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Jean Hussey-Stone

North Carolina State University

Scaffolded Reading Experience

ECI 541

April 24, 2016


SRE Project Hussey-Stone

I. Introduction
A. Background Information
1. Context
a. First grade students on guided reading level E in a small group of 5
b. Length of lesson: 4-5 days
c. Theme is about Earth Day: How can humans help protect and improve our plants?
2. Text
a. The text being used is Wangaris Trees of Peace: A True Story from Africa by
Jeanette Winter.
b. I chose this text because we are studying Ecosystems in science and how humans
and the environment interact in social studies. This story is a great biography
about one person who made a difference in her part of the world. The author
informs the reader of what can happen if humans abuse the ecosystems. The
book also portrays the idea of how those same humans, who abuse ecosystems,
have the opportunity to fix and protect their environment. This lesson is being
done in honor of Earth Day, which is a way for students to learn about how
humans impact the environment and how they can help protect our Earth, and
its natural resources.
c. Text aligns with North Carolina standards
1) Students will be able to summarize ways people can protect the environment
and/or improve conditions for the growth of the plants and the people that
live there.
2) Students will be able to explain ways people can change the environment by
planting trees, recycling, cutting down trees, building homes, building streets,
etc.
3) Students will be able to explain how people use natural resources in the
community.
4) Students will be able to explain how the environment impacts where people
live.
d. FRY Readability Assessment
1) Total number of words in passage: 281
a) Total number of unique words: 162
b) Total number of repeat words: 119
2) Average words per sentence: 11
3) Total number of sentences: 25
4) Average number of syllables per word: 1
a. Total number of words with double syllables: 51
b. Total number of words with single syllables: 213
c. Total number of words with 3+ syllables: 17
5) Qualitative
a. level of meaning: focused on environmental problems in Kenya, not
common experiences to most readers adding complexity to text
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b. structure of the text: clear and consistent, presented boldly on page;


theme is obvious and revealed early in text
c. illustrations: directly support the text and assist with interpretation
d. language demands: some figurative language makes it slightly complex
e. tailored vocabulary: other than Wangaris name, vocabulary is familiar and
presented in explicit manner;
6) Conclusion
a) Although the results of this assessment showed an average of a 5 th grade
reading level, after closely looking at the data provided in the assessment,
I felt this book was appropriate for my on grade level students.
b) Most of the words are 1-2 syllable words.
c) Most of the more difficult words are content appropriate and are found in
books the students will be reading for mCLASS TRC assessments as they
progress in their reading level.
d. I believe the students would find this text a bit challenging but would be
motivated by the challenge as well as the content. The text introduces an
experience unfamiliar to many readers, the dependence of communities
on trees and the loss of those trees, but engages the reader by
demonstrating how one real person helped to solve the problem.
Additionally, there are several instances of figurative language, which can
be interpreted with assistance of the illustrations and prior knowledge. I
trust the students will be successful when reading this book.
e. Scholastic Book Wizard
1) Grade Level Equivalent: 3.2
2) Lexile Measure: AD730L
3) Conclusion: There will be some challenges in reading this book since it is
on a 3rd grade reading level; however, since it will be done in small group,
the teacher will be available to assist with any complications. The topic is
very engaging and the challenge of the text is motivating. Additionally,
students are on their way to being on End of Year 1st grade guided reading
level J, which is what they need to begin 2nd grade. Therefore, using a text
that is slightly higher with the added small group focus, makes this a great
text for these students to read.

