) of capacitor 0.693 x(R 1 +R 2 ) x C 1 ; the discharge time (t 2 ) of capacitor C 1 is
0.693 x R2 xC1. So the period T is the charge time t 1 plus the discharge time t2 e q u a l s t o
0 . 6 9 3 x ( R 1 + 2 x R 2 ) x C 1 . F i g u r e 3 - 6 s h o w s t h e o u t p u t waveforms of LM555
astablemultivibrator at different points.

Figure 3-7 is the circuit diagram of monostablemultivibrator by using LM555 IC. When the trigger
input changes from high (+12 V) to low (0 V), the output terminal will produce a pulse. This pulse
width T is determined by R 1 x C 1 actually is approximately 1.1 x R 1 x C 1. If R 1 = 10 k and
C 1 = 0.01 F, then the pulse width is about 110 s. If the frequency is less than 9.1 kHz at the trigger
signal input terminal (pin 2), (refer to the waveforms of astablemultivibrator in figure 3-6), then the
output will be the 50 % duty cycle pulse signal. The audio signal is inputted by the controlled
voltage terminal. Therefore, this will produce the PWM signal.

Figure 3-8 is the circuit diagram of PWM by using two LM555 ICs, which U, which U1 is the
astablemultivibrator and U2 is the monostablemultivibrator. By combining these two parts, we will
obtain a PWM circuit. Monostablemultivibrator (U 2)needs the trigger pulse from the
astablemultivibrator (U1output terminal (pin 3), the audio signal is inputted at the controlled voltage (pin
5) of the monostablemultivibrator (U2). The PWM signal is outputted at the output terminal (pin 3)
of the monostablemultivibrator.
Figure 3-6 Output waveforms of LM555 astablemultivibrator at different points.
Figure 3-7 Circuit diagram of monostablemultivibrator by using LM555 IC.

## Figure 3-8 Circuit diagram of PAM by using two LM555 ICs.

3-3: Experiment Items

## Experiment 1: A741 pulse width modulator

1. Refer to figure 3-3 or figure DCT3-1 on GOTT DCT-6000-02 module, let J1 be open circuit,
that means R1 is unused.
2. Adjust the variable resistor VR 1 so that Vin(+) input terminal voltage is 0 V. Then let J1 be short
circuit, that means let R1 is used.
3. At the audio signal frequency input terminal (Audio I/P), input a 3 V amplitude and 500 Hz
frequency waveform.
4. By using oscilloscope, observe on the signal waveform of audio signal. Input terminal and output
terminal (pin 6). Then record the measured results in table 3-2.
5. Let J1 be open circuit, then record the audio input signal. Adjust VR 1 so that Vin (+) voltage of
input terminal is 6 V.
6. Let J1 be short circuit, that means let R1 is used. Then input the audio signal terminal into the
original audio signal.
7. By using oscilloscope, observe on the signal waveforms of the audio sig nal input terminal
and output terminal (pin 6). Then record the measured results in table 3-2.
8. Let J1 be open circuit, that means R1 is unused and record the audio input signal. Adjust VR 1 so
that Vin (+) voltage of input terminal is -6V.
9. Let J1 be short circuit, then input the original audio signal into the audio signal input
terminal.
10. By using oscilloscope, observe on the signal waveforms of the audio signal input terminal and
output terminal (pin 6). Then record the measured results in table 3-2.
11. Let J1 be open circuit and record the audio input signal. Adjust VR 1 so that Vin(+) voltage of the
input terminal is 0 V, then let J1 be opencircuit.
12. Change the audio signal amplitude to 5 V, the others remain the same. Repeat step 4 to st ep 10
then record the measured results in table 3 -3.
Experiment 2: LM555 pulse width modulator

## 1. Refer to figure 3-8 or figure DCT3-2 on GOTT DCT-6000-02 module.

2. By using oscilloscope, observe on the test point TP3 and the output Signal waveform, at the
same time adjust variable resistor VR1 until when the square wave signal of test point TP3 at
differences voltage level, the output square wave signal has different pulse width. (i.e. different
duty-cycle).
3. At the audio signal input terminal (Audio I/P), input a 2.5 V amplitude and 1 kHz frequency
square wave. Then record the measured results in table 3-4.
4. By using oscilloscope, observe on the output signal waveforms of the discharge capacitor TP1,
critical point TP2, trigger signal TP3, critical point of the discharge capacitor TP4, and PWM
O/P.
5. By using oscilloscope and switching to DC channel, observe on the output signal waveforms
and record the measured results in table 3-5.
6. Change the input signal to triangular wave, the others remain the same, repeat step 5.
7. Change the input signal to sinusoidal wave, the others remain the same, 7 repeat step 5.
8. Change the input signal amplitude to 1.5 V, the others remain the same, repeat step 6 to step 7,
then record the measured results in table 3-6.
9. Repeat step 3 to step 5, then record the measured results in table 3-7.
3-4: Measured Result

## Table 3-2 Measured results of A741 pulse width modulator.

(Vm = 3V, fm = 500 Hz)
DC Bias Voltage at Input Signal Waveforms Output Signal Waveforms
Vin (+)

0V

6V

-6V

## Table 3-3 Measured results of A741 pulse width modulator.

(Vm =5 Vin, fm = 500 Hz)

## DC Bias Voltage Input Signal Waveforms Output Signal Waveforms

at Vin (+)

0V

6V

-6V

Table 3-4 Measured results of LM555 pulse width modulator. (Vm = 2.5 V, fm = I kHz)
Input Signals Input Signal Waveforms

Square Wave

Triangular wave

Sinusoidal Wave

## Table 3-5 Measured results of LM555 pulse width modulator.

(Vm= 2.5 V, fm =1 kHz Square Wave)
Test Points Output Signal Waveforms

TP1

TP2

TP3
TP4

PWM
O/P

## Table 3-5 Measured results of LM555 pulse width modulator.

(Vm = 2.5 V, fm =1 kHz Triangular Wave)

## Test Points Output Signal Waveforms

TP1
TP2

TP3

TP4

PWM
O/P
Figure 3-5 Measured results of LM555 pulse width modulator. (Continue)
(Vm = 2.5 V, fm =1 kHz Sinusoidal Wave)

TP1

TP2

TP3
TP4

PWM
O/P

## Table 3-6 Measured results of LM555 pulse width modulator.

(V m = 1.5 V, f m = 1kHz)
Input Signals Input Signal Waveforms

Square Wave
Triangular Wave

Sinusoidal Wave

## Table 3-7 Measured results of LM555 pulse width modulator.

(Vm =1.5 V, fm = 1 kHz Square Wave)

TP1

TP2

TP3

TP4
PWM
O/P

## Table 3-7 Measured results of LM555 pulse width modulator. (Continue)

(Vm =1.5 V, fm =1 kHz Triangular Wave)
Test Points Output Signal Waveforms

TP1

TP2
TP3

TP4

PWM
O/P

## Table 3-7 Measured results of LM555 pulse width modulator. (Continue)

(Vm =1.5 V, fm =1 kHz Sinusoidal Wave)
Test Points Output Signal Waveforms
TP1

TP2

TP3

TP4
PWM
O/P

## 3-5: Problems Discussion

1. What are the functions of VR1 in figure 3-3 and figure 3-8?

2. If we change the capacitor C6 to 0.1 F in figure 3-8, the others remain the same, does the
output still show the PWM waveform? Why?

3. For output voltage polarity, what are the differences of PWM signal between experiment 1
and experiment 2?