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A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

A Complete Tutorial to learn Data


Science in R from Scratch

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mplete%20Tutorial%20to%20learn%20Data%20Scienc e%20in%20R%20from%20Scratch+https:
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ete%20Tutorial%20to%20learn%20Data%20Science%20in%20R%20from%20Scratch)

Introduction
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

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POPULAR POSTS
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HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

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Table of Contents
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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
1. Basics of R Programming
Why learn
LEARNING R ?(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
PATHS

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

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A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

How to install R / R Studio ? RECENT POSTS


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

Creating a
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM) flawless
winning
strategy in a
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
Casino
(BlackJack)
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/) using Data
Science?
DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM) (https://www.a
nalyticsvidhya.
com/blog/2017
WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/) /04/flawless-
winning-
DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017) strategy-casino-
blackjack-
data-science/)
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/) TAVISH SRIVASTAV...

DataHack Hour
Revealed the
best way to
learn data
science through
hands on
problems!
(https://www.a
nalyticsvidhya.

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com/blog/2017
(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
/04/datahack-
hour-solutions-
HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) revealed/)
BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
FAIZAN SHAIKH , A ...

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

How to install
DISCUSS R Packages ?
(HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

Behavioral
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
Analytics :
When
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/) Psychology
collides with
DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM) analytics
install.packages("package name") (https://www.a
nalyticsvidhya.
WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/) com/blog/2017
/04/behavioral-
DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017) analytics-
when-psycholog
y-collides-
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/) analytics/)
TAVISH SRIVASTAV...

Basic Computations in R

> 2 + 3 40 Questions to
test a data
> 5
scientist on
Deep Learning
> 6 / 3
[Solution:
> 2 SkillPower
Deep Learning,

6 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

> (3*8)/(2*3) DataFest 2017]


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
> 4 (https://www.a
nalyticsvidhya.
>HOME com/blog/2017
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
log(12)
/04/40-
> 1.07
questions-
JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/) test-data-
> sqrt (121)
scientist-
> 11
TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/) deep-learning/)
FAIZAN SHAIKH , A...

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

>CONTACT
x <- 8 US
+ 7(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
> x
> 15

2. Essentials ofR Programming

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GET CONNECTED
(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) 9,406


BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
31,236

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
1,732
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

Email
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> a <- c(1.8, 4.5) #numeric


> b <- c(1 + 2i, 3 - 6i) #complex
> d <- c(23, 44) #integer
> e <- vector("logical", length = 5)

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Data Types in R
HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-


> qt <- c("Time", 24, "October", TRUE, 3.33) #character
> ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
ab <- c(TRUE, 24) #numeric
> cd <- c(2.5, "May") #character

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

>DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)


class(qt)
"character"
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> bar <- 0:5


> class(bar)
> "integer"
> as.numeric(bar)
> class(bar)
> "numeric"
> as.character(bar)
> class(bar)
> "character"

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JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

>TRAININGS
my_list (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
<- list(22, "ab", TRUE, 1 + 2i)
> my_list
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
[[1]]
[1] 22
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

[[2]]
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
[1] "ab"

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
[[3]]
[1] TRUE

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)


[[4]]
[1] 1+2i
DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> my_list[[3]]
> [1] TRUE

> my_list[3]
> [[1]]
[1] TRUE

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HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

>TRAININGS
my_matrix(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
<- matrix(1:6, nrow=3, ncol=2)
> my_matrix
DISCUSS
[,1] [,2](HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
[1,] 1 4
LEARNING
[2,] 2 5 PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
[3,] 3 6

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> my_matrix[,2] #extracts second column


> my_matrix[,1] #extracts first column
> my_matrix[2,] #extracts second row
> my_matrix[1,] #extracts first row

> age <- c(23, 44, 15, 12, 31, 16)


> age
[1] 23 44 15 12 31 16

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A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
> dim(age) <- c(2,3)
> age
HOME[,2]
[,1] (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
[,3] BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
[1,] 23 15 31
JOBS 44
[2,] (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
12 16

> class(age)
TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
[1] "matrix"

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

> x <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)


ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
> y <- c(20, 30, 40, 50, 60)
> cbind(x, y)
DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
> cbind(x, y)
x y
WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
[1,] 1 20
[2,] 2 30
DATAFEST
[3,] 3 40 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
[4,] 4 50
CONTACT
[5,] 5 60US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
[6,] 6 70

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A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

> df <- data.frame(name = c("ash","jane","paul","mark"),


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
score = c(67,56,87,91))
> df
HOMEscore
name (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
1 ash 67
2JOBS
jane(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
56
3 paul 87
4TRAININGS
mark 91 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

> dim(df)
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
[1] 4 2

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-


> str(df)
'data.frame': 4 obs. of 2 variables:
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
$ name : Factor w/ 4 levels "ash","jane","mark",..: 1 2 4
3
$DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
score: num 67 56 87 91

>WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)


nrow(df)
[1] 4
DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
> ncol(df)
[1] 2
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

( )

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)


> df[1:2,2] <- NA #injecting NA at 1st, 2nd row and 2nd
column of df
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
> df
name score
1 ash NA
2 jane NA
3 paul 87
4 mark 91

> is.na(df) #checks the entire data set for NAs and return
logical output
name score
[1,] FALSE TRUE
[2,] FALSE TRUE
[3,] FALSE FALSE
[4,] FALSE FALSE

14 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

> table(is.na(df)) #returns a table of logical output


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
FALSE TRUE
6 2
HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
mean(df$score)
[1] NA
DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
> mean(df$score, na.rm = TRUE)
[1] 89
WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> new_df <- na.omit(df)


> new_df
name score
3 paul 87
4 mark 91

Control Structures in R

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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
if (<condition>){
##do something
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
} else {
##do something
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
}

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

#initialize
WRITE FOR US a(HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
variable
N <- 10

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)


#check if this variable * 5 is > 40
if (N * 5 > 40){
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
print("This is easy!")
} else {
print ("It's not easy!")
}
[1] "This is easy!"

for (<search condition>){


#do something
}

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A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
#initialize a vector
yHOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
<- c(99,45,34,65,76,23) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

#print the first 4 numbers of this vector


JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
for(i in 1:4){
print (y[i])
TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
}
[1] 99
DISCUSS
[1] 45 (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

[1] 34
LEARNING
[1] 65 PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

#initialize a condition
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
Age <- 12

#check if age is less than 17


while(Age < 17){
print(Age)
Age <- Age + 1 #Once the loop is executed, this
code breaks the loop
}
[1] 12
[1] 13
[1] 14
[1] 15
[1] 16

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A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-


Useful R Packages

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

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A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

3.CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
Exploratory Data Analysis in R

19 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

20 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
#working directory
HOME<-
path (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
".../Data/BigMartSales" BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

#set
JOBSworking directory
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
setwd(path)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-


#Load Datasets
train <- read.csv("Train_UWu5bXk.csv")
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
test <- read.csv("Test_u94Q5KV.csv")

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

#check dimesions ( number of row & columns) in data set


CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
> dim(train)
[1] 8523 12

> dim(test)
[1] 5681 11

#check the variables and their types in train


> str(train)
'data.frame': 8523 obs. of 12 variables:
$ Item_Identifier : Factor w/ 1559 levels

21 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

"DRA12","DRA24",..: 157 9 663 1122 1298 759 697 739 441


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
991 ...
$ Item_Weight : num 9.3 5.92 17.5 19.2 8.93 ...
$HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
Item_Fat_Content BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
: Factor w/ 5 levels "LF","low fat",..:
3 5 3 5 3 5 5 3 5 5 ...
$JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
Item_Visibility : num 0.016 0.0193 0.0168 0 0 ...
$ Item_Type : Factor w/ 16 levels "Baking Goods",..: 5 15
11TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
7 10 1 14 14 6 6 ...
$ Item_MRP : num 249.8 48.3 141.6 182.1 53.9 ...
$ Outlet_Identifier : Factor w/ 10 levels
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
"OUT010","OUT013",..: 10 4 10 1 2 4 2 6 8 3 ...
$ Outlet_Establishment_Year: int 1999 2009 1999 1998 1987
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
2009 1987 1985 2002 2007 ...
$ Outlet_Size : Factor w/ 4 levels "","High","Medium",..:
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
3 3 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 ...
$ Outlet_Location_Type : Factor w/ 3 levels "Tier 1","Tier
DATAHACK
2",..: 1 3 (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 ...
$ Outlet_Type : Factor w/ 4 levels "Grocery Store",..: 2 3
2 WRITE
1 2 3FOR US2(HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
2 4 2 ...
$ Item_Outlet_Sales : num 3735 443 2097 732 995 ..
DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> table(is.na(train))