B. Philosophical/Theoretical Rationale
1. I chose to use Reciprocal Teaching (The Fab Four: predict, question, clarify,
summarize) as the basis for my SRE because the students I plan to do this with are
struggling with comprehension, which is holding them back in increasing their
reading levels.
2. Additionally, Reciprocal Teaching has a built-in scaffolding approach which keeps the
students engaged and focused.
3. Reciprocal Teaching also encourages collaboration and self-monitoring, which I hope
will stick with the students as they engage with challenging text.
SRE Project Hussey-Stone

4. I have chosen to do Character Journals to help my students stay engaged and


practice writing detailed summaries at the conclusion of reading the text.
5. Character Journals offer the students a way to role-play, which can help them
understand the text and keep track of the details as they progress through the book.
6. I belief the Character Journal will be very engaging for my students and encourage
independent thinking.
7. I believe each student has unique strengths, desires, and motivation as well as some
prior knowledge to build upon.
8. The amount of scaffolding depends upon each students abilities and is
differentiated accordingly to make lessons challenging enough but still appropriately
supported by the teacher.
II. Lesson Plan
A. Instructional Objectives
1. NCSCOS 1st Grade Essential Standards
a. Science: 1.L.1 Understand characteristics of various environments and behaviors
of humans that enable plants and animals to survive.
1) Clarifying Objective: 1.L.1.3 Summarize ways that humans protect their
environment and/or improve conditions for growth of the plants and animals
that live there (e.g., reuse or recycle products to avoid littering).
b. Social Studies: 1.G.2 Understand how humans and the environment interact
within the community.
1) Clarifying Objectives
a) 1.G.2.1 Explain ways people change the environment (planting trees,
recycling, cutting down trees, building homes, building streets, etc.)
b) 1.G.2.2 Explain how people use natural resources in the community.
c) 1.G.2.3 Explain how the environment impacts where people live (urban,
rural, weather, transportation, etc.)
c. Writing
1) 1.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic,
supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
2) Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced
events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words
to signal event order, and then provide some sense of closure.
A. B-D-A Phases
1. Before the Lesson (pre-reading)
a. Materials
1) Large Basic Comprehension Chart for Guided Reading Groups
2) Post-It notes (different colors for each student)
3) Pencils
4) Fab Four Bookmarks
5) Story Map
6) Character Journal for response journal writing
b. Activities
1) In pairs, discuss the books title and the illustration on the front cover; share.
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2) As a group, discuss the text and illustration on the back cover.


3) Discuss prior knowledge students have with trees; post on chart.
a) Example Questions
i. Past experiences with planting trees or cutting down trees.
ii. What are trees used for?
iii. Why do we need trees?
iv. Any other prior knowledge students want to offer about trees.
b) Using Post-It notes, have students make a first prediction about the story;
post on chart under predictions.
4) In pairs, have students preview illustrations in the text; have them make
predictions
5) Make a prediction on Post-It notes about what they think they will learn
and/or what they think is going to happen. Post on chart under predictions.
(Remind students to monitor their predictions as they read.)
6) Using the prediction they made for the chart, have students fill in the
prediction section on Story Map
7) Have students think about questions they would like answered
a) Beginning with I wonder and write on a Post-It note. Post on chart
under questions.
b) Write question on Story Map also
8) After small group, students will have the opportunity to work independently.
Students will begin working on their Character Journals. For this journal
entry, the character students will be focusing on is the tree. By doing this
journal, students will be able to (are expected to) to summarize the events
and happenings the tree character witnessed throughout the text.
a) Scaffold journal writing with guide sheet for beginning writers
i) What is your tree characters name?
ii) How old is your tree character?
iii) Where does your tree character live?
b) Write a summary of what the tree character witnessed during todays
reading.
i) Who is the main character?
ii) Where does the story take place?
iii) What happened during todays reading?
c) Draw a picture to go along with the summary.
2. During the Lesson (reading)
a. Materials
1) Large Basic Comprehension Chart for Guided Reading Groups
2) Post-It notes (different colors for each student)
3) Pencils
4) Fab Four Bookmarks
5) Story Map
6) Character Journal for response journal writing
b. Activities
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1) Encourage students to hunt for areas of the text where they can create
questions to ask other students. (Teacher will model this for students.)
a) Have students write 1-2 questions on Post-It note and place on chart.
b) Have students choose one of their questions to write on Story Map
2) Remind students to use bookmarks to help clarify words or ideas that are
tricky.
a) Inform students they will need to be prepared to share a difficult spot or
word they came across in the text.
b) They will need to share how they clarified it.
c) Write a clarification on a Post-It note and post to chart.
3) Teacher read first four pages of books while students follow along. Model the
predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizing while reading.
4) Have students continue reading text silently while teacher listens to each
individual.
5) Coach students with reciprocal teaching strategies.
6) Have students reread the text and encourage them to continue asking
questions and identifying clarifications.
7) Complete clarification portion on the Story Map with one area of clarification
they came across.
8) Character Journal
a) Write a summary of what the tree character witnessed during each
days reading.
b) Draw a picture to go along with the summary.
3. After the Lesson (post-reading)
a. Invite students to share their questions with partners and/or the group.
b. Refer to predictions made at the beginning of the lesson.
1) Model how to check predictions
i. See if they came about.
ii. How they changed in the story.
c. Have students take turns checking other predictions made against what they
read in the text.
d. Model how to clarify one word or idea, then have students share their clarifying
points and the strategy they used to clarify it.
e. Guide the group in creating a summary by using their Character Journals, Story
Maps, and Comprehension Chart.
f. Have students complete the Summarize section of the Story Map.
g. Have students write a summary using their Character Journals. Have them
include:
1) How does the character feel about what Wangari did?
2) What was the characters favorite part?
3) What would the character like others to learn from reading this story?
h. Draw a picture to go along with the summary.
B. Assessment
1. Before and During
SRE Project Hussey-Stone

