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In this project the proposed concept is to replace the manual work in

drainage cleaning by automated system. Now-a-days even though automation
plays a vital role in all industrial applications in the proper disposal of sewages
from industries and commercials are still a challenging task. Drainage pipes are
using for the disposal and unfortunately sometimes there may be loss of human life
while cleaning the blockages in the drainage pipes. To overcome this problem and
to save human life we implement a design Automatic Drain Cleaning System.
we designed our project to use this in efficient way to control the disposal of
wastages and with regular filtration of wastages, clearance of gaseous substance
are treated separately and monitor the disposal in frequent manner.


Automatic Drainage Water cleaning and Control System Using auto

mechanism proposed to overcome the real time problems. With the continued
expansion of industries, the problem of sewage water must be urgently resolved
due to the increasing sewage problems from industries of the surrounding
environment. The waste and gases produced from the industries are very harmful
to human beings and to the environment. Our proposed system is to cleaning and
control the drainage level using auto mechanism technique. auto mechanism is the
major controlling unit and the drainage level is monitor by municipal . In this
system we used motor, chain, driver, bucket, frame.

The Device Is Place Across Drain So That Only Water Flow Through Lower
Grids. Waste Like Bottle, Etc. Floating In Drain Are Lifted By Teeth Which Is
Connected To Chain. This Chain Is Attached By Gears Driven By Motor. The
Energy Provided To Motor Is Solar Photovoltaic Cell Connected To It. When
Motor Runs The Chain Starts To Circulate Making Teeth To Lift Up. The Waste
Materials Are Lifted By Teeth And Are Stored In Waste Storage Tank
Component Detail
Fundamentals Of Motor

Before we can examine the function of a drive, we must

understand the basic operation of the motor. It is used to convert
the electrical energy, supplied by the controller, to mechanical
energy to move the load. There are really two types of motors, AC
and DC. The basic principles are alike for both. Magnetism is the
basis for all electric motor operation. It produces the force
required to run the motor. There are two types of magnets the
permanent magnet and the electro magnet. Electro magnets have
the advantage over permanent magnet in that the magnetic field
can be made stronger. Also the polarity of the electro magnet can
easily be reversed. The construction of an electro magnet is
simple. When a current passes through a coil of wire, a magnetic
field is produced.

This magnetic field can be made stronger by winding the coil of

wire on an iron core.
One end of the electro magnet is a north pole and the other
end is a south pole The poles can be reversed by reversing
the direction of the current in the coil of wire. Likewise, if you
pass a coil of wire through a magnetic field, a voltage will be
induced into the coil And, if the coil is in a closed circuit, a
current will flow.
DC Motor
When a current passes through a conductor, lines of
magnetic force (flux) are generated around the
conductor. The direction of the flux is dependent on the
direction of the current flow. If you are thinking in terms of
conventional current flow (positive to negative) then, using
your right hand point your thumb in the direction of the
current flow and your fingers will wrap around the conductor
in the same direction of the flux lines.
If you are thinking in terms of electron current flow (negative
to positive) then you must use your left hand. If we look at
the air gap between two magnets that have their opposite
poles facing each other, we would see magnetic lines of
force (flux) from the N to S poles.

Now, if we place a current carrying conductor in the air gap of two

magnets, the lines of flux in the air gap will be affected.

On the side of the conductor where the lines of flux oppose

each other, the magnetic field will be made weaker. On the
side of the conductor where the lines of flux are not opposing
each other, the magnetic field will be made
stronger.Because of the strong field on one side of the
conductor and a weak field or, the other side, the conductor
will be pushed into the weaker field.
Now, lets apply this principle to the operation of the DC
motor. The armature of the motor is a loop of wire (current
carrying conductor) which is free to rotate. The field
magnets are permanent or electro magnets with their N and
S poles facing each other to set up the lines of flux in the air

The armature is connected to the commutator which rides

along the brushes which are connected to a DC power
source. The current from the DC power source flows from the
positive lead, through the brush labeled A1 through one
commutator section, through the armature coil, through the
other commutator section, through the brush labeled A2 and
back to the negative lead.

Fundamentals of Motor - Part 2

This current will generate lines of flux around the armature and
affect the lines of flux in the air gap. On the side of the coil where
the lines of flux oppose each other, the magnetic field will be
made weaker. On the side of the coil where the lines of flux are
riot opposing each other, the magnetic field is made
stronger.Because of the strong field on one side of the coil and
the weak field on the other side, the coil will be pushed into the
weaker field and, because the armature coil is free to rotate, it will

The torque available at the motor shaft (turing effort) is

determined by the magnetic force (flux) acting on the armature
coil and the distance from the renter of rotation that force is. The
flux is determined by the current flowing through the armature
coil and strength of the field magnets
The rotational speed (N) of the motor is determined by the
voltage applied to the armature coil.

