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ACKNOWLEDGEDGEMENT

I have learned about different operations involved in assembly of tractors of all the parts in
escorts agri machinery.
The machines used by escorts to get the best product output are really worth mentioning there is
well qualified, intelligent & co operative staff who has helped me during my training and made
my training so easy.

Under the guidance of Mr. Rajesh Goel, I have successfully completed my vocational training
for six months .
I would like to thank, with great regards to all escorts staff and escorts which gave me chance to
improve my industrial knowledge.

Naveen rai

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PREFACE

Summer training gives me practical implementation of various topics .on my part, I


pursued six months training at Escorts. The training involved a study of various departments of
organizations. The rotation in various departments was necessary in order to get an overall idea
about the working of organization.
This report contains all my training material which I obtain & I will
explain it step by step. I make all my efforts to prepare this project report.

Naveen rai

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr. no. Title Description Page no.


1. Company overview 7-8

2. Escorts major products & vision 9

3. Engine of tractor 10-15

4. Clutch & brakes and other parts 16-18

5. Front axle of tractor 19-20

6. Rear axle of tractor 21-22

7. Transmission of tractor 23-24

8. Hydraulic lift of tractor 25-26

9. Different product & specifications 27-32

10.

11.

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TABLE OF FIGURES

Sr. no. Fig. no. Description Page no.

1. 3.1 Figure shows cylinder head connected with engine 10


casing.
2. 3.2 Figure shows all engine parts 11

3. 3.3 Figure shows assembled engine 12

4. 3.4 Figure shows various gears connected with main 13


shaft.
5. 3.5 .Figure shows a complete diesel cycle 14

6. 3.6 Figure shows spring loaded rocker & fuel pipes 14


connected with cylinder head
7. 4.1 Figure shows suspension system 16

8. 4.2 Figure shows brake system with parts 18

9. 5.1 Figure shows front axle 19

10. 6.1 Figure shows different parts of rear axle. 21

11. 7.1 Figure shows all gears & shafts in transmission 23

12. 7.2 Figure shows gears & shafts in internal 24


transmission system.

13. 8.1 Figure shows hydraulic lift & its various parts. 25

14. 8.2 Figure shows internal parts of lift of tractor 26

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COMPANY OVERVIEW

The Escorts Ltd is an India-based Company operating in the sectors of agri-


machinery, construction & material handling equipment, railway equipment
and auto components. The Company offers a range of tractors, more than
approximately 45 variants starting from 25 to 80 HP. Its brands of tractors
include Escort, Farmtrac and Powertrac. It also manufactures diverse range
of equipment like cranes, loaders, vibratory rollers and forklifts. The
Companys Jai Kisan Series comes in five new categories ValueMaxx,
LoadMaxx, AgMaxx, InfraMaxx and SuperMaxx. Product categories include
Agri Machinery; Construction Equipment; Auto Products such as shock
absorbers, struts and telescopic front; and Railway Products.

HISTORY OF ESCORTS

The genesis of Escorts goes back to 1944 when two brothers, Mr. H. P. Nanda and Mr. Yudi
Nanda, launched a small agency house, Escorts Agents Ltd. in Lahore. Over the years, Escorts
has surged ahead and evolved into one of India's largest conglomerates. In this journey of six
decades, Escorts has had the privilege of being associated with some of the world leaders in the
engineering manufacturing space like Minneapolis Moline, Massey Ferguson, Goetze, Mahle,
URSUS, CEKOP, Ford Motor Company, J C Bamford Excavators, Yamaha, Claas, Carraro,
Lucky Goldstar, First Pacific Company, Hughes Communications, Jeumont Schneider, Dynapac .
These valued relationships be it technological or marketing, are our highly cherished experiences
treasures, which have helped us inculcate best in class manufacturing practices and to emerge as
a technologically independent world class engineering organization.

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Company Mission/Vision

By 2020, Escorts will be among the top 3 Engineering Companies in India. We shall achieve this
goal by being the preferred solution provider to the needs of our customers, by practicing
respectful and ethical business practices, by being the employer of choice within the engineering
industry, and by providing superior returns to our investors.

Company Strategic Values

Our Strategic Values define how we will achieve the envisioned future. These must be embedded
into our manner of thinking and ways of work.

Customer Centricity
Acute sensitivity to the needs and experiences of the customer shall guide all that we do.

Excellence
We will strive to achieve and surpass world class standards in all that we do.

Innovation
We will use the power of technology and imagination to deliver solutions to the
customers needs.
Agility
We will operate in our markets with the ability to change direction and position with
nimbleness and speed.

