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Gladius, I (1961), pp.

17-29
A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

INTRO13UCTION TO
INTRODUCTION T O THE
THE STUDY
STUDY
OF ISLAMIC
OF ISLAMIC ARMS LWMOUR
AND ARMOUR
ARMS AND

By Dr.
By Dr. A. Zaks.
A. Rahman Zaky.

Islamic Swords
Types of Islamic
Types Swords

Islamic weapons
Early Islamic weapons ofof any
any archaeological
archaeological value
value are
are comparatively
comparatively
very few.
very few. The
The earlier
earlier swords
swords areare all
all straight,
straight, mostly
mostly double
double edged.
edged.
Curved sabres
Curved sabres do
do not
not become common
common until
until circa
circa 1500,
1500, neverthe-
less the
less the Mongol
Mongol type
type started
started to become aa fashion
to become fashion inin some
some Moslem
Moslem
provinces during
provinces during the
the 13th
13th cent.
cent. Here,
Here, wewe mention somesome known
types.
types.

Flyssa
The national
The national sword
sword of of the
the tribes
tribes of
of Morocco.
Morocco. It
It has
has aa long
long single-
single-
edged blade,
edged blade, straight
straight onon the
the back
back and
and with
with aa very
very long
long point.
point. It
It
is widest
is widest atat about
about the
the centre
centre ofof percussion,
percussion, narrowing
narrowing in in an
an easy
easy
curve to
curve to about
about half
half this
this width
width and
and then
then widening
widening again
again to
to nearly
nearly
its maximum
its maximum at at the
the hilt.
hilt. The
The blades
blades are
are frequently
frequently engraved
engraved andand in-
in-
laid with
laid with brass.
brass. The
The hilts
hilts are
are small
small with
with one
one sided
sided pommel and and
have no
have no guards.
guards.

Kaskara
Kaskara
The sword
The sword carried
carried by
by the
the Baghirmi
Baghirmi (W.(W. A. Sahara). It
A. Sahara). It is
is straight,
straight,
two edged
two edged blade
blade with
with aa plain
plain cross-guard
cross-guard such
such as
as is
is used
used inin the
the
Sudan. Some
Sudan. Some Kaskaras
Kaskaras have
have fine
fine old
old European
European or or Oriental
Oriental blades
blades
which are
which are highly
highly valued.
valued. Occasionally;
Occasionally; the
the chapes
chapes and
and hilts
hilts are
are
covered with
covered with gold.
gold.')
I)

Khanda
Among the
Among the oldest
oldest and
and most
most typical
typical of Indian swords.
of Indian swords. Iti t has
has aa
broad straight
broad straight blade,
blade, usually
usually widening
widening towards
towards thethe point.
point. Some-
Some-
times it
times it is
is double-edged;
double-edged; but,
but, it
it generally
generally has
has aa strengthening
strengthening plateplate
with ornamental
with ornamental borders
borders onon the
the back
back for
for aa considerable
considerable partpart of
of
its length.
its length. TheThe hilt
hilt has
has aa broad
broad plate
plate guard
guard and
and wide
wide finger
finger guard
guard
which joins
which joins the
the large
large round
round flat
flat pommel.
pommel. Sometimes
Sometimes there
there is
is aa spike
spike
on the
on the pommel.
pommel. The The Khanda
Khanda is is the
the national
national sword
sword of of Orissa,
Orissa, but
but
very generally
very generally used
used by
by both
both Rajputs
Rajputs and
and the
the Mahrattas
Mahrattas in in India.
India.
(Fig. 1,
(Fig. 1, to
to the
the right
right on
on top).
top).

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Gladius, I (1961), pp. 17-29
A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

Fig.
F i g . 1.1 . AA selection
selection ofo f Oriental
Oriental swords
swords and
and da.Q,qers,
daggers, particnlarly
particularly from
from
Persia
Persia and
and India.
India. Persian
Persian shield.
shield.
(Coli.
(Coll.E.
E. A.
A. Christenscn,
Christensen,Copenl1a.l}en.
Copenhagen.Amlresf'n tot.).
Andresen fol.).