a. Post-It notes on the Basic Comprehension Chart will be used as an informal


assessment on students understanding of each strategy during the reciprocal
teaching.
b. Self-assessment of their understanding of each strategy will be done informally.
c. Teacher observation before, during and after will be informal and done on a
consistent basis. I will be looking for understanding of strategies and
comprehension of text.
d. Teacher observations and informal assessments will be used to determine
instructional decisions during the lesson.
e. Below are the rubrics being used.
1) Story Map rubric

Story Map 4 3 2 1
Concept Each concept is Each concept is Most concepts More than one
clearly written written on the are written on concept is
on the map with map with at least the map. missing from the
more than one one example. map.
example.
Prediction There is evidence There is evidence There is evidence There is no clear
that the student that the student that the student evidence that
illustrated a illustrated mostly illustrated some the student
completely clear clear meaning meaning and illustrated or
meaning and and understanding of understood the
understanding of understanding of the prediction meaning of the
the prediction the prediction strategy. prediction
strategy. strategy. strategy.
Questioning There is evidence There is evidence There is evidence There is no clear
that the student that the student that the student evidence that
illustrated a illustrated mostly illustrated some the student
completely clear clear meaning meaning and illustrated or
meaning and and understanding of understood the
understanding of understanding of the questioning meaning of the
the questioning the questioning strategy. questioning
strategy. strategy. strategy.
Clarifying There is evidence There is evidence There is evidence There is no clear
that the student that the student that the student evidence that
illustrated a illustrated mostly illustrated some the student
completely clear clear meaning meaning and illustrated or
meaning and and understanding of understood the
understanding of understanding of the clarifying meaning of the
the clarifying the clarifying strategy. clarifying
strategy. strategy. strategy.
Summarizing There is evidence There is evidence There is evidence There is no clear
SRE Project Hussey-Stone

that the student that the student that the student evidence that
illustrated a illustrated mostly illustrated some the student
completely clear clear meaning meaning and illustrated or
meaning and and understanding of understood the
understanding of understanding of the summarizing meaning of the
the summarizing the summarizing strategy. summarizing
strategy. strategy. strategy.

