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Examining Alternative
Searching for Shipping’s
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54 Fuels & Financial
43 The Electric
Propulsion Boom
31 fathom
marine | energy | environment
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Welcome From The Editor 1 Ship Design
• The News Bulletin 35
• The (Virtual Reality) Future Of Ship Design 36
News Round-Up 3 • Fuel Efficient Trawler Design Unveiled 36
• A Paperless Future for Ship Building? 37
Who’s Doing What? 7
• Examining the Impact Of Ship Widening &
• Green Ferry To Debut Wärtsilä Hybrid 40
Feature Focus Propulsion Technology

37 A Paperless • The Global Sulphur Cap- Examining The Options

For Compliance

Future for • What Is ‘Prime Performance’? 15 Fuels & Emissions

Shipbuilding? • The News Bulletin
• Finding Fuel Savings On The Right
Environmental Technology Frequency
• Examining Alternative Fuels And Financial 43
• The News Bulletin 17
• The Power Of Waste Heat Benefits
• Maintaining Compliance - The Ongoing Upkeep • Cruise Sector Interest In Air Lubrication Tech 44
Of Ballast Water Treatment Systems Swells
• Unique Anti-Fouling Ingredient Passes Multiple • Global Average Bunker Price History 45
Major Milestones • Demystifying The EU MRV Regulation 46
• In The Spotlight: U.S. Coast Guard Ballast Water 21

Who’s Doing
Compliance Extension Requests
What? 7 • Turning Plastic Waste Into Low-Sulphur Fuel 22
• The News Bulletin
• ISO Hull Performance Standard Edges Closer To
Electronics & Software Finalisation
• No ROI For Shipowners Favouring Efficiency 49
• The News Bulletin 23
• Big Data (Autologging) And Ship Performance Despite Fuel-Payers Saving Millions
Analysis • Consortium To Drive Ship Efficiency And 51
• Optimising Ship Engines With Virtual Sensors Safe Navigation Research
• The Norwegian Trend Setters • DNV GL Issues First “Clean Lay-up” 51
• 50% Drag Reduction Verified For Fin Stabiliser Declaration

Power & Propulsion The Social Scene 53

• The News Bulletin 29

The Last • The Age Of Turbocharger Technology 30
Word Blog 54 • Why The Most Advanced Vessels In The World
Are Using Electric Propulsion
31 The Last Word Blog 54

• Fuel Sulphur: Future Proofing Cylinder Oil 33

• Improving Propulsion Shaft Monitoring 34

Global Average
Bunker Price History 33
on LinkedIn @fathommaritime
Published by

marine | energy | environment

Catherine Austin
The industry will gather this month for the SMM trade fair in the
Assistant Editor: maritime nucleus that is Hamburg
Fiona Macdonald Green propulsion and digital solutions will take the centre stage at SMM, in fact the organisers
have opened a new hall dedicated to all things green propulsion. I have no doubt that the
Graphic Design:
numerous halls at this gargantuan trade fair will be awash with a dominant ratio of green
Ben Watkins
technology solutions as the industry continues its quest to be leaner and greener while battling
to maintain buoyancy under current market conditions and regulatory pressures.
Advertising Sales:
Alison Jarabo SMM will also play host to the inaugural Wind Propulsion Innovation Awards, for which I proudly took a seat on the judging panel. Wind propulsion is gaining some serious momentum in the
industry. What was once considered to be a ‘blue skies’ technology is rapidly being deployed
Subscriptions Manager: on ocean-going vessels. Monitoring software-certified fuel savings attained through the use of
Mandy Harris wind-assisted propulsion technologies are further proving that this technology option is a serious contender amongst its ship efficiency technology peers.

Publisher registered address: 27 Sheet Street , Windsor, The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization
UK - SL4 1BN (IMO) is expected to decide on the implementation timeframe of the global 0.50% sulphur cap for
marine fuels in October this year, based on the recommendations of an extensive low sulphur fuel
Subscription to this magazine is free. availability study. The industry awaits with baited breath; the verdict will have a huge impact on the
Subscribe online via: industry. In this issue of Ship Efficiency Review magazine, we put the technology and fuel options
Subscribe by phone: +44 (0) 1753 853 791 under the spotlight and hopefully provide some insight into what ship owners and operators can
turn to when making plans for regulatory compliance.
For content enquiries, email:
Twitter: @fathommaritime
The core theme of this issue is Prime Performance. Therefore, this issue hosts power and
propulsion features aplenty. We tackle a vast array of hot topics and technology happenings
from battery power, to alternative fuels and all that resides in between. If you are interested
in bunker fuel trends, head to the Fuels & Emissions section where you will find the Global
Average Bunker Price History feature, powered by Ship & Bunker. This in addition to our usual
technology-centric content, makes Issue 10 a prime news hub for all things ship efficiency.

Audited I look forward to welcoming you to Issue 11.

Circulation: 5,596 Catherine Austin

©2016 Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine can be reproduced, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written consent of Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited. Applications for written permission should be sent
to the Editor via

Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent the views of Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited or its affiliates. Whilst every effort has been
made to ensure the accuracy and quality of the information contained in this publication at the time of going to press, Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited
assume no responsibility as to any inaccuracies that occur or their consequences and to the extent of the law, shall not be liable for any errors or omissions or any loss,
damage or expenses incurred by reliance on information or any statement contained in this publication.
3 Ship Efficiency Review
News Round-Up


The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has Damen Green Solutions’ InvaSave technology is nearing
launched an online portal that builds on the work International Maritime Organization (IMO) Type Approval.
undertaken by their Marine Environment Protection   Results thus far have shown that it can provide IMO
Committee (MEPC) to promote technical cooperation Type Approved backup in the event of a ship’s onboard
and technology transfer relating to improving the energy ballast water treatment systems (BWTS) failing to
efficiency of ships. uptake or discharge ballast water.
  The InvaSave technology, which uses UV filtration
without any chemicals, can also serve as a port-based
alternative for ship owners that have not retrofitted their
ships with an on-board BWTS or in the case a ship is
deployed in a port with a sudden outbreak of marine
invasive species.
  The system can be delivered in a self-sufficient mobile
container for flexible placement in a service barge or for
movement around the port on a trailer or a pontoon.
  The series of shipboard tests included high sediment
waters of the River Hull and River Thames, UK.
The results of the InvaSave testing shows that the
  A key feature of the site is the technology can meet the IMO’s D2 standard. IMO Type
information portal on energy efficiency technologies Approval is expected to be obtained later in 2016. ∎
that cover areas such as machinery, propulsion and hull
improvements, and energy recovery.
  The website also provides important information
and updates on the Global Maritime Energy Efficiency
Partnerships (GloMEEP) project – a GEF-UNDP-IMO
initiative that supports the uptake and implementation of
energy efficiency measures for shipping, thereby helping
to reduce the industry’s greenhouse gas emissions. ∎


Wärtsilä has signed an agreement to acquire fellow   Currently, Eniram’s solutions are installed in over 270
Finnish innovators Eniram Oy, a move that will enable vessels. They are headquartered in Helsinki, Finland with
the power and propulsion giant to strengthen its subsidiaries in the UK, the USA, Germany and Singapore
digital offerings, energy management and analytics for and in 2015 Eniram’s turnover exceeded EUR 10 million.
performance optimisation.   Eniram will initially continue as an independent
  The acquisition will also enable Wärtsilä to offer business entity supported by Wärtsilä. The transaction is
its customers more in terms of marine digitalisation valued at EUR 43 million (enterprise value). Ownership
solutions for optimising trim, speed and engine of the company will be transferred to Wärtsilä with effect
performance and to give comprehensive fleet analysis. from July 1, 2016. ∎
Ship Efficiency Review
News Round-Up 4

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) World Kitack Lim said the theme aims to improve cooperation
Maritime Day theme for 2017 is to be based around between ports and ships, and develop a closer
shipping efficiency, global stability and sustainable partnership between the two sectors in order to raise
development as part of efforts to achieve the United global standards and set norms for the safety, security
Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). and efficiency of ports, and for port and coastal State
  When announcing the 2017 theme, ‘Connecting Ships, authorities. It also aims to improve the standardisation of
Ports and People’ at the IMO Council’s 116th session at port procedures through identifying and developing best
IMO Headquarters in London, The IMO Secretary-General practice guidance and training materials. ∎


Subsea Industries have launched a filler coating product, EcoFix, Following the success of the LNGreen concept, a joint industry
that repairs most pitting or corrosion damage on rudders, stabiliser development project designed to create a state-of-the-art next
fins, thrusters and other underwater gear. generation liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier, DNV GL has
  When a rudder or other piece of underwater gear has not been announced a follow-up project will commence, that will build on
properly protected, the surface will become corroded. the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the initial project.
  Cavitation damage can cause severe pitting and the steel needs
to be restored to its original shape with a smooth surface prior to
  According to the executive director of Subsea Industries, they
are seeing an increasing number of propulsion and steering
equipment suppliers apply tough hard coatings to their equipment
for maximum protection   The new project seeks to bring a ready-to-build concept to the
against cavitation and market to realise the potential savings in actual operation using
abrasion damage, both new technologies, improved integrated systems and machinery
of which can lead to configurations. The new project will involve GTT, GasLog,
widespread corrosion Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) and DNV GL, who were all
if conventional coatings original partners in the project.
fail. ∎ The follow up project is due for completion by the end of 2016.∎


Transas has joined the North American Marine Environment commitment to safety at sea and marine environment protection.
Protection Association (NAMEPA) to support and participate with   Transas CEO Frank Coles stated that Transas being a member
other marine industry organisations in NAMEPA’s efforts to “Save of NAMEPA will give the company an opportunity to voice their
Our Seas”. concerns to the global maritime community and contribute to
  NAMEPA say that by joining, Transas is demonstrating their ocean protection. ∎
5 Ship Efficiency Review
News Round-Up

HH Ferries Group has chosen ABB’s battery power and
propulsion package, inclusive of an automated shore-side
charging station, for two of its ferries.
 The Tycho Brahe and Aurora ferries, which are set
to become the largest electric ferries in the world, will
operate fully on battery power between Helsingør,
Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden.
  Using battery power on these two ferries will help lower
total emissions across the fleet by more than 50% from
the current diesel operated vessels, say ABB.
  The ABB power and propulsion solution, which will
comprise of batteries, an energy storage control system,
and onboard DC grid technology, will provide a combined
battery power of 8,320 kWh for the two ferries – the out and pull the shore cable from the ship. The cable reel
equivalent of 10,700 car batteries. releases the cable and the robot moves the connectors to
  The Finnish power and automation giant will also the corresponding connectors below the robot. After the
supply the first automated shore-side charging stations connection is made, the robot moves back to the home-
using an ABB industrial robot to optimise connection and position and the roll-up doors close. The robot will reside
charging time. The automated shore-side charging system inside its own building when not in use.
technology works by using 3D laser scanning and wireless   This particular investment is co-financed by the
communication between ship and shore. As the ferry Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA), the
approaches the shore in its last 400m, the robot will reach EU’s executive agency for innovation and network. ∎


Caterpillar Marine is to establish a new Marine Centre in
Singapore to manufacture new technology and advance
concepts and design. Terntank has received the first Port of Rotterdam
  The Marine Centre will house manufacturing capability liquefied natural gas (LNG) bunkering incentive for
for Caterpillar’s Marine Propulsion business to build the its new product tanker Ternsund, amounting to a
company’s range of MTA azimuth thrusters and MTT discount of 10% on seaport dues.
tunnel thrusters, and production of the full line of thrusters   The incentives awarded by the Port of Rotterdam
will be included. were established in order to turn the port into a major
  Furthermore, the Marine Centre will allow Caterpillar European LNG bunkering hub and decrease the use
to expand its medium speed engine training services for of standard residual fuel. By encouraging the use
customers in the region and establish a new Caterpillar of LNG, the port expects to reduce emissions of
Propulsion Training centre for customers and dealers on carbon dioxide (CO2) by up to 20% and nitrogen oxide
Caterpillar propulsion thrusters and controls. (NOx) emissions by 85%. Both sulphur oxides (SOx)
  The Singapore Caterpillar Marine Centre is expected to emissions and particulate matter can be reduced to
be operational by the fourth quarter of 2016. ∎ almost zero with the use of LNG as marine fuel. ∎
7 Ship Efficiency Review
Who’s Doing What

Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics (WWL) is to bunker low-sulphur fuel for
all of its ships at all ports called at. Following the company’s review of its Jotun’s SeaQuantum X200 antifouling hull
sulphur policy, there has been in a shift in emphasis to include not just the coating and measurement sensors have been
environmental considerations of shipping operations, but also the social ordered for two EURONAV Suezmax tankers;
and health ones that are directly impacted by ship sulphur oxides (SOx) the Cap Guillaume and Cap Philippe.
emissions. According to EURONAV. They opted for the
  In July 2016, WWL welcomed its fourth Neo-Panamax high efficiency Jotun antifouling product based on its proven
RoRo HERO class vessel to its fleet. Built to transit the expanded Panama environmental and business benefits and
Canal, the MV Themis features a specially designed hull shape, rudder and its good return-on-investment. Jotun’s HPs
bow to reduce drag and wave resistance to improve fuel efficiency. guarantee was also reportedly a contributing
factor to EURONAV’s selection.
Matson Navigation Company, Inc., has signed a contract with Thordon
Bearings to install COMPAC seawater lubricated propeller shaft bearings
systems on two of their Jones Act containerships. The 5,400 TEU Carl Schulte and its two
  The ships, which are under construction at the Aker Philadelphia Shipyard sister ships; the Christa Schulte and
Inc. (APSI), represent the largest commercial ship propeller shafts to be the Clemens Schulte have been fitted
fitted with the technology to-date. with efficient engines and equipment
  The 36,000 TEU Aloha Class ships will each feature a COMPAC system to optimise voyage planning, measure
for a 930mm diameter shaft driving an 8.1m diameter fixed pitch propeller. and control carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur
  The order placed includes COMPAC elastomeric bearings with a tapered oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)
keyset, a Thordon Water Quality package, bronze liners and Thor-Coat emissions.
shaft coating to help meet classification requirements for extended shaft   The ships have also benefitted from
withdrawal periods. an optimised hull design to ensure
maximum efficiency and all feature
ballast water treatment systems (BWTS).
DE NORA BWTS FOR PRODUCT TANKERS alongside DNV GL to ensure that the
ships were designed and built to the
Overseas Shipholding Group (OSG) is to fit two De Nora ballast water management highest efficiency standards. This
systems (BWMS) to 50,000 DWT product tankers, the Overseas Milos and the resulted in DNV GL issuing a Green
Overseas Athens. Passport to all the ships.
  The De Nora Balpure BWMS uses electrochlorination to ensure that discharged  The Carl Schulte has also been
ballast water meets the environmental discharge limits set by the International awarded a RightShip grading of A+ on
Maritime Organization (IMO), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
United States Coast Guard (USCG). scale and has been given a five star
  De Nora recently commenced land-based and ship-board testing of their Environmental Score rating, placing the
BALPURE BWMS at the NSF Independent Laboratory at the Maritime ship in the top 20 vessels out of 76,000
Environmental Resource Centre (MERC) for Type Approval application to the USCG. ships graded by RightShip.