Qilij. Kilij
Qilij. Kilij
I t isis the
It the typical
typical Turkish
Turkish sabre.
sabre. The
The blade
blade isis broader,
broader, shorter
shorter and
and
less
less curved
curved thanthan the
the Persian
Persian shamshir,
shamshir, the
the back
back has
has aa fair
fair curve
curve
nearly
nearly parallel
parallel to
to the
the edge,
edge, while
while in
in the
the Turkish,
Turkish, thethe curve
curve ofof the
the
back
back stopsstops eight
eightor
orten
ten inches
inchesfrom
from the
thepoint;
point; the
theblade
blade then
thenwidens
widens

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Gladius, I (1961), pp. 17-29
A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

out
outabruptly
abruptlyand andextends
extendstotothe
thepoint
point nearly
nearly in
in aa straight
straight line
line with
with
aasharp
sharpedge
edgeon onthe
theback.
back.The
Thekilij
kilij can
canbe
be used
used forfor aa thrust,
thrust, though
though
not
not very
very effectively.
effectively. TheThe shape
shape ofof the
the kilij
kilij isis of
of Central-Asiatic
Central-Asiatic
origin,
origin,yet
yet itit was
wasextensively
extensively used
used inin the
the 15th/16th
15th/16th cent. (Fig.22c).
cent. (Fig. c).

E
I
'I
",
i' ,
li:
\
(I

Fig. yatagans; c:c:qilij;


Fzg.2.2.fl-a-b:b:yataguns; qilij;d:d :sail
saif from Morocco; e:e:Arab
from Morocco; Arab .'In!!
saif
(straightswo1d).
(,~traight sword).

Thehilt
The hiltisisusually
usuallypistol-shaped
pistol-shaped and andmade
made ofof two
two pieces
pieces ofof horn,
horn,
bone,ivory
bone, ivoryororstone,
stone,fastened
fastenedtotothetheflat
flattang.
tang.The
Theguard
guard isisstraight,
straight,
slimcrossbar
slim crossbarwithwith balls
balls oror acorns
acorns on
on thethe ends.
ends. The
The curve
curve ofof the
the
bladeisissuch
blade suchthat
thatthetheback
backofof the
thescabbard
scabbard atat the
the top
top must
must bebe open
open
ininorder
ordertotoadmit
admitit.it.The
Theopening
opening isisoften
often closed
closed byby a a spring
spring oror aa
hingedplate.
hinged plate.The
Thesling
slingloops
loopsare aregenerally
generallyon onopposite
opposite sides
sidesofof the
the
scabbard and
scabbard and itit isis hung
hung inin front
front ofof the
the wearer
wearer with
with the the edge
edge
upwardsby
upwards bycords.
cords.
The kilij type
The kilij type with witha aslighter
slightercurve
curve has
hasanother
another name
name- -pall pallash
ash
ororpalache.
palache.ItItmay
maybe bethe
thePolish
Polishsabre
sabreofof the
the17th
17thcent.
cent.

Nimsha
Nimsha
AnArab
An Arab short
short sabre
sabre with
with a a knuckle
knuckle guard
guard rectangular
rectangular atat the
the

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Gladius, I (1961), pp. 17-29
A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

base with
base with dropping
dropping quillons
quillons onon the
the opposite
opposite side.
side.ItI t isis used
used inin
Morocco. (Fig.
Morocco. (Fig.3 3b).
b).

? #
j

1
.;,0

;~
~
.
I\
J.,:
\
\

Fig.3. S a:
Fig. . a pulouar;
: pulouar;b:b:nimsha;
nirnshtr;c:c:sdmitar
scimitaroror8hamshil.
sharnshir

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Pulouar
An Indian sword with a curved blade. The hilt has short quillons
curving towards the blade, a hemishperial pommel and no counter
guard.
guard. It is a variety of the talwar. (Fig. 3 a).
talwar. (Fig. a).

