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3DayPIPonMetallurgyforNonMetallurgist

from10th to12th April2017

Metallography

Mr.Y.S.Gowaikar

Pune Chapter
WhatisMetallography

It is science of preparation of Micro specimen


and interpretation of microstructures.

Why it is needed

First Micro was prepared by Mr. Sorbi in 1868

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DifferentMetallography
Techniques
Sectioning
Mounting
Grinding
Polishing
Etching
Microscopy
Image analysing
Electro polishing
In situ metallography
Micro hardness Testing

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AbrasiveCuttingMachine

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Sectioning:AbrasiveCutting
Wheels Aluminium Oxide , Silicon Carbide
RPM 2800
Selection of cut angle
Cutting capacites 50 mm, 80 mm , more than 100 mm
Hardened cross section
Construction Sturdy , X Y cross slide , coolant circulation,
even illumination , extra long bar insertion.
Technology Chop type , pulsating type , oscillating type
Automation Electro Hydraulic for feed, vice
Safety Door , over load , motor out side the chamber.
Maintenance Routing cleaning , magnetic separation.

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Precautions
Enoughcoolantcirculation

Firmclamping

Rightwheelstoavoidburn

Righttechnology

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DiamondSectioning
Applications Ceramic,Soft,fragilesamples,
TEMsamplepreparation

Diamondwheels 3to8,thickness0.3
mm

Waferthickness200microns

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DiamondSectioningMachine

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RoughGrinding

Applications Removeallcuttingscratches,for
reworking

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Moulding Machine

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Moulded samples

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Mounting/Moulding

Why moulding To hold sample, to Observe


edges ( case hardening , plating , coating )
Hot moulding Thermosetting resins
( Bakelite , Epoxy , Acrylic )
Moulding temperatures 140 , 180 , 180
Time for moulding 20 mins approx.
Technologies: Pneumatic (routine applications ),
Hydraulic (Dense compaction )

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Artifacts /DosandDonts
Edge rounding by relief. Loosing details like
Decarb , plating , coating , Nitrided layer etc.
Solution Use Hard compound.
Over etching the case hardening edge by
shrinkage. Solution Epoxy.
Micro alteration problem Over heating.
High load hardness checking Electro
Hydraulic press
In sufficient curing ( cold moulding ) Leading
to misleading the micro structures.
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ColdMoulding
Nomachinerequired

RoomTemperatureSetting

Duration 20mins

Applications HeatSensitivesamples,site
applications,rearuse,Aluminium

Problems Highshrinkage,curingissue

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ColdMoulding Die

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TransparentColdmoulding
Machine is required.

Time 20 mins for 10 samples

Advantages Identification mark,


Identification of face under observation,
position accuracy for grinding or cutting,
surface observation for cracks etc.

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FineGrinding/Polishing

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AutomaticGrinding/Polishing

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FineGrinding/Lapping
Manual , Semi automatic
Paper , diamond disc grinding 120 , 220 , 320 , 400, 600 , 800 , 1000,
1200 grits.
Dry / water proof , Plain or self adhesive ( PSA )
Sizes 9 x 11 , 8 round , 10 round , 12 round
Care taken even pressure , water flow , right rpm
( ferrous 400 / 300 , non ferrous 300 / 200 )
Lapping / polishing various cloths are used for different
applications. High nap , low nap , nap less etc
Consumables Alumina , Chromium oxide , Magnesia, diamond
paste or suspension , colloidal silica
Right cloths to be used right diamond particle

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SemiAutomaticPolishing
Advantages Operator independent process , multiple
samples, consistency of results, quality samples
preparation i.e. minimal scratches, complete flatness, for
long programs like aluminium, ceramics etc.
Samples produced 6 , 5 , 4 nos
Central or independent pressure
Relative velocity
Pressure up to 6 bar
Dispenser diamond suspensions
Limitations Only moulded samples taken, consumables
consumption little high.

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Caretakenwhilegrindingpolishing
Cleaning the samples after each grinding /
lapping step
Gentle pressure
Continuous flow of water.
Maximum grinding and minimal cloth
polishing
Cleaning with water followed by ethanol for
stain free samples
Subsequent air drying

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Etching
Nital
Picral

Precautions
High concentration may over etch the
samples, mask details
Judicious selection of etchant for various
applications

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Microscopy

Incidentlightmicroscopeorreflective
lightmicroscope

Uprightorinverted

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Upright Inverted

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AdvantagesandlimitationsofUpright
microscope

Canseetheareayouareobserving

Multiplesamplescanbeidentified

Whichobjectivethuswhatmagnificationisbeing
used

Stagemovementandspecimensizeandalso
weight

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InvertedmicroscopeAdvantages/
Limitation

Noneedofmounting

Moreweightcanbesustainedsodirect
componentcanalsobesubjected

Cannotseetheobjectives,areaunder
observation,multiplemouldedsamplescannot
beseenthusidentified(wirerods)

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Specifications
Magnifications100,200,400,1000X

Requirement goodresolutionathigher
magnifications,flatfield

Objectives Achromatic,PlanAchromatic,
Appochromatics

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Illuminationtechniques

BrightField

DarkField

DifferentialInterference
Contrast

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Precautions
Good resolution optics ( Plan )

Good samples preparation for high


magnification observation

Calibration of objectives

Selecting diaphragms for comparison with chart


and better contrast.

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Imagedocumentation/Analysis
Why analysis

To avoid human bias in quantification like % phase


analysis , grain size estimation , distance
measurement , inclusion analysis.

Border cases opinion.

Research

Multiple field of view analysis


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Components
Adaptor 0.33 x ,0.4 x , 0.5 x , 1 x
Camera
Sensor size 1 / 4 , , 3 /4 (
Important for perfect frame selection to
claim report as per any standard )
Analogue ( horizontal T V lines)
Digital , USB ( Mega Pixels )
Card
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Precautionsforimageanalyser
selection
Adaptor

Chipsizeselection

Cameraresolutionselection(complexmicros,
inclusion,particlesizing)

Cameratechnology

Computerhardware(automatedstage)

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Thetypeofanalysisperformed
Gain size analysis
Phase analysis
Linear Measurements like decarburisation etc.
Graphite analysis (Grey and nodular cast iron)
Inclusion analysis
Particle size analysis
Weld penetration analysis
S Das Measurement
Micro hardness Estimation
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ElectroPolishing

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Electropolishing
Usedforsoftmetalsandalloys
Advantages Nodeformationofmicrostructure
Nostressesonsamples
(Residualstressanalysis)
Nomountingrequired
Lesstime
LimitationsInclusions,freegraphitecanberemovedbyan
electrolyte
Slightundulationaspertheelectropositeness ofparticular
phase
Edgerounding
Limitedareaofpolishing

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InsituMetallographyKit
PortableGrinder

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PortableElectroPolisher

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PortableMicroscope

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ReplicaKit

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Insitumetallography

Applications
Site
Wherethesamplescannotbedestructedor
broughttolaboratory(bigcasting,gears)
Remaininglifeassessmentofplant
components
Inspectionofpipelines

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Process
Pregrinding

Finegrinding/Polishing

Electropolishing(S.S)

Replicageneration

Imagingandanalysis

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THANK YOU

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