2) Character Journal rubric


Character 4 3 2 1
Journal
Point of View The writing The writing The writing The writing does
clearly and mostly represents somewhat not represent the
accurately the viewpoint of represents the viewpoint of the
represents the the character. viewpoint of the character. The
viewpoint of the Entries relate to character. Entries entries do not
character. Entries the events of the mostly relate to relate to the
relate to the text. the events of the events of the text.
events of the text. text.
Sequencing Details are placed Details are placed Some details are Many details are
in logical order as in logical order not in a logical not in a logical
represented in but are not order and are order. There is
the text. They presented in a distracting to the little sense that
keep the interest way to that is reader. the writing is
of the reader. always interesting organized.
to the reader.
Creativity The writing The writing The writing There is little
contains many contains several contains a few evidence of
creative details creative details creative details creative writing
that contribute to that contribute to that distract from and the writer did
the enjoyment of the enjoyment of the overall story. not appear to use
the reader. The the reader. The The writer tried to much
writer used their writer used their used their imagination.
imagination. imagination. imagination.

IV. Reflection
A. Strengths
1. Students did very well staying on topic when discussing and sharing their thoughts
when they examined the books title and front cover illustration.
2. They paid great attention to the details they observed.
3. Using the group comprehension chart was also very successful. The students
enjoyed writing their prior knowledge, predictions, and questions on Post-It notes,
SRE Project Hussey-Stone

placing them on the chart, and checking them as they read. Having a specific color
Post-It note for each student was very beneficial; they were able to quickly glance up
at the chart to reflect on what they had written.
4. Students were able to share difficult words they came across and what they did to
clarify them.
5. They did a wonderful job with their prior knowledge of trees, extending their
thinking to what trees do for us.
B. Areas for Improvement
1. Some of the vocabulary they came across was too difficult for them to clarify. I did
not offer any vocabulary review before the lesson because I was using the strategy
of Clarify from the reciprocal teaching book. Next time I plan to introduce some
vocabulary I believe to be challenging for first graders to even clarify without prior
knowledge of the words.
2. I love the idea of the Character Journal. However, my students had a difficult time
writing it as a character observing happenings in the text. I think with more practice,
students will develop a better understanding of how to write the journals. They
were able to put information down in their journals about what was read, but did
not always write it as if their tree character had observed it. Perhaps using a stick
puppet of the character in their journal (a tree in this case) and having students
learn to put a voice to it about what was read in the story before writing in their
journals. Also, using a person as a character until they get familiar with how to do a
character journal.
C. Student Reactions
1. My students really enjoyed the book and the illustrations. One student actually
said the pictures were so good that they helped her clarify some of the words.
2. Their favorite part was using Post-It notes and having their own colors and
putting them on the big chart.
3. Most of the students said they had a hard time with the journal writing. They
liked drawing the pictures in the journal, but didnt understand exactly how to
write it as a tree. They did say they liked writing each day about what they had
read.
4. One student reflected that using the Fab Four was like a scavenger hunt and all
the students said it helped them remember more of the text.
D. Teacher Reaction: Although I have some improvements to make on this lesson, overall I
was very happy with it. I believe with some tweaking as mentioned above, it will be a
great lesson to continue using in my small groups. I am very excited about making the
necessary changes and using this for another lesson.
SRE Project Hussey-Stone

III. Appendix.
A. Basic Comprehension Chart for Guided Reading Groups

B. Fab Four Bookmarks

C. Story Map
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References

Comprehension Strategies (n.d.) Reciprocal Teaching. Retrieved March 20, 2016 from
http://comprehensionhart.weebly.com/reciprocal-teaching.html.

Mrs Ns Classroom (n.d.) Free Reciprocal Reading Boomarks by Mrs N. Retrieved March 20,
2016 from https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/FREE-Reciprocal-Reading-
Bookmarks-by-Mrs-N-865149.

Oczkus, L.D. (2010) Reciprocal Teaching at Work: Powerful Strategies and Lessons for Improving
Reading Comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Readability Formula (n.d.) Free Readability Tests using the Fry Graph and Raygor Estimate
Graph. Retrieved March 19, 2016 from http://www.readabilityformulas.com/free-fry-
graph-test.php.

Vacca, R.T., Vacca, J.L., and Mraz, M. (2014) Content Area Reading: Literacy and Learning Across
the Curriculum. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Winter, J. (2008) Wangaris Trees of Peace: A True Story from Africa. New York, NY: Harcourt,
Inc.