AC Motor
The AC motor operates on the same principle of the OC motor
(interaction between magnetic lines of flux). One major difference
is the OC motor requires DC current and the AC motor requires AC
current. There are basically two types of AC
motors: synchronous and induction. The basic principle for
synchronous motors can be shown using two electro
magnets and a permanent magnet.
We can pass current through the coils in a direction so the north
and south poles are aligned with the permanent
magnet. The permanent magnet is free to rotate and is therefore
called the rotor. The electro magnets are stationary and are
therefore called the stator. Initially if the north and south poles
are aligned in the motor and, because like poles repel and unlike
poles attract, the rotor will be pushed by the magnetic force of
the like poles. As it rotates, it will be pulled by the magnetic force
of the unlike poles.
Once the rotors north and south poles line up with the stators
south and north poles the stator current is reversed, thus
changing the south and north pole orientation in the stator and
the rotor is pushed again. This process repeats until the current in
the stator stops alternating or stops flowing. In a three phase (30)
motor, the stator flux (magnetic force) does not just alternate
back and forth but it actually rotates around the motor and the
rotator actually follows this rotating
magnetic field. This type of motor is called a synchronous motor
because it always runs at synchronous speed (rotor and magnetic
field of stator are rotating at exactly the same speed). Maximum
torque is achieved when the stator flux vector
and the rotor flux vector are 90 apart.
The induction motor operates much the same way that the
synchronous motor does It uses the same magnetic principles to
couple the stator and the rotor.However, one major difference is
the synchronous motor uses a permanent magnet rotor and the
induction motor uses iron bars arranged to resemble a squirrel

As the stator magnetic field rotates in the motor, the lines of flux
produced will cut the iron bars and induce a voltage in the
rotor. This induced voltage will cause a current to flow in the rotor
and will generate a magnetic field. This magnetic field will
interact with the stator magnetic field and will produce torque to
rotate the motor shaft; which is connected to the rotor. The
torque available at the motor shaft is determined by the magnetic
force (flux) acting on the rotor and the distance from the center of
rotation that force is.
The flux is determined by the current flowing through the stator
windings. Another factor determining torque and another
difference between the induction motor and the synchronous
motor is slip. Slip is the difference between the stator magnetic
field speed and the rotor speed. As implied earlier, in order for a
voltage to be induced into a conductor, there must be a relative
motion between the conductor and the magnetic lines of flux. Slip
is the relative motion needed in the induction motor to induce a
voltage into the rotor. If the induction motor ran at synchronous
speed, there would be no relative motion and no torque would be
produced. This implies that the greater the slip, the greater the
torque. This is true to a limit. (Please see speed/torque curve

The above curve shows the speed/torque characteristics that the

typical induction motor would follow, excited by a given voltage
and frequency. We can see by this curve that the motor produces
zero torque at synchronous speed because
there is no slip. As we apply a load, the rotor begins to slow down
which creates slip. At about 1 0E slip (at the knee of the curve) we
get maximum torque and power transfer from the motor. This is
really the best place on the curve to operate the motor.
Vector control (slip control) from a closed loop drive system can
be used to keep the motor operating at this optimum point on the
curve. Vector control is implemented using a microprocessor
based system that has a mathematical model of the motor in
memory and a position transducer on the motor to indicate rotor.
The mathematical model allows the microprocessor to determine
what the speed/torque curve the motor will follow with any
applied voltage and frequency, will be. This will allow the system
to control the slip in the motor to keep it operating at the knee of
the speed/torque curve. This technology achieves extremely high
performance. Now that we have a basic
understanding of the operation of the motor, we can better
understand the function and operation of the high performance
Planetary Gear Train (Epicyclic Gear Train)

Planetary gears solve the following problem. Let's say you want a gear ratio
of 6:1 with the input turning in the same direction as the output. One way to create
that ratio is with the following three-gear train:

Planetary Gear Train

In this train, the blue gear has six times the diameter of the yellow gear
(giving a 6:1 ratio). The size of the red gear is not important because it is just there
to reverse the direction of rotation so that the blue and yellow gears turn the same
way. However, imagine that you want the axis of the output gear to be the same as
that of the input gear. A common place where this same-axis capability is needed is
in an electric screwdriver. In that case, you can use a planetary gear system, as
shown here:
Planetary Gear Train