FALSE TRUE
100813 1463

> colSums(is.na(train))

22 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

Item_Identifier Item_Weight
(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
0 1463
Item_Fat_Content Item_Visibility
0HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
0 BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
Item_Type Item_MRP
0JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
0
Outlet_Identifier Outlet_Establishment_Year
0TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
0
Outlet_Size Outlet_Location_Type
0 0
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
Outlet_Type Item_Outlet_Sales
0 0
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

>DATAHACK
summary(train)
(HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

Graphical Representation of Variables

23 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

>DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
ggplot(train, aes(x= Item_Visibility, y =
Item_Outlet_Sales)) + geom_point(size = 2.5, color="navy")
+ LEARNING PATHS
xlab("Item (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
Visibility") + ylab("Item Outlet Sales") +
ggtitle("Item Visibility vs Item Outlet Sales")

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> ggplot(train, aes(Outlet_Identifier, Item_Outlet_Sales))


+ geom_bar(stat = "identity", color = "purple")
+theme(axis.text.x = element_text(angle = 70, vjust = 0.5,
color = "black")) + ggtitle("Outlets vs Total Sales") +
theme_bw()

24 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-


> ggplot(train, aes(Item_Type, Item_Outlet_Sales)) +
geom_bar( stat = "identity") +theme(axis.text.x =
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
element_text(angle = 70, vjust = 0.5, color = "navy")) +
xlab("Item Type") + ylab("Item Outlet
DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
Sales")+ggtitle("Item Type vs Sales")

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> ggplot(train, aes(Item_Type, Item_MRP)) +geom_boxplot()


+ggtitle("Box Plot") + theme(axis.text.x =

25 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

element_text(angle = 70, vjust = 0.5, color = "red")) +


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
xlab("Item Type") + ylab("Item MRP") + ggtitle("Item Type
vs Item MRP")
HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> dim(train)

26 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

[1] 8523 12
(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

> dim(test)
HOME
[1] (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
5681 11 BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

>LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-


test$Item_Outlet_Sales <- 1
> combi <- rbind(train, test)

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)


> combi$Item_Weight[is.na(combi$Item_Weight)] <-
median(combi$Item_Weight, na.rm = TRUE)
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
> table(is.na(combi$Item_Weight))

FALSE
14204

Trouble with Continuous Variables & Categorical


Variables

27 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

> combi$Item_Visibility <- ifelse(combi$Item_Visibility ==


0,TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
median(combi$Item_Visibility),
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
combi$Item_Visibility)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

> levels(combi$Outlet_Size)[1] <- "Other"


>DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
library(plyr)
> combi$Item_Fat_Content <-
WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
revalue(combi$Item_Fat_Content,
c("LF" = "Low Fat", "reg" = "Regular"))
> DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
combi$Item_Fat_Content <-
revalue(combi$Item_Fat_Content, c("low fat" = "Low Fat"))
> table(combi$Item_Fat_Content)
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
Low Fat Regular
9185 5019

4. Data Manipulation in R

28 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

>WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)


library(dplyr)
> a <- combi%>%

DATAFEST 2017group_by(Outlet_Identifier)%>%
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
tally()

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
> head(a)
Source: local data frame [6 x 2] Outlet_Identifier n
(fctr) (int)
1 OUT010 925
2 OUT013 1553
3 OUT017 1543
4 OUT018 1546
5 OUT019 880
6 OUT027 1559

> names(a)[2] <- "Outlet_Count"


> combi <- full_join(a, combi, by = "Outlet_Identifier")

29 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

> b <- combi%>%


LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
group_by(Item_Identifier)%>%
tally()
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

> names(b)[2] <- "Item_Count"


