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3DayPIPonMetallurgyforNonMetallurgist

from10th to12th April2017

MakingofSteelsandMetal
Forming

Mr.KCGogate

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Recovering Metals from an
Ore Earths crust elements
O2, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K & Mg
98.3% Igneous rock.

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Ore Naturally Occurring
aggregate of minerals
from which metals can be
extracted at a profit.

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Ores Crushing,grinding
Classification
Concentration Bygravity,
Magnetic,Electrostatic,
Flotation Dewatering
Extraction.

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Pyrometallurgy (byheat)
hydro,electro,calcination
(CarbonatestoOxide)Roasting
Sintering

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Iron&Steelmaking Blast
Furnace
IronOreFe2O3,Fe3O4,
Hematite,Magnetite
+Coke C
Flux Limestone/dolomite
CaCo3 Pigiron+Slag
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Blastfurnacediagram
1.Hotblast fromCowper
stoves
2.Meltingzone(bosh)
3.Reductionzoneof
ferrousoxide (barrel)
4.Reductionzoneof
ferricoxide (stack)
5.Preheatingzone
(throat)
6.Feedofore,limestone,
andcoke
7.Exhaustgases
8.Columnofore,coke
andlimestone
9.Removalofslag
10.Tappingofmoltenpig
iron
11.Collectionofwaste
gases

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Rawmaterialstobecharged
Ironoxidescancometotheblastfurnaceplantin
theformofrawore,pelletsorsinter.
Theraworeisremovedfromtheearthandsized
intopiecesthatrangefrom0.5to1.5inches.
ThisoreiseitherHematite(Fe2O3)orMagnetite
(Fe3O4)andtheironcontentrangesfrom50%to
70%.
Thisironrichorecanbechargeddirectlyintoa
blastfurnacewithoutanyfurtherprocessing.

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PigIron 4%C,0.8/2.0%Si,
0.01/0.03S,0.3/0.5PandMn
0.5to1%
Slag Silicates,Oxides,
Aluminatesetc.+B.F.Gas

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PigIron Hotmetal used
tomakesteelBessemer
Convertor Airblownthrough
PigIrontoreduceC,P&S

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PROCESS

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1.Openhearth Slowerreaction
bettercontrol
2.BasicOxygenprocess Basic
Lining Oxygenblown
3.ElectricArcFurnace canuse
solidscrapwithliquidmetal

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OPENHEARTHFURNACE

A.gasandairenterB.preheatedchamberC.moltenpigiron
D.hearthE.heatingchamberF.gasandairexit.

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LDPROCESS
The basic oxygen steelmaking process is as follows:
Molten pig iron (sometimes referred to as "hot metal") from a
blast furnace is poured into a large refractorylined container
called a ladle;
The metal in the ladle is sent directly for basic oxygen
steelmaking or to a pretreatment stage.
Pretreatment of the blast furnace metal is used to reduce the
refining load of sulfur, silicon, and phosphorus.
In desulfurising pre treatment, a lance is lowered into the
molten iron in the ladle and several hundred kilograms of
powdered magnesium are added.
Sulfur impurities are reduced to magnesium sulfide in a violent
exothermic reaction.
The sulfide is then raked off. Similar pretreatment is possible for
desiliconisation and dephosphorisation using mill scale (iron
oxide) and lime as reagents.

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Refining Laddle Refining
(LRF) VacuumDegassing
IngotCastingorCont.Casting.

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InductionMeltingFurnace

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ElectricArc Furnace

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Electroslag Remelting Furnace

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Ingotcasting
A casting is pour (teem)molten
metal into vertical open ended
mold.
Mold is usually a cast ironusually
tappers along its length to
withdraw ingot from the mold
after solidification.
Formation of a conical cavitypipe
develops at the open end of the
ingot.
Hence,20% of total ingot length
has to be cut off for further
processing.
It is a batch process, not ideal for
large scale production.

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ContinuousCastingProcess

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MetalForming
Process: Primarymetalconvertedintoa
usableform

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ProcessEconomical:
Compatiblewiththemet.
Characteristicssuitablefor
application.

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PrimaryForming,casting,sheets,
bars,tubeswires,powders
enterprisesconverttoend
product.

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Processes: Casting,wrought
technology,powderMet,
machinery

Selection: Cost,fitnessfor
purpose,compromise

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Casting: Primaryprocess,
metalmoltencastintomould
togettheshapeorremelt the
ingot/Palletandcastinto
mould.

