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A Complete Simulation of Target Detection and


Estimation Using 77 GHz Radar

Article February 2012

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Arun Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

A Complete Simulation of Target Detection


and Estimation Using 77 GHz Radar
Arun Kumar Singh, Samerendra Nath Sur, Amit Agarwal, Rabindranath Bera
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering.
Sikkim Manipal Institute Of Technology,Majhitar
Rangpo,Sikkim,India
{arunsingh.smit, samar.sur, amiteng2007, rbera50}@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In this paper the modeling/simulation of 77 GHz Radar having a bandwidth of 1.2 GHz has been discussed that
gives the information about target distance and the velocity. This kind of Radar can be useful in the field of car-
to-car communication. They have the capability to detect the multiple targets even when they are closely spaced
to each other. Since the bandwidth of the Radar is 1.2 GHz therefore it can be termed as ultra wide band (UWB)
Radar and hence it has another property that it can even detect minute movement like heartbeat of a person and
thus it can be very useful in situation where there are some person buried under the building or underground as a
consequence of earthquake or landslides etc.
Keywords: Ultra-wide band Radar(UWB), Automatic cruise control (ACC), Collision avoidance and warning
systems (CAWAS), infinite impulse response (IIR) and finite impulse response (FIR) .

1. INTRODUCTION

Ultra Wide Band RADAR, as the name suggests is the radar which is having a larger bandwidth. The bandwidth
is in the range of GHz. The kind of radar can be used practically in all cases where we need highly precise
remote observation of moving objects at short distances. The radar shown in this paper is operating at 77 GHz
and hence it has a property of millimeter wave radar and thus this type of Radar is very much popular in the
field of vehicle communication where it can be used to control vehicle from collisions while driving and
parking, in the field of under wall imaging. This type of radars can be applied in a rescue service to detect
people buried under building obstructions or snow slips by their movement; if a person is motionless, the
detection can be performed using persons heart and thorax beats. It will be very useful for combating terrorism
as we often come across the news like some group of ill-social elements are hiding inside the building, at that
time through these kind of radar (through wall imaging ) can be used to detect their position.

The potential advantage of UWB waveforms for radar include better spatial resolution, detectable materials
penetration, easier target information recovery from reflected signals, and lower probability of intercept
signals than with narrowband signals. Most narrowband systems carry information also called the baseband
signal, as a modulation of much higher carrier frequency signal. The important distinction is that the UWB
waveform combines the carrier and baseband signal. Baseband or impulse radar are other names for UWB radar
and radio signals. The UWB signals generally occur as either short duration impulse signals and as non-
sinusoidal (e.g square, triangular, chirped, pulsed) waveforms.

. Fig.1. Basic block Diagram of Radar Model.

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2. APPLICATION AREA OF 77 GHz RADAR

The use of 77 GHz Radar is very much effective when dealing in terms of vehicular communication. Effectively
77 GHz Radar is millimeter wave radar. Compared with other types of sensors, millimeter-wave radar has the
advantage of providing stable detection of targets even under inclement weather conditions such as rain or snow.
Recent remarkable advances in RF technology have facilitated production of highly functional and efficient
radar sensors. Thus, millimetre- wave radar has been marketed as, a vehicular collision warning sensor. This
radar can be used for Automatic cruise control (ACC), Collision avoidance and warning systems (CAWAS).

3. PROBLEM DEFINITION

Objective of this work is to design and simulate a radar which can detect target and gives information regarding
the target distance and velocity. The other task was to enhance the range resolution. Therefore for this the
bandwidth of the radar is taken to be 1.2 GHz. To do this following steps are taken:
a) Generation of signal which is having the desired bandwidth.
b) Design of filter (up conversion) so as to produce the desired center frequency.
c) Design of filter for down conversion
d) Target detection and estimation of velocity and range.
3.1 Generation of Signal

The input given to system is having a wider bandwidth of 1.2 GHz. The main advantage of using wider
bandwidth is to improve the range resolution.
Range= C/2B.. (i)
Therefore if the bandwidth is 1 GHz, the range resolution will be 15 cm. In this radar the input signal has a
bandwidth of 1.2 GHz and then the range resolution will be 12.5 cm. Fig 2 shows the frequency spectrum of the
input signal.

Fig.2 Input signal spectrum.

In the generation of ultra-wide band signal there is generally a pulse signal which is treated with a barker code
of 13 bit length as shown in fig.3. The duty cycle for this case is 25%. Duty cycle can be calculated from
Ton = % duty Cycle.(ii)
Ton + Toff

Fig.3. input pulse incorporated with 13 bit barker code

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3.2 Filter Design

Filter design is the most critical part of any system. To design a filter , the designer should be very much clear
with the system requirements and its operation. In this particular transmission prior to transmission a band-pass
filter is needed to be designed. The basic bandpass filter is given as:


Fig.4. (a) Circuit for LC bandpass filter Fig.4(b) response of bandpass filter.