In this gear system, the yellow gear (the sun) engages all three red gears (the
planets) simultaneously. All three are attached to a plate (the planet carrier), and
they engage the inside of the blue gear (the ring) instead of the outside. Because
there are three red gears instead of one, this gear train is extremely rugged. The
output shaft is attached to the blue ring gear, and the planet carrier is held
stationary -- this gives the same 6:1 gear ratio. Another interesting thing about
planetary gear sets is that they can produce different gear ratios depending on
which gear you use as the input, which gear you use as the output, and which one
you hold still. For instance, if the input is the sun gear, and we hold the ring gear
stationary and attach the output shaft to the planet carrier, we get a different gear
ratio. In this case, the planet carrier and planets orbit the sun gear, so instead of the
sun gear having to spin six times for the planet carrier to make it around once, it
has to spin seven times.

Velocity ratio of Gear trains

We know that the velocity ratio of a pair of gears is the inverse proportion
of the diameters of their pitch circle, and the diameter of the pitch circle equals to
the number of teeth divided by the diametral pitch. Also, we know that it is
necessary for the mating gears to have the same diametral pitch so that to satisfy
the condition of correct meshing. Thus, we infer that the velocity ratio of a pair of
gears is the inverse ratio of their number of teeth.

For the ordinary gear trains we have (Fig a)

These equations can be combined to give the velocity ratio of the first gear in the
train to the last gear:

( N 2 N 3 N 4) (T1T2T3 ) N 4 T1
( N 1 N 2 N 3 ) (T2T3T4 ) N 1 T4


Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to

a location where it is applied to performing useful work. Power transmission is
normally accomplished by belts, ropes, chains, gears, couplings and friction

A toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change

the speed or direction of transmitted motion.

A gear is a component within a transmission device that transmits rotational

force to another gear or device. A gear is different from a pulley in that a gear
is a round wheel which has linkages ("teeth" or "cogs") that mesh with other
gear teeth, allowing force to be fully transferred without slippage. Depending
on their construction and arrangement, geared devices can transmit forces at
different speeds, torques, or in a different direction, from the power source.
The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear

Gears most important feature is that gears of unequal sizes (diameters)

can be combined

to produce a mechanical advantage, so that the rotational speed and

torque of the second

gear are different from that of the first.

overcome the problem of slippage as in belt drives, gears are used which
produce positive drive with uniform angular velocity.


Gears or toothed wheels may be classified as follows:

1. According to the position of axes of the shafts.

The axes of the two shafts between which the motion is to be transmitted, may be
a. Parallel
b. Intersecting
c. Non-intersecting and Non-parallel

Gears for connecting parallel shafts

1. Spur Gear
Teeth is parallel to axis of rotation can transmit power from one shaft to another
parallel shaft. Spur gears are the simplest and most common type of gear. Their
general form is a cylinder or disk. The teeth project radially, and with these "straight-
cut gears".
Spur gears are gears in the same plane that move opposite of each other because they
are meshed together. Gear A is called the driver because this is turned by a motor.
As gear A turns it meshes with gear B and it begins to turn as well. Gear B is
called the driven gear.
3. A.6: Gear

Bicycle gearing is the aspect of bicycle drive train that determines the relation between the
cadence, the rate at which the rider pedals, and the rate at which the drive wheel turns.

On some bicycles, there is only one gear and the gear ratio is fixed. Many contemporary bicycles
have multiple gears and thus multiple gear ratios. A shifting mechanism allows selection of the
appropriate gear ratio for efficiency or comfort under the prevailing circumstances: for example,
it may be comfortable to use a high gear when cycling downhill, a medium gear when cycling on
a flat road, and a low gear when cycling uphill. Different gear ratios and gear ranges are
appropriate for different people and styles of cycling.

A cyclist's legs produce power optimally within a narrow pedaling speed range, or cadence.
Gearing is optimized to use this narrow range as best as possible. As in other types of
transmissions, the gear ratio is closely related to the mechanical advantage of the drive train of
the bicycle. On single-speed bicycles and multi-speed bicycles using derailleur gears, the gear
ratio depends on the ratio of the number of teeth on the chain ring to the number of teeth on the
rear sprocket (cog). For bicycles equipped with hub gears, the gear ratio also depends on the
internal planetary gears within the hub. For a shaft-driven bicycle the gear ratio depends on the
bevel gears used at each end of the shaft.

For a bicycle to travel at the same speed, using a lower gear (larger mechanical advantage)
requires the rider to pedal at a faster cadence, but with less force. Conversely, a higher gear
(smaller mechanical advantage) provides a higher speed for a given cadence, but requires the
rider to exert greater force. Different cyclists may have different preferences for cadence and
pedaling force. Prolonged exertion of too much force in too high a gear at too low a cadence can
increase the chance of knee damage; cadence above 100 rpm becomes less effective after short
bursts, as during a sprint.


