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Estimation Using 77 GHz Radar

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Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

and Estimation Using 77 GHz Radar

Arun Kumar Singh, Samerendra Nath Sur, Amit Agarwal, Rabindranath Bera

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering.

Sikkim Manipal Institute Of Technology,Majhitar

Rangpo,Sikkim,India

{arunsingh.smit, samar.sur, amiteng2007, rbera50}@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In this paper the modeling/simulation of 77 GHz Radar having a bandwidth of 1.2 GHz has been discussed that

gives the information about target distance and the velocity. This kind of Radar can be useful in the field of car-

to-car communication. They have the capability to detect the multiple targets even when they are closely spaced

to each other. Since the bandwidth of the Radar is 1.2 GHz therefore it can be termed as ultra wide band (UWB)

Radar and hence it has another property that it can even detect minute movement like heartbeat of a person and

thus it can be very useful in situation where there are some person buried under the building or underground as a

consequence of earthquake or landslides etc.

Keywords: Ultra-wide band Radar(UWB), Automatic cruise control (ACC), Collision avoidance and warning

systems (CAWAS), infinite impulse response (IIR) and finite impulse response (FIR) .

1. INTRODUCTION

Ultra Wide Band RADAR, as the name suggests is the radar which is having a larger bandwidth. The bandwidth

is in the range of GHz. The kind of radar can be used practically in all cases where we need highly precise

remote observation of moving objects at short distances. The radar shown in this paper is operating at 77 GHz

and hence it has a property of millimeter wave radar and thus this type of Radar is very much popular in the

field of vehicle communication where it can be used to control vehicle from collisions while driving and

parking, in the field of under wall imaging. This type of radars can be applied in a rescue service to detect

people buried under building obstructions or snow slips by their movement; if a person is motionless, the

detection can be performed using persons heart and thorax beats. It will be very useful for combating terrorism

as we often come across the news like some group of ill-social elements are hiding inside the building, at that

time through these kind of radar (through wall imaging ) can be used to detect their position.

The potential advantage of UWB waveforms for radar include better spatial resolution, detectable materials

penetration, easier target information recovery from reflected signals, and lower probability of intercept

signals than with narrowband signals. Most narrowband systems carry information also called the baseband

signal, as a modulation of much higher carrier frequency signal. The important distinction is that the UWB

waveform combines the carrier and baseband signal. Baseband or impulse radar are other names for UWB radar

and radio signals. The UWB signals generally occur as either short duration impulse signals and as non-

sinusoidal (e.g square, triangular, chirped, pulsed) waveforms.

Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

The use of 77 GHz Radar is very much effective when dealing in terms of vehicular communication. Effectively

77 GHz Radar is millimeter wave radar. Compared with other types of sensors, millimeter-wave radar has the

advantage of providing stable detection of targets even under inclement weather conditions such as rain or snow.

Recent remarkable advances in RF technology have facilitated production of highly functional and efficient

radar sensors. Thus, millimetre- wave radar has been marketed as, a vehicular collision warning sensor. This

radar can be used for Automatic cruise control (ACC), Collision avoidance and warning systems (CAWAS).

3. PROBLEM DEFINITION

Objective of this work is to design and simulate a radar which can detect target and gives information regarding

the target distance and velocity. The other task was to enhance the range resolution. Therefore for this the

bandwidth of the radar is taken to be 1.2 GHz. To do this following steps are taken:

a) Generation of signal which is having the desired bandwidth.

b) Design of filter (up conversion) so as to produce the desired center frequency.

c) Design of filter for down conversion

d) Target detection and estimation of velocity and range.

3.1 Generation of Signal

The input given to system is having a wider bandwidth of 1.2 GHz. The main advantage of using wider

bandwidth is to improve the range resolution.

Range= C/2B.. (i)

Therefore if the bandwidth is 1 GHz, the range resolution will be 15 cm. In this radar the input signal has a

bandwidth of 1.2 GHz and then the range resolution will be 12.5 cm. Fig 2 shows the frequency spectrum of the

input signal.

In the generation of ultra-wide band signal there is generally a pulse signal which is treated with a barker code

of 13 bit length as shown in fig.3. The duty cycle for this case is 25%. Duty cycle can be calculated from

Ton = % duty Cycle.(ii)

Ton + Toff

Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Filter design is the most critical part of any system. To design a filter , the designer should be very much clear

with the system requirements and its operation. In this particular transmission prior to transmission a band-pass

filter is needed to be designed. The basic bandpass filter is given as:

Fig.4. (a) Circuit for LC bandpass filter Fig.4(b) response of bandpass filter.