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9 Ship Efficiency Review
Who’s Doing What

Finnlines has signed a EUR 50 million loan agreement with the European
Investment Bank (EIB) to facilitate its Environmental Technology Investment CARBON FOOTPRINT
programme that will help reduce ship sulphur oxides (SOx) emissions and their
overall environmental footprint. Costa Cruises has published its 2015
  The funding will form part of a EUR 100 million investment plan that involves sustainability report which states that
retrofitting Finnlines’ current fleet with marine scrubbers to reduce emissions overall a 4.8% reduction in energy
of SOx to no more than 0.1%. Finnlines will also use optimised propellers on consumption was achieved, 100%
11 of its ships to reduce hull friction, reduce overall fuel consumption and lower of waste onboard was collected and
emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and SOx. separated for disposal and recycling,
and a 2.3% reduction in the company’s
carbon footprint was attained.
  The company also achieved a 3%
ECKERÖ VESSEL FITTED WITH WÄRTSILÄ decrease in fuel consumption per
CONDITION BASED MONITORING SYSTEM passenger/day; 11% reduction in sulphur
oxides (SOx) and 3% in nitrogen oxides
A Rederiaktiebolaget Eckerö vessel has been fitted with Wärtsilä’s (NOx) and particulate matter; installation
condition based monitoring system, which provides data to enable on 46.6% of the fleet of the ECO Exhaust
dynamic maintenance planning. Gas Cleaning system to remove more
  The Finnish shipping company has also extended the maintenance than 90% of pollutants from the exhaust
agreement held with Wärtsilä for its fleet of five vessels. gases; 69% of the water required was
  Wärtsilä say that the aim with the dynamic maintenance planning produced directly on board.
solution is to extend maintenance intervals and reduce spare parts   Costa states that it aims to continue to
consumption. Maintenance operations are then planned based on pioneer sustainable solutions, including
expert analysis of the engine’s condition and the real-time data the current construction of the first cruise
provided by the engines. ship to be powered byliquefied natural
gas (LNG), due for delivery in 2019.


Fjord1 has signed a newbuilding contract with the Tersan JHW Engineering & Contracting has chosen to install Alfa Laval’s
Shipyard to construct two new battery-powered ferries. PureNOx Prime exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems on five of
  The battery technology will enable the ferries to run for its newbuild very large ethane carriers (VLEC).
several hours without charging, which will be carried out   The VLEC newbuilds will use EGR to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx)
through fully automatic charging stations at the quayside emissions. The EGR engines will use PureNOx Prime to treat the
when necessary. Fjord1 is planning for fully electric water from the EGR process. PureNOx Prime is that much smaller
operation of both ferries. The ferries are expected to be than the original PureNOx due to its leaner design and requires a
operational from 1 January 2018 until 2027. lower investment cost, while maintaining the same performance.
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11 Ship Efficiency Review
Feature Focus


By Fiona Macdonald Assistant Editor

The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of have become familiar to switching fuels
the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is expected when entering ECAs and using lower
sulphur fuel, the implementation of a
to decide on the implementation timeframe of the global global sulphur cap will require increased
0.50% sulphur cap for marine bunker fuels in October this periods of operational time on these
year, based on the result of a low sulphur fuel availability fuels (or alternatively the use of a marine
study. scrubber with heavy fuel oil (HFO)). The
full-time use of low sulphur fuels should
  As the industry awaits with bated breath for the delivery of the verdict in be approached with some degree of
October, Ship Efficiency Review’s assistant editor Fiona Macdonald examines caution due to their distinct behavioural
five options, coupled with their benefits and limitations, that ship owners and/ differences when compared with higher
or operators can embrace in order to remain compliant with the new, stringent more traditionally used fuels of higher
global sulphur cap rules – be their arrival in 2020 or 2025. sulphur content.
  The fuel viscosity of a low-sulphur fuel
Low-Sulphur Fuel when heated is very different to a HFO.
Low-sulphur fuels and their viscosity can have an array of complex interactions upon The primary problems of using a marine
engine and its components that were built for residual fuel use. The switch to using gas oil (MGO) for compliance arises from
low sulphur fuels requires planning ahead. Although some industry dwellers will the low viscosity characteristic it retains
Ship Efficiency Review
Feature Focus 12

when used by machinery designed for Distillates have a higher energy content compared with HFO, and because of
traditional HFO. its more sophisticated quality, less sludge is generated and therefore the task of
  Furthermore, if the viscosity of the onshore sludge disposal can be reduced.
fuel in the pumps is too low, wear
and scuffing can be caused by lack of LNG Fuel
hydrodynamic lubrication of the pump The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) would of course eliminate the need for
which can lead to increased risk of fuel additional emissions reducing technology and minimise the concerns around fuels
leaks. Hence maintenance and cost and incompatibility. Removing virtually all sulphur emissions, LNG is a promising
are exacerbated. Matching engine and alternative fuel to meeting global sulphur cap requirements. However, conversion
component design with fuel type and its can cost more than USD 20 million, this is an option for newbuildings currently.
viscosity is vital, particularly when using a   Dominating the LNG-conversion quandary is often the sheer size of the LNG tank,
fuel for longer periods of time, compared which can be detrimental to cargo carrying capacity. LNG’s low density means
with short ECA intervals. that it requires excess storage, however, its higher energy value can sufficiently
  However, one of the advantages is that compensate. The storage and handling issues that surround its adoption are also
distillates retain a higher thermal value, significant. Highly flammable in gaseous state, solid training and understanding of
minimising engine wear and reducing LNG behaviour is paramount.
maintenance, which further contributes   Unable to be stored in traditional hull structural tanks like regular fuels, LNG must
to a reduction in fuel consumption.
Continues Overleaf...
13 Ship Efficiency Review
Feature Focus

requirements, but matching the type of fuel to the lubricant is

an important decision that must not be underestimated.

The use of marine scrubbers in Emission Control Areas (ECAs)
is common practise. With a 2020 global sulphur their use
could increase to around 3,800 ships , and with this comes
higher maintenance and associated costs. Breakdown
potentials must be considered and accounted for to ensure
compliance, not just in ECAs but worldwide. The risk of
non-compliance will therefore be much higher in case of
malfunction as global waters and not just ECAs are more
thoroughly regulated.
  Additionally, the higher energy consumption that has been
be stowed away from the sides and bottom of the ship as any calculated when using scrubbers must be accounted for if they
vibrations from collisions may result in explosion as a result of are to function for longer periods of time. A seawater scrubber
LNG’s highly flammable nature when exposed to the ambient has been estimated consume around 3% more fuel, while a
atmosphere outside of its tank. freshwater consumes around 1% more .
  Furthermore, the evaporation of LNG, also known as its Boil
Off Gas results in pressure build-up, which can lead to tank and Real-Time Ship Tracking
other component damage if excess LNG is not drained from Although not directly related to emissions, installing real-time
pipes or hoses. A Boil Off Gas Plan is therefore essential to ship tracking software can help to enable better ship navigation,
minimise such risks, and in the case of a ship conversion, the avoiding bottlenecks in ports and reduce time spent idling,
necessary equipment and procedures must be integrated into which can contribute to excess emissions, especially while in
ship design modifications. port. Although this is not a direct method for compliance, it will
certainly help reduce unnecessary emissions.
Methanol Fuel
SOx emissions reduction to the tune of 99% can be achieved Future Considerations
using methanol fuel and thereby its use would ensure that a The development of SOx scrubbing technology is continually
ship met global sulphur cap requirements. While methanol evolving and it is inevitable that future all-in-one systems that
fuels may be cheaper than LNG, they also require ship will be able to abate SOx, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other
conversion. Methanol is particularly toxic and will require greenhouse gases (GHG) will be developed. The installation
additional monitoring and control systems, including overfill of multiple systems for emissions control could become
alarms, automatic shutdown, and ventilation and gas detection redundant as ship owners drive demand for the development
monitoring. of a multifunctional technology to combat all emissions and
comply with the development of future SOx and NOx ECAs for
Cylinder Oil Lubrication a zero emissions future – a very feasible long-term objective.
As the choice of lubricant is very much dependent on the   In relation to the 2020 global sulphur cap being pushed
type of fuel used, it is apparent that a change in fuel will also back to 2025, the detrimental impact to technology
require a consideration in the change of lubricant. Although innovation could be at a risk of decline as the pressure
this practise already takes place today when manoeuvring in and demand for new complying technologies slacks.
and out of ECAs, using a lower sulphur fuel for longer periods This is also a consideration for the future development of
of time as the global sulphur cap demands will necessitate technologies and should drive technology purchasers to
more thoughtful consideration for the lubricant as some fuels consider their options ahead of time.∎
will tolerate certain lubricants for only short periods of time
whereas others are more suited to more permanent usage.
  Corrosion and engine component wear is a common side-
effect of not matching the lubricant to the fuel type. Operation
on low and very low-sulphur fuel doesn’t often generate very
much sulphuric acid and therefore the alkaline components in
the lubricating oil are not neutralised, generating compounds
that are able to harm the engine and its components due to
deposition, excessive wear and scuffing. Of course, engine
design and operating parameters can also affect the cylinder oil
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15 Ship Efficiency Review
Feature Focus

‘PRIME PERFORMANCE’? By Catherine Austin, Editor

When considering an individual ship’s performance and how it can be improved, often the term
‘efficiency’ is used. However, consider an entire business ecosystem with all its interconnections
and relationships performing consistently to their prime capability. Would the buzzword for this
be ‘Prime Performance’?
While making sure that it is not mistaken for efficiency,   In order to operate at prime performance, the people
prime performance, as I understand, it is very much involved, the other systems that are integrated into the
about attaining optimal operational benefits even when ship’s operation and even the onshore personnel have to
faced with the most challenging conditions. Operating be taken into account. This is to ensure that the entire
consistently at a whole-system level will of course bring system, as a whole, is operating to its full potential.
efficiency improvements, but if you were to officially Prime performance may manifest as a concept under
define the concept of ‘Prime Performance’ it would be which the consideration all aspects in order to drive
more than that. better operations and business decisions across the
  It wouldn’t just be about improving the operation of one whole system takes place, avoiding the possibility that
ship or a fleet of ships and doing more for less, but rather the system may run below its prime capability.
it would focus on consistent and effective operation at a   There is a risk with any technology, whether a
high level across an entire business ecosystem. pocket-sized smart phone or a colossal piece of
  A business operating under the hypothetical ‘Prime ship equipment, that it is not being used to its full
Performance’ concept would ensure that any work carried potential. Often the technologies and systems are
out reaped the maximum benefits and results that it can. in place, but the education, training opportunities
It might not simply focus on one strategic manoeuvre and interactions with others is what sets apart the
to make the operation of one ship more efficient, but potential and the achieved reality. Prime performance
rather consider the entire body or business operation. The would be about realising and exploiting these
interconnections, the symbiotic links and how technology, potentials in order to optimise operations at each
people and systems work harmoniously together would be, and every corner and achieve what is so-readily
in my mind, all part of the ‘Prime Performance’ concept. achievable.
Ship Efficiency Review
Feature Focus 16

  The human element would be a huge part of the analysed and used for decision-making. Data must
‘Prime Performance’ concept and as with any aspect of be truly understood and applied effectively. The prime
streamlining or enhancing shipping operations, it must performance of shipping operations in the era into
not be underestimated. New and evolving technology is which the industry is sailing cannot be achieved if
very much a part of the lives of millennials and they are the software systems and sensors are not available
used to adapting their skills and mastering the functions to analyse to the very last detail. The analyst that
of new technologies at rapid speed. However, the deciphers what is needed to feed into decision making
sudden implementation of such advanced technologies is imperative.
onboard may not be what a more traditional crew is   Furthermore, reporting culture is fundamental, as
accustomed to. Mixing experience with the enthusiasm is shared responsibility. Ensuring consistent and best
of technically-minded younger generations is a recipe quality data is essential to actually understanding how
for getting the best use out of the available technology. the vessel works, where inefficiencies lie and what
This approach would be what I consider to be a prime can be done to improve its operation. However, what
performance strategy. is more essential is that data is extracted carefully and
  It is imperative that crews are not just encouraged at consistent times to reduce the chance of human
to welcome new technical maritime developments, error anomalies and support the human factor.
but are taught how to use them to their full potential   At a time of increasing regulatory enforcements,
to allow them to function at their individual prime fuel price fluctuations and the transition into the
performance. Enabling each technology, strategy and era of the smart ship, all factors of a shipping and
task to operate at prime attainment will contribute business operation from engines to crew welfare
to an overall prime performing business ecosystem. must be considered. A prime performance mentality
The human element is crucial in attaining the Prime could show how ship owners and operators can boost
Performance ideology. capabilities, performance and capacity in order to drive
  Although ‘Big Data’ is a popular industry buzzword a business’ effectiveness and competitive advantage.
the use of such data is only going to contribute   The question is: is this a new industry buzzword on
towards wider operational benefits if it can be properly the horizon? Only time will tell. ∎
17 Ship Efficiency Review
Environmental Technology



Traditional hull cleaning operations using divers with all its vessels. A leading scientific marine consultancy
brushes are prohibited within Rotterdam’s port waters has also reportedly expressed an interest in conducting
due to concerns about marine pollution. However, new a rigorous data analysis of HullWiper with a view to
environmentally, friendly HullWiper technology that will putting it to their customers as an efficiency solution. ∎
be introduced to the port mitigates pollution concerns
through the use of adjustable water-jet cleaning and
debris collection systems.
  The Port of Rotterdam’s Senior Manager, Peter
Mollema, recently stated that the ground-breaking
technology is aligned exactly with the the port’s
ambition to be the most sustainable port of its kind.
  HullWiper is seeing growing interest and uptake at
the ports where it operates in the Middle East, Far East
and Europe. The Manufacturers of HullWiper, GAC, say
that one of Northern Europe’s oldest ship owners has
ordered hull cleaning in Singapore and in Rotterdam,
and is implementing a policy to use HullWiper to clean


The United States Coast Guard’s (USCG) Ballast
Water Management Program for Alternative
A tool developed by scrubber manufacturer SAAKE
Management Systems (AMS) has been updated in
enables the design of a scrubber to be determined
light of the fact that to-date Type Approval has not
in advance to increase transparency and planning
been granted to ballast water treatment systems
reliability. The tool uses input ship and operating
(BWTS) by the USCG.
data to calculate details of the system design, such
  The USCG has confirmed that the AMS can be
as dimensions, number of
used for five years from the extended compliance
components, or size of the
date if the AMS is installed prior to the expiration of
pump system. This means that
the vessel’s extended compliance date.
the required installation space
  According to the Marine Safety Information
for the a scrubber can be
(MSIB) dated 13 July 2016, the USCG states that:
estimated based on a visual
A vessel with an installed AMS may request an
representation, which has
extension and operate under the terms of that
the potential to lead to cost
extension rather than using the AMS, or it may
savings as a smaller system
employ other ballast water management methods
requires less investment and
available under the regulation. ∎
less installation space. ∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Environmental Technology 18


The GadCooler technology helps turn waste heat into air conditioning and refrigeration to
improve the efficiency of ship operations and reduce fuel consumption.

The technology is based on absorption, steam utlisation,   To date the solution has been installed on Eckero Line’s
rest heat from engine cooling water and heat from new cruise ferry M/S Finlandia. The ferry, which operates
boilers. It provides chilled water using a non-toxic between Helsinki and Tallin will be able to get much of its
absorption fluid as a transfer media. cooling capacity needed from GadCooler by using a unit
  Large cruise ships operating in tropical conditions can with a capacity of approximately 500 kW.
consume as much as 10 MW power for cooling purposes,   The GadCooler has been developed by Gadlab
which requires significant amounts of fuel. Conventional Engineering, with patent pending. Gadlab Engineering
cooling compressors are usually used but GadCooler provides the complete system including connection
helps to improve efficiency of cooling by using existing design with existing onboard systems.
heat sources. A small amount of energy is required for   Johan Aberg, Naval Architect at Gadlab Engineering
the transfer pumps but the savings in fuel and emissions commented: “We have developed the GadCooler to
reductions is significant. operate in a maritime environment. This requires specific
  The system, which has received system approval design considerations to be incorporated. The result is an
from DNV GL, is practically maintenance-free and can energy saving, efficient, quiet, and vibration free cooler
be installed during normal service docking. It features with a short pay-back time for the owner.”
a smart control system that optimises the cooling   The development project of the GadCooler received
efficiency and is available as one or several units, each funding from Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for
with a cooling power of up to 5,000 kW. Innovation. ∎

A compact tradition

Introducing the world’s smallest EGCS.

From the Japanese tradition
of compact design comes
SaveBlue, the most cost-
effective way to comply with
upcoming IMO emissions
regulations. Our SOx scrubber
uses energy-efficient cyclone
technology in tandem with a
laser gas analyser engineered
for the sea to save you space At just 7m tall and 2m in diameter,
and money. Perfect for the scrubber fits easily in any
design and can remove more than
retrofitting or new builds, 98% of SOx for a 10MW engine.
SaveBlue is the natural choice, The laser gas analyser provides
continuous monitoring of SO2 and
as it allows continued use of
CO2, and has 90% less mass than
heavy fuel oil. conventional sampling analysers.