Qama. Khama
The national sword of Moslem Georgia,
Georgia, probably the ongm
origin of
the Cossack kindjal.
kindjal. Qamas vary in size and length.
length. The hilts are
covered with embossed silver,
silver, frequently set with coral.
coral. (Fig.
(Fig. 1,
1,
to the left,
left, almost in the middle).
middle).

Quaddara
Quaddara
A Persian broad sword like a long kindjal, which is employed
in the Caucas.
Caucas. It has broad, straight double-edged blade, with nearly
parallel sides for the greater part of its length,
length, and a very long,
long,
sharp, point. The hilts are straight in the grip with broad pommels.
sharp,

Sabre
A sword sharpened
sharpened only on one side of the blade which is nearly
always slightly
slightly curved,
curved, the sharpened edge being on the outside.
Often the point of the blade is sharpened on both sides,sides, but this
does not make the sabre
sabre a double-edged weapon. The sabre is in-
tended mainly for cutting, but is also effective for thrusting

Saif
Sail
An Arab sword, a rather broad-bladed and sometimes with a pe-
culiarly hooked pommel. The size varies greatly. IItt is found
found in most
countries in which the Arabs have lived,
lived, and each has its own
variety. Early Arab
Arab chroniclers used to mention two kinds of
swords: Saif anith, which was made of iron,
swords: iron, and Saif fulath or
muzakka,
muzakka, wich was made of steel.
steel. Mostly the sword "Saif
sSaif<(is an
Arab common
common word of a sword,
sword, and it does
does not refer to a certain
(Fig. 2 d and e).
type. (Fig. e).

Scimitar
A curved sword,
sword, chiefly originated in Asia, but used in
in Europe
after the Crusaders and the Mongols campaigns in Eastern Europe.
The same name is applied to "Shamshir.
)Shamshirc<.

Shamshir
The strongly curved Persian sc:~":::.
SL?':-_~. It is purely a cutting weapon,
the point being practically c;:!-ss
t,~:! :ss owing to the extreme curvature.
curvature.
The blades are narro...: lI:,;:t
are narroT:: ; t, rather thick,thick, and areare usually inscribed

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A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

with the
with the name
name of of the
the maker
maker or or owner
owner and and sometimes
sometimes thethe date.
date. The
The
shamshir began
shamshir began to to exist
exist circa
circa the
the 15th/16th
15thil6th century
century in
in Persia.
Persia.
The hilt
The hilt is
is simple
simple and
and light
light with
with aa cross-guard
cross-guard and
and aa pommel
pommel
projecting at
projecting a t one
one side.
side. Persian
Persian shamshir
shamshir bladesblades are
are frequently
frequently used
used
in Turkey,
in Turkey, Syria,
Syria, Egypt
Egypt and
and India
India wherewhere they
they are
are generally
generally re-
re-
mounted in
mounted in the
the styles
styles charateristic
charateristic of of these
these countries.
countries. Shamshir
Shamshir
means the
means the tail
tail of
of the
the lion. (Fig. 33 c,c, fig
lion. (Fig. fig 44 most
most of
of the
the sabres
sabres have
have
shamshir blades).
shamshir blades).

Fig.
Fig. 4.4. AA series
series of
of qilijes
qilijes and
and shamshirs
shamshirs with
with pistol-shaped
pistol-shaped !/rips.
qrips. Quillol!s
Quillons
and mountings
and mountings ofo f silver.
silver.
(Coll. E.
(Coli. A. CChristensen,
E. A. Copenhagen. Andresen
hristensen, Copenhagen. Andresen fot.).
fot.).

Shashqa; Chachka
Shashqa; Chachka
The sword
The sword adopted
adopted by
by most
most of
of the
the races
races of
of the
the Caucas.
Caucas. It
It has
has aa
straight
straight blade,
blade, or
or one
one very
very slightly
slightly curved
curved towards
towards the
the point,
point, and
and
aa hilt
hilt without
without any
any guard,
guard, nearly
nearly always
always ofof silver
silver niello
niello and
and some-
some-
times gilded.
times gilded.