> DATAHACK
head (b) (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
Item_Identifier Item_Count
WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
(fctr) (int)
1 DRA12 9
2 DATAFEST
DRA24 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
10
3 DRA59 10
4 DRB01 8
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
5 DRB13 9
6 DRB24 8

30 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

> c <- combi%>%


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
select(Outlet_Establishment_Year)%>%
mutate(Outlet_Year = 2013 -
HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
combi$Outlet_Establishment_Year) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
> head(c)
JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
Outlet_Establishment_Year Outlet_Year
1 1999 14
2TRAININGS
2009 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
4
3 1999 14
4 1998 15
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
5 1987 26
6 2009 4
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

> combi <- full_join(c, combi)


ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> q <- substr(combi$Item_Identifier,1,2)


> q <- gsub("FD","Food",q)
> q <- gsub("DR","Drinks",q)
> q <- gsub("NC","Non-Consumable",q)
> table(q)
Drinks Food Non-Consumable

31 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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1317 10201 2686


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

> combi$Item_Type_New <- q


JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

Label Encoding and One Hot Encoding


DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> combi$Item_Fat_Content <- ifelse(combi$Item_Fat_Content


== "Regular",1,0)

32 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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> sample <- select(combi, Outlet_Location_Type)


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
> demo_sample <- data.frame(model.matrix(~.-1,sample))
> head(demo_sample)
HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
Outlet_Location_TypeTier.1 BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
Outlet_Location_TypeTier.2
Outlet_Location_TypeTier.3
1 JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
1 0
0
2 TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
0 0
1
3 1 0
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
0
4 0 0
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
1
5 0 0
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
1
6 0 0
DATAHACK
1 (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

>library(dummies)
>combi <- dummy.data.frame(combi, names =
c('Outlet_Size','Outlet_Location_Type','Outlet_Type',
'Item_Type_New'), sep='_')

> str (combi)

33 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

$ Outlet_Size_Other : int 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ...


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
$ Outlet_Size_High : int 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
$ Outlet_Size_Medium : int 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 ...
$HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
Outlet_Size_Small : int 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0BLOG
1 0 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
...
$ Outlet_Location_Type_Tier 1 : int 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
...
$ Outlet_Location_Type_Tier 2 : int 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
...
$ Outlet_Location_Type_Tier 3 : int 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
...
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
$ Outlet_Type_Grocery Store : int 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
$ Outlet_Type_Supermarket Type1: int 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
...
$ Outlet_Type_Supermarket Type2: int 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
...
$ Outlet_Type_Supermarket Type3: int 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
...
$ Item_Outlet_Sales : num 1 3829 284 2553 2553 ...
$WRITE
Year FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
: num 14 11 15 26 6 9 28 4 16 28 ...
$ Item_Type_New_Drinks : int 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ...
$DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
Item_Type_New_Food : int 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
$ Item_Type_New_Non-Consumable : int 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
...
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

5. Predictive Modeling using Machine


Learning

> combi <- select(combi, -c(Item_Identifier,


Outlet_Identifier, Item_Fat_Content,

34 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

Outlet_Establishment_Year,Item_Type))
(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
> str(combi)

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-


> new_train <- combi[1:nrow(train),]
> new_test <- combi[-(1:nrow(train)),]
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
Linear (Multiple)Regression
WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

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>HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
linear_model BLOG
<- lm(Item_Outlet_Sales ~ ., (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
data =
new_train)
>JOBS
summary(linear_model)
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)


> cor(new_train)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

cor(new_train$Outlet_Count, new_train$`Outlet_Type_Grocery
Store`)
[1] -0.9991203

36 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
#load directory
> path <- "C:/Users/manish/desktop/Data/February 2016"
TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

> setwd(path)
DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
#load data
>LEARNING PATHS
train <- (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
read.csv("train_Big.csv")
> test <- read.csv("test_Big.csv")

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
#create a new variable in test file
> test$Item_Outlet_Sales <- 1
DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

#combine train and test data


>WRITE
combiFOR
<-USrbind(train,
(HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
test)

#impute
DATAFESTmissing value in Item_Weight
2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
> combi$Item_Weight[is.na(combi$Item_Weight)] <-
median(combi$Item_Weight, na.rm = TRUE)
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