To learn more about

SaveBlue, visit

Exhaust Gas Cleaning System (EGCS) for the main engine made by Fuji Electric is provided
for the practical test of actual ship installation and closed loop being supported by the
joint research support project between ClassNK and IMABARI SHIPBUILDING CO., LTD.
19 Ship Efficiency Review
Environmental Technology

By Don Stephen, VP product
management, De Nora

After years of waiting, the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention is now within a hairs-breadth of
ratification. There is no doubt that the twelve months between ratification and entry into force will be a busy
period. And by retrofitting vessels now or defining a clear plan with a fit-for-purpose ballast water treatment
system (BWTS) in mind for each vessel in the fleet, savvy owners are ensuring they stay ahead of the game.
Shipowners and operators will be familiar with the criteria for selecting each burden through their choice of BWTS.
BWTS and will have likely discussed them at length. This includes elements It is therefore not just a matter of
such as the routes it is expected to operate along, vessel size, and ballast the type of BWTS that best suits the
tank volume and pumping rate. Ensuring that the system chosen has IMO vessel and its operating pattern, the
Type-Approval is a universal consideration, but large, internationally trading maintenance requirements of each
vessels will also need a system certified under the US Coast Guard (USCG) solution and potential impact on crew
alternate management system and one progressing well through the USCG and day-to-day operations must also
Type-Approval process. be considered.
  Something that is critical but often overlooked, however, is the requirement   De Nora’s knowledge and
for and level of system maintenance required. experience of ‘in situ’ biocide
electrolytic disinfection solutions
"SOMETHING THAT IS CRITICAL BUT extends beyond shipping and ballast
OFTEN OVERLOOKED, HOWEVER, IS THE water treatment; thereby enabling
innovations that overcome this
REQUIREMENT FOR AND LEVEL OF SYSTEM key and significant maintenance
MAINTENANCE REQUIRED." challenge. Its unique and proprietary
self-cleaning system allows the
  For larger vessels with large ballast tanks and high pumping rates, slip polarity of the electrodes to be
stream electrochlorination systems are the clear BWTS of choice. These reversed. This means that the
systems offer a flexible footprint and because the chemical treatment is deposits are stripped from the
introduced into the ballast line, rather than treating the entire volume of cathodes as they switch, becoming
water in the line, it is more effective for large ballast tanks. But, standard anodes through the same process
electrochlorination systems require ongoing maintenance to ensure effective in which it accumulated. This is done
treatment and safeguard the energy efficiency of the system. in a fully automatic manner by the
  Electrochlorination BWTS use electrolysis of seawater to produce a system, eliminating the need for
sodium hypochlorite solution, which is injected into the ballast line to kill crew intervention, ensuring that an
the organisms in the water. Over time, mineral deposits of calcium and effective and efficient BWTS is self-
magnesium can accumulate on the cathodes. This fouling reduces levels of maintained.
chlorine produced, compromising the efficacy of the system and therefore   Installing an effective and type-
permission to deballast. In more serious cases, fouling can lead to a total approved BWTS will very soon be
failure of the BWTS as the electrodes become overloaded with residue and mandatory. Although this presents
short-circuit. Or if a full blockage occurs, the electrodes are no longer cooled an additional environmental challenge
by the seawater and can overheat to a temperature able to ignite the plastic in a period of economic uncertainty,
body of the electrolyser. taking a short-term view could
  To avoid these potentially damaging situations, crews will need to be lead to additional problems further
specifically trained to clean the electrodes regularly every 8-10 months using down the line. To safeguard long
hydrochloric acid, or another similar acid. Additional training and personal term compliance and efficiency, this
protection equipment will also need to be supplied to ensure the safe regulation requires more than just a
handling of this acid. tick-box solution, which is why owners
  In an industry where many crews are already overburdened and tasked must contemplate the full breadth
with activities that many are ill equipped to perform, shipowners and of considerations before making an
operators are understandably nervous about potentially increasing that informed and effective decision.∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Environmental Technology 20

By Catherine Austin, Editor
A unique anti-fouling ingredient that functions by temporarily stimulating barnacle larvae’s
swimming behaviour in order to repel the settlement of barnacles on ship hulls is to enter
into the mainstream market following a 16-year journey from concept to industrialisation.

Chugoku Marine Paints (CMP) have been rigorously testing I-TECH’s carrier Calypso operated by Sweden’s
Selektope following their initial interest in the product’s development almost Laurin Maritime.
ten years ago.   Philip Chaabane, Chief Executive
  Selektope is distinguished by extremely low biocidal loading and is I-TECH, commented: “After a 16-
harmless to the marine environment. It is organic and non-metallic, with a year journey for Selektope through
proven efficacy of 0.1% weight/weight. This means that it can be included research, testing, approvals and
as a 0.1% constituent of antifouling coatings – only a fraction of the active industrialisation, we are honoured
substance for compatible to a traditional copper biocide. As only a small to be part of CMP’s new premium
quantity of the ingredient is required, it has no impact on the chemical antifouling range.
structure, colour or other cooperative biocides of a marine coating.   Earlier this year, Selektope passed
  I-TECH say that at first, like many other paint manufacturers testing another major milestone. Under the
Selektope, CMP did not believe that the ingredient would work in such low EU’s Biocidal Products Regulation,
concentrations. However, tests proved the efficacy at low concentrations Selektope achieved an industry-first
and the remarkable performance of the ingredient and from that CMP approval as a pharmacological means
decided to include the Selektope ingredient under both of their brands - of combatting barnacle settlement,
SEAFLO NEO CF PREMIUM and the SEAFLO NEO-S PREMIUM. sparking widespread interest for
antifouling coatings.
  Formal EC adoption of the
approval regulation was signed by
EC President Jean-Claude Juncker,
meaning that Selektope is permitted
for use under the European Union
(EU) Biocidal Products Directive in
antifouling products throughout the
EU from 1 January 2016.
  I-TECH say that they welcomed
double the orders in the first part of
2016 compared with 2015 thanks to
  CMP have stated that “Selektope is proving to be spectacularly effective this approval.
in the prevention of barnacle attachment and is confirming itself capable of   The increase in demand following
unsurpassed antifouling performance, even when a ship is at anchorage for regulatory approval may be attributed
months.” to Selektope’s ability to extend static
  SEAFLO NEO CF PREMIUM uses zinc polymer technology that has an in- performance of the coating. I-Tech
service life of more than five years and is applicable to all oceangoing vessels has been able to meet this increased
operating worldwide, whereas the SEAFLO NEO-S PREMIUM is based on demand through its agreement with
silyl polymer technology and targets low activity vessels and even ships that life sciences corporation Cambrex,
are static for months. The SEAFLO NEO-S PREMIUM is currently being used enabling Selektope to be produced
in South Korean shipyards. on an industrial scale.
  SEAFLO NEO CF PREMIUM has already been applied in full coats to   In April this year, I-Tech’s Selektope
vessels owned by shipping companies based in Sweden, Hong Kong, South was awarded with the Environmental
Korea and Japan. Performance Award at the European
  Initial commercial applications of marine coatings with Selektope, which is Marine Engineering Awards 2016 which
now fully approved for use by the relevant authorities in Japan, South Korea, celebrates the environmental benefits
China and Europe, took place in 2015. Its first publically-disclosed application of a product, process or management
took place at Sembcorp in Singapore, when a new copper-free product from approach as a result of implementation
CMP was applied to the side walls of the 2010-built, 46,000DWT chemical for the first time in 2015.∎
21 Ship Efficiency Review
Environmental Technology

The U.S. Coast Guard ballast water management Because the Coast Guard has not yet type-approved any
regulations are set out in Title 33, Code of Federal BWMS, and because U.S. public water system sources
Regulations (CFR) Part 151, Subparts C and D. Whereas are not generally available or practicable for vessel ballast
Subpart C applies only to the Great Lakes and the operations, options (1) and (3) above are essentially
Hudson River, Subpart D applies more generally to impossible to comply with. As a result, the Coast Guard
waters of the United States; thus, this article will focus has been routinely granting vessel compliance date
only on Subpart D. extension requests , with the main cause of delay or
  Generally, Subpart D provides that by a vessel’s rejection being administrative or clerical errors, such as
compliance date as specified in 33 CFR 151.2035 misaddressing the extension request.
(referred to as the “original compliance date”), the   This essentially pro forma extension process will get
master, owner, operator, agent, or person in charge much more complex once BWMS become type approved
(owner, et al) of a non-exempt vessel desiring to in the U.S. No longer will the extension request be able
discharge ballast water into waters of the United States to “document that, despite all efforts, compliance . . . is
(defined as those waters out to 12 nautical miles from not possible” simply by referencing the non-availability of
the baseline) must either: (1) ensure that the ballast U.S. type approved systems. The justification provided
water meets the ballast water discharge standard as in the extension request will have to become much
defined in 33 CFR 151.2030(a); (2) use an alternate more nuanced and fact specific. “Difficult” does not
management system as described in 33 CFR 151.2025(a) equate to “not possible;” the owner, et al, will have to
(3); or (3) ballast with water from a U.S. public water demonstrate that such factors as inapplicability of the
system, as described in 33 CFR 151.2025(a)(2). It is system to the vessel or its intended use, the timing of
envisioned that option (1) above will be achieved by the drydocking at which the system would be installed,
installation and operation of a U.S. type approved ballast order backlogs of type approved systems, and other such
water management system (BWMS). complications individually or collectively operate to make
  The original compliance date may be extended if “compliance . . . not possible.” As more systems get
the owner, et al, in charge of a non-exempt vessel can type approved, and initial supply and installation backlogs
document that, despite all efforts, compliance with the work themselves out, the justification required to obtain
regulations is not possible. Furthermore, the extension an extension or supplemental extension will get even
itself can be extended by a streamlined supplemental that much more challenging. ∎
extension process, as discussed in CG-OES Policy Letter
No. 13-01, revision 2 (16 November 2015). About The Author
Captain Andrew Norris, U.S. Coast Guard (retired)
is a maritime attorney and consultant. He regularly speaks as an expert
on the topic of ballast water regulatory compliance and acts as an
expert adviser to ship owners and operators.
Contact: +1 (401) 871-7482.


• An overview of regulatory requirements.
• Key considerations - the practical implementation of ballast water treatment technology.
• A technical breakdown of ballast water treatment technology options.
• Installation considerations (newbuild and retrofit).
• A step-by-step guide to complying with the Convention.
• An independent review of all providers and systems.

Purchase your copy now via
Ship Efficiency Review
Environmental Technology 22


Engineering and environmental consultancy firm Ricardo is working alongside Recycling Technologies to
develop recycled low-sulphur marine bunker fuel from mixed plastic waste.

Recycling Technologies has developed a machine, the specific fuel oil consumption and exhaust emissions. This
RT7000, that can help convert plastic waste into a will help to fully understand the behaviour of Plaxx in
low-sulphur hydrocarbon compound, known as Plaxx. this type of engine and enable the further refinement of
This material can then be used as a sustainable fuel engine and fuel settings for maximum efficiency and low
substitute for traditional heavy fuel oil (HFO). emissions.
  The companies will work together to assess the   Adrian Griffiths, CEO Recycling Technologies
performance of Plaxx compared with HFO and diesel in a commented: “ Working together with Ricardo on this
typical marine engine or propulsion application. Ricardo’s project, we are now taking steps to get Plaxx qualified
research and test engine, the Atlas II will evaluate the so that it is fit for use in medium and large marine
performance of the fuels in large multi-cylinder engine engines. Plaxx is an ultra-low sulphur feedstock and
designs from 150-200mm bore and will represent can be adapted for use in any markets where crude oil
engines between 0.5-5MW in a single power cylinder. derivatives are used. Through this pilot project, we hope
Using this test engine will also result in a 90% decrease to qualify Plaxx as meeting the new global MARPOL
of test fuel consumed in a typical research project. requirements.”
  The Atlas II will undergo back-to-back testing   The companies say that the generation of this fuel
with various loads using Plaxx, diesel and HFO for from plastic will help to reduce the amount of waste that
comparison. Combustion characterisation will be trialled goes to landfill as the plastic waste used for Plaxx is the
based on the measured in-cylinder pressure, power, un-recyclable plastic that would end up in the ground. ∎

The Ecochlor Ballast Water Treatment System : proven effective and reliable for

over 11 years at sea. Meets or exceeds USCG and IMO standards.

Ecochlor System : Simple operation, rugged construction, unique technology.
w w
23 Ship Efficiency Review
Electronics & Software



A group of scientists have studied ballast water position (GPS), date and time at which the ship
exchange using a remote monitoring system operates its ballast system and is remotely
that used sensors to measure turbidity, salinity, transferred via satellite transmission to an Internet
dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature. The server. As an additional advantage, the information
research proved that the system allowed for collected can be automatically transmitted to the
independent verification of information provided by port authorities, improving the reliability of this
the crew in the ballast water reporting form. The information and reducing, or even removing, the
data collected was tagged with the geographical possibility of data tampering. ∎



Eco Marine Power (EMP) has updated the Aquarius DNV GL has signed a new partnership agreement with
Management & Automation System (MAS), installed M.A.C Solutions for its ECO Insight ship efficiency
on the solar power system-equipped Blue Star Delos tool, a partnership that will see information from
high-speed RoRo/passenger ship, with new fuel oil M.A.C’s data collection system be incorporated into
consumption (FOC) and emissions monitoring software. the ship performance software.
  This updated software combined with the Aquarius   The data collection system from M.A.C, SDBnet,
MAS hardware allows for fuel consumption data from is a web-based soft and hardware platform that was
all flow meters on the ship to be displayed and logged designed to exchange data between non-stationary
in real-time. Data is logged every minute and via a vessels and a centralised stationary data base at
connection to a dedicated GPS unit, the ships location shore.
and speed is displayed and logged. A trip-meter is also   Data points are manually reported by the vessel
available so that fuel consumption can be monitored for a crew and optionally collected by on-board sensors.
specific time period or voyage. The information is then transmitted to shore where it
  The fuel and emissions monitoring software was co- can be processed by the office system and displayed
developed with KEI System Ltd., of Osaka, Japan. ∎ for further analytics, such as fuel consumption. ∎


Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) has signed a Memorandum Service Software’ to help ship owners carry out safe
of Understanding (MoU) to create an ecosystem for smart operations and improved crew wellbeing.
ships with SK Shipping, Intel, Microsoft, the Ulsan Center   The Ship Service Software aims to enable ballast tank
for Creative Economy & Innovation and the Daejeon Center inspections, remote medical treatment services for crews,
for Creative Economy & Innovation. virtual reality training, automatic voyage information
  The MoU will enable HHI and its partners to help small reporting and maintenance for key equipment. It is expected
and medium-sized ICT companies to develop ‘17 Ship to be applied to ships by 2019. ∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Electronics & Software 24