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Stepsinvolvedinmakingacasting
Makepattern(wood,metal,plastic)
SandcastingSelect,testandpreparesandmixtureformould
andcore
Preparemouldandnecessarycores.
MouldAcontainerof(sandormetal)negativecavityofshape
tobecast.
CoreAnyprojectionintothemouldofcoresand.
Pouringofmoltenmetal/alloyintothemould.
Aftersolidification,cleanandfinishthecasting,testforany
defect.
Lastly,heattreatthecasting.

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FigureI namesofcope (top)&
dragbottomportionofmould
basin Sprue runnergate
mouldcavitycoreprint core
Riser metalchaplets,ventholes

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Solidificationofcasting
Affects the properties of castingcastings
acquires a metallographic structure
determined during solidification
Metallographic structure
Grain size, shape, orientation
Distribution of alloying elements
Underlying crystal structure and its
imperfections

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PrinciplesofRisering
RiserPassageofsandmadeinthecopeduringrampingthecope.
FunctionCreatespartialvacuumwithinthecastingLeadsto
shrinkagevoidShrinkagecavity.
Tofeedthemetaltothesolidifyingcastingtogetridofshrinkage
cavity.
Promotesdirectionalsolidification.

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Methodflexibleforsmallruns
orbigruns pattern.

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Quality Dimensions.
InternalSounders,Testsby
Radiography Ultrasonic
surface MPI Qualityof
Mould SandCasting
InvestmentCasting,Ingot
Casting ContinuousCasting.
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Cont.Casting ladle
snorkel Tundish Water
Cooledmould EMS
WithdrawalSpeed Quality
ofbloom/Slab

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SecondaryForming Hotworking
Rolling Forging extrusion
PowderMetallurgy Compact
Sintering forging
Machining Grinding.Sheet
metalforming Drawing Deep
Drawing

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Forging
Working of metal into useful
shape by
hammering/pressing, always
carried above recrystallisation
temperature

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Forging
workingofmetalintousefulshapes
Hammering,pressing
Hotworkingusingplasticityofmetal
Somemetalcoldforgealso
Forging
closeddieopendie

Forgingoperations
Edging,Fullering,Drawing,swaging,piercing,punching

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IronCarbonEquilibriumDiagram

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Forgingequipments
Forging hammer energy restricted
machine
Mechanical presses stroke restricted
machine
Hydraulic presses load restricted machines
IMPORTANT No of strokes/min.
production rate,strain rate,contact time

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ProcessForMetalWorking

Directcompressiontype
Indirectcompressiontype
Tensiontype
Bendingprocess
Shearingprocess

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ForgingEquipment

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Closeddieforging
Usescarefullymachineddiesofspecialdiesteels
Produceclosedimensionaltolerance
products/forgings
Largerandrepetitiveforgingruns
Substantialimprovementinmetalstructure
Refinesgrainstructure,improvesinherent
strength,producesstructuraluniformity

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CloseDieForging ConnectingRod

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ClosedDieForgings

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BasicForgingOperations

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AdvantagesOfForgings
Freefromhiddeninternaldefects
Strengthandtoughnessgreaterfactorofsafety
Fibre likegrainstructureresistspossible
greateststresses
Developsamaximumcombinationofdesirable
physicalproperties
Meetsrigidspecificationwithsuitableheat
treatment

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GrainFlow

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ReductionInForging

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ClosedDieForging Terminology

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BasicFormingProcesses

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Rolling
Processpassing a metal bar between two horizontal
cylinders (rotates about its axes in opposite direction)

Metal deforms due to friction between rolls and work

Bars of varied cross sections, I beams, channels, railroad rails

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Typesofrolling
Cold rollingfor sheets, plates
Hot rolling a temp 0.7 Tm melting point of desired metal is
carried out
Stopped above critical temp. to avoid strain hardening
Advantages Hot Rolling 1) Highspeed (2) Economical process
(3) Uniformity in size of product (4) Refines cast grain structure
eliminates shrinkage cavities

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Rolling

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Drawing
It involves pulling of metal through a die
Using tensile forces applied at the exits die
Plastic flow caused by compression force
Entrance angle of die & approach angle section of die is important aspect
Wire drawing starts with hot rolled wire rod
Rod is cleaned & lime coated/plated Cu/Sn serve as absorber /carrier of
lubricant

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THANK YOU

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