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MAJOR PRODUCTS BY ESCORTS TRACTORS

1. POWERTRAC valuemaxx
434 DS+
425N
439DS+
434
EURO41
2. POWERTRAC loadmaxx
445DS+
4455
3. POWERTRAC supermaxx
4455BT
6055
4. ANTILIFTOR TRACTOR
ALT4000
ALT3500
5. FARMTRAC
o 6055 supermaxx
o 6065 supermaxx
o 6060 executive
o 6075 heritage
o 6055 supermaxx

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ENGINE
An engine is a device which transforms one form of energy in another form. In escorts tractor
engine chemical energy transfers into thermal energy which further transfer into mechanical
energy.
CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINE
1. Internal combustion engine
2. external combustion engine
In escorts tractor assembly 2-cylinder, 3-cylinder and 4-cylinder internal combustion engine are
assembled.
ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE
1. Casting of engine is loaded on assembly line
2. Crank shaft ,camshaft fixed by clip
3. For 3-cylinder engine 3 piston rod,3 piston attached in 3 cylinders
4. Gasket fip ,fuel injection pump with cover and air pump are attached

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Fig. 3.1 shows cylinder head connected with engine casing.

5. Covering of gear part


6. wheel attached to gear
7. water pump attached
8. cover all parts of engine
9. cylinder head is attached containing six spring loaded rocker
10. Fuel pipe attach with fuel injection pump
11. rock cover attached
12. pulley attached with cam shaft end
13. Bell housing attach with casting of flywheel
14. flywheel attach with bell housing
15. water pump attach on engine
16. oil pump attach on engine
17. oil gallery plug I used to cover the hole in engine .It will protect from leakage.
18. Time gear housing attach with fuel injection pump

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fig.3.2 shows all engine parts

19. self attach to the bell housing to start engine


20. Now engine testing is performed in which oil leakage, water leakage ,fuel performance is
checked.

Ignition system
The ignition system of an internal combustion engines depends on the type of engine and the fuel
used. Petrol engines are typically ignited by a precisely timed spark, and diesel engine by
compression heating. Historically, outside flame and hot-tube systems were used.
The mixture is ignited by an electric spark from a spark plug the timing of which is very
precisely controlled. Almost all gasoline engines are of this type. Diesel engines timing is
precisely controlled by the pressure pump and injector. The normal plug distance between the
spark plug is the 1mm apart. and the voltage is 3000v at normal atmospheric conditions.

Compression
Ignition occurs as the temperature of the fuel/air mixture is taken over its auto ignition
temperature, due to heat generated by the compression of the air during the compression stroke.
The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels in which the fuel is mixed with the
air after the air has reached ignition temperature. In this case, the timing comes from the fuel
injection system. Very small model engines for which simplicity and light weight is more

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important than fuel costs use easily ignited fuels (a mixture of kerosene, ether, and lubricant) and
adjustable compression to control ignition timing for starting and running.

fig.3.3 shows assembled engine


Fuel systems
Fuels burn faster and more efficiently when they present a large surface area to the oxygen in air.
Liquid fuels must be atomized to create a fuel-air mixture , traditionally this was done with a
carburetor in petrol engines and with fuel injection in diesel engines. Most modern petrol engines
now use fuel injection too though the technology is quite different. While diesel must be
injected at an exact point in that engine cycle, no such precision is needed in a petrol engine.
However, the lack of lubricity in petrol means that the injectors themselves must be more
sophisticated.

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Fig.3.4 shows various gears connected with main shaft.

Valves
All four-stroke internal combustion engines employ valves to control the admittance of fuel and
air into the combustion chamber. Two-stroke engines use ports in the cylinder bore, covered and
uncovered by the piston, though there have been variations such as exhaust valves.
.

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fig.3.5 shows a complete diesel cycle

WORKING
In the escorts tractor diesal engine, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber.
The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 and 22:1 resulting in
40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) pressure compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.40 MPa; 120 to 200 psi)
in the petrol engine. This high compression causes the temperature of the air to rise to 550 C
(1,022 F). At about the top of the compression stroke

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. Fig.3.6 shows spring loaded rocker & fuel pipes connected with cylinder head

Fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber. This may be into a
void in the top of the piston or a pre-chamber depending upon the design of the engine. The fuel
injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed
evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes fuel from the surface of the droplets. The
vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the
droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the fuel in the
droplets has been burnt. Combustion occurs at a substantially constant pressure during the initial
part of the power stroke. The start of vaporisation causes a delay before ignition and the
characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes an
abrupt increase in pressure above the piston (not shown on the P-V indicator diagram). When
combustion is complete the combustion gases expand as the piston descends further; the high
pressure in the cylinder drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft

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COMPONENTS OF AN AUTOMOBILE
The main units of an automobile are:
1. The basic structure.
2. The power plant.
3. The transmission system.
4. The auxiliaries.
5. The controls.
6. The superstructure.