Vice President - Propulsion Dynamics

Being able to draw the right conclusions from Big Data is, and always will be, a fine art that requires expertise in
hydrodynamics, practical ship operations experience skill, and the right analysis tools. In most applications, data
mining itself in Big Data will not necessarily bring any conclusions that can help drive ship efficiency in the right
direction. On the contrary there are numerous examples of just the opposite.
For example, a common approach is to “window dress” data, so that a particular other guidance measures that are
trend or point can be made. And while it is true that data shows a particular behaviour crucial for making the right decisions
in the “window”, it will typically be wrong to extrapolate outside of the “window” and and implementing fact based strategies,
draw any conclusions from the extrapolation. without having to number-crunch the “Big
  Another mistaken approach is to somehow do “cherry picking” in the Big Data Data” themselves, or draw resources
sets when you are selecting or filtering data. Just as with “window dressing” you are from technical and IT staff.
likely to draw conclusions based on what you hope to see.   Big Data is most welcome in the
  These are just obvious examples of errors that can be made without deep area of ship performance analysis. In
hydrodynamic analysis. There are very many other examples where it is not so obvious to connection with deep hydrodynamic
exactly pinpoint what the error is that is causing a faulty conclusion based on data mining analysis it becomes easy to: determine
Big Data storages. Having said that, there are great opportunities and gains to be had of performance losses are attributed
from Big Data and there is very little doubt that both existing and new applications based to hull OR propeller, estimate daily
on Big Data will help companies to better analysis and to take the right decisions. FOC savings attributed to hull cleaning,
  In shipping there are lots of applications which are good candidates to be improved propeller cleaning, full-blasting of hull,
and explored by using Big Data. One of the more obvious applications is ship compare hull coating systems. In
performance analysis where tools and services, such as the CASPER® Service, addition, Future Fuel Budgeting (what
thrive on having access to Big Data from ships. will the daily FOC be in 3 months or 6
  The analysis methods in the CASPER® Service are based on physical and months or 1 year, assuming consistent
mathematical model of the ships propulsion system. These methods are in turn voyage patterns, transparency and
augmented by statistically based tools and checks (such as adaptive parameter benchmarking between owner and
estimations). All of these methods are well suited for exploiting the benefits of Big charterer on all matters related to FOC.
Data. The use of statistical tools and checks are especially widely enhanced when   While Big Data isn’t in itself going
Big Data is applied. All this generally will lead to more accurate results and make to bring a revolution, it will definitely
the CASPER® Service, and other ship performance analysis tools, even better set the bar a couple of notches higher
for analysing ships’ performance and in turn help shipowners, shipmanagers and for performance excellence and what
charterers make better decisions in regards to maintenance strategies and actions. it achievable when coupled with
  For the CASPER® Service specifically, it inherently builds on physical laws and hydrodynamic analysis. ∎
models and relatively easy to
implement reality checks on the
raw ship performance data without
use of too much pre-filtering. This
helps the CASPER® Service to
Beyond monitoring:
avoid scenarios with e.g. “window
dressing” and “cherry picking”.
Also, faulty draft readings and other
ship performance analysis
commonly occurring issues (faulty The CASPER® Service provides technical managers
correlations between Speed, Power with the information they need to sustain highest
and RPM as a result of sensor propulsion efficiency in a changing technology
errors) in raw performance data are environment for drydock treatment, planned
easily and often also timely identified
and dealt with.
maintenance and performance monitoring systems.
  Service-based tools like the
CASPER® Service ensures that
everyone in the organisation
The CASPER Service
always has easy access to readily
available performance KPI’s and • Performance modeling

• Ship-type benchmarking
• Tailored recommendations

©2016 Propulsion Dynamics, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Ship Efficiency Review
Ship Design


Two young entrepreneurs are developing virtual testbeds designed to optimise the performance of
marine diesel engines in the hope of selling their product to global shipping companies.

During the course of an eight-year research period, two

mechanical engineers; Christophe Barro and Panagiotis
Kyrtatos, developed combustion and emission models
that can be used as virtual sensors in a physical engine.
  Their plan is to use these sensors in a commercial
environment to simulate the performance of large ship
engines. These models are then used for continuous
re-tuning of the engines for specific emission limits and
minimisation of fuel consumption independently from
The founders of Vir2sense: Panagiotis Kyrtatos (l.) and Christophe Barro (r.).
current environmental and operating conditions. (Photograph: ETH Zurich / Peter Rüegg)
  This becomes increasingly important when taking
into account different fuel qualities, which can change which is time-consuming and expensive.
the engine combustion behaviour and emissions The virtual test environment and its sensors therefore
significantly. not only save shipping companies the task of
  Depending on the price of fuel and transport continuously recalibrating sensors, but also having
volumes, ships can change their nominal speed in order to repeatedly replace them. This saves them a lot of
to save fuel and reduce emissions. In some cases, ship money, because the simulation also produces a real
owners swap out individual components to make the drop in fuel consumption.
engine run more efficiently at lower speeds. This task   “Even a saving in the low single-digit percentage
is generally performed mostly on the basis of empirical range can make a big difference in the shipping
values. business”, Barro emphasised.
“Tuning an engine can be a little hit and miss; it can   This leaves the young entrepreneurs fairly confident
require significant time which cannot be used to that the estimated price of their product will not put
transport goods and can result in high fuel and other off potential customers: They believe that one of their
operating costs – a model-based approach produces a simulation units will cost between 20,000 and 30,000
far more efficient result”, said Barro. Swiss francs (approx. USD 20,500 - 30,500) per ship. It
  With the help of their virtual testbed, Barro and could be a good investment for a ship owner or operator
Kyrtatos are able to calculate in advance on the as the engineering duo say that the amount is recouped
computer how a motor will run with certain settings in savings within a year.
and which of its components need to be modified – and   Barro and Kyrtatos are currently still working as senior
how – in order to achieve the necessary savings. assistants and lecturers at the Aerothermochemistry
  The researchers use virtual sensors to “measure” the and Combustion Systems Laboratory (LAV) under
engine’s emissions, among other things. These sensors Professor Konstantinos Boulouchos.
have a big advantage over their physical counterparts:   In the future they plan to still collaborate closely
they can be placed anywhere in the engine. Physical with the group for the development of new products
sensors, on the other hand, can only be placed in a directed towards the automotive, heavy duty and
limited number of positions. marine markets.
  “If you want to monitor the engine of a giant cargo   Vir2sense is one of the newest members of the
ship, for example, you can’t simply stick a sensor in ETH family of spin-offs. Barro studied mechanical
the exhaust pipe in order to measure emissions”, Barro engineering at ETH, then went on to become a doctoral
stated. student and postdoc. He is now a senior assistant
  The physical environment in the exhaust system of at the LAV, where he is head of a research group.
a marine engine is very harsh, and physical sensors Kyrtatos also completed his doctorate at ETH Zurich
have to be replaced sometimes after less than 100 and currently leads a research group in the same
hours of operation. The average deep-sea vessel travels laboratory. The company was legally founded in March
around 8,000 hours a year, however. On top of that, 2016, making it one of the most recent recipients of the
the sensors have to be recalibrated after a short period, official label “ETH Spin-off”. ∎
Smarter ship
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• Fully integrated fleet management system
• Tailored to your needs
• Best-in-class user interface
• Rapid deployment, excellent support

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27 Ship Efficiency Review
Electronics & Software

Seldom has a sight seeing vessel turned so many heads in commercial shipping as the carbon fibre Vision
of the Fjords. For shipping worldwide, however, it may be the ship’s bridge technology that proves its most
significant feature.
Known as ‘Seasight’ through her development phase at shipyard Brødene aa,   In addition to the main displays, the
the eye-catching Vision of the Fjords began carrying tourists between Flåm Vision of the Fjords bridge console also
and Gudvangen along Norway’s western coast in June, taking in the UNESCO- includes the Simrad GC85 Compact
protected Nærøyfjord. Those on board are free to roam over the distinctive zig- gyro system, which is fully approved for
zagging exterior in pursuit of the ultimate view - a design aiming to emulate a High Speed Craft - trailed as the most
mountainside trail. flexible Gyrocompass on the market in
  The feature bringing the ferry to wider attention has been its propulsion, whose installation, configuration and cost terms.
hybrid DC distribution and storage solution allows Vision of the Fjords to switch   Also onboard is the Simrad AP80
to silent, two emission-free 287 kWh batteries when entering conservation autopilot system, which features
areas. However, the high profile pleasure cruiser is notable for a less feted adaptive software that offers users
the opportunity to select either auto
or navigation modes, with settings to
enable slow speed and manoeuvring
quickly. The newly-designed Simrad
MX612 navigation system onboard
has been designed to match the AP80
autopilot, and its 5” LCD bonded screen
is distinguished by a clearer and fog-
proof display with wide viewing angles.
Vision of the Fjords   Last, but not least, is the Simrad
EP70 Emergency Position Indicating
technical solution preferred onboard, whose impact may be more immediate in an Radio Beacon (EPIRB), whose high-
increasingly tech-savvy commercial shipping market. intensity LED at to the top of the
  Vision of the Fjords provides a further reference for Simrad-branded bridge antenna ensures optimal visibility.
equipment, in a segment of the shipping market whose new business oxygen is in   The Fjords chief executive Rolf
short supply, but where the equipment’s supplier is a fast rising force. Sandvik has already given notice that
All of the new ferry’s main bridge equipment items - from the radar to the the partnership behind Vision on the
electronic chart display information system (ECDIS), autopilot, compact gyro Fjords intends to build more vessels
compass, and DGPS - are Simrad-branded solutions. of similar specification. The anticipated
  “This is a major reference for Simrad safety, navigation and control technology”, newbuilds will all feature “the latest
says Leif Ottosson, CEO, Navico. “The Norwegian ferry market is rightly known technology”, according to Sandvik.
as a trend setter in ship technology, but it is also fiercely competitive. Securing this   Whether that means more orders
contract puts Simrad bridge products at the heart of innovation in the commercial for Simrad-branded remains to be
maritime industry.” seen, but The Fjords is by no means
  In fact, Vision of the Fjords provides an early showcase for the Simrad PLECDIS exceptional in its class of vessels for
E5024 system, launched last year as the latest IMO type-approved Simrad navigation having specified Simrad products.
system for use aboard SOLAS vessels, and distinguished by simple installation and In May, the supplier hosted a media
intuitive user interface. Also onboard are two Argus 12U radars for high speed craft. event in Stavanger, showcasing
Working off one 9ft and one 6ft antennas, Simrad’s X-band technology can merge Helgøy Glimt, a carbon fibre fast ferry
two antenna images (including full ARPA and AIS) in one display. which also undertakes passenger
  The Simrad PLECDIS E5024 itself is a dual ECDIS station solution, featuring services in the Norwegian fjords. The
a wireless trackball controller, 24-inch Full-HD 16:9 widescreens with on-screen vessel has been fitted with Simrad
keyboards, and simplified drag-and-drop waypoint manipulation for route planning. ECDIS, Simrad Argus X Band, Argus S
Ship Efficiency Review
Electronics & Software 28
Band radars, and also the Simrad HALO™ radar– the world’s
first high-performance solid-state, open-array radar system
with pulse compression technology.
  Helgøy Skyssbat owner Kristen Helgøy was on hand
to praise the sharp radar definition when moving past
a series of small islands, even in poor weather. He also
complimented the Simrad dual ECDIS E5024 for both
ease of use and online training availability.
  At 21m in length, it is worth noting that Helgøy Glimt is not
obliged to carry SOLAS-compliant navigational equipment like
this. However, all navigators are trained on ECDIS in Norway.
Mr Helgøy told journalists that seafarers onboard expected to Helgøy Glimt
operate highest quality equipment as a matter of course, in
order not to jeopardise future employment. electronics sector for the years ahead.
  Helgøy Glimt’s V5024 AIS A, two MXGN70 GPS CDU,   One of the distinguishing features of the company, in both
HS80 GPS compass, AP80 autopilot with quick stick, EPIRB the commercial and leisure sectors, is that it manufactures
EP70 and SART SA70 are also Simrad products. its own products. It also continues to bring new product
  Then, in June, Australian operator Manly Fast Ferries to the commercial maritime market, most recently with
installed Simrad bridge equipment and broadband radar the introduction of a new IMO-approved integrated radar
on four new catamarans for Sydney Harbour operations. system for use on Category 3 SOLAS vessels, workboats,
The shipowner ordered an NSO Evo2 quad-core marine tugs and coastal fishing boats. The new product aims at a
processor, a 4G broadband radar, an Autopilot AP28, and space ‘in between’ the Simrad Argus IMO radar and the
Simrad MO16T widescreen monitors. radar the company supplies for recreational vessels. It
  Manly Fast Ferries managing director Will Ford said: “The makes use of the multifunction display developed for the
broadband radar in particular has made a huge difference. cutting edge Halo radar, launched in 2015, and the Argus
The low-emissions view, target definition and separation is scanner.
extremely helpful in close-quarters manoeuvring.”   As the distinctive Vision of the Fjords continues to turn
  Even before a recent injection of investment from heads cruising up and down the Norwegian coast in perhaps
Goldman Sachs, spokesmen for the Navico Commercial the highest specification maritime market in the world,
Marine division through which Simrad-branded products are ambitions for Simrad-branded products will surely be done no
offered had forecast consolidation in the commercial marine harm at all. ∎


Between 2015 and 2016 Pinfabb carried out a smart stabiliser project on a Tallink AS ferry,
M/V Isabelle, renewing the existing controls and optimising the stabilisation performance.

Pinfabb has released sea trial results from the touchscreen panel to replace the old analogic panel.
system’s performance on the ferry that prove the This system provides analytical data about the
system can reduce 50% of stabiliser drag, improving stabilisation and also offers suggestions in order to
the cruise speed of 0.25 knots without changing the obtain the optimal use of fins.
engine load.   The engine control room’s main analogue panel
  The sea trials were performed in navigation between unit was also replaced with a less bulky, Modern
Sweden and Latvia. Touch-Display. New Digital Automation (FDA) was
  Tallink confirmed that the Pinfabb system enabled also installed instead of the obsolete local units and
the crew to keep a good level of comfort and safety all connections from the local unit to the bridge now
onboard without the necessity to improve the engines use a single Ethernet cable. START & STOP digital
load and the relative fuel consumption and CO2 buttons were also added for a simple operation by
emissions. the crew, when needed.
  For the upgrade, Pinfabb supplied new compatible   Pinfabb say that if the system is operated in ECO
hydraulic parts to bring the stabiliser plant ‘back to life’. mode it can reduce fins drag and fuel consumption
In the wheelhouse Pinfabb installed a new, intuitive by up to 60%. ∎
29 Ship Efficiency Review
Power & Propulsion




The ABB azipod propulsion units will feature   SKF is also

SKF’s custom made thrust bearing arrangements, providing other
incorporating housing and seals, and high performance technologies for the
self-aligning CARB toroidal roller bearings for the icebreaking tankers,
propeller shafts. including the Turbulo
  ABB’s Azipod propulsion units are currently being Bilge water separators
installed on LNG ice-breaking tankers of 170,000m3 for and SKF BlueMon,
the purpose of the Yamal project that is designed to an environmental
open up gas from the Yamal peninsula and transport it monitoring system
to Asia and Europe. ABB Marine has also worked with for recording and
SKF to further develop the Azipod units for ten LNG mapping ship
carriers to operate in this peninsula. emissions. ∎


Schottel has optimised
its rudder propellers
Ilshin Shipping’s newbuild 50,000 DWT bulk carrier will be
with a coating process
powered by a MAN B&W 6G50ME-C9.5-GI dual-fuel engine.
to enhance corrosion
  The ME-GI engine is a dual-fuel low speed diesel engine
protection and greater
that allows ship owners to use either heavy fuel oil (HFO)
resistance to abrasion.
or natural gas to meet emissions reductions requirements
  The components of
for carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen
the propulsion units
oxides (NOx). The engine also has a negligible, unburnt
that are underwater
gas slip, which means that it does not contribute to the
are coated with layers
greenhouse effects of such slips. In addition, the diesel
of two-component
combustion principle
epoxy resin that
leaves no formaldehyde
gives over twice the
abrasion resistance
  The ship is to be
and 60% greater
built by Hyundai Mipo
adhesion than
Dockyard Co., Ltd (HMD)
conventional coatings. For the above water sections,
and chartered by POSCO
Schottel has used a dense and durable two-component
to transport limestone,
polyurethane coating.
while the engine will be
  The coatings also inhibit the adhesion of marine
built by Hyundai Heavy
organisms to enhance durability and efficiency. If
Industries – Engine &
required, the coatings can be self-polished and an
Machinery Division (HHI-
antifouling final coat applied, says Schottel.∎
EMD). ∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Power & Propulsion 30