#impute 0 in item_visibility
> combi$Item_Visibility <- ifelse(combi$Item_Visibility ==
0, median(combi$Item_Visibility),
combi$Item_Visibility)

#rename level in Outlet_Size


> levels(combi$Outlet_Size)[1] <- "Other"

#rename levels of Item_Fat_Content


> library(plyr)
> combi$Item_Fat_Content <-
revalue(combi$Item_Fat_Content,c("LF" = "Low Fat", "reg" =
"Regular"))
> combi$Item_Fat_Content <-

37 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

revalue(combi$Item_Fat_Content, c("low fat" = "Low Fat"))


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

#create a new column 2013 - Year


>HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
combi$Year BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
<- 2013 - combi$Outlet_Establishment_Year

#drop variables not required in modeling


JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)
> library(dplyr)
> combi <- select(combi, -c(Item_Identifier,
TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
Outlet_Identifier, Outlet_Establishment_Year))

DISCUSSdata
#divide (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
set
> new_train <- combi[1:nrow(train),]
>LEARNING PATHS
new_test (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
<- combi[-(1:nrow(train)),]

#linear regression
ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
> linear_model <- lm(Item_Outlet_Sales ~ ., data =
new_train)
DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
> summary(linear_model)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> par(mfrow=c(2,2))
> plot(linear_model)

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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

> linear_model <- lm(log(Item_Outlet_Sales) ~ ., data =


DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
new_train)
> summary(linear_model)
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
> install.packages("Metrics")
> library(Metrics)
> rmse(new_train$Item_Outlet_Sales,
exp(linear_model$fitted.values))
[1] 1140.004

Decision Trees

40 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

#loading required libraries


DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
> library(rpart)
> library(e1071)
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
> library(rpart.plot)
> library(caret)

#setting the tree control parameters


> fitControl <- trainControl(method = "cv", number = 5)
> cartGrid <- expand.grid(.cp=(1:50)*0.01)

#decision tree
> tree_model <- train(Item_Outlet_Sales ~ ., data =
new_train, method = "rpart", trControl = fitControl,
tuneGrid = cartGrid)
> print(tree_model)

41 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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>HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
main_tree BLOG
<- rpart(Item_Outlet_Sales ~ ., (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
data =
new_train, control = rpart.control(cp=0.01))
>JOBS
prp(main_tree)
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
> pre_score <- predict(main_tree, type = "vector")
> rmse(new_train$Item_Outlet_Sales, pre_score)
[1] 1102.774

Random Forest

42 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


A Complete Tutorial to learn Data Science in R from Scratch https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/02/complete-tutorial-lear...

(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
#load randomForest library
>DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
library(randomForest)

#set tuning parameters


WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
> control <- trainControl(method = "cv", number = 5)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)


#random forest model
> rf_model <- train(Item_Outlet_Sales ~ ., data =
CONTACT USmethod
new_train, (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
= "parRF", trControl =
control, prox = TRUE, allowParallel = TRUE)

#check optimal parameters


> print(rf_model)

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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
#random forest model
>DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
forest_model <- randomForest(Item_Outlet_Sales ~ ., data
= new_train, mtry = 15, ntree = 1000)
>LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
print(forest_model)
> varImpPlot(forest_model)

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

> main_predict <- predict(main_tree, newdata = new_test,


type = "vector")
> sub_file <- data.frame(Item_Identifier =

44 sur 93 27/04/2017 12:41


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test$Item_Identifier, Outlet_Identifier =
(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
test$Outlet_Identifier, Item_Outlet_Sales =
main_predict)
>HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/)
write.csv(sub_file, BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
'Decision_tree_sales.csv')

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

LEARNING PATHS HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)

End Notes

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HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)

JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/)

TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
You want to apply your analytical skills and test
your potential? Then

HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)
and compete with TopData
Scientists from all over the world.
DATAFEST 2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)

CONTACT US

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TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM

HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/

HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM

HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)

HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017

HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/

TAGS: AUTOCORRELATION (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/AUTOCORRELATION/),

CARET PACKAGE (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/CARET-PACKAGE/), CROSS-