External gear makes external contact, and the internal gear (right side pair) makes
internal contact.


Electric screwdriver, dancing monster, oscillating sprinkler, windup alarm clock,

washing machine and clothes dryer

2. Parallel Helical Gear

The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear. When
two teeth on a helical gear system engage, the contact starts at one end of the
tooth and gradually spreads as the gears rotate, until the two teeth are in full
This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and
quietly than spur gears. For this reason, helical gears are used in almost all car
transmissions. Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they create a
thrust load on the gear when they mesh. Devices that use helical gears have
bearings that can support this thrust load.

One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are
correct, they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the rotation angle
by 90 degrees.



A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion between moving

parts to only the desired motion. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for
free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it
may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts.
Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the
directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts.

The term "bearing" is derived from the verb "to bear" a bearing being a machine
element that allows one part to bear (i.e., to support) another. The simplest bearings are bearing
surfaces, cut or formed into a part, with varying degrees of control over the form,
size, roughness and location of the surface. Other bearings are separate devices installed into a
machine or machine part. The most sophisticated bearings for the most demanding applications
are very precise devices; their manufacture requires some of the highest standards of current
Fig 12 Square Coupling


When creating your own human powered vehicles, a chain drive will likely be
your chosen power transfer system, as it is an inexpensive, easy-to-install and highly efficient
drive mechanism. Bicycle chains are fairly simple, requiring only one inexpensive tool to
remove and attach links. Since a recumbent cycle will often require a chain that is one and a half
to 3 times the length of a regular upright bicycle chain, some basics should be known, as you will
probably need to create the chain for your vehicle.
Fig 13 Two different sizes of bicycle chain
There are two basic types of bicycle chain: single speed chain and multi-speed
chain. Single speed chain is mainly used on kids' bikes, BMX bikes, coaster brake cruisers, and
heavy cargo bikes. Multi-speed chain is used on standard speed bikes and mountain bikes that
require the use of a front and rear derailleur to change gears. Both types of bicycle chain have a
pitch of 1/2 inch (ANSI standard #40). This measurement indicates the length of the links.
Although every type of bicycle chain and freewheel have a 1/2 in pitch, the width of chain varies
quite a bit, from 3/32" to 1/8".
Single speed bicycle chain is wider, having a width of 1/8 inch. This type of chain will not fit a
multi-speed freewheel nor will it fit properly through a derailleur cage. Multi-speed chain comes
in various widths, with 3/32" being the most common size. Multi-speed chain is designed with a
lot more side-to-side flex to allow it to function properly with a derailleur system. Flexibility is
very important in a multi-speed system as the alignment of front and rear chain rings could be off
by as much as 3 inches, depending on which gears are being used. Figure 1 shows the two
common sizes of bicycle chain; 1/8" on the top and 3/32" on the bottom. At this angle, both chain
types look very similar since you can only see the pitch, not the width.
Fig 14 Single speed (top) and multi-speed (bottom)
Figure 2 gives you a much clearer view of the difference between a 1/8" single speed chain (top)
and a 3/32" multi-sped chain (bottom). The multi-speed chain is obviously narrower to fit the
narrower chain rings on a multi-speed freewheel, and it also includes a beveled edge on the inner
link to allow for better meshing with the teeth when switching gears.
When bicycle building becomes your hobby, one of those "must have" tools will
be a chain link tool as shown in Figure 3. For under $20, this small tool will give you a lifetime
of service, able to break and rejoin any size of bicycle chain in a few seconds. The other method
involves using a punch, a hammer, and a finishing nail, but I assure you, the chain link tool is so
much easier and makes a worthwhile investment. To open a link, place the chain into the holder
as shown in Figure 3, and then turn the vice handle clockwise to press out the link pin.

Fig 15 Removing the link pin

Figure 4 shows the link pin pushed out by the chain link tool after turning the handle around a
few times. This tool makes adjusting a chain pretty much effortless which is a good thing since
you may have toadjust a long recumbent chain on a new project several times to get it right.
Fig 16 Separated Chain
After breaking a chain with the link tool, it will look like the one shown in Figure 5, with the link
pin pressed through the roller to the outer plate. The pin only needs to be pressed far enough out
so that the roller can be released. Notice that the pin has been slightly flattened at the end. This
helps to ensure that it does not slip out of the plate hole, which is only holding it there by
friction. I have broken many chains over the years, but it has always been a plate that has
snapped, never a pin that has failed.