TURBOCHARGER TECHNOLOGY By Fiona Macdonald, Assistant Editor
The ideology of ships having lesser environmental impact but their machinery and propulsion systems still
delivering maximum power output, low fuel consumption and high energy conservation is fuelling the uptake
of turbocharger technology in the marine industry.
This technology has a rich history. In 1905, Swiss engineer by 20%, the engine power can be reduced to 45% of its
Alfred Büchi, the man considered the inventor of exhaust minimum output, lowering fuel burnt per hour by around
gas turbocharging was granted a patent to undertake initial 60%. However, for turbocharger technology this means
turbocharging experiments, and 50 years later the principle operating outside the range they were designed for, which
was finally applied to large marine two-stroke engines. can lead to a reduction in scavenge air pressure, improper
Overall efficiencies are now able to reach over 70% by combustion and turbocharger fouling.
allowing some exhaust gas to be diverted to a power   In order to combat this, turbochargers have advanced to
recovery turbine, supplementing the main engine’s efforts . increase stability at low speed by using turbocharger cut-out
  But how do they achieve such efficiencies? Turbocharger where at least two turbochargers are present, enabling the
technology forces extra air into the combustion chamber turbocharger to match the engine’s new operating conditions.
and this increases the power output, they ‘supercharge’   According to MAN PrimeServ , the ship operator then
the engine. This makes ships more energy efficient without has the option of disabling one of the turbochargers for low-
adding to the engine weight. The technology can also load operation, improving the performance of the remaining
contribute to ships producing fewer emissions and can turbocharger and reducing specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC).
maintain performance of the vessel.   In addition to this being a popular method when slow steaming,
Emissions Reduction Potential it has also been used to successfully reduce NOx emissions.
The emission reduction capability of turbochargers is Matching Turbochargers to Engines
dependent upon their high compression ratio capacity and A recent development in matching turbochargers with
compatibility with the engine. Hence, higher turbocharger engines is the low-port design concept developed in 1997.
pressure ratios are being demanded than ever before It was discovered that less exhaust gas energy could be
in order to achieve the reduction of emissions including used to deliver the required scavenge air mass flow and
nitrogen oxides (NOx) that are increasingly regulated therefore the height of the scavenge air ports could be
internationally by the International Maritime Organization reduced, thereby lengthening the working expansion stroke
(IMO) and also on a regional basis. in the turbocharger which in turn leads to decreased SFOC.
  Using the Miller Cycle (where the inlet valve opening time   This was developed without needing to raise the
is altered during the compression stroke of a four-stroke component temperatures while maintaining sufficient
engine) is not a new method to achieving NOx reduction in exhaust gas temperature, thereby allowing adequate waste
combination with a turbocharger (it was discovered in the heat recovery compared with previous turbochargers.
1940s by Ralph Miller). However, the realisation that using   Altering turbocharger geometry to improve part-
it in conjunction with a high compression ratio turbocharger, load performance has also seen a breakthrough in the
which helps compensate for the short inlet valve opening turbocharger sector as previously it was not practical
by forcing a greater amount of air into the cylinder, and for engines burning HFO fuel as it led to fouling on the
matching the turbocharger with the engine as flawlessly adjustable guide vanes by unburned fuel components and
as possible, has led to the demand on high turbocharger cylinder lubricating oil. However, rapid advancements in
pressure ratios to facilitate maximum compatibility with lubrication leading to reduced cylinder oil feed rates has
such methods and hence maximum emissions reduction. permitted geometry modifications and hence increased
  Such high-end turbocharging techniques offer dramatic turbocharger efficiency at low loads.
improvements to engine performance, particularly by Future Trends
enabling suitable Miller valve timing, low fuel consumption Although there have been considerable advances in
and limited NOx emissions. turbocharger development, finding the right turbocharger size for
  Furthermore, the ability today to seamlessly integrate each individual case can be still be tricky. With the expansion
turbochargers with other emissions reducing technology of the Panama Canal, mammoth ships are on the rise and the
such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), is now possible of demand for compatible turbochargers is mounting.
achieving NOx reduction by 50-60% .   Manufacturers are fast developing new systems, using
Adapting for Slow Speeds multiple connected turbochargers of different sizes in order to
In order to meet increasingly stringent emissions work at different engine speeds and overall reach the desired
requirements, ship owners are turning to slow steaming – balance between power, fuel consumption, and emissions
operating at reduced loads and speeds. By reducing speed on an accelerating variety of ship sizes and designs. ∎
31 Ship Efficiency Review
Power & Propulsion


Reflecting on 25 years of development for Azipod propulsion, ABB Marine and Ports new Managing Director,
Juha Koskela, says the time is ripe for shipping as a whole to reap clear cut benefits.

A Korean shipyard worker stands under the gigantic hull of the most powerful there are clear signs that shipping
LNG carrier ever constructed. Above his head are three Azipod propulsion is changing in a way that favours its
units capable of delivering 45 MW’s of power, propelling the vessel through wider adoption.
2.5 meters of Siberian ice. In Italy, in the historic town of Livorno, the finishing   Koskela recently oversaw an
touches are being put to a superyacht likely to spend much of its time flitting upgrade to the Helsinki production
between the exclusive ports of the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. To meet facility for larger Azipod propulsors
the owner’s need for comfort, peace and quiet, Azipod propulsion was the (6MW and above), where a second
only option. production unit was installed to
ease production bottlenecks. ABB
constructs compact Azipod thruster
units at a purpose-built facility outside
  Mega crane vessels and the
biggest cruise ships on the seas are a
long way from the first, more humble
vessel, which was fitted with Azipod
propulsion a quarter of a century ago.
  Owned by the Finnish Board of
Navigation, Seili became the first
vessel fitted with an Azipod unit. It
heralded a new era of azimuthing
propulsion. Within five years of
the 1.5MW Azipod propulsion unit
installation on Seili, far larger units
were being installed; the technology’s
ice-breaking performance also opened
the minds of shipowners operating
in particularly harsh conditions. The
Finnish oil tankers Uikku and Lunni
  These recent, but very different, orders for Azipod units highlight became the initial standard bearers
the extraordinary twenty-five year journey of ABB’s flagship propulsion for Azipod propulsion in 1993-1994,
technology. It has become the driving force behind an industry-wide growth featuring 11.4 MW units.
in electric propulsion covering many of the most sophisticated vessels in the   The development of ‘pull’ Azipod
world. thrusters, with the propeller mounted
  “We point to Clarkson Research findings that the fleet of vessels using in front of the ‘pod’ instead of
electrical propulsion has grown at three times the rate of the fleet overall ‘pushing’ from the rear, brought
during the last decade. Azipod propulsion has a growing constituency,” further efficiency gains and the
says Juha Koskela, the new Managing Director of ABB’s marine and ports breakthrough as a mainstream
business. solution for cruise operators.
  The growing popularity of the Azipod propulsion has been a constant during   Koskela’s direct involvement dates
Koskela’s own rise through the ranks of ABB. Before taking up his new role to his earliest days at ABB, and the
at the turn of the year, he was Business Unit Manager of ABB Marine Finland first cruise project involving Azipod
and Senior Vice President of ABB’s Passenger vessel and Propulsion Products propulsion. Working for ABB Drives
businesses. as a Commissioning Engineer, he
  “We have 400 Azipod units at sea and can document 12 million hours in was responsible for programming
service with a remarkable availability of 99.8%,” says Koskela. He believes software and the control part of
Ship Efficiency Review
Power & Propulsion 32
frequency convertor work onboard Carnival Elation,
delivered in 1998.
  The subsequent rise of the Azipod propulsion as the
leading cruise ship propulsion solution is also a matter
for the history books. References include the majority
of the main cruise ships built since 2000, with the giant
cruise ships of today featuring Azipod propulsion units of
more than 20MW.
  In the time since these initial installations, continuous
improvements have been made to the Azipod propulsion
solution. Today, Koskela is focusing on cultivating the
widest possible uptake.
  “Combining propulsion and steering using an
externally mounted pod was radical.” says Juha Koskela.
In the early 2000s, ABB reaped the hydrodynamic
benefits of installing a fin under the unit, refined   Even when oil prices are so low, Azipod D’s 25%
strut designs, then introduced the contra-rotating less installed power requirement than propulsors of
Azipod propulsion system. Then came the Compact equivalent performance made the unit very competitive
Azipod thruster, which introduced permanent magnet in power ranges between 1.6-7 MW per unit. Azipod D
synchronous motors and further efficiency gains of 2- 10 took 20-30% out of the cost.
%. Azipod propulsion units subsequently made inroads   In the 25th year since first installation, there is clear
in the offshore market. evidence that continuous innovation continues to pay
  A three-year redesign program followed 2005-2008, off. For example, Azipod propulsion units are being
resulting in the arrival of a new generation of Azipod installed on the world’s most advanced port icebreaker,
propulsion units, including the Azipod XO, in 2008. to be built by Vyborg shipyard, and will feature on the
The propeller hub and motor module diameters were Carnival project to build the world’s first LNG-powered
reduced and the unit’s hull optimized with the help cruise ships. Latest orders for Azipod propulsion units
of CFD and model testing. Overall, the Azipod XO include the world’s largest capacity cruise ships (6,600
improved by 9% when compared to the Elation results. passengers), one of the largest mega crane vessels in
  First orders came in 2010, with the cruise sector again Asia, and a 105-meter luxury superyacht.
proving fertile ground. Then, last year, along came the   Perhaps more significantly, in January 2016 the first
smaller Azipod D, adopting the best technical features ice-class LNG carrier for Yamal LNG was launched by
from existing Azipod thrusters but including a new air Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME).
and water cooling system to reduce weight and direct The vessel will feature three ice-class Azipod propulsion
more power toward propulsion. The solution offers units and is the first of 15 specially-designed 170,000m3
higher propulsion efficiency, both at higher speeds and vessels that will be the most powerful icebreaking
during dynamic positioning, where varying power is LNG carriers in the world. The Yamal project is also the
especially prized. largest single contract ever placed by value for Azipod
  “Once more, we also made gains in reducing lifecycle propulsion technology.
and maintenance costs,” “In addition, we focused on   Koskela adds that the way shipping contracts
lowering upfront investment costs.” says Koskela. are set up is changing in a way that makes the fuel
saving Azipod propulsion confers more compelling.
In general the charterer pays the fuel bill rather than
the operator, so part of the market has not seen the
efficiency imperative. However, this has come under
more scrutiny, with charters including clauses on fuel
consumption. The fall in oil prices may mean that the
significance of these arrangements is not so obvious,
but the point is that the precedent has been set.
  ABB are always studying new improvements and
before the year is out, they hope to have another
surprise for the market that will bring a 5-7%
performance improvement in Azipod propulsion.
  Koskela says he has been consistently reminded over
the past 25 years that continuous development has
made Azipod propulsion a technology which, in terms of
efficiency gains, keeps on giving. ∎
33 Ship Efficiency Review
Power & Propulsion

By Fiona Macdonald, Assistant Editor

Choosing cylinder oil lubricants for ships is becoming increasingly complex. Selecting a cylinder
oil that is compatible with changing marine fuels, the use of emission reducing technologies and
evolving engine designs can be a difficult process to navigate.
Future proofing ships for operating demands and avoid engine wear and cylinder liner corrosion is
regulatory requirements in the future that drive paramount.
down the sulphur content in fuels is difficult. When   When using a low sulphur fuel, a low BN lubricant
it comes to lubricants, considerations for future should be selected. If a high BN lubricant is used,
operating profiles, fuel selection and requirements loss of oil control and the oil lubricant between the
for a ship and its engine machinery are vital. The piston rings and liner can result causing metal to
selection of a less than suitable lubricant can be metal contact and adhesive wear.
seriously detrimental to the proper functioning of a   Fuel switching is a practice that is becoming
ship’s engine, not to mention costly if damages are increasingly common for ships sailing in and out
incurred. of ECAs. Managing cylinder oil lubrication during
  Regulatory demands that govern shipping the process of fuel switching requires much
emissions have namely accelerated the use of low- consideration as it requires the use of different
sulphur bunker fuels and the adoption of larger cylinder oil lubricants that are matched to the
stroke-to-bore ratio engines. Strategies such as slow different fuels being used.
steaming have been welcomed by the industry,   Also, the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as
not just as a reaction to historically high fuel bunker fuel is becoming an increasingly popular
prices encountered but also as a means to reduce option that ensures regulatory compliance but also
emissions for regulatory compliance. brings cylinder oil lubrication challenges of its own.
  Changes in bunker fuel use and engine operating This fuel does not contain sulphur and the choice of
conditions greatly impact the functionality of the lubricant is very much dependent on the percentage
cylinder oil lubricant. of gas that is burned in the engine.
  Recognising and opting for cylinder oils that are   The impact of regulatory requirements that drive
designed to be compatible with and possess the the reduction of sulphur content in fuel may be
ability to operate seamlessly with specific engines influencing the optimal selection of cylinder oil
types, operating conditions and fuel types is lubricants right now, but the complexity of choosing
paramount to avoiding machinery damage and long- an all-encompassing, future proofing cylinder oil
term operational complexities. is set to continue. Future ECA designations, such
  The regulation of sulphur oxides (SOx) emission as the 0.5% global sulphur cap and the Pearl River
from ships has resulted in legislation that demands Delta, the Yangtze River Delta and the Bohai Bay
a reduction of fuel sulphur content in marine bunker waters and the implementation of the lowered
fuel and also the uptake of SOx reducing technology. fuel sulphur content restrictions under the global
  Ships sailing in SOx Emission Control Areas (ECAs) sulphur cap in 2020 or 2025 will demand that more
or ships that come under the jurisdiction of the ships change their preferred fuel type or engines
global sulphur cap, both of which are governed by the forcing them to review their choice of cylinder oil
International Maritime Organization (IMO), must use lubricant.
bunker fuel that meets sulphur content requirements   However, ship operators must not fear the
or install exhaust gas cleaning technology. regulatory landscape ahead when choosing their
  When considering cylinder oil lubrication suitability cylinder oil lubricants, lubricant manufacturers are
for ships using low sulphur fuels, matching the always at hand to advise on the selection of suitable
lubricant’s base number (BN) (which represents the cylinder oils to ensure the process of future proofing
quantity of acid required to neutralise the alkalinity ships for prime ship performance under changing
of the fuel) to the sulphur content of the fuel to conditions or requirements.∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Power & Propulsion 34
An area of concern for all owners and operators is the impact of shaft bearing issues on vessel operations. If the bearing
becomes unloaded during operation, the shaft line can whirl or cause overloading on neighboring shaft or engine
bearings. An overloaded or misaligned bearing can become damaged or destroyed, necessitating the immobilisation of
the vessel. Currently, only indirect methods of measuring for potential shaft bearing concerns exists.
To help the proactive identification of potential shaft bearing issues, ABS developed a solution as a mathematical guide to determine the
that uses nondestructive testing sensors installed on the bearing pedestal and housing to optimum positions for strain gauge array
measure and self-display the force exerted by the main propulsion shafting system on the installation. Results from numerous tests
bearings. showed significant potential for application.
  The ABS Smart Bearing system effectively converts the bearing housing into a permanently   The project team then installed the
installed weighing machine.This approach allows the bearing reaction load to be measured system on the Capital managed vessel M/T
in both static and dynamic conditions and measures shaft misalignment angles inside the Agisilaos, a 36,700 DWT, Ice Class 1A IMO
bearing, providing a more accurate measurement under real-time conditions. II/III Chemical/ProductTanker.
  The monitoring technology provides the earliest possible indication of a potential shaft   Early results from this testing has shown
misalignment, such as an overloaded or under loaded bearing or an excessive misalignment that proactive monitoring could help prevent
angle of the shaft inside the bearing. Sensor data delivery is immediate; therefore, the full shaft and bearing failures, which have
technology has the potential to deliver considerable benefits in shaft integrity monitoring by the potential to lead to catastrophic safety
eliminating the need for shaft re-alignment checks. consequences. A more accurate and less
  In order to validate this approach, ABS is conducting a joint research project with Capital Ship invasive form of measurement can help
Management, the NationalTechnical University of Athens (NTUA), and Metrisis Ltd. reduce vessel downtime by eliminating
  The project began with ABS and NTUA conducting tests in the school’s Earthquake the need for more invasive approaches
Engineering Laboratory. Using a high power hydraulic piston and load cell, appropriate force and allowing for proactive maintenance
was exerted through a specially designed frame structure onto the shaft to simulate the to address concerns before they become
force exerted onto an intermediate bearing. A 3D nonlinear finite element model was used larger problems.∎
35 Ship Efficiency Review
Ship Design