Fig.4(a)and (b) shows the basic circuit and response of bandpass filter. A filter is characterized by its transfer

function, or equivalently, its difference equation. As such, designing a filter consists of developing

specifications appropriate to the problem (for example, a second-order low pass filter with a specific cut-off

frequency), and then producing a transfer function which meets the specifications. The transfer function for a

linear, time-invariant, digital filter can be expressed as a transfer function in the Z-domain; if it is causal, then it

has the form:

.(iii)

where the order of the filter is the greater of N or M. This is the form for a recursive filter with both the inputs

(Numerator) and outputs (Denominator), which typically leads to an IIR (infinite impulse response) behavior,

but if the denominator is made equal to unity i.e. no feedback, then this becomes an FIR or finite impulse

response filter. The impulse response is a characterization of the filter's behavior. Digital filters are typically

considered in two categories: infinite impulse response (IIR) and finite impulse response (FIR). In the case of

linear time-invariant FIR filters, the impulse response is exactly equal to the sequence of filter coefficients:

...(iv)

IIR filters on the other hand are recursive, with the output depending on both current and previous inputs as well

as previous outputs. The general form of the IIR filter is thus:

(v)

Difference Equation: In discrete-time systems, the digital filter is often implemented by converting the transfer

function to a linear constant-coefficient difference equation (LCCD) via the Z-transform. The discrete

frequency-domain transfer function is written as the ratio of two polynomials. For example:

.(vi)

Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

(vii)

.(viii)

The coefficients of the denominator, ak, are the 'feed-backward' coefficients and the coefficients of the

numerator are the 'feed-forward' coefficients, bk. The resultant linear difference equation is:

.(ix)

..(x)

rearranging terms:

(xi)

.(xii)

..(xiii)

This equation shows how to compute the next output sample, y[n], in terms of the past outputs, y[n p], the

present input, x[n], and the past inputs, x[n p]. Applying the filter to an input in this form is equivalent to a

Direct Form I or II realization, depending on the exact order of evaluation.

Correlation is basically the relation between two variables. In context of this paper correlation is done between

two signals so as calculate the target distance. It is calculated from the time taken by the reflected wave to reach

to the receiving antennas. It is given as:

R = C. Td /2 .(xiv)

where R is the distance, C is the speed of light[4] and Td is the traveling time to the target and back and is

calculated by the correlation between the received barker code and the reference barker code.

Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

.(xv)

4. Modeling/Simulation description

For the modeling and simulation of the ultra-wide band radar operating in millimeter wave range of 77 GHz is

done using Matlab . For the detection of target a point scatterer has been used. The detection is shown as below:

S S

i i

g g

n n

a a

l l

A

m A

p m

l p

i l

t i

u t

d u

e d

e

Time Time

Fig. 6 (a). Detection of single target Fig. 6(b). Detection of two target

The above figure shows the detection of targets. In fig. 6(a) and (b) there are two pulses. the upper one in each

of the detection is the transmitted pulse and the lower one in both the cases are the target detection. The targets

were detected as shown above and are plotted respectively. The single target is detected as shown in fig.4. in the

time scope of fig.4, the upper one is the transmitted pulse and the lower one is the detected pulse. There we can

see a delay between the two. The calculated delay and the observed were same.

The target detection is worthless unless and until the distance of the target is known. For this distance estimation

delay is needed to be calculated. The delay is the delay between a signal and a delayed, and possibly distorted

version of itself.

Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Fig.7 shows the range estimator block. In this block based on the delay between the output and the reference

signal, the range is estimated(in meters). The display shows the numeric value which is the target distance from

the processing station.

When the radar is operating in a vehicle as a sensor to detect other vehicle and hence to avoid collision between

them, velocity estimation is very much important to know that with what speed another vehicle is coming

towards the objective vehicle.

Therefore doppler processing is must for the velocity estimation. Unlike with communication signals, the

reflected radar signal of an object moving with a relative velocity of Vrel will experience twice the amount of

Doppler shift according to

.(xvi)

where = c0/fc, with c0 being the speed of light and fc, the carrier frequency.