Fig.4(a)and (b) shows the basic circuit and response of bandpass filter. A filter is characterized by its transfer
function, or equivalently, its difference equation. As such, designing a filter consists of developing
specifications appropriate to the problem (for example, a second-order low pass filter with a specific cut-off
frequency), and then producing a transfer function which meets the specifications. The transfer function for a
linear, time-invariant, digital filter can be expressed as a transfer function in the Z-domain; if it is causal, then it
has the form:

.(iii)

where the order of the filter is the greater of N or M. This is the form for a recursive filter with both the inputs
(Numerator) and outputs (Denominator), which typically leads to an IIR (infinite impulse response) behavior,
but if the denominator is made equal to unity i.e. no feedback, then this becomes an FIR or finite impulse
response filter. The impulse response is a characterization of the filter's behavior. Digital filters are typically
considered in two categories: infinite impulse response (IIR) and finite impulse response (FIR). In the case of
linear time-invariant FIR filters, the impulse response is exactly equal to the sequence of filter coefficients:

...(iv)

IIR filters on the other hand are recursive, with the output depending on both current and previous inputs as well
as previous outputs. The general form of the IIR filter is thus:

(v)

Difference Equation: In discrete-time systems, the digital filter is often implemented by converting the transfer
function to a linear constant-coefficient difference equation (LCCD) via the Z-transform. The discrete
frequency-domain transfer function is written as the ratio of two polynomials. For example:

.(vi)

This is expanded to:

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(vii)

and divided by the highest order of z:

.(viii)

The coefficients of the denominator, ak, are the 'feed-backward' coefficients and the coefficients of the
numerator are the 'feed-forward' coefficients, bk. The resultant linear difference equation is:

.(ix)

or, for the example above:

..(x)

rearranging terms:

(xi)

then by taking the inverse z-transform:

.(xii)

and finally, by solving for y[n]:

..(xiii)

This equation shows how to compute the next output sample, y[n], in terms of the past outputs, y[n p], the
present input, x[n], and the past inputs, x[n p]. Applying the filter to an input in this form is equivalent to a
Direct Form I or II realization, depending on the exact order of evaluation.

3.3 Receiver Correlation

Correlation is basically the relation between two variables. In context of this paper correlation is done between
two signals so as calculate the target distance. It is calculated from the time taken by the reflected wave to reach
to the receiving antennas. It is given as:

R = C. Td /2 .(xiv)

where R is the distance, C is the speed of light[4] and Td is the traveling time to the target and back and is
calculated by the correlation between the received barker code and the reference barker code.

Autocorrelation is given as:

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.(xv)

Autocorrelation figure for Barker code is given as:

Fig.5. Autocorrelation figure for 13 bit Barker Code

4. Modeling/Simulation description

For the modeling and simulation of the ultra-wide band radar operating in millimeter wave range of 77 GHz is
done using Matlab . For the detection of target a point scatterer has been used. The detection is shown as below:

S S
i i
g g
n n
a a
l l
A
m A
p m
l p
i l
t i
u t
d u
e d
e

Time Time

Fig. 6 (a). Detection of single target Fig. 6(b). Detection of two target

The above figure shows the detection of targets. In fig. 6(a) and (b) there are two pulses. the upper one in each
of the detection is the transmitted pulse and the lower one in both the cases are the target detection. The targets
were detected as shown above and are plotted respectively. The single target is detected as shown in fig.4. in the
time scope of fig.4, the upper one is the transmitted pulse and the lower one is the detected pulse. There we can
see a delay between the two. The calculated delay and the observed were same.

4.1 Range estimation

The target detection is worthless unless and until the distance of the target is known. For this distance estimation
delay is needed to be calculated. The delay is the delay between a signal and a delayed, and possibly distorted
version of itself.

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Fig.7 Range estimator

Fig.7 shows the range estimator block. In this block based on the delay between the output and the reference
signal, the range is estimated(in meters). The display shows the numeric value which is the target distance from
the processing station.

4.2 Velocity Estimation

When the radar is operating in a vehicle as a sensor to detect other vehicle and hence to avoid collision between
them, velocity estimation is very much important to know that with what speed another vehicle is coming
towards the objective vehicle.