The design and technical aspects of the world’s by one 8-cylinder Wärtsilä 20DF, two 9-cylinder
first liquefied natural gas (LNG)-powered icebreaker Wärtsilä 34DF, and two 12-cylinder Wärtsilä 34DF
have been revealed. engines.
  The IB Polaris icebreaker vessel has been   The special hull form and propulsion arrangement
hailed as the most environmentally friendly will also minimise ice resistance and maximise the
diesel-electric icebreaker to be built to-date. icebreaking capacity of the vessel.
Using both low-sulphur fuel and LNG, powered   The icebreaker will enter into service next year. ∎


ClassNK has released the latest version of its design support
software PrimeShip-HULL (HCSR) – Ver.3.5.0. Independent naval architecture and marine engineering
  The Japanese classification society provides the tool to design consultancy, BMT Nigel Gee (BMT), has announced
the industry completely free of charge, in order to make it a new project to design two 70m aluminium-hull catamaran
easy for designers to carry out rule calculations in line with RoPax ferries for Rederij Doeksen.
the CSR BC & OT and optimise their designs.   BMT will be responsible for concept through to
  The prescriptive calculation software has reduced the production design.
time needed for calculations and improved user interface   Both vessels, which will be built by Triyard Holdings
performance. Moreover, its initial design function, which is subsidiary, Strategic Marine in Vung Tau, Vietnam, will serve
a function for quick sectional evaluation, is now capable of the Friesland Islands connecting Harlingen, Terschelling and
being used for structural arrangements in the fore and aft Vlieland in the Netherlands and enter service in April 2018.
part of the ship, including the engine room, in addition to the   The exterior and interior styling is being performed by
cargo hold region of the ship. Vripack. The vessels are single fuel LNG, with both main
engines and generators powered by the LNG supply.
The vessels will offer significantly lower emissions than
conventional steel and diesel powered vessels, with at least
a 30% reduction in CO2 and 100% reduction in NOx/SOx.
  They will be the first passenger vessels to have the new
MTU 4000 series gas engine installed. Bow thrusters will
be run from stored power and recharged from shore power.
At 70m long with a 17m beam, the vessels will also have
a very low operating draft of 2.5m to facilitate operating
  An evaluation function for bottom slamming has been in the Wadensee, an area of particularly shallow water.
added to the direct strength assessment software. The Greater manoeuvrability will be facilitated with the use of
new function uses FE model for hold analysis required Azimuthing thrusters.
by the rules and includes automatic creation functions for   With the capacity to accommodate over 60 cars and 600
evaluation panels, slamming loads and reports. In addition, it passengers, the vessels will be designed to interface with
features an upgraded manhole modelling function, batch edit existing port facilities and boast wind generators and solar
for multiple opening information and registering function for panels to reinforce its environmentally friendly credentials. ∎
screening evaluation points. ∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Ship Design 36


KNUD E HANSEN has developed a new Virtual Reality (VR)
tool to aid ship designers and engineers.
ShipSpacetm is a next-generation Virtual Reality (VR) Design Verification Tool
that allows designers, engineers and key stakeholders to validate design
ideas and communicate effectively about vessel concepts and designs.
  It uses VR technology to enable users to walk around all areas of the vessel
and get a better understanding of how spaces work, with a true sense of
depth and scale, not possible with monitors or projectors.
  The product consists of computer hardware and software on the
customer’s premises and in the cloud.
  Finn Wollesen Petersen, Managing Director of KNUD E HANSEN said,
“ShipSpacetm is a cutting edge tool that our engineers and partners can use
to design better ships, faster. KNUD E HANSEN has been an innovator in ship
design since 1937 and ShipSpacetm is another step forward for us.”
 “ShipSpacetm has proven to be an excellent tool for communicating and
developing designs and ideas, by enabling stakeholders to walk around the
vessel while it is still on the drawing board,” said Robert J Spencer, KNUD E
HANSEN’s Head of Simulation Products.∎


Wärtsilä Ship Design has unveiled a new optimised stern trawler design that will reduce
fuel consumption and increase ship efficiency.
The Wärtsilä VS 6215 ST trawler design has a unique aft ship layout. It Wärtsilä design was chosen as it
features Wärtsilä’s hybrid battery technology which offers significant energy provides an appropriately sustainable
efficiency improvement over conventional systems by running the engine at environmental solution.
optimal load and absorbing many of the load fluctuations using batteries.   The contract, which was signed
  In addition to the installed machinery and propulsion system, an important in December 2015, has been placed
element of a ship’s performance is the hull design. To ensure high efficiency, by Shanghai based Hansail Marine
low fuel consumption, and therefore reduced environmental impact, the hull’s & Offshore Design and will feature
interaction with the propeller is of significant importance. Wärtsilä’s VS 6206 FT design. The
  This particular design incorporates an optimised hull and propulsion system in addition vessel is to be built for Jiangsu Sunline
to Wärtsilä’s 2-speed gearbox to further reduce fuel consumption and emissions Deep Sea Fisheries Co, based in China.
  The propulsion system is based upon the Wärtsilä 31 engine, which has   Wärtsilä has for many years
been recognised by Guinness World Records as being the world’s most invested in developing expertise in
efficient 4-stroke diesel engine. the optimisation of hull lines, and is
  The length of the ship is 82.30 m, the breath is 16.80 m. The design speed today using advanced computer aided
is 16.0 knots. tools to maximise the performance of
  Riku-Pekka Hägg, Vice President, Ship Design, Wärtsilä Marine Solutions each individual ship designed. ∎
commented: “Stern trawlers can be out fishing for up to 350 days a year and
fuel consumption is, therefore, an extremely relevant consideration. Our new
design features the very latest technologies, and has been developed to offer
lower fuel costs and greater possibilities for profitable operations”.
  Earlier this year Wärtsilä announced that they would be designing the
world’s biggest and most modern krill fishing factory vessel. The vessel will
operate in the pristine waters of the Antarctic, a World Heritage site, and the
37 Ship Efficiency Review
Ship Design

New cutting-edge solutions for data gathering and analysis are paving the way to more efficient ship
operations, but a wealth of data created during shipbuilding is not being used because the methods of
data collection and verification that could enhance business decision making remain lacking.

The lack of infrastructure for conducting Big Data analytics in   Developed in collaboration
the shipbuilding phase is mainly due to the complexity of vessel with SAJ, in 2011 ClassNK
construction, with many types and formats of data being provided from partnered with IBM and utilised
multiple entities and often stored in different filing systems. its innovative and secure cloud-
  To encourage design transparency throughout the life of vessels, the based technology to develop
new SOLAS regulation II-1/3-10 entered into force in January 2012, a new tool for the storage and
requiring a Ship Construction File (SCF) complying with IMO Global management of ships’ drawings
Based Standards (GBS) is provided by the shipyard on a new ship’s and other electronic documents.
delivery and kept on board and/or ashore. Being certified according to the
  The SCF provides the vessel design and construction information Information Security Management
needed to ensure the safety of the ship throughout its operational Systems (ISMS, ISO/IEC
life. According to the guidelines for the SCF, this information must be 27001:2013), the resulting Archive
stored on board. Other information, including the high-level intellectual was completed and became
property (IP) drawings belonging to the shipyards such as the yard plan, available in July 2016, when the
lines plan and detailed structural calculations, is kept confidential and GBS started to apply.
does not need to be carried on board.
  IMO’s regulations are applicable to bulk carriers and oil tankers of  “Considering the vast
150m in length and above for which the building contract is placed
on or after 1 July 2016. In the absence of a building contract, the amount of data currently
regulations apply to keels laid on or after 1 July 2017, or delivery made being generated in a
on or after 1 July 2020. However, IMO’s standards are expected to be shipbuilding environment,
expanded to other ship types and areas of safety at a later time.
  In response to these developments, ClassNK established the
and given the growing
industry’s first onshore digital archive center that fully complies with need for a secure onshore
IMO-GBS requirements and the Industry Standards developed by a Center to store highly
cross-industry group including the Shipbuilders’ Association of Japan confidential information,
ClassNK responded with
a neutral and independent
platform that enables
secured access to all ship
says Mitsuhiko Kidogawa, Director
of ClassNK’s Plan Approval

  The Archive simplifies the

storage of important files by
offering a paperless, user-friendly
way to manage drawings. Rather
than sifting through multiple files
manually, information can be
quickly and easily found using the
Archive Center’s search function.
In addition, the Archive enables
effective communication between
Continues Overleaf...
Ship Efficiency Review
Ship Design 38
shipbuilders, shipowners
and ship management
“The Archive will offer owners a pragmatic way
companies by bringing to comply with the new SOLAS regulation,
them all under one umbrella
and providing a central
whilst protecting their own property rights as
resource through which well as providing easy access to information.”
files can be exchanged.
  To ensure confidentiality
of intellectual property (IP), offer them a pragmatic way to comply with the new SOLAS regulation, whilst
shipbuilders can set the protecting their own property rights as well as providing easy access to
desired IP security levels information”, he added.∎
for each drawing. High IP-
level drawings such as the
lines plan are only stored
ashore in the Archive
Center and, as a rule, the
shipowner is required to
ask the Archive Center
for permission to access
these files. The Archive
Center then notifies the IP-
holder (shipbuilder and/or
equipment manufacturer) of
the request.
  All other drawings are
stored on SD cards with
appropriate security (IC-
ID card authentication
etc.) and provided to the
shipowner for onboard use.
The shipowner can also
access the onboard SCF via
the internet 24/7, 365 days
a year. Electronic access to
all SCF documents stored
onboard is logged by the
operating system and
recorded at the end of each
session for secure storage,
with the access log being
encrypted and accessible
only by the shipowner.
IBM’s Intrusion Prevention
System acts as a further
barrier for unauthorised
access to the cloud
  “As the first platform of
its kind in the maritime
industry to meet the
essential requirements
of IMO’s GBS, ClassNK
Archive Center is expected
to be very attractive to
owners of newbuilding
bulk carriers and tankers”,
says Kidogawa. “It will
Ship Efficiency Review
Ship Design 40
The drive to improve operational efficiency is promoting the practice of ship widening and
lengthening. The widening of containerships can make older freighters competitive in an
increasingly tough market.
In July 2015, the world‘s first widened existing ship, the MSC Geneva, entered to maintain its strength, because of
into service. A year later the Korean Register (KR) has announced that they had the increased hull bending movement.
successfully completed a feasibility study for the conversion of an 8,600 TEU The study indicated that the widening
containership into a 10,000 TEU vessel. conversion would increase cargo
  KR offered the shipping company customer two scenarios for the study. One carrying capacity by up to 30%, but
was a traditional method, to increase the size of the ship by lengthening, while in the lengthening scenario, capacity
the other used a more recent approach, whereby the ship’s breadth would be would only be increased by 15%.
expanded, a process known as widening.   One vital aspect that the study
  Using both of these methods, KR analysed the new ship’s potential speed, brought to light was the timeframe
fuel efficiency, stability and strength, the cost and time needed for conversion, for the conversion processes being
the size-expandability, the manoeuvrability and its anchoring. different. It would take twice as long
  Upon examining the speed analysis, both lengthening and widening options to make the changes to the widening
showed a post-conversion drop of 4%. However, the length extension conversion conversion, compared to the time it
ship was one knot faster than its width expansion counterpart. For fuel efficiency, would take to convert the ship using
the length extension conversion consumed 5% less than the alternative vessel. the lengthening scenario. KR’s study
  In terms of stability and strength, the widening conversion ship showed also found that there would be no
improved stability, with almost no need for additional reinforcement to enhance difference in the cost of conversion to
the ship’s strength. However, the lengthening scenario, the ship stability was either option, because the lengthening
unaltered but it needed much more reinforcement on its deck and bottom parts conversion requires more steel work.∎


Wight Link’s new vessel will be the first equipped
with Wärtsilä hybrid battery technology.

The equipment to be delivered includes four 6-cylinder Wärtsilä 20 generating sets, absorbed by using batteries.
electrical and automation (E&A) systems, and a sanitary discharge system. Within   Stephan Kuhn, Vice President,
the E&A solutions there will be an integrated automation system (AIS), a power Electrical & Automation at Wärtsilä
and energy management system (PMS/EMA), and a 690-volt main switchboard. commented: “This new Wightlink ferry
  Wärtsilä will also supply technical and project management, and solution is designed to be energy efficient and
integration engineering services. environmentally sustainable using the
  The ferry will be able to operate on conventional fuel and battery power to enable latest Wärtsilä technologies. In particular,
flexible operation while maintaining high efficiency, reduced exhaust gas emissions the use of Wärtsilä’s hybrid system
and low noise levels. The Wärtsilä hybrid management system onboard will represents a state-of-the-art solution for
facilitate significant improvements in energy efficiency compared with conventional propulsion efficiency, which in turn has a
systems as the engines can be run at optimal load and the load fluctuations can be beneficial effect on exhaust emissions.”
  Wightlink has stated that this new
ferry will act as the flagship for the four
and half million passengers their ferries
transport each year.
  The ferry is being built at the Cemre
shipyard in Turkey and is expected to
enter into service in 2018, following the
delivery of the Wärtsilä technologies in
spring 2017. ∎
41 Ship Efficiency Review
Fuels & Emissions


The International Association of Ports and Harbors’ Wärtsilä Corporation, Carnival Corporation, DNV-
(IAPH) World Ports Climate Initiative (WPCI) has GL, ENGIE, ENN Group, GE Marine, GTT, Lloyds
developed a world map that depicts the status of Register, Mitsubishi, NYK Line, Port of Rotterdam,
bunkering activities in WPCI ports as well as non WPCI Qatargas, Shell Downstream and Tote have formed a
ports around the globe. coalition to drive forward the use of liquefied natural
  It was the ‘LNG Fuelled Vessels Working Group’, gas (LNG) in the maritime industry.
which was established under the auspices of IAPH’s   The coalition, known as SEA/LNG aims to help
WPCI, that developed the map. This working group break down the barriers to LNG uptake and make
has also developed guidelines on safe procedures for it easier for LNG to develop as a fuel in marine
LNG bunkering operations, providing ports around the applications to enhance environmental performance
world with implementation guidelines to pursue this of shipping. Each member involved has committed
technology. to mutually agreed human resources, data analysis
  According to the map, LNG is currently available as a and knowledge sharing in support of the SEA/
bunker fuel for deep-sea and inland shipping at the WPCI LNG initiatives and activities. The main areas of
ports of Antwerp, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Zeebrugge focus include supporting the development of LNG
and Stockholm. In addition, LNG can be bunkered at in major ports, educating stakeholders in the risks
several Norwegian ports, at the Port of Los Angeles and opportunities of using LNG and developing
(United States) and the Port of Incheon (South Korea). ∎ consistent global regulations for cleaner shipping
  LNG is a fuel with strong environmental
opportunities for the maritime industry thanks to
its advantages over traditional heavy fuel oil (HFO).
It is low in harmful pollutants such as sulphur
oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), with NOx
emissions reduced by 85% and SOx emissions
nearly completely eliminated compared with HFO.
Particle production is practically non-existent due to
the efficient combustion of natural gas that has no