Shotel
Sholel
I t is
It is the
the Abyssinian
Abyssinian sword.
sword. It
It has
has aa double-edged
double-edged blade
blade of
of dia-
dia-

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A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

mond section curved almost in half


half circle. The blade is about thirty
inches in a straight line from hilt to point and about forty around
the curve. It has a simple wooden hilt without a guard.

Sword. Damascus
This is not applied to a certain type, but iitt was so called,
called, because
Damascus was the place where caravans from the East and West
met and exchanged their products. Fine swords from Persia or In-
dia were brought there to the markets, there they were sold to
other Islamic countries or to Europe. The term ))Damascuscc
Damascus" is also
applied to swords or steel blades which have a unique technique of of
>>watering((.
watering". The manufacture is said to have started during the
tenth century, but there is no proof of this. It certainly originated
in India.
This has nothing to deal with >>Damasceningcc
Damascening" which is the tech-
nique of
of decorating a metal by inlaying another.

Takouba
The Taureg sword of
of the African Sahara.
Sahara. IItt is a straight bladed
and single-edged sword with no guard. There is a crosspiece below
the pommel which gives the cruciform effect.

Talwar. Tulwar. Tulwaur.


Ta/war. Tu/war. Tu/waur. Tarwar
The Indian sword of
of a certain class. IItt includes practically most
of the curved swords used in India; but those of very marked cur-
vature are frequently called by their Persian type named
Shamshir.
Shamshir.
The Talwar is the commonst sword in India; India; the blades vary in
size,
size, curvature and quality.
quality. The hilts generally have short, heavy
(Fig. 1,
quillons and disk pommels. (Fig. 1, to the right of
of the top).
top).

Yatagan
A kind of of sabre with an incurved blade, once very popular in
Turkey. The curved line of of the blade coincides with the action of of
the wrist in cutting. The hilt has no guard and the pommel spreads
out in large wings. The tang is flat and the two pieces forming the
grip are riveted
riveted to it. The hilt is often made of of silver. The yatagan
has become a weapon characteristic of of Turkey as the kilij but the
type has a distant and ancient origin. (Fig. (Fig. 1,
1, to the left, in upper
half, fig. 2 a -- b).
b).
Notes
1) Stone,
1) Stone, G. C . : A glossary of
C.: of the armour in all countries
countries and use of
of arins
arms
and armour in all countries
countries and in all times. Portland, Maine 1934.
See also:
also: A. Rahman Zaky: Zaky: The sword in the Moslim world. (In (In
Arabic).
Arabic). Cairo 1957, with literature.
literature. Idem,
Idem. The sword in Islamic art,
Bull.
Bull. of
of the College ofof Arts, Baghdad,
Baghdad. Iraq, I,I, 1959.
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A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

Types of Islamic Helmets

Islamic helmets exhibited in arms museum collections


collections enable us
to determine the development of their shape,
shape, at least between the
the
14th and 17th centuries. In Egypt, Qalqashandi, an
17th centuries. an Arab scholar
(1355-1418)
(1355-1410) distinguished two different types of helmets:
a)
a) the baida, protecting the head but not the neck or ears,
ears, and
b) the mighfar, offering such protection -- in camail.
b) camail.
At the same
same time there was an older type of helmets in use, use,
covering the ears and the back of the head, but not in mail. mail.
This helmet lasted from the eighth to the fourteenth century at
least.
least. It is known that the Arabs had a great variety of helmets,
helmets,
the use of
of which flourished greatly during the crusades; they were
ornamented with bosses, plates, crests and visors.
An authentic
authe~tic early specimen
specimen of an early Mameluke helmet is ex-
hibited
h;oited in the Royal Museum of Arms and Armour of Porte de de Hal
Ha1
in Bruxelles, which once belonged to Sultan Mohammad en-Nasser

Fig. 5. Egyptiun
Egyptian steel helmet o off
sultan Mohamnznd en-NUS-
Moham.m.arl en-Nas-
ser. 13th
ser. cent. (Porte
1;nh cent. (Porte de
H al, Bruxelles).
Hal, Bruxelles).