Fig 17 Parts of a chain link

The two outer plates, pins, and rollers with inner plates are shown in Figure 6. Normally, you
would not need to pull a chain apart like this, as there are no wear parts that can be replaced.
When a chain fails or stretches, the damage is always throughout the entire chain, which needs to
be replaced. For this reason, you should never join together chains that are from different
manufacturers or may be years apart in wear. Often, the outer plates will have the manufacturers
code stamped on them.
Fig 18 A stiff link causes problems

After pressing a link back into a chain, the pin will have forced the plates together, causing a stiff
link as shown in Figure 7. This stiff link will cause a skip or jump every time it passes trough the
rear derailleur, and must be fixed before use. A stiff link will always be created when first joining
a chain, but it can easily be relaxed.

Fig 19 Relaxing a stiff link

To fix a stiff link, hold the chain so you can work the links side to side as shown in Figure 8.

Press your thumbs against the plates on each side of the stiff link and force it back and forth until
it no longer sticks when you bend the chain. Once the link has been relaxed, it will act like every
other link without causing the problem shown in Figure 7.
Fig 20 Multi-speed freewheel and chain

Figure 9 shows a common 6 speed freewheel and the 3/32" chain that fits into it. Although the
larger single speed (1/8") chain will also fit into the teeth, it will be too wide to fit properly
through the rear derailleur. You could get away with the larger chain on a multi-sped freewheel if
you plan to make your bike single speed (fixed gear).

Fig 21 Chain and a rear derailleur

The 3/32" multi-speed chain is not only designed to fit properly between the rear derailleur cage
as shown in Figure 10, but it is also designed to flex side-to-side, allowing some misalignment
between opposing chain rings at the front and rear of a bicycle.

Fig 22 This chain is too thin for the teeth

Multi-speed chain will not fit into the teeth of a single speed freehub or coaster hub as shown in
Figure 11, so you don't ever have to worry that you may have the wrong chain there. The width
of the teeth makes it impossible to seat the rollers properly.

Fig 23 Single speed freewheel and chain

The 1/8" single speed chain is shown meshing with a BMX freewheel in Figure 12. A coaster
hub will have the same width of chain ring, requiring the 1/8" wide chain.
Fig 24 Garage door opener chain

Sometimes, you may require a very long chain when making a long cargo trike or even a very
tall bike. The chain shown in Figure 13 is standard 1/8" single speed chain, but was taken from a
discarded garage door opener, a good source for a very long length of single speed chain.
When working on recumbent cycles and creative human powered vehicles, you will likely need
to join together two or more bicycle chains, so consider purchasing an inexpensive chain link
tool, and be mindful of the different widths of bicycle chain. Rusty chain should always be
discarded. Oiling a chain is a matter of choice. I have never oiled a bicycle chain, and the current
school of thought is that an oiled chain is less efficient and will wear out sooner due to trapping
dirt between the links. Maybe if your bike lives outdoors and is exposed to alot of moisture, then
a light brushing of light oil may be a good thing,


In most of our electronic products or projects we need a power supply for converting mains AC
voltage to a regulated DC voltage. For making a power supply designing of each and every
component is essential. Here Im going to discuss the designing of regulated 5V Power Supply.
Component required making 5 v power supplies are:

1. Step down transformer

2. Voltage regulator
3. Capacitors

4. Diodes

Voltage regulator :

As we require a 5V we need LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC.

7805 IC Rating :

Input voltage range 7V- 35V

Current rating Ic = 1A

Output voltage range VMax=5.2V ,VMin=4.8V

LM7805 Pin Diagram

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

The success of any creation is often dependent on the foundations it is built upon, be it the
strength of a character, depth of a buildings foundations or the extent of a trees roots. Much in
the same way, the success of any electronic device depends on what it is built on. The
motherboard of any electronics device serves as a playground and a host to every form of
electrical signal that performs some function for the equipment. Be it the communication signal
between the North Bridge and processor on a computer, or a simple on-off signal in a routine
school project, the effectiveness of the design is a function of the capabilities offered by the base
board itself.
A Printed Circuit Board doesnt just connect electrical components using etched copper
pathways, but also provides mechanical strength to it. Printed Circuit Boards, or more
appropriately, Printed Wiring Boards are found in almost all of the commercial products as a
packaging medium as building blocks.