Quadrise Fuels International has signed a the Saudi Arabia Kingdom.
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) that signals   The Multiphase Superfine Atomised Residue
the start of ‘Production to Combustion’ trials of their (MSAR) emulsion fuels manufacturer and supplier,
emulsified fuels in Saudi Arabia. Quadrise, expects the schedule to extend beyond
  The MoU is designed to progress the trials at Spring 2017 at which point the trial would be
designated refinery and power plant facilities within concluded.∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Fuels & Emissions 42
The ability of ABB’s new Dynamic AC (DAC) concept to optimise generator speeds will have a direct
and significant effect on fuel costs for bigger ships, the leading power and automation group says.
Sitting alongside Azipod propulsion and the Onboard DC Grid, ABB’s new
Dynamic AC adds a further dimension to the group’s maximised energy efficiency
claims for vessel owners, this time specifically aiming at vessels requiring over
20MW of power.
  ABB says that the genesis of DAC can be directly traced to the group’s
development of the Onboard DC Grid for smaller craft, which extends the
multiple DC links that already exist in propulsion and thruster drives, combining
AC components with smart DC distribution.
  Many ships still run with their generators at a set speed, regardless of power
requirement, creating a surplus of wasted energy. Just as variable speed drives
allow electric propulsion motors to be run at their optimum working point,
Onboard DC Grid allows diesel engines to run at variable speed for top fuel to control engine speed control
efficiency at each load level, also offering flexibility in combining energy sources. improves the combustion process at
  Despite prevailing owner reluctance to commit to newbuilding projects across high cylinder pressures in particular,
the market, ABB reports that it has secured 11 orders for vessels incorporating he explains. For the same reason,
the Onboard DC Grid since its first installation on the offshore support vessel methane slip is likely to “decrease
Dina Star in 2013. In this case, owner Myklebusthaug Offshore has confirmed dramatically” when DAC is used.
Onboard DC Grid yielding fuel savings of up to 27%.   To bring DAC to reality, the medium
  However, DC Grid is a low voltage rather than medium voltage solution, and voltage power system deployed
therefore cannot be applied to ships of 20MW and above, which typically operate in a typical cruise ship would need
in the 50-60Hz range. DAC has therefore been created as a simple configuration to be specially engineered for
of electrical system for larger ships that is similar to a conventional AC system variable frequency at the newbuild
but can adjust the rotational speed of diesel generating sets, allowing system stage, including component design
frequency to vary within the specified range. and system integration. However,
  ABB points out that cruise ship itineraries, for example, may include long distribution for the auxiliary and hotel
transits to warmer waters and island hopping once there, with speed and power loads would be provided by frequency
demands varying substantially. Today, adjustments made for varying power converters or directly from the variable
demand require generators to be called online or disengaged. As the number of frequency system.
generators used in modern cruise ships is typically low, this translates into large   This would mean that, while
increments that seldom match optimal fuel economy. Owners may even avoid electromagnetic equipment must
certain speed ranges due to poor power plant efficiency. be dimensioned with special care,
  ABB suggests a large cruise ship operating in a variety of speed/power opting for DAC means proven
conditions could shave up to 6 percent (up to 2000 tons of fuel) off its annual ABB components adjusting diesel
fuel bill by adjusting the speed at which propulsion engines operate, rather than generating set rotational speeds to
running generator sets at constant speeds. exploit energy that would otherwise
  “DAC can liberate owners and allow them to base plans more fully on revenue be wasted. Kanerva emphasises that,
opportunities rather than being inhibited by inflexibility,” says Sami Kanerva, ABB while generator costs may be slightly
Program Manager, Electrical Systems Marine and Ports. higher to take account of dimensioning
  Kanerva says that ABB is in close consultation with cruise ship customers in changes, installing the DAC solution
pursuit of a first pilot project for DAC, but also emphasises that the approach is would not affect availability or delivery
appropriate for any newly built ship requiring more than 20MW. Kanerva adds time.
that, operationally, the 6% saving is a conservative claim as it covers the full   Again, controlling generator speeds is a
engine range, from optimal loads (80-85%) to vessel in port. When underway, matter only for revising algorithms, while
fuel savings could be as high as 10%. the application of DAC would not affect
  Marine engines are notoriously slow to handle large, quick load changes. DAC costs for those parts of the electrical
controls engine speed changes in a gradual way, based on average loads over system continuing to work with constant
several minutes, so that dynamic response (for diesel, LNG or dual-fuel engines) frequencies (that is, hotel loads).
is not compromised.   “For owners, perhaps the only real
  Kanerva notes that there are particular reasons why the adoption of DAC difference will be seen on their fuel bill,”
can be beneficial to ships running on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Being able Kanerva says. ∎
43 Ship Efficiency Review
Fuels & Emissions


BENEFITS Austin, Editor
DNV GL and MAN Diesel & Turbo analysed a range of scenarios for a newbuild LR1
product tanker to determine the most economically feasible type of alternative
fuel for the vessel.
The alternative fuels studied were liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum good as LNG based on shorter payback
gas (LPG), methanol and others. The costs and benefits of these alternative fuels time, reduced sensitivity to price
were compared with heavy fuel oil (HFO) and marine gas oil (MGO) and the overall variations and lower initial investments.
operating costs were established.   The economic advantages of choosing
one fuel over another is highly variable
as it depends on fluctuating oil prices,
which are embedded with uncertainty.
In order to account for this uncertainty,
the researchers carried out a sensitivity
analysis between LSF and alternative
fuels. Where fuel price differential is
higher, there is more of a driving force
for LNG or LPG uptake. During a high
price scenario, the additional investment
required for alternative fuels is paid back
within 13 years.
  The study assumed that the tank
capacity would be enough for a half
round trip, but this would mean it
would need to bunker in Houston and
  The LR1 product tanker was sailed on a fixed route between North America and Rotterdam. The fuel price differential
northern Europe to obtain the financial analysis. A MAN B&W 6G60ME-C9.5 was between these ports means that
selected as the main engine, available as a standard oil-fuelled diesel engine as well bunkering at only the cheapest location
as dual-fuel. The machinery set up was kept the same for the different fuels apart (Houston) was also assumed as one
from the fuel systems themselves. The speed of 12.5 knots was used as the fixed scenario to understand how fuel price
transit speed of the ship with 87% of the time spent in transit, 3% in approach and differences affect the financial paybacks.
10% in port.
  As the global sulphur cap is likely to enter into force in 2020, a fuel with 0.5% "USING A SINGLE
sulphur content was used for outside of Emission Control Areas (ECAs). For
comparison with alternative fuels, one alternative fuel was used for the entire round
trip and compared with the use of an alternative fuel used in ECAs with a HFO/low FUEL VARIANTS
sulphur fuel (LSF) used outside ECAs. The study assumed operations to be carried
out between 2018-2030. SHOWED SHORTER
  As the price of fuel significantly affects the financial viability of various fuel options
and use of technology, fuel price scenarios were created for the purpose of the PAYBACK TIMES."
study. A high price scenario where fuel prices would be similar to those of 2014 for When LNG is used for the entire trip
USD 100-110 per barrel was created as well as a low fuel price scenario where oil and bunkering only carried out once,
prices would be around USD 50 per barrel. the payback time increases from 76 to
  The study indicated that LNG and LPG can deliver huge cost savings in a high fuel 97 months. Therefore, the investment
price scenario whether they are used alone or mixed with others for operating in and costs of the tank for this fuel is not
outside of ECAs and that payback time is around 5-10 years. Payback time is likely to compensated with the lower fuel price.
decrease at higher ship speeds. However, in the low price scenario, LNG and LPG However, if this scenario is compared
were less attractive. Methanol showed that investments in equipment and engine with a tank capacity that is full enough
upgrades would not be cost effective. for the entire trip then the payback
Using a single fuel, rather than fuel variants showed shorter payback times. So the time is reduced for LPG from 57 to 51
increased initial investments in LNG and LPG are compensated by the lower prices months. These variations are due to the
of the fuel itself compared with LSF. high differences in tank prices for LNG
  Where fuels are priced lower, LNG payback time is longer. LPG is stated to be as compared with LPG. ∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Fuels & Emissions 44
Air lubrication technology innovators, SilverstreamTechnologies say that they are witnessing
increased uptake of their technology from the cruise sector.
The Silverstream™ System produces a thin layer of micro covers the bottom of the ship’s hull with a drag-reducing
bubbles for the full flat bottom of the vessel, reducing the carpet using a blower to generate bubbles. Therefore, like the
frictional resistance between the water and the hull, and Silverstream system, it greatly reduces frictional resistance
improves the vessel’s operational efficiency, reducing fuel between the ship hull and the seawater.
consumption and associated emissions.   Data gathered from sea trials conducted with Shell on a
  This is confirmed by the company clinching a deal with vessel equipped with the Silverstream system and on-going
Norwegian Cruise Line (NCL) for the installation of the testing over the past 24 months shows that the air lubrication
technology. Silverstream have also stated that they are in system can deliver average net efficiency gains of 5% for
discussions with a number of other cruise operators who tankers and 8% for larger, full bodied vessels like LNG
are looking to implement the company’s air lubrication carriers. Silverstream’s system also uses 66% less energy
technology, the Silverstream™ System. than other air lubrication systems to power the compressors
  The CEO of Silverstream, Noah Silberschmidt has which keep cavities filled with air at the required pressure.
commented that the company is seeing considerable interest   According to Silverstream, comparative air lubrication
from cruise operators who want to offer assurances to their systems for cruise vessels use a greater number of larger
customers that they are proactively looking to minimise the compressors and air pipes, requiring significantly more
environmental impact of their operations. space within a vessel’s hull. The simplicity of retrofitting the
  Earlier this year AIDA Cruises took delivery of the first Silverstream™ System means less downtime for vessels,
of two large cruise ships that features Mitsubishi Heavy and also reduces the cost of the technology by as much as
Industries’ (MHI) Air Lubrication System (MALS). MALs also 30%, compared to competitor products, it is claimed. ∎

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45 Ship Efficiency Review
Fuels & Emissions

Global Average
Bunker Price History
May 12, 2016 – August 12, 2016

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Ship Efficiency Review
Fuels & Emissions 46

Demystifying the
EU MRV Regulation By Julien Dufour, CEO,
Verifavia Shipping

Open for public consultation until 26 August 2016, the European Commission has published draft Delegated
and Implementing Acts pursuant to the ‘EU MRV’ (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification) regulation 757/2015.
An active member of the Commission’s working group on Verification and Accreditation, Julien Dufour, CEO,
Verifavia Shipping, addresses key considerations for shipowners and operators.

In just over one year’s time, owners and operators of are not geographically within Europe are still part of
vessels sailing in the EU and exceeding 5,000 GT must the EU because they are under the administration of
submit a Monitoring Plan (MP) describing the procedures a European Member State, and are therefore classed
in place to monitor and report their carbon emissions and as EU ports of call. These ‘outermost regions’ include
transport work. With the Delegated and Implementing the Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira, Martinique,
Acts almost finalised, requirements are now very clear. Guadeloupe, French Guyana, Saint-Martin, Mayotte and
However, as with most new legislation, the challenge lies Reunion. In addition, the Shipping MRV regulation will
in effectively navigating its complexity and interpreting it be integrated in the environmental legislations to be
to ensure compliance. adopted by the countries in the European Economic
  Working with shipowners and operators since the Area, which include Norway and Iceland. Therefore, if
regulation came into force in July 2015, it has become the vessel is navigating between any of the outermost
clear that key questions continue to perplex many. regions and third countries, or between Iceland /
These include how to design an MP, what is classed as Norway and third countries, then the regulation requires
a voyage, which emissions sources are included, and shipowners to report these voyages.
the differences between the four allowable monitoring   Regarding the four allowable monitoring methods,
methods. the challenge for shipping companies is to adjust their
  According to the ‘EU MRV Regulation’, the following current monitoring system so that it fits within the
emission sources must be considered in order to comply strict definitions that have been documented in the
with the regulation: main engines, auxiliary engines, gas regulation. However, it is permitted to select a different
turbines, boilers, and inert gas generators (tankers only). monitoring method for each emission source provided
The technical description of each individual emission it increases the overall accuracy of the monitoring.
source as well as the potential fuel types used must be The key advice for shipowners is to select an EU MRV
included in the MP, and must be assessed by the verifier. monitoring methodology as close as possible to their
  Another challenge has been understanding what is existing monitoring system. In case two monitoring
classed as a voyage. To understand this, shipowners methodologies can be used (e.g. methods A or B and
must first appreciate what is meant by a ‘port of call’ C), shipping companies are recommended to select the
according to the EU MRV definition: “the port where most accurate monitoring methodology and use the
a ship stops to load or unload cargo or to embark or other monitoring methodology to cross-check, or as a
disembark passengers”. A voyage is a trip between two back-up.
ports of call, and a reportable voyage is when one of the   In terms of key legal deadlines that must be adhered to,
ports of call is in the EU. The two key parameters that shipowners should take particular notice of the 31st August
shipowners must take into consideration are therefore 2017, when they must submit the MP to verifiers.
the geographical area of the port (i.e. is it in the EU?),   The draft Delegated and Implementing Acts released
and whether a port can be considered as a port of by the Commission have responded to various concerns
call (i.e. have cargo or passengers been embarked or voiced by the industry and clarified certain points. But
disembarked for commercial purposes?). It is important ultimately, the MRV regulation is now in force and the
to note that ballast voyages must also be reported in the requirements are very clear. Understanding and interpreting
same way as laden voyages. Lastly, the Acts now clearly the nuances of the MRV regulation, as well as ensuring
indicate that time spent at sea and distance travelled consistency in the MP and matching the requirements is
shall be calculated on a ‘berth-to-berth’ basis rather than a challenge. However independent verifiers have the in-
between departure and arrival. depth knowledge and expertise to help guide owners and
  It is important to understand that certain ports which operators through the process to compliance. ∎
47 Ship Efficiency Review


The International Association of Ports and Harbors with the GloMEEP Project on the development of
(IAPH) has joined the International Maritime tools and materials that will support GloMEEP LPCs in
Organization’s (IMO) GloMEEP project as its third quantifying air pollutants and GHG emissions in ports as
strategic partner. well as assist in the identification of measures to cost-
  IAPH will assist the GloMEEP Lead Pilot Countries effectively reduce port related emissions.
(LPCs) in addressing air pollutants and greenhouse gas   The other strategic partners of the GloMEEP project
emissions in ports, thereby facilitating a transition to are the Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) and the
a more energy efficient and low emissions maritime Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology
transport system. In particular, IAPH will be collaborating (IMarEST). ∎


Green Marine and RightShip have signed a Memorandum The Board of Directors of the European Investment
of Understanding (MoU) to collaborate on advancing Bank have approved EUR 1 billion for investment into
environmental sustainability in the maritime industry. energy efficiency technologies and financing for both
In addition to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions retrofit and newbuild ships as part of a new initiative
rating scheme that RightShip provides, the company will intended to reduce emissions from shipping.
also bring its risk rating mechanism to the partnership, This EUR 1 billion sum is part of a total EUR 7.4
enabling evaluation of risk and actual performance at the billion that has been granted for financing 38 projects
individual ship level. Green Marine’s strength lies in its across Europe and the world. Under the European
collaborative mechanism with environmental groups that Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) the approved
helps to enable actions to be defined and implemented by loans backed by the EU budget guarantee is part of
shipping companies at the corporate level. It also helps the Investment Plan for Europe that aims to mobilise
goals to be set for the future of maritime efficiency and EUR 315 billion in new investment to transform
emissions reductions. ∎ services and accelerate growth.∎


The official inauguration ceremony for the expanded Panama

Canal took place on June 26, amongst thousands of waving
Panamanian flags and fireworks galore.
  The link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the canal
underwent an extensive renovation to allow larger cargo ships
through its locks, due to the fact that larger modern shipping
vessels have literally “out-grown” the vital trade passageway.
  Now that these locks are in operation, vessels carrying 3
time the current capacity are able to transit through the canal.∎
Ship Efficiency Review
Strategies 48
ISO 19030, more commonly known by the industry as the Hull Performance Standard
has taken a step closer to be being published.
Following its approval by the International Organization development director, managed the project on behalf
for Standardisation’s (ISO) Draft International Standard of the ISO stated: “There are very effective solutions
(DIS) ballot, with 93% of members voting in its favour. for improving performance but, until now, no globally
This approval sets the course for final publication of the recognised and standardised way for measuring this
standard which is expected in Q3 of 2016. The standard and providing return on investment for ship owners. ISO
prescribes practical methods for measuring changes in 19030 satisfies that demand, prescribing measurement
ship-specific hull and propeller performance. methodology and defining performance indicators
  An immense amount of work has gone into the for hull and propeller maintenance, repair and retrofit
development of this standard, project leaders Norwegian activities.
paint giant Jotun have stated that over 12,000 hours   “We believe this will provide much needed
of work over a period of three years have fuelled the transparency for both buyers and sellers of fuel saving
progression by the 53 expert stakeholders involved. technologies and solutions, and, in doing so, enable the
  This standard will have great impact on the industry, industry to operate with genuinely enhanced efficiency
not least to put a stop to the approximate 10% of the and environmental performance,” he said.
world fleets’ energy costs (equating to USD 30 mil) that   In response Jotun has adapted its Hull Performance
are lost due to poor hull and propeller performance. Solutions (HPS) guarantee to ensure it is fully ISO/DIS-
  Geir Axel Oftedahl, Jotun’s HPS business 19030-2 compliant. ∎
49 Ship Efficiency Review


By James Mitchell, Senior Associate Shipping Operation, Carbon War Room

In the wake of the Paris Agreement and with potential IMO regulation to support
its ambitions, the shipping industry cannot afford to ignore its emissions, either
commercially or in terms of compliance. New research released by Carbon
War Room (CWR) and UCL Energy Institute (UCL) reveals the critical roles
that shipowners, operators, financiers and regulators must play in order to
incentivise and reward efficiency given current market conditions.