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A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

ibn Qalaoun (died


(died 1290).
1290). It is fairly
fairly tall,
tall, conical,
conical, iron cap.
cap, with
with aa
camail and two plume sockets, sockets, without ear guards
guards or peak and and
probably originally without aa nasal either. either. (Fig.
(Fig. 5). is richly
5). It is richly
decorated
de.:orated with gilt arabesques
arabesques and an an inscriptional band in gilt re-
lief.')
lief. l ) It is 19
19 ems.
cms. wide. Arabic inscription reads as
wide. Its Arabic as follows:
follows:
))Glory
Glory to our Signeur,
Signeur, the Sultan,
Sultan, King
King en-Nasscr,
en-Nasser, thethe learned,
learned.
the just, the combatant,
combatant, the
the conqueror,
conqueror, the
the victorious,
victorious, Sultan
Sultan of
Islam and and Moslems,
Moslems, the protector of the
the world and
and religion,
religion, Moham-
mad, son
mad, son of Sultan
Sultan and King al-Mansour,
al-Mansour, scimitar of the the world
and religion, Qalaoun.
Qalaoun. Glory to him andand victory.
victory.((
The Arabic inscription on the the nasal
nasal reads
reads as
as follows:
follows:
))The
The desire of Allah;Allaha; another
another phrase reads:
reads: Victory from
,)Victory from
Allah .. .. ..(c
Those Mamelukes did did not use face
face guards
guards either
either under thethe Ayyu-
(1171-1250) or the Mameluke
bide (1171-1250) Mameluke dynasties,
dynasties, although
although they
they saw
saw
such helmets on the heads of Crusaders
Crusaders and
and Mongols.
Mongols.
Under the Circassian Mamelukes (1382-1517)(1382-1517) two two main
main types
types

l ia. h

FiiJ. 6. SIGel
Fzq. 6. Steel helmet
helmet of
of sultan
sultan Barsabay.
Barsubciy. 15th
15th cGnt.
cent. (Louvre,
(Louvre, Paris).
Parzs).
Fiq. 7. SfeGI
Fzg. 7. S f e e l lwlmel OS sultan
helmet of sultan Qnn&uah
Qansuah Gl-Ghori.
el-Ghorz. 16th
16th (:mlt.
cent. (IVlnseo
(N!useo Stib-
Stzb-
hcrt,
bcl-t, Florence).
Florence).