For velocity estimation, phase shift is recovered from the output signal. For the phase recovery M-PSK block is

used.This block recovers the carrier phase of the input signal using the M-Power method. This feed forward,

non-data-aided, clock-aided method is suitable for systems that use baseband phase shift keying (PSK)

modulation. It is also suitable for systems that use baseband quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), although

the results are less accurate than those for comparable PSK systems. The alphabet size for the modulation must

be an even integer. For PSK signals, the M-ary number parameter is the alphabet size. For QAM signals, the M-

ary number should be 4 regardless of the alphabet size because the 4-power method is the most appropriate for

QAM signals. The M-Power method assumes that the carrier phase is constant over a series of consecutive

symbols, and returns an estimate ofthe carrier phase for the series. TheObservation interval parameter is the

number ofsymbols for which the carrier phase is assumed constant. This number must be an integer multiple of

the input signal's vector length.

Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Algorithm: If the symbols occurring during the observation interval are x(1), x(2), x(3),..., x(L), then the

resulting carrier phase estimate is:

(xvii)

where the arg function returns values between -180 degrees and 180 degrees.

This is how phase is recovered from the target report signal. After some further processing the velocity is

calculated from that phase information.

Velocity and range estimation are the principle requirement for collision avoidance sensor based on radar

principle. With this in mind the model was prepared and simulated. First the signal of desired bandwidth in

ultra wide band range was generated. Now after the designing of filter (shown in section3.2), the desired carrier

frequency (77GHz) was obtained. Operating at this frequency the targets were detected and the range and

velocity information was extracted out of the system. A complete simulation model is shown in Fig. 9.

Fig.9. Complete Simulation model Of UWB Radar for single target detection operating at 77 GHz.

6. Conclusion

Simulation of a UWB radar at 77 GHz was the principal objective of this work. Since this is only the radar part of the

collision avoidance system which means that only the objective vehicle has the information of the target vehicle.

Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Our literature survey reveals that radar operating at 77 GHz is most effective in collision avoidance system and having a

bandwidth of 1.2 GHz improves the range resolution. Thus, the authors have tried to present the best possible radar

which can be most effective in this field. However further work can be done in field of communication link with other

vehicle, therefore to have a complete integrated radar and communication simulation model.

7. References

[1] Short - Distance Ultra-Wideband Radars. Theory and Designing-Prof. Igor Y. Immoreev1, P.G. Sergey V. Samkov1, Ph.D. Teh-Ho Tao2,

Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). Novaya Basmannaya str., Bldg. 16A, office 409, Moscow, 107708, Russia.

[2] Ultra wideband radar overview-James D taylor.

[3] Electronic filter design handbook-Arthur B.Williams,Fred J.Taylor.

[4] Hardware Realization Of DSSS RADAR Through SFF SDR-D. Kandar, S.N. Sur, D. Bhaskar, R.Bera And C. K. Sarkar, Sikkim Manipal

Institute of Technology, Sikkim Manipal University, Majitar, Sikkim-737136, India., Department of Electronics and Telecommunication

Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India.

[5] Doppler Estimation in an OFDM Joint Radar and Communication System-Yoke Leen Sit, Christian Sturm, and Thomas Zwick, Institut fur

Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, 76131, Germany.

[6] Millimeter-Wave Radar Sensing of Airborne Chemicals-Nachappa (Sami) Gopalsami, Senior Member, IEEE, and Apostolos (Paul) C. Raptis,

Member, IEEE

[7] History of UltraWideBand(UWB)Radar & Communications: Pioneers and Innovators: Terence W. Barrett UCI 1453 Beulah Road Vienna, VA

22182 USA

[8] Ultra Wide band Impulse Radar-An overview of the principles- Malek G.M. Hussain, Kuwait Unversity.

[9] Millimeter-Wave Radar Technology for Automotive Application-Shinichi Honma and Naohisa Uehara.

[10] Everything you always wanted to know about UWB radar : a practical introduction to the ultra wideband

[11] Technology -Enrico M. Staderini staderini@med.uniroma2.it

[12] Tor Vergata University of Rome Medical Physics Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging

[13] Via di Tor Vergata, 110 00133 ROME Italy.

[14] Terrain imaging and perception using milimeter wave radar-S. Scheding, G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, M.Bishop and A. Maclean, Australian centre

of field robotics, the university of Sydney.

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