Therefore doppler processing is must for the velocity estimation. Unlike with communication signals, the
reflected radar signal of an object moving with a relative velocity of Vrel will experience twice the amount of
Doppler shift according to

.(xvi)

where = c0/fc, with c0 being the speed of light and fc, the carrier frequency.

The simulation model shown in fig 8 calculates the velocity.

Fig.8 Velocity estimator.

For velocity estimation, phase shift is recovered from the output signal. For the phase recovery M-PSK block is
used.This block recovers the carrier phase of the input signal using the M-Power method. This feed forward,
non-data-aided, clock-aided method is suitable for systems that use baseband phase shift keying (PSK)
modulation. It is also suitable for systems that use baseband quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), although
the results are less accurate than those for comparable PSK systems. The alphabet size for the modulation must
be an even integer. For PSK signals, the M-ary number parameter is the alphabet size. For QAM signals, the M-
ary number should be 4 regardless of the alphabet size because the 4-power method is the most appropriate for
QAM signals. The M-Power method assumes that the carrier phase is constant over a series of consecutive
symbols, and returns an estimate ofthe carrier phase for the series. TheObservation interval parameter is the
number ofsymbols for which the carrier phase is assumed constant. This number must be an integer multiple of
the input signal's vector length.

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Algorithm: If the symbols occurring during the observation interval are x(1), x(2), x(3),..., x(L), then the
resulting carrier phase estimate is:

(xvii)

where the arg function returns values between -180 degrees and 180 degrees.

This is how phase is recovered from the target report signal. After some further processing the velocity is
calculated from that phase information.

5. Explanation of Simulation model

Velocity and range estimation are the principle requirement for collision avoidance sensor based on radar
principle. With this in mind the model was prepared and simulated. First the signal of desired bandwidth in
ultra wide band range was generated. Now after the designing of filter (shown in section3.2), the desired carrier
frequency (77GHz) was obtained. Operating at this frequency the targets were detected and the range and
velocity information was extracted out of the system. A complete simulation model is shown in Fig. 9.

Fig.9. Complete Simulation model Of UWB Radar for single target detection operating at 77 GHz.

6. Conclusion
Simulation of a UWB radar at 77 GHz was the principal objective of this work. Since this is only the radar part of the
collision avoidance system which means that only the objective vehicle has the information of the target vehicle.

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Our literature survey reveals that radar operating at 77 GHz is most effective in collision avoidance system and having a
bandwidth of 1.2 GHz improves the range resolution. Thus, the authors have tried to present the best possible radar
which can be most effective in this field. However further work can be done in field of communication link with other
vehicle, therefore to have a complete integrated radar and communication simulation model.

7. References

[1] Short - Distance Ultra-Wideband Radars. Theory and Designing-Prof. Igor Y. Immoreev1, P.G. Sergey V. Samkov1, Ph.D. Teh-Ho Tao2,
Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). Novaya Basmannaya str., Bldg. 16A, office 409, Moscow, 107708, Russia.
[2] Ultra wideband radar overview-James D taylor.
[3] Electronic filter design handbook-Arthur B.Williams,Fred J.Taylor.
[4] Hardware Realization Of DSSS RADAR Through SFF SDR-D. Kandar, S.N. Sur, D. Bhaskar, R.Bera And C. K. Sarkar, Sikkim Manipal
Institute of Technology, Sikkim Manipal University, Majitar, Sikkim-737136, India., Department of Electronics and Telecommunication
Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India.
[5] Doppler Estimation in an OFDM Joint Radar and Communication System-Yoke Leen Sit, Christian Sturm, and Thomas Zwick, Institut fur
Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, 76131, Germany.
[6] Millimeter-Wave Radar Sensing of Airborne Chemicals-Nachappa (Sami) Gopalsami, Senior Member, IEEE, and Apostolos (Paul) C. Raptis,
Member, IEEE
[7] History of UltraWideBand(UWB)Radar & Communications: Pioneers and Innovators: Terence W. Barrett UCI 1453 Beulah Road Vienna, VA
22182 USA
[8] Ultra Wide band Impulse Radar-An overview of the principles- Malek G.M. Hussain, Kuwait Unversity.
[9] Millimeter-Wave Radar Technology for Automotive Application-Shinichi Honma and Naohisa Uehara.
[10] Everything you always wanted to know about UWB radar : a practical introduction to the ultra wideband
[11] Technology -Enrico M. Staderini staderini@med.uniroma2.it
[12] Tor Vergata University of Rome Medical Physics Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging
[13] Via di Tor Vergata, 110 00133 ROME Italy.
[14] Terrain imaging and perception using milimeter wave radar-S. Scheding, G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, M.Bishop and A. Maclean, Australian centre
of field robotics, the university of Sydney.

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