PCBs are a composite of organic and/or inorganic dielectric materials with many layers with
wiring interconnects and also house components like inductors and capacitors. There isnt any
standard printing board as such and each board is unique, often a function of the product itself.
There are industry standards for almost every aspect of PCB design, controlled by IPC, for
example the IPC-2221, Generic Standard on Printed Board Design.
PCBs have evolved from the electrical connection systems developed in the 1850s. The first
patents on Printed Wires were issued in 1903. Albert Hanson explained a layered structure of foil
conductors laminated to insulation boards. Arthur Berry patented a Print-and-Etch method in
1913 and Max Schoop patented Flame Spraying metal onto a board via a mask. Thomas Edison
had experimented with chemicals for plating conductors on linen paper way back in 1904, but
the method of electroplating circuit patterns was finally successfully patented to Charles Durcase
in the year 1927. Charles Ducas had earlier patented a technique of creating electrical paths
directly using stencils and electrically conductive ink in 1925.

World War II saw the invention of circuit boards that could withstand gunshots. But, the credit of
developing the first PCB is given to Paul Eisler in 1943, for developing a method of etching
conductive circuits on copper foil bonded to a non-conductive base reinforced by glass. The
method remained dormant until late 50s when the transistors were introduced for commercial
use. The presence of wire leads on electronic components led to the development of Through
Hole technology where holes were drilled into the PCB and the components soldered on to the
board at those points. It was patented by a U.S. firm Hazeltyne in 1961. However, this process
being slightly expensive and wasteful as the extra wire is cut off and not used much. Nowadays,
surface mount technology is gaining impetus as the demand for smaller, high density circuits is
Types of PCBs
A PCB can be of four types: rigid boards, flexible and rigid-flex boards, metal-core boards and
injection molded boards out of which the rigid board is the most popular. Further these may be
single sided, double sided or multilayered. The mechanical, electrical, chemical and thermal
properties of the material should be considered while making PCBs otherwise the reliability of
the board suffers. Presently, copper-clad laminates of different reinforced resin systems are used
in rigid boards. Examples include Fire resistant FR-4 epoxies, PTFE, cyanate esters, ployimides
etc. Most commonly used reinforcement material is continuous filament E-Glass. Flexible and
rigid flex-boards have random arrangements of conductors on a flexible base and may be
with/without cover layers. Here, the wiring is restricted to select areas of the plane. In case of
constraining metal core technology, the PCB can be of standard materials but the core materials
must have low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion and strength to constrain the PCB. Copper-
Invar-Copper and Copper-Molybdenum-Copper are two popular materials for this purpose.
Molded boards have resins containing fillers which are molded into a die to form the required

Before anything is drawn onto the PCB, it first has to be designed and verified by means of
simulation. The design process is hierarchical in nature and may follow either one of the two
1. Top-Down Design. 2. Bottom-Up Design

Top-Down Design: Designers start with a higher abstraction layer and work on its general
functionality before creating a lower level building block for that layer. This creates organized
designs as the overall structure is drawn first and complexity is tackled at a later, lower stage. It
is like manufacturing a car body first and then making custom parts for it.
Bottom-Up Design: In this methodology, designers first develop the smallest block and then go
on to designing bigger blocks from smaller building blocks. This gives the design a modular
approach and increases reusability of segments of design. This approach is like the
manufacturing of a standard car in a factory, make the parts first and then put them into a single
No matter what approach a designer chooses, the PCB has to meet certain signal-integrity
requirements like crosstalk, SSO, noise, delay and reflections, electromagnetic compatibility,
EMI specifications and susceptibility requirements, thermal requirements, strength etc.
Designing the PCB is a part of a much wider design process. The netlist generation is an
important step not just for PCB designers but for circuit simulation too. Netlist contains a net, or
a complete set of interconnections and components used. Once the circuit simulation is
successful, PCB designers get down to working out the most simple and efficient circuit pattern
or artwork. By placing the components on the board in the software, the size of the board may be
known. There are various automated component placement software which can speed the work
of the designer and have different algorithms working on their back end. However, a seasoned
designer would know that such software cannot always give satisfactory results and orderly
placed components design is seldom the suitable design. The last step involves the placement of
interconnect traces. This again can be an automated step using software based on popular
algorithms like Lee algorithm, Hightower router, pattern router, channel router and gridless
routers, but designer discretion is required. Once this step is completed, the boards integrity is
verified by subjecting the trace pattern to Design Rule Checks which check if all the tracks, vias
and pads have been placed according to the design rule sets or not. The length of interconnects
can lead to severe signal distortions. Hence, Signal-integrity, EMI compliance and other checks
are performed as the next step.
PCB Manufacturing
Artwork is generated by sending the design files in a particular format to plotters and
transparencies for PCB manufacturing are produced. After this the manufacturing of the PCB
commences. There are mainly five standard technologies used in PCB manufacturing:
1. Machining: This includes drilling, punching holes and routing on a PCB with standard
existent machinery and also new technologies like laser and water jet cutting. The strength of the
board needs to be taken into account while machining for accurate hole diameters. Small holes
make this method costly and less reliable due to reduced aspect ratio and also making plating
2. Imaging: This step transfers the circuit artwork onto individual layers. Single sided or
double sided PCBs may use simple Screen Printing technology for creating the patterns on a
print-and-etch basis. But this has a limitation on the minimum line width achievable. For fine
line boards and multilayer boards, Photoimaging is used which may be applied by flood screen
printing, dip coating, Electrophoresis, roller laminating or liquid roller coating. Recently, direct
laser imaging and liquid crystal light valve imaging have also been employed for the same.
3. Laminating: This process is mainly used for manufacturing multilayer boards, or the base
laminates of single/double sided boards. B-stage epoxy resin impregnated glass sheets are
pressed between layers using hydraulic press to bond the layers together. The pressing may be
cold, hot, vacuum assisted or vacuum autoclave nominated offering close control on dielectrics
and thickness.
4. Plating: It is basically the metallization process which may be brought about either by wet
chemical processes like electroless plating and electrolytic plating or dry processes like
sputtering and CVD. While electroless plating offers high aspect ratios and no external current
thus forming the core of additive technology, electrolytic plating is the preferred method for bulk
metallization. Recent developments like the plasma processing offer greater efficiency and
quality while taxing less on the environment.
5. Etching: The removal of unwanted metal and dielectric from the board takes place by
either dry or wet processes. The uniformity of etching is the prime concern in this stage and to
extend the fine line etching capabilities, new anisotropic etching solutions are being developed.