The conventional pressed steel frame to which all the mechanical units are attached & on
which the body is superimposed.

SUSPENSION SYSTEM OBJECTIVE


1. To prevent the road shocks from being transmitted to the vehicle components.
2. To safeguard the occupants from road shocks.
3. To preserve the stability of the vehicle in pitching or rolling, while in motion.

fig.4.1 shows suspension system

CLUTCH
Its purpose is to enable the driver to disconnect the drive from the road wheels instantaneously &
to engage drive from the engine to the road wheels gradually while moving the vehicle from rest.

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GEAR BOX (TRANSMISSION)
The gear box or the transmission provides the necessary leverage variation between the engine &
road wheels.

BEVEL PINION & CROWN WHEEL


They turn the drive round through 90 & also provide a permanent reduction in speed. The
permanent reduction is necessitated because of the fact that speed of the engine has to be
maintained at optimum level at all times.

DIFFERENTIAL
While taking turns, the driving wheels must turn at different speeds. This is done with the
help of differential.

THE AUXILIARIES
The principal one out of these - in that it is common to almost all types of vehicles is
the electrical equipment.
1. Supply System- Battery & generator.
2. The starter.
3. Ancillary devices----
a. Driving lights
b. Signalling
c. Other lights
4. The ignition system.

CLUTCHES
Clutch is a mechanism which enables the rotary motion of one shaft to be transmitted, when
desired, to a second shaft the axis of which is coincident with that of the first.

REQUIREMENT OF CLUTCH

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1. Torque transmission: - The clutch should be able to transmit the maximum torque
of the engine under all conditions. It is usually designed to transmit 125 to 150 per
cent of the maximum engine torque.
2. Gradual engagement: - The clutch should positively take the drive gradually
without the occurrence of sudden jerks.
3. Heat dissipation: - During clutch application, large amount of heat are generated.
The rubbing surface should have sufficient area & mass to absorb the heat
generated.
4. Dynamic balancing: - This is necessary particularly in the high speed clutches.
5. Vibration damping:- Suitable mechanism should be incorporated within the
clutch, to eliminate noise produced in the transmission.

BRAKES

Brakes are an essential part of an automobile. Brake covert the kinetic energy of vehicle
into heat energy .which dissipated into atmosphere

fig.4.2 shows brake system with parts

The maximum retarding force applied by brakes is

F = W

Where =coefficient of friction between road and tyre surface


W= weight of vehicle

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FRONT AXLE

Conventionally the front axle is a dead axle however for some vehicles it is a live axle. In four
wheel power drive vehicle the front axle and rear axle both have power.
In escorts tractor assembly both two wheel drive and four wheel drive tractors are manufactured.
In two wheel drive the front ale beam is usually a drop forging of steel.

fig.5.1 shows front axle

PARTS IN FOUR WHEEL DRIVE FRONT AXLE


1. Planetary and carrier sub assembly
2. swell housing
3. Retainer housing
4. two sun shaft
5. spider shaft
6. four star gear

Torque reduction takes place in planetary housing which contains sun and 3 planetary
gears.

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An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be
fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to the vehicle, with the wheels rotating around
the axle.
In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle is
supported. In the latter case, a bearing or bushing sits inside a central hole in the wheel to allow
the wheel or gear to rotate around the axle.

POWER TRANSMISSION IN FRONT AXLE

Drop box of rear axle

Propeller shaft

Z-26 gear

Z-25 gear

Crown gear

Pinion shaft

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Planetary housing

Z-60 (ring gear)

Wheel of front axle

Vehicle axles

Axles are an integral component of most practical wheeled vehicles. In a live-axle suspension
system, the axles serve to transmit driving torque to the wheel, as well as to maintain the position
of the wheels relative to each other and to the vehicle body. The axles in this system must also
bear the weight of the vehicle.
A non-driving axle, such as the front beam axle in heavy duty trucks and some 2-wheel drive
light trucks and vans, will have no shaft, and serves only as a suspension and steering
component. Conversely, many front wheel drive cars have a solid rear beam axle.
In other types of suspension systems, the axles serve only to transmit driving torque to the
wheels; the position and angle of the wheel hubs is an independent function of the suspension
system. This is typical of the independent suspension found on most new cars and SUV's, and on
the front of many light trucks. These systems still have a differential, but it will not have attached
axle housing tubes. It may be attached to the vehicle frame or body, or integral in a transaxle.
The axle shafts (usually constant velocity type) then transmit driving torque to the wheels. Like a
full floating axle system, the drive shafts in a front wheel drive independent suspension system
do not support any vehicle weight.

