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311D Instructor: Kristin Patterson

Module 1: Life Cycles, Meiosis, & Genetic Variation


Campbell Biology Chapter 13

Learning Goal:

1. Understand that genetic information is transmitted from one generation to another through
mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization.

Learning objectives:

A. Distinguish asexual reproduction from sexual reproduction, and state the evolutionary
advantages and potential limitations of each in different environments.
i. Explain the basis for the observation that offspring resemble their parents using the
terms DNA, genes, alleles, chromosomes, and inheritance.
ii. Give examples of single-celled organisms and multicellular organism that
reproduce asexually. Compare offspring produced by asexual reproduction with
the parent.
iii. What types of cell division are consistent with asexual reproduction?
iv. Under what environmental conditions might asexual and sexual reproduction be

Concept Check questions 13.1 #1-3

B. Draw out general sexual life cycles for animals, plants, and fungi using the terms
meiosis, fertilization, mitosis, haploid, diploid, gamete, sporophyte, gametophyte,
dikaryon, multicellular, and unicellular.
i. Tell the purpose of meiosis, fertilization, and mitosis in the human sexual life cycle.
In what parts of the body do they occur? What is the ploidy of cells at different
stages of the life cycle?
ii. Compare and contrast the animal sexual life cycle (such as humans) with the
sexual life cycles of plants and fungi.
iii. The term alternation of generations is used to describe the plant sexual life cycle.
Do animal and fungal life cycles also have alternation of generations? Why or why

Concept Check Questions 13.2 #1-3

C. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in terms of cell activities and chromosome
number in daughter cells as compared to the original cell.
i. Human somatic cells have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. What is the
ploidy (haploid or diploid) of cells with homologous chromosomes? What is the
origin of homologous chromosomes in those cells? Is the DNA sequence of
homologous chromosomes identical, similar, or unrelated?
ii. What part of the cell cycle results in the production of sister chromatids? Is the
DNA sequence of sister chromatids identical, similar, unrelated?
iii. Name and recognize the order of the 5 stages of mitosis and the 10 stages of

(See next page)

iv. Compare and contrast the arrangement and movement of chromosomes in
metaphase and anaphase of mitosis, meiosis 1, and meiosis 2. Draw and label:
chromosome, centromere, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, tetrad,
v. Compare and contrast the DNA content of mitotic cells with the DNA content of
meiotic cells in G1, S, G2, and daughter cells (after mitosis, meiosis 1, and meiosis
2). When during meiosis is the number of chromosomes reduced to the haploid
number? Explain.
vi. Can a haploid cell undergo mitosis? How about meiosis?
vii. Distinguish between somatic and germ cells and tell which cells undergo mitosis
and meiosis. What are the products of meiosis?

Concept Check Questions 13.3 #1-2

D. Describe how genetic variation among individuals is generated by meiotic independent

assortment, recombination, and random fertilization. Label and follow alleles on
i. Define independent assortment.
ii. Starting with one cell with two pairs of homologous chromosomes (and no crossing
over), how many different types of gametes are produced by meiosis?
iii. Starting with two cells, each with two pairs of homologous chromosomes, show
the two possible arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I. Assuming no
crossing over occurs, how many different types of gametes are produced by
meiosis in this population? What process is responsible for this type of genetic
iv. Starting with one cell with one pair of homologous chromosomes, draw the
process of meiosis with and without crossing over. How many different types of
gametes are produced in each case?
v. If the alleles of gene A found in a meiotic cell is A1A2, what are the possible
genotypes of the daughter cells?
vi. The product of fertilization is a diploid zygote. The genotype of a zygote at gene A
is A1A2. From where did these two alleles come?

Concept Check Questions 13.4 #1-3