Design Flow
The overall design flow can be summarized in the flowchart as shown below:
Throughout the manufacturing process of a PCB, visual and electrical inspection is carried out to
locate any flaws that might have crept in due to process automation like Tombstone effect when
the solder is heated too quickly and one end of the component lifts up from the board failing to
make contact, or excess flow of solder or bridging. Even after the manufacturing process, the
boards are tested for the output levels under varying conditions of environment, stress and strain.

Back in the olden days, when PCBs had just been introduced, military was the chief consumer.
But as the technology progressed and as the need grew, more and more interest was diverted
towards better PCBs and as of today, they serve as the base for a multitude of components,
gadgets and devices ranging from ever innovating computers and cell phones to basic
equipments like television, radio and toys for children. Soon there are going to be more mobile
phones than there are people in this world and the trend will continue to rise. This might be a
convenience to the users, but isnt without hazards either, combating which offers great scope for
people from diverse fields.
Risks & Challenges
Solder contains lead, which is a toxic material. On heating Solder, lead fumes are formed which
should not be inhaled. However, it is necessary for performance reasons that such operations be
done in closed areas. Proper processing and filtering of the fumes is required before they are
allowed to enter the earths atmosphere. Due to rapidly changing technology, devices become
outdated and obsolete in a matter of few months and sometimes even weeks, and as progressive
population goes on embracing newer technology, the pile of older devices continues to get bigger
day by day. It would be disastrous for the ecosystem if poisonous substances entered the system
through these discarded materials, hence it causes disposal problems. Several mitigation
procedures have been adopted by countries in order to tackle this situation like e-waste
management, recycling electronic products, and salvaging parts from older equipment, reclaim
and reuse of solder and buy back offers from the manufacturers. Development of cheap and non-
toxic ways to make electrical connections like water soluble conductive molded plastics are
being developed to replace wires and solder. Further, developments of technologies like three-
dimensional molded plastic boards assure us of PCB technologies being a very dynamic field for
many years to come.

Transformer :

Selecting a suitable transformer is of great importance. The current rating and the secondary
voltage of the transformer is a crucial factor.

The current rating of the transformer depends upon the current required for the load to be

The input voltage to the 7805 IC should be at least 2V greater than the required 2V
output, therefore it requires an input voltage at least close to 7V.

So I chose a 6-0-6 transformer with current rating 500mA (Since 6*2 = 8.4V).

NOTE : Any transformer which supplies secondary peak voltage up to 35V can be used but as
the voltage increases size of the transformer and power dissipation across regulator increases.

Rectifying circuit :

The best is using a full wave rectifier

Its advantage is DC saturation is less as in both cycle diodes conduct.

Higher Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF).