CWR and UCL analysed fixtures data (2005-2015) and AIS Emissions Rating was USD 6,000 per day in 2012, or nearly
data (2012-2015) to obtain a clear picture of market dynamics $1.5 million annually on average.
and operations. UCL and CWR investigated the role that   The net fuel savings for charterers choosing vessels with
energy efficiency has played in vessel competitiveness in high GHG Emissions Ratings is always positive, so, all else
past markets. It is the first study to use AIS data to better being equal, there is a clear incentive for charterers to hire
understand the relationship between efficient design and more efficient vessels. Troublingly however, the time charter
operation. This will inform a similar study on future carbon- market fails to reward owners of efficient vessels with
constrained markets to be released later this year. premium rates or preferential hire, despite the added value
  The report revealed that vessels with high design efficiency of consistent fuel savings. This means that owners favouring
save more fuel than expected on design alone, as they efficiency in the time charter market are making good choices
were operated more slowly on average, putting millions for the environment and for fuel payers, but are not seeing a
into the pockets of fuel payers. The results were confirmed return themselves.
both at the annual level for VLCC and Capesize fleets and at   The research also suggests that this dynamic is a relatively
the route-specific level for both ballast and laden voyages. recent development. Prior to the market crash of 2008, the
For example, it was shown that the difference in fuel costs findings do show efficiency premiums in the Panamax time
between a B-rated and F-rated Capesize vessel on the GHG charter market. Those premiums disappeared with the crash,
Ship Efficiency Review
Strategies 50
despite record-high fuel
costs and record-high
fuel savings for owner- The report reveals that vessels with high
operators and charterers design efficiency save more fuel than
of efficient ships. expected on design alone, as they were
  Charterers get to operated more slowly on average, putting
‘have their cake and millions into the pockets of fuel payers.
eat it too’ and without
better information and
greater transparency, environmental reform of other industries, such as carbon
it is unlikely that the prices or fuel levies, would have a greatly decreased impact
market will be unable in shipping if the IMO attempted to leverage them. These
to rebalance this policy tools work by magnifying price signals and incentivising
unfavourable dynamic. the design of more efficient ships. An innovative approach
However, since it’s to environmental policymaking, designed not only to reduce
proven that efficient emissions but also to overcome the unbalanced dynamic
design can create very between charterer and owner, will help the industry to avoid a
real financial rewards, ‘false start’ on the path to decarbonisation.
owners can use this
knowledge to their "THE NET FUEL SAVINGS FOR
advantage to bolster
their negotiations.
  Financiers could WITH HIGH GHG EMISSIONS
play a critical role
in incentivising
efficiency, steering SO, ALL ELSE BEING EQUAL,
the industry towards
successful, profitable
Financiers have the
power to control the
capital that flows   This research has demonstrated just how far the industry
towards, or away from, must go to contribute to a well-below 2-degree future.
inefficient or efficient Innovation, leadership and transparency are going to
vessels. They can be fundamental. CWR has long worked to identify and
influence which vessels overcome market barriers in shipping and we will continue to
are built, which vessels offer tools, information and profitable solutions to support the
are acquired second- industry in its transition to a low-carbon future. ∎
hand, and which vessels
are retrofitted.
  Some banks have
already altered their
decision-making policies
to reward efficiency
and promote decarbonisation. Last year HSH Nordbank and
KfW IPEX Bank became the first banks to announce the use
of vessel efficiency data in every financing decision. CWR
believes that all shipping banks and vessel financiers should
follow this lead and develop investment policies that will
allow the shipping industry to decarbonise effectively and
reward all players for it.
  The study also suggests that current market conditions
present even greater challenges concerning the design
of IMO regulation. The predicted emissions trajectory
of the global shipping industry outlined in the Third IMO
Greenhouse Gas Study means that any regulation will
need to be wide-ranging and comprehensive to contribute By James Mitchell, Senior Associate
effectively to a well-below 2-degree future. Shipping Operation, Carbon War Room
  If the market does not reward shipowners for efficiency
investments, policy tools that have contributed to successful
51 Ship Efficiency Review


A consortium of companies has gathered with the aim of improving ship efficiency and driving safer
navigation through a two-year research project called iSea.

The project is to be led by Danelec Marine and will include shipboard sensors and
other participants such as Vessel Performance Solutions ApS systems. As a part of the
(Denmark), i-Marine Technologies and Research Inc. (Turkey) iSea initiative, Danelec
and Deniztekno Danismanlik Bilgi Teknolojileri ve Bilgisayar Marine is investigating
San. Tic. Std. Sti (Turkey). an alternative type of
  The iSea project principal objective is to increase fuel communication which
efficiency in open waters and enable better near-shore would give a subscriber
navigation, focussing on the reduction of human error, access to real-time data
particularly in challenging waters. The team will do this by within limits set by the
delivering a set of low-cost and low-risk telematics Expert system administrator.”
Decision Support Systems (EDSS) that will provide real-time   The real-time data
data transfer of data from ship to shore to further enhance solution will leverage
the performance and navigability of vessels. Danelec’s VDRConnect
  The project has been approved for funding by the Eurostars technology, which enables remote push-through and pull-
program, which supports international innovation projects by through data retrieval from shipboard systems and sensors,
R&D-performing small- and medium-sized enterprises. according to Ottosen.
Hans Ottosen, CEO of Danelec Marine commented: “A   The R&D program will commence in January 2017 and
critical element for an Expert Decision Support System will run for two years and will include sea trials of the EDSS
for ship navigation is the availability of real-time data from solution. ∎


Bluewater’s Munin FPSO became the first recipient of DNV GL’s new “Clean Lay-up” declaration
under its newly released classification guideline.
This new guideline allows ship owners to demonstrate that they have as the antifouling coating treatment
laid up their ship in an environmentally responsible manner. It takes into and marine growth.
account noise, emission and environmental concerns, while fulfilling all   Pieter Dofferhoff, Regulatory
safety requirements. Compliance Engineer and Project
  Ship owners and managers are increasingly facing the need to put Manager Cold Lay-up for the Munin
their vessels into lay-up due to current market conditions. The demand FPSO explained the process that
for laying up vessels in a way that respects the local environment and they undertook: “We selected a
the communities around these sites was the driver for the development DNV GL approved lay-up provider to
of DNV GL’s new declaration. The classification society say that the new carry out the lay-up preservations
declaration can be obtained alongside their current lay-up declaration. and maintenance routines during
  The DNV GL declaration addresses a broad spectrum of issues including the lay-up to ensure that the
noise, air emissions (NOx and SOx), onboard waste and hull cleaning. integrity of the hull, machinery
In order for a vessel to receive a “Clean Lay-up” declaration, the following and other systems are maintained
aspects are to be evaluated and assessed in line with the detailed in the best way possible with the
requirements illustrated in the new guideline: mooring arrangement, the least impact on the environment
safety and security of the vessel lay-up, emergency preparedness, the in both normal situations and
procedures in place to prevent pollution, air and noise pollution, as well emergencies.”∎
Ship Efficiency Review Magazine is dedicated to providing the
most up-to-date news on ship efficiency and clean technology
developments in the maritime industry
This quarterly magazine endeavours to deliver comprehensive,

independent insight and reporting from the front line of
technological innovation, commercial activities, academic and
industry research, and regulatory developments.
Distributed to over 6,000 in print (ABC audited) and available
online, it is an essential periodical for anyone
with a vested interest in ship efficiency and for
ship owners, operators and managers looking
to stay competitive in the changing market.


OR CONTACT INFO@FATHOM-MI.COM marine | energy | environment
53 Ship Efficiency Review
The Social Scene

@fathommaritime -
“Pragmatism” is the buzzword at
the second @ukshipping Ballast
Water Forum - when discussing
@shipefficiency - @cwarroom the approach to #ballastwater
Hammonia & Intermaine Convention
win Business Green Energy
Efficiency Project of the Year! @

@Green_Award - Liberia is
the first flag state in the Green
@Norsepowerltd - First Award with a 3% tonnage tax
#CarbonCredits awarded for discount annually
ship efficiency hull coatings by
@IP_Marine - could auxiliary
propulsion be next?
@JCIFinland - Eniram is
optimizing cargo ship efficiency
based on huge databases.
When does a database turn to
@MaerskLine - A nose job! #bigdata? #IoT #eeef2016
Eleonora Maersk’s original bulbous
bow is being replaced with a new,
fuel efficient bow! #Efficiency

@shippingics - IMO global

sulphur cap will have profound
impact on shipping economics -
@MaRRitimeShip - Ship will it be 2020 or 2025?
Efficiency in Focus as IMO
Announces World Maritime Day
Theme for 2017

@Transas_Marine - Taking
action to provide higher level
of #safety at sea and #marine
#environment consciousness @
@fathommaritime- TransasCEO @NAMEPA1
Nominations Flow in for the Ship
Efficiency Awards 2016

@MaritimeInsight -
@GMarine_AVerte -
Exponential tech growth is
A Canadian 1st for Desgagnés:
exposing linear, arithmetic nature
1st of 4 dual fuel tankers
of regulation #smartprocurement
successfully launched!
hears, cyber could be the
inflection point.
Ship Efficiency Review
The Last Word 54
WORDELON MUSK By Simon Phillips, Senior Consultant, BLUE Communications

Shipping is not short of opportunities to embrace new technology and there are plenty of
entrepreneurs seeking to bring their innovations to the maritime market. But with shipping
facing an unprecedented number of challenges, where are the visionaries that are looking
not just to improve shipping, but transform it? When it comes to securing a profitable and
sustainable future for our industry, maybe the world’s leading tech pioneers would do
things a little differently. So what could shipping learn from Elon Musk?

This industry has a history of steady, incremental

change, whether in the growing size of container
ships, or step-by-step improvements in operational
efficiency. In some cases, shipping appears to
have perfected the art of mañana when it comes
to technological progress. Look no further than the
BWM Convention, 14 years on from adoption and
still waiting to enter into force. After all, what was
the last truly transformative moment in shipping
that wasn’t driven by regulation? Perhaps the
shipping container, pioneered over 60 years ago by
Malcolm McLean.
  None of this is about blaming the industry. There
is nothing irrational in how it behaves, particularly
when staring down the barrel of costly regulation,
red tape and incredibly tough market conditions.
The instinct to hunker down and ride it out is
natural. But maybe there is another approach. An
approach that involves challenging received wisdom
and taking not just small steps, but a giant leap
for ward. But where should we look for inspiration No 1. Ask the Right Questions
on how to think a little bigger? The most impactful technology innovations not only
  It’s easy to assume that shipping solutions can improve on what came before it, but redefine it. This
only come from shipping people. But maybe we comes from asking the right questions. The iPhone wasn’t
can learn something from the approach taken by born from asking how to make a better mobile phone, it
pioneers in other fields. was inspired by the desire to create a phone that people
  After all, with respect to the challenges facing would fall in love with, that was so instrumental and
shipping, a tech entrepreneur like Elon Musk is integrated into peoples’ lives that they’d rather leave their
not shy of taking on a big challenge. As well as wallet at home than their phone.
being the co-founder of PayPal, Elon Musk is the
man behind SpaceX, SolarCity and Tesla Motors.
So that’s the space travel, human colonisation of No 2. Think Big
the stars and curbing global warming through the Musk’s goal for Tesla is not to create a luxury electric car
production and consumption of sustainable energy brand, but to build a vehicle affordable to the average
boxes ticked. consumer. The ambition behind SpaceX is to lower the
  But, what can we learn from the approach taken cost of human spaceflight by a factor of 10, to establish
by the likes of Elon Musk and other technology human colonies on other planets, whilst taking on the
leaders and visionaries who are driving progress in likes of Lockheed Martin and Boeing along the way. That’s
their fields? thinking big.
55 Ship Efficiency Review
The Last Word

No 3. Have Deep Pockets "Elon… if you fancy a new

The ideas with the biggest impact don’t always need to
cost a lot of money. But as many shipping innovators challenge alongside space
will be all too familiar, the R&D costs involved in bringing
a solution to market can quickly become prohibitive. travel, electric vehicles and
Spotify declared 2014 to be a ‘transformative’ year for
music streaming, as its revenue exceeded $1billion
solar energy, you’re always
for the first time, but its losses also continued to rise, welcome to take a look at
exceeding $160m. As with many other technologies that
struggled to achieve profitability, investor faith has been shipping."
  Against the backdrop of these challenges, let’s
hear it for those that are pushing the boundaries
No 4. Keep Going and defining what shipping’s future could look like.
If you’re trying to achieve something difficult, there are The likes of Rolls Royce’s conceptual shore-based
likely to be plenty of setbacks along the way. SpaceX is ‘bridge of the future’. The Finnish-funded Advanced
famous for its test launch ‘failures’, but it moves forward Autonomous Waterborne Applications Initiative
every time. Earlier this month, at the fourth attempt, it (AAWA). RightShip’s GHG Emissions Rating and
made history by landing its reusable Falcon 9 rocket on the Carbon War Room’s A-G ship efficiency index.
a drone ship in the Atlantic. A technological embodiment Silverstream’s pioneering air lubrication system.
of the famous lesson in perseverance posed by Abraham AkzoNobel’s landmark carbon credits initiative.
Lincoln; from failed businessman and multiple election Ecoslops’ innovative technology that can transform oil
oser, to one of the greatest U.S. Presidents of all time. residues from shipping (slops and sludge) into new
recycled marine fuels.
For shipping, these lessons point towards the   Rather than relying on a single ‘eureka’ moment,
importance of challenging the assumptions that shipping’s future may instead lie in the cumulative
underpin our industry. Perhaps it is time to ask some impact of a flotilla of smaller-scale innovations,
radical questions about why shipping exists in the collectively capable of delivering transformative
first place, the purpose we serve and whether there change.
is a smarter way for the industry to supply products   In the same spirit, rather than hunting for shipping’s
and materials around the globe. The future of shipping own Elon Musk, perhaps we should applaud the
is intrinsically linked to the future of manufacturing, collaborative spirit in which many of shipping’s leading
supply chain innovation, local sourcing, resource technology experts are coming together to shape the
consumption patterns, and more. future of our industry. The AAWA Initiative is a great
  Unfortunately, these lessons also suggest that a example, comprising research institutes, ship owners
great idea is not enough. You also need to be willing and other maritime stakeholders, including Rolls
and able to commit the blood, sweat, tears and finance Royce, NAPA, Deltamarin, DNV GL and Inmarsat.
to make it commercially viable.   Perhaps this is the more fruitful route for our
industry. Delivering meaningful technological
advancement on a number of fronts,
underpinned by intelligent forecasting
on the future role of the industry and
driven by collaborative partnerships,
pooled resources and shared expertise.
  That said Elon… if you fancy a new
challenge alongside space travel, electric
vehicles and solar energy, you’re always
welcome to take a look at shipping. ∎

BLUE Communications
is a leading global PR
and communications
consultancy for the
shipping, marine,
offshore and energy
sectors. Simon Phillips


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