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Fig.6.1 shows rear axle of a tractor

Structural features

A straight axle is a single rigid shaft connecting a wheel on the left side of the vehicle to a wheel
on the right side. The axis of rotation fixed by the axle is common to both wheels. Such a design
can keep the wheel positions steady under heavy stress, and can therefore support heavy loads.
Straight axles are used on trains (that is locomotives and railway wagons), for the rear axles of
the commercial trucks, and on heavy duty off-road vehicles. The axle can optionally be protected
and further reinforced by enclosing the length of the axle in the housing.

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REAR AXLE

An axle that is driven by the engine or prime mover is called a rear axle.

Modern front wheel drive cars typically combine the transmission (i.e. gearbox and differential)
and front axle into a single unit called a transaxle. The drive axle is a split axle with a differential
and universal joints between the two half axles. Each half axle connects to the wheel by use of a
constant velocity (CV) joint which allows the wheel assembly to move freely vertically as well
as to pivot when making turns.

In rear wheel drive cars and trucks, the engine turns a driveshaft (also called a propellor shaft or
tailshaft) which transmits rotational force to a drive axle at the rear of the vehicle. The drive axle
may be a live axle, but modern rear wheel drive automobiles generally use a split axle with a
differential. In this case, one half-axle or half-shaft connects the differential with the left rear
wheel, and second one the same with the right rear wheel; thus the two half-axles and the
differential constitute the rear axle.

TRANSMISSION
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Transmission is a mechanism that transmits the power from the engine crankshaft to the rear
wheels.

Function of transmission
Maintain torque ratio between engine and wheels as required.
Disconnect road wheels and engine when required.
Rotation of drive and reversing of direction of motion is also providing by transmission.

fig.7.1 shows all gears & shafts in transmission

TYPES OF TRANSMISSION
1. Manual transmission
2. Automatic transmission

In escorts tractor assembly automatic transmission used which consist of multiplate


clutches, torque convertor and epicyclic gear box. It automatically control speed and
engine load of vehicle.

ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE OF TRANSMISSION


1. Gear box casting washing and loading
2. counter mounting
3. counter locking
4. 1131,shaft fit and s.a
5. dumy cover main drive fit fork fit
6. fork fit

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7. fork locking
8. top cover fit

Fig7.2 shows gears & shafts in internal transmission system.

Parts in transmission assembly


1. Planet
2. Sun gear shaft
3. Sun gear
4. Planet
5. Ring gear
6. Planet shaft
7. Planet carrier

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HYDROLIC LIFT IN ESCORTS TRACTOR
Hydraulic lift is an essential part in the escorts tractor because various tasks of tractor are
performed by hydraulic lift. It control draft and transfer weight

PRINCIPAL
It works on the principal of Pascals law.

Figure8.1 shows hydraulic lift & its various parts


.

COMPONENTS OF HYDRAULIC LIFT


1. Distributor
2. bush on main shaft
3. main shaft
4. piston rod
5. lever

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fig.8.2 shows internal parts of lift of tractor

6. cylinder & piston


7. linkage family
8. sensing unit
9. lever assembly
(a) extension
(b) draft
(c) position lever
10. valves
11. pump

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Assembly layout

Differenti Rear axle Gearbo


al sub x

Rear Front Engine


Pai
wheel axle assem
nt

Fron Rear Radiat


Front t hood or and
wheel whe air

Hydraulic Accessorie
test s

Fig. 8.3 Assembly layout

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Real assembly
Real assembly line is starting of assembly shop. Before the various differential parts such as bp
shaft, differential cage etc. are assembled, the various sub-assembly of parts listed above are
performed in the sub units. In the first unit, both the bp shafts are fitted with various components
such as circular clips, bearings etc. to be able to be assembled to the differential Cage. This
constitutes the assembly of cross bar, planetary gear, planetary gear cover, and crown wheel etc.

The various bolts required making the assembly of about parts and integral one are bolted using a
pneumatic bolter gun. After this, the differential cage is collected from the conveyor firstly fitted
with the necessary bearing races. Then the differential Cage unit and the bp shaft are assembled,
making up a complete one unit.

The Axles are assembled in a different sub assembly shop. First rear axle wash and dry and then
fixed wheel side bearing and there on the whole unit along with the bull gears is assembled to the
differential Cage. Differential cover assemble after these assemblies.

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