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ruled
ruled the fashion. The type type of of the helmet
helmet of of Mohammad
Mohammad ibn Qalaoun
became
became much taller; taller; it it received ear and neck neck guards made of of one
plate
plate ofof metal each and the the nasal,
nasal, together
together with the peak, peak, became
became
an essential part part of of it.
it. That type is is best
best illustrated
illustrated by by a helmet
helmet of of
Sultan Barsabdy
Barsabay of of Egypt (1422-1438)
(1422-1438) in in the
the Louvre Museum".
Museum 2 ). It It is
is
38 crns.
ems. high
high (that is is twice
twice as tall tall as the the Brussels helmet helmet of of ibn
ibn
Qalaoun, and is is decorated
decorated with with gilt inscriptions
inscriptions and ornamenk3)
ornaments. 3)
(Fig. 6).
At
At the
the Tower collection in in London, there is is an Egyptian, XVth
century steel helmet,helmet, iitt is is parcel-gilt
parcel-gilt and inlaid with with silver. Its Its
Arabic
Arabic inscriptions
inscriptions are benedictory
benedictory and eulogistic. It is is 27.3 crns. ems.
high.4)
high. 4 )
Another
Another type, the so-called so-called turban helmet helmet (worn(worn over turbans)
was also used used byby the the Mamelukes,
Mamelukes, although the only published published
helmets
helmets of of this
this type
type made
made before before 1517 A. A. D.
D. (as far far as we we know),
know),
and
and bearing
bearing historical
historical inscriptions
inscriptions are are those
those ofof the Ottoman
Ottoman Sultan
Bayzid
Bayzid (1482-1512)
(1482-1512) and and of of Farrukh
Farrukh Yasdr Yasar of of SShirvan.~)
hir~an.~)
Towards the the end
end of of the
the Mameluke
Mameluke period, period, aa fairly
fairly lowlow or shallow
shallow
helmet
helmet without
without the the conical
conical top top (quanas)
(quanas) but but with
with earear and and neckneck
guards
guards as as well
well asas peak
peak and and nasal
nasal which
which often
often terminated
terminated in in aa fleur-
fleur-
de-lys,
de-Iys, became
became dominant;
dominant; it it is
is best
best illustrated
illustrated by by the
the latest
latest datable
datable
Mameluke
Mameluke helmet,helmet, thatthat of of the
the emir
emir (general)
(general) Khairbak,
Khairbak, the the last
last
Mameluke
Mameluke Governor
Governor of of Aleppo,
Aleppo, who who betrayed
betrayed EgyptEgypt to to Sultan
Sultan SelimSelim
II of
of the
the Ottomans.
Ottomans. It It is
is there
there at at Topkapu
Topkapu SarayiSarayi Muzesi
Muzesi in in Istanbul.
Istanbul.
At
At thethe Stibbert
Stibbert Museum
Museum in in Florence,
Florence, therethere exists
exists an an Egyptian
Egyptian
helmet
helmet inscribed
inscribed withwith the the name
name of of Sultan
Sultan Qansuah
Qansuah el el Ghori
Ghori (died (died
circ.
eirc. 1516).
1516). (Fig.
(Fig. 7).
7). It
It bears
bears aa fine fine Arabic
Arabic inscription
inscription which which reads reads
as
as follows:
follows:
)>Sultan
"Sultan el-Malik
el-Malik el-Ashraf
el-Ashraf QuansuahQuansuah el el Ghori,
Ghori, glory
glory to to himhim .. .. .. X
Under
Under those
those Circassians
Circassians leather leather chinchin straps
straps andand buckles
buckles were were usedused
for
for fastening.
fastening.
The
The helmet
helmet andand thethe whole
whole suit suit ofof armour
armour of of Sultan
Sultan Toman-Bay
Toman-Bay
(1516-1517),
(1516-1517), the the last
last of
of thethe Circassians
Circassians in in Egypt,
Egypt, areare inin the
the Hermit-
Hermit-
age
age (U.S.S.R.).
(U.S.s.R.).
IIn
n Turkey,
Turkey, the the earliest
earliest helmets
helmets were were conical
conical with
with plate,
plate, mail mail or or
padded
padded neck neck guards.
guards. From From the the 14th
14th to
to thethe 16th
16th century
century TurkishTurkish
helmets
helmets werewere often
often very
very large
large and and elaborately
elaborately flutedfluted andand decorated.
decorated.
They
They were were worn
worn over
over turbans,
turbans, hence hence were
were called
called turban
turban helmets.
helmets.
Overlapping
Overlapping these these in in time
time and and continuation
continuation in in use,
use, later
later werewere
ogival,
ogival, ogee
ogee and
and conical
conical helmets.
helmets.
To
To Sultan Mohammad I11,
Sultan Mohammad I , the
the conqueror
conqueror of of Constantinople,
Constantinople, is is at-
at-
tributed
tributed some
some genuine
genuine helmets.
helmets. Most Most of of these
these are
are exhibited
exhibited in in Istan-
Istan-
bul
bul museums.
museums. In In Madrid,
Madrid, at at the
the Instituto
Instituto de de Valencia
Valencia de de DonDon Juan,
Juan,

26

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Gladius, I (1961), pp. 17-29
A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

there is a fine
fine helmet inscribed with the
the name of this Sultan
Sultan (1430-
(1430-
1481);
1481); its weight is about 2.755
2.755 kilos.
kilo^.^) (Fig. 8).
6 ) (Fig. 8).