1N4007 diodes are used as its is capable of withstanding a higher reverse voltage of
1000v whereas 1N4001 is 50V

Center Tap Full Wave Rectifier

Voltage Regulator

Voltage regulator is a device which provides fix output voltage in spite of the variable input
voltage supplied. It is a three terminal device. Voltage regulator basically comes in two different
series: 78XX and 79XX. Voltage regulator under 78XX series are designed for positive inputs
i.e. if while 79XX series are designed for negative inputs. In market variety of voltage regulators
are available with output as 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V etc. Voltage regulator can also withstand over
current drawn due to short circuit or overheating. It will cut off the circuit before damage occurs.
One must take care while mounting the regulator because reverse polarity may destroy the
Pin configuration of negative and positive voltage regulator are shown in fig.
As we know that output of regulator is fixed but with the help of voltage divider rule we can use
5V regulator to deliver 12V. But reverse is not possible that is we cannot obtain 5V from 12V
How we have calculated the value of resistor for different voltages-
Suppose value of resistor connected between com and output pin of regulator be
470ohm(R1).This means we have 10.6mA current (because V =5V and V = IR) available
between pin, com and output. There would be some stand-by current of about 2.5mA which will
be available between rotary switch and ground. Therefore total current available will be approx.
13.1mA. Now, lets say we want 5V to 12V from this circuit. For minimum 5V, we will directly
get this from regulator output. But if you want maximum 12V, then apart from 5V,additional 7V
would require selection of appropriate resistor.
Here R =?
V = 7V
I =13.1mA
Therefore V =I*R
R = 543ohm
Therefore, we have to connect resistor of 543ohm with 470ohm to get the desire output of 12V.
But resistor of this value might not be easily available, so we can use resistor that has values near
to it viz. 560ohm.
Now if you want to obtain different voltage between 5V and 12V use different values of resistor
like if you want to obtain 6V then-
V =6V
I = 10.6mA
R = 6V/10.6mA
R = 566ohm
But we have already connected resistor R1 of 470ohm so, for 6V we have to use resistor value
=100ohm( 566- 470ohm= 96 approx 100ohm). Similarly, you can calculate different values of
resistor for obtaining different voltages.
In this circuit we have used different resistors to obtain different values of voltage. You can also
use a variable resistor to obtain the different values of voltage with a single resistor.

IC 7805 (Voltage Regulator IC)

7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 78xx series of fixed linear
voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give
the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant
value. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7805 provides
+5V regulated power supply. Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at input and output
pins depending upon the respective voltage levels.

Pin Diagram:

Pin Description:
Pin No Function Name
1 Input voltage (5V-18V) Input
2 Ground (0V) Ground
3 Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V) Output

IC 7905

7905 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 79xx series of fixed linear
voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give
the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant
value. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7905 provides
a regulated supply of -5 V and 1A current. Its additional features include internal thermal
overload protection, short circuit protection and output transistor safe operating area
Pin Diagram:

Pin Description:

Pin No Function Name

1 Ground (0V) Ground
2 Input voltage (5V-18V) Input
3 Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V) Output

Capacitors :
Knowledge of Ripple factor is essential while designing the values of capacitors

It is given by

Y=1/(43fRC) (as the capacitor filter is used)

1. f= frequency of AC ( 50 Hz)

2. R=resistance calculated

R= V/Ic

V= secondary voltage of transformer

V=62=8. 4

R=8.45/500mA=16.9 standard 18 chosen

3. C= filtering capacitance

We have to determine this capacitance for filtering


Vac-rms = Vr/23

Vdc= VMax-(Vr/2)

Vr= VMax- VMin

Vr = 5.2-4.8 =0. 4V

Vac-rms = .3464V

Vdc = 5V

Y=0 .06928

Hence the capacitor value is found out by substituting the ripple factor in Y=1/(43fRC)

Thus, C= 2314 F and standard 2200F is chosen

Datasheet of 7805 prescribes to use a 0.01F capacitor at the output side to
avoid transient changes in the voltages due to changes in load and a 0.33F at the input side of
regulator to avoid ripples if the filtering is far away from regulator.

Circuit Diagram

5V Power Supply Circuit using 7805 Voltage Regulator


Production cost is very low.

No need of purchase special machine.
It is mainly very useful to hold the lengthy plate(1.5 feet) in particular
Its operated and maintenance is simple.
It is compact and portable.
It can be efficiently used.


Small vibration occurs due to wire brush wheel attachment.

In order to avoid vibration the machine should be properly
foundation with the floor.


This device find place in.

It is used almost in all types if Drainage (Large , Small & medium).

This machine is mainly used in cleaning system
project to use this in efficient way to control the disposal of wastages and
with regular filtration of wastages
This device is suitable to hold flat type plate. (maximum length1.5 feet)