VALIDATION (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/CROSS-VALIDATION/), DATA

EXPLORATION IN R (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/DATA-EXPLORATION-IN-R/),

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DATA MANIPULATION IN R (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/DATA-MANIPULATION-


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )
IN-R/), DATA MINING IN R (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/DATA-MINING-IN-R/),

DECISION TREES IN R (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/DECISION-TREES-IN-R/),

DPLYR (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/DPLYR/), FEATURE ENGINEERING IN R


HOME (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/) BLOG (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/)
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/FEATURE-ENGINEERING-IN-R/), GGPLOT

(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/GGPLOT/), HETEROSKEDASTICITY
JOBS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/JOBS/) HOMOSKEDASTICITY
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/HETEROSKEDASTICITY/),

(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/HOMOSKEDASTICITY/), LABEL ENCODING

(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/LABEL-ENCODING/), LINEAR REGRESSION IN R


TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/LINEAR-REGRESSION-IN-R/), MULTICOLLINEARITY

(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/MULTICOLLINEARITY/), MULTIPLE REGRESSION IN


DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
R (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/MULTIPLE-REGRESSION-IN-R/), ONE HOT

ENCODING (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/ONE-HOT-ENCODING/), OVERFITTING

(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/OVERFITTING/), PLYR PACKAGE


LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/PLYR-PACKAGE/), PREDICTIVE MODELING

(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/PREDICTIVE-MODELING/), RANDOM FOREST IN R


ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)
(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/RANDOM-FOREST-IN-R/), UNDERFITTING

(HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/TAG/UNDERFITTING/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)


Previous Article Next Article
Guide to Build Better Complete Guide to
Predictive
DATAFEST Models Parameter Tuning in
2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
using Segmentation XGBoost (with codes in
(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com Python)
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
/blog/2016/02/guide- (https://www.analyticsvidhya.com
build-predictive-models- /blog/2016/03/complete-
segmentation/) guide-parameter-tuning-
xgboost-with-codes-
python/)

Author

Analytics Vidhya Content Team


(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com

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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com )

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105 COMMENTS
TRAININGS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/TRAININGS/)

DISCUSS (HTTPS://DISCUSS.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)
REPLY (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/2016/02/COMPLETE-TUTORIAL-LEARN-DATA-SCIENCE-
FEBRUARY 29, 2016 AT 3:46 AM (H TTPS:/ /WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM
SCRATCH/?REPLYTOCOM=106335#RESPOND)
LEARNING PATHS (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/LEARNING-PATHS-DATA-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-
/BLOG/2016/02/COMPLETE-TUTORIAL-LEARN-DATA- SCIENCE-SCRATCH

/#COMMENT-106335)

ANALYTICS-BUSINESS-INTELLIGENCE-BIG-DATA/)

DATAHACK (HTTPS://DATAHACK.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM)

WRITE FOR US (HTTP://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/ABOUT-ME/WRITE/)


REPLY (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/2016/02/COMPLETE-TUTORIAL-LEARN-
FEBRUARY 29, 2016 AT 6:13 AM
DATAFESTDATA-SCIENCE-SCRATCH/?REPLYTOCOM=106343#RESPOND)
2017 (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/DATAFEST-2017)
(H TTPS:/ /WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/2016

/02/COMPLETE-TUTORIAL-LEARN-DATA-SCIE NCE-SCRATCH
CONTACT US (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/CONTACT/)
/#COMMENT- 106343)

REPLY (HTTPS://WWW.ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM/BLOG/2016/02/COMPLETE-
FEBRUARY 29, 2016 AT 7:45 AM
TUTORIAL-LEARN-DATA-SCIENCE-SCRATCH
(HTTPS://WWW. ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM
/?REPLYTOCOM=106351#RESPOND)
/BLOG/2016/02/COMPLETE-TUTORIAL-LEARN-

DATA-SCIENCE- SCRATCH/#COMMENT-106351)

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(https://www.analyticsvidhya.com
FEBRUARY 29, 2016 AT 11:07 AM
)
TUTORIAL-LEARN-DATA-SCIENCE-SCRATCH
(HTTPS://WWW. ANALYTICSVIDHYA.COM
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