11

Fig. T u r k i s h steel helmet of


Fi.fj. 8. '1'urkiNh of Moharnmad
Mohammad I11, cent. (Inst.
I , 15th cent. ( I n s t . de Valell-
Valen-
cia ddee Don Juan, Madrid).
Madrid).
Fig. f). Helmet of
Fi.fj. 9. of sultan Bayaxid 11, 15th cent.
Bayaziclll, cent. (Musee
( M u s e e (le
de l'Annlie. Paris).
Z'Armde, Paris).

The Army Museum in Paris possesses five five Turkish helmets of


different types, among these one which once belonged to Sultan Sultan
Bayazid IIII (1481-1512)
(1481-1512) son of Sultan Mohammad 11. 11. (Fig.
(Fig. 9).
9).
At the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Vienna, the helmet of the
Turkish minister Mohammad Sokolowitsch (died 1579) 1579) is exhibited
exhibited
among the Oriental arms7
arms 7 (Fig. 10). A splendid fluted Turkish hel-
(Fig. 10).
met is
is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. York. It bears the the
date A. H. 997.
997. (A.
(A. D. 1588/89) Wazir Hasan Pasha
1588189) and the inscription Wazzr
(the Govenor of of Yemen).x
Yemen).H
The Persians were the best armourers in the East and worked
not only in their own country but also in Turkey and India.
commonest helmet in Persia was the "Kulah
The commonest nKulah Khud.
K h u d . ~It
I t is

27

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Gladius, I (1961), pp. 17-29
A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

Fig. 10. Turkish


Fig. Turkzsh steel steel helmet
helmet of of
grand minister
yTand mznister MMohnm- oham-
mad Sokololl'i.tsch,
mad S o k o l o ~ z t s c h ,10110
who
dzed 1;;79.
died 1579.
Kunsthistorisches Mu-
Kunsthistori,sches Mu-
Vaenna).
s e u m , Vienna).
seum,

bowl-shaped, either
bowl-shaped, either low low andand flat,
flat, oror highhigh and and pointed,
pointed, usually
usually
with aa spike
with spike onon thethe toptop and
and two two or or three
three plume
plume holders
holders on on the
the
front. ItIt has
front. has aa sliding
sliding nasal
nasal with with both both ends ends expanded
expanded into into
plates. When
plates. When notnot in in use
use the
the nasal
nasal could
could be be fastened
fastened up up outout ofof the
the
way by
way by aa link
link and
and hook,
hook, or or by
by aa screw.
screw. The The neck
neck guards
guards may may be of
be of
padded cloth,
padded cloth, but
but areare usually
usually of of mail,
mail, sometimes
sometimes rivetedriveted but but gene-
gene-
rally of
rally of open
open links
links with
with patterns
?atterns in in brass
brass and and copper
copper links.")
linksg)
fine example
AA fine example of of later
later Persian
Persian helmets
helmets isis in in the
the British
British Museum.
Museum.
It isis aa hemispherical
It hemispherical steel steel helmet,
helmet, made made for Shah 'Abbas
for Shah' the Great
A b b a s the Great
(1587-1629) and
(1587-1629) and dated
dated A. H. 1035/1625-6
A. H. 103511625-6 A. A.D.D. ItIt isis carved
carved and and in-
in-
laid with
laid with gold,
gold, inscribed
inscribed with with thethe name
name of of the
the Shah,
Shah, and and decorated
decorated
superbly with
superbly with arabesques
arabesques and and gold
gold inlaid
inlaid religious
religious inscriptions.
inscriptions. The The
spike, sockets
spike, sockets and
and thethe nasal,
nasal, all
all are
are inscribed.
inscribed.lO) (Fig. 11).
10) (Fig. 11).
The Wallace
The Wallace Collection
Collection in in London
London possesses
possesses aa varietyvariety of of Persian
Persian
helmets. One
helmets. One ofof these,
these, has has two
two plume-holders
plume-holders inscribed inscribed with with thethe
names of
names of Shah
Shah Abbas and Shah
A b b a s and Shah lsmail; between them
I s m a i l ; between them isis aa sliding
sliding
nasal with
nasal with cone-shaped
cone-shaped ends. ends. TheThe surface
surface of of the
the helmet
helmet isis bright-
bright-
ened and
ened and divided
divided into
into narrow
narrow compartments
compartments radiating radiating from from thethe top.
top.
The inscriptions
The inscriptions at a t the
the top
top are
are thethe attributes
attributes of of Allah
Allah and and couplets
couplets
of Persian
of Persian poetry,
poetry, as as are
are those
those round
round the the base.
base. The The name
name of of the
the

23

Digitalizado por InterClassica Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas


http://interclassica.um.es http://gladius.revistas.csic.es
Gladius, I (1961), pp. 17-29
A. Rahman Zaky ISSN 0435-029X

Fig. 11. PeTsian


Fig. Persian helmet,
helmet, 'inlaid
inlaid
with gold.
with gold.
Dated A.
Dated A. H.H. 1035/1625-6
1035/1625-
D.
A . D.
A.
Mus., London).
(Brit.Mns.,
(BTit. London).

armourer
a r m o u r e r is
i s inscribed
i n s c r i b e d round
r o u n d the centre and
t h e centre and also
also the
t h e date
d a t e (A. H.
(A.H.
1062) which
1062) w h i c h corresponds 1651(11).
t o 1651
c o r r e s p o n d s to (").

Notes
Notes

1)
1) G. G. Macoir:
Macoir: Le Le Muspc
Musee royal
royal d' Armes et
dlArmes et d' Armures de
d'Armures de la
la Porte
Porte dede Hal
Ha1
aa Bruxelles,
Bruxelles, pI.
pl. p.
p. 45.
45.
2 . ) G.
2.) Migeon: L'Orient
G. Migeon: L'Orient Musulman.
Musulman. Vol.Vol. Annes,
Armes, etc.,
etc., p.
p. 17,
17, p.
p. 18.
18.
3 ) A.
3) A. Mayer:
Mayer: Saracenic
Saracenic ArmsArms and
and Armour.
Armour. (Ars( A r s Islamica.
Islamica. 1943).
1943).
4 ) Tower
4) Tower Collection
ColIection (15-685).
( 15-685).
5) A
5) A short
short note
note issued
issued by
by the
the Army
Army Museum
Museum in in Istanbul.
Istanbul.
6 ) Catalogo
6) Catglogo de de las
las Annas
Armas del del Instituto
Instituto de de Valencia
Valencia de de Don
Don Juan.
Juan. 1927.
1927.
pp.
pp. 13-17.
13-17.
77 August
August Grosz
Grosz andand Bl'unc
Bruno Thomas:
Thomas: Katalog
Katalog del'der Waffensammlung
Waffensammlung in in
Del'
Der Neuen
Neuen Burg.
Eurg. Wien 1936, p.
Wien 1936, p. 93.
93.
8)
8 ) Stephen
Stephen V.V. Grancsay:
Grancsay: The The George
George C. C. Stone
Stone Bequest.
Bequest. (Bulletin
(Bulletin of the
of the
Metropolitan
Metropolitan Museum
Museum of of Art. 1937. Vol
Art. 1937. Vol XXXII,
XXXII, pp. pp. 54-58).
54-58).
9)
9 ) G.G. C.
C. Stone:
Stone: A A glossary
glossary of of the
the construction,
construction, decoration,
decoration, and and use
use of
of
arms
a r m s and
and armour. 1934, pp.
armour. 1934, pp. 51-52.
51-52.
1 0 ) D.
10) D. Barrett:
Barrett: Islamic
Islamic Metalwork
Metalwork in in the
the British
British Museum
Museum London.
London. 1949.
1949.
11)
11) Na.2336.
No. 2336. Wallace
Wallace ColJectlon.
Collection